Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used like kapok (CEIBA) for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds that inhibit the function or proteolytic action of the PROTEASOME.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
A plant family of the order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida. It includes plants which have both flavoring and medicinal properties such as GINGER; turmeric (CURCUMA), and cardamom (ELETTARIA).
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences. (1/2207)

Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.  (+info)

Impairing the bioenergetic status and the biogenesis of mitochondria triggers mitophagy in yeast. (2/2207)

Autophagy, a highly regulated programme found in almost all eukaryotes, is mainly viewed as a catabolic process that degrades nonessential cellular components into molecular building blocks, subsequently available for biosynthesis at a lesser expense than de novo synthesis. Autophagy is largely known to be regulated by nutritional conditions. Here we show that, in yeast cells grown under nonstarving conditions, autophagy can be induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. Electron micrographs and biochemical studies show that an autophagic activity can result from impairing the mitochondrial electrochemical transmembrane potential. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage-induced autophagy results in the preferential degradation of impaired mitochondria (mitophagy), before leading to cell death. Mitophagy appears to rely on classical macroautophagy machinery while being independent of cellular ATP collapse. These results suggest that in this case, autophagy can be envisioned either as a process of mitochondrial quality control, or as an ultimate cellular response triggered when cells are overwhelmed with damaged mitochondria.  (+info)

TAp73/Delta Np73 influences apoptotic response, chemosensitivity and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. (3/2207)

We investigated the mechanisms by which TAp73 beta and dominant-negative p73 (Delta Np73) regulate apoptosis. TAp73 beta transactivated the CD95 gene via the p53-binding site in the first intron. In addition, TAp73 beta induced expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and led to apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Endogenous TAp73 was upregulated in response to DNA damage by chemotherapeutic drugs. On the contrary, DeltaNp73 conferred resistance to chemotherapy. Inhibition of CD95 gene transactivation was one mechanism by which DeltaNp73 functionally inactivated the tumor suppressor action of p53 and TAp73 beta. Concomitantly, DeltaNp73 inhibited apoptosis emanating from mitochondria. Thus, DeltaNp73 expression in tumors selects against both the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptosis activity of TAp73 beta. The importance of these data is evidenced by our finding that upregulation of DeltaNp73 in hepatocellular carcinoma patients correlates with reduced survival. Our data indicate that Delta Np73 is an important gene in hepatocarcinogenesis and a relevant prognostic factor.  (+info)

Protective effect of S-adenosylmethionine against galactosamine-induced injury of rat hepatocytes in primary culture. (4/2207)

The protective effect of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) on D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced damage to rat hepatocytes was tested in primary cultures. SAMe at concentrations of 50 and 1000 mg/l significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release from cells injured by 40 mM GalN after 24 h of incubation. There were no significant changes in urea production after 24 h among tested groups, including control hepatocytes. Exposure of hepatocytes to GalN leads to 3.5-fold decrease in urea synthesis after 48 h in comparison with control cell cultures. Addition of the highest dose of SAMe (1000 mg/l) into the culture media attenuated this decrease by 180 %. None of the tested doses of SAMe (5, 25, 50 and 1000 mg/l) affected considerably the reduced activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. The content of reduced and oxidized glutathione in GalN-exposed cells was diminished to 1.5 % and 16 %, respectively, of the control values after 24 h. Using only the highest concentration SAMe increased significantly these contents. SAMe had no effect on dramatically decreased albumin synthesis. These findings indicate beneficial effect of SAMe, especially of the highest concentration, on GalN-induced toxicity to rat hepatocytes in primary culture. This action of SAMe seems to be associated with reduction of plasma membrane damage and increased synthesis of glutathione.  (+info)

Multiple actions of lysophosphatidylcholine in human Jurkat T cells. (5/2207)

AIM: To obtain pathophysiological meanings of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)through the investigation of the effects of LPC in Jurkat T cells . METHODS: We measured ROS generation, [Ca(2+)](i), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)by fluorescent spectrometry in Jurkat T cells. RESULTS: We observed that LPC significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in human Jurkat T cells. Among structurally-related lysolipids and eleven synthetic LPCs with different acyl chain lengths, palmitoyl LPC increased ROS to the highest level. alpha-Tocopherol, an antioxidant, and rottlerin PKCdelta inhibitor were inhibitory effects on LPC-induced ROS generation. LPC rapidly depolarized MMP and markedly elevated [Ca(2+)](i) by Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. However, LPC-induced ROS increase seemed to not be related with LPC-induced depolarization of MMP or [Ca(2+)](i) increase. G2A family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for lysolipids were expressed in Jurkat T cells, however, evidence indicated that GPCR was not involved in LPC actions. CONCLUSION: LPC induced several cellular changes in Jurkat T cells, including an increase of ROS generation in a PKCdelta-dependent and GPCR-independent manner, increase of [Ca(2+)](i) through Ca(2+) influx, and decrease of MMP. LPC-induced actions in Jurkat T cells represent novel action modes of LPC that do not involve GPCR and multiple independent changes of intracellular signaling molecules.  (+info)

Increased apoptosis, Huntingtin inclusions and altered differentiation in muscle cell cultures from Huntington's disease subjects. (6/2207)

Mutated huntingtin (htt) is ubiquitously expressed in tissues of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. In the brain, the mutated protein leads to neuronal cell dysfunction and death, associated with formation of htt-positive inclusions. Given increasing evidence of abnormalities in HD skeletal muscle, we extensively analyzed primary muscle cell cultures from seven HD subjects (including two unaffected mutation carriers). Myoblasts from presymptomatic and symptomatic HD subjects showed cellular abnormalities in vitro, namely mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities, and defective cell differentiation. Another notable feature was the formation of htt inclusions in differentiated myotubes. This study helps to advance current knowledge about the downstream effects of the htt mutation in human tissues. Further applications may include drug screening using this human cellular model.  (+info)

p66SHC promotes T cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired Ca2+ homeostasis. (7/2207)

p66Shc, a redox enzyme that enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria, promotes T cell apoptosis. We have addressed the mechanisms regulating p66Shc-dependent apoptosis in T cells exposed to supraphysiological increases in [Ca2+]c. p66Shc expression resulted in profound mitochondrial dysfunction in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, as revealed by dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release and decreased ATP levels. p66Shc expression also caused a dramatic alteration in the cells' Ca2+-handling ability, which resulted in Ca2+ overload after A23187 treatment. The impairment in Ca2+ homeostasis was ROS dependent and caused by defective Ca2+ extrusion due at least in part to decreased plasma membrane ATPase (PMCA) expression. Both effects of p66Shc required Ca2+-dependent serine-36 phosphorylation. The mitochondrial effects of p66Shc were potentiated by but not strictly dependent on the rise in [Ca2+]c. Thus, Ca2+-dependent p66Shc phosphorylation causes both mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired Ca2+ homeostasis, which synergize in promoting T cell apoptosis.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 induces apoptosis in developing mast cells and macrophages. (8/2207)

Interleukin (IL)-10 is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine capable of inhibiting the inflammatory response. As mast cells and macrophages are central effectors of inflammation, we investigated the effects of IL-10 on mast cell and macrophage development from mouse bone marrow progenitors. Bone marrow cells were cultured in IL-3 + stem cell factor (SCF), giving rise to mixed populations of mast cells and macrophages. The addition of IL-10 greatly decreased the expansion of bone marrow progenitor cells through a mechanism requiring signal tranducer and activator of transcription-3 expression. The inhibitory effects were a result of the induction of apoptosis, which occurred with caspase-3 activation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Supporting a role for the mitochondrion, bone marrow cells from p53-deficient or Bcl-2 transgenic mice were partly resistant to the effects of IL-10. Further, IL-10 decreased Kit receptor expression and inhibited survival signaling by SCF or IL-3. These data indicate that IL-10 induces an intrinsic, mitochondrial apoptosis cascade in developing mast cells and macrophages through mechanisms involving blockade of growth factor receptor function. The ability of IL-10 to inhibit survival could support immune homeostasis by dampening inflammatory responses and preventing chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Fluctuating vs. continuous exposure to H₂O₂: the effects on mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium, and NF-κB in astroglia.
Using sorting protocol based on a simple staining method for mitochondrial membrane potential we were able to isolate subclones from an established monoclonal antibody production cell line with significantly altered physiological properties. The subclone sorted for lower mitochondrial membrane potential had a faster growth rate, attained higher final cell concentrations in batch cultures, had lower glucose and glutamine uptake and lactate production rates as well as a higher specific production rate. The subclone sorted for high mitochondrial membrane potential on the other hand had a lower growth rate and final cell count, increased glucose and glutamine consumption and lactate production rates. These subclones can now be used for genomic or proteomic analysis of properties that characterise a cell line with efficient or inefficient metabolism. In addition, the method described is a valuable tool for cell line development and optimisation, offering the possibility to isolate subclones with both ...
B.S.M. KUMAR, P.M. BASHA#. Department of Zoology, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056, India. The mitochondrion is the focal point of bioenergetic interactions that manage various cell functions like Ca2+ flux management, programmed cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and energy dynamics involving ATP generation and dissemination to the cell. The current study conducted to understand the role of Ca2+ in varying mitochondrial membrane potentials in alleviating the oxidative burden on the cell. Brain mitochondria, isolated from rats aged 2-3 weeks (neonatal), 2-3 months (young adult), and 2-3 years (aged) of age, were used in the study. Mitochondria isolated from aged rats displayed elevated ROS production levels upon Ca2+ treatment, measured as a function of DCF fluorescence intensity. Rhodamine-123 fluorescence measured the alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating a significant depolarization in the mitochondria isolated from aged ...
Purified JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit can be used for research.
NsPEF induce plasma membrane poration at lower electric fields than that required for loss of the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), indicating that nsPEFs affect plasma membranes more readily that intracellular membranes or organelles. High frequency components of nsPEFs (frequency in Hz=1/time in sec) are most effective to dissipate the mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm), but are less important for plasma membrane permeabilization using Ca2+ influx as a marker. Thus, the pulse waveform appears to selectively affect ΔΨm and possibly other intracellular components. Cell death is closely correlated with loss of ΔΨm; high intracellular Ca2+ is necessary, but not sufficient for cell death. Thus, nsPEF-induced cell death requires both influx of extracellular Ca2+ and dissipation of ΔΨm [20,21]. This is consistent with a two hit hypothesis for cell death [23,24]. At electric fields sufficient to induce cell death in 40-60% of cells, dissipation of ΔΨm is calcium-dependent. At ...
JC-10 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Flow Cytometry) (ab112133) has been cited in 2 publications. References for Rat in Flow Cyt
MitoPedia ,abbr=mtMP, Δψ [V] ,description=The mitochondrial membrane potential, mtMP, is the electric part of the protonmotive [[force]], Δp,sub>H+,/sub>. Δψ = Δp,sub>H+,/sub> - Δµ,sub>H+,/sub> / F mtMP or Δψ is the potential difference across the inner mitochondrial (mt) membrane, expressed in the electric unit of volt [V]. Electric force of the mitochondrial membrane potential is the electric energy change per motive electron or per electron moved across the transmembrane potential difference, with the number of motive electrons expressed in the unit coulomb [C]. ,info=[[Mitchell 1961 Nature]], [[Gnaiger 2014 Preface MiP2014]] }} Communicated by [[Gnaiger E]] 2012-10-05, edited 2016-02-06, 2017-09-05. :::: The chemical part of the protonmotive force, µ,sub>H+,/sub> / F stems from the difference of pH across the mt-membrane. It contains a factor that bridges the gap between the electric force [J/C] and the chemical force [J/mol]. This ...
BioAssay record AID 720637 submitted by 824: qHTS assay for small molecule disruptors of the mitochondrial membrane potential: Summary.
The amyloid beta (A beta) toxic fibrils is thought to play a central role in the onset and progression of Alzheimers disease (AD) because of it is a main formation of senile plaques. Diabetic patients are more vulnerable to caught Alzheimers disease. Vildagliptine, a novel anti diabetic agent, has been reported to exert protective effects on AD rat models in restricted study. We aimed to investigate any protective effects of vildagliptine against A beta fibrils on SH-SY5Y cell line. Vildagliptine decreased PSEN1 and PSEN2 mRNA levels which enroll A beta production. In addition, vildagliptin was downregulated caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression levels which were evoked by A beta. Also we confirmed cellular viability with real time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Our data exposed that vildagliptine has lowering effect on GSK3 beta and Tau phosphorylation. However we did not get protective effect of vildagliptine against A toxicity on mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that ...
MitoMark Red I is a red fluorescent mitochondrial stain. Fluorescence intensity is dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. Excitation/emission maxima λ ~ 578/599 nm. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
What is the relationship between cardiac mitochondrial metabolism and the mitochondrial membrane potential? Listen as Associate Editor Gary Lopaschuk interviews lead author Matthew Sulkin (Washington University), and expert Elaine Wan (Columbia University) about the innovative work by Sulkin and colleagues combining two different optical mapping techniques. What did the authors discover when they looked directly at the mitochondrial membrane potential during ischemia-reperfusion, and how might this inform potential therapies for ventricular arrhythmias? Listen and learn more…. ...
What is the relationship between cardiac mitochondrial metabolism and the mitochondrial membrane potential? Listen as Associate Editor Gary Lopaschuk interviews lead author Matthew Sulkin (Washington University), and expert Elaine Wan (Columbia University) about the innovative work by Sulkin and colleagues combining two different optical mapping techniques. What did the authors discover when they looked directly at the mitochondrial membrane potential during ischemia-reperfusion, and how might this inform potential therapies for ventricular arrhythmias? Listen and learn more…. ...
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Oxygen, Cells, Autophagy, Cell, Apoptosis, Inhibition, Treatment, Reactive Oxygen Species, Death, Growth, Cell Death, Kinase, Human, Superoxide, Role, Membrane, Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial Membrane, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential, Time
PINK1 is specifically activated by inducers of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. (a) Table of agonists tested. (b) PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65
Cytotoxicity of depleted uranium, as a byproduct of military has been came to spotlight in recent decades. DU is known as a chemical rather than radioactive hazard and efforts to illustrating its mechanism is undergo, but the precise complete molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recent studies showed that uranium induces biological changes in many different target tissues, such as the kidney, brain and skin. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depleted uranium exposure at the cellular level in the human dermal fibroblast primary cells. The human dermal fibroblast primary cells incubated with different concentration (250-750 μM) of depleted uranium. Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial function in this cell lines were determined with the LDH leakage assay and the MTT test respectively. MDA levels were measured for determination of Lipid peroxidation in DU treated cells. Besides glutathione depletion and apoptosis phenotype detection were also assessed to complete the mechanistic
TY - JOUR. T1 - The intrinsic mitochondrial membrane potential (δψm) is associated with steady-state mitochondrial activity and the extent to which colonic epithelial cells undergo butyrate-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis. AU - Heerdt, Barbara G.. AU - Houston, Michele A.. AU - Wilson, Andrew J.. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Transformation of colonic epithelial cells is characterized by decreased mitochondrial activity, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and disruptions in the equilibrium between cell proliferation and death by apoptosis. We have previously shown that an intact Δψm is essential for growth arrest and apoptosis induced by butyrate, a physiological regulator of maturation in these cells, suggesting a role for the Δψm in the initiation and integration of proliferation and apoptotic pathways. To extend this work, we have generated isogenic cell lines, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formosanin C-induced apoptosis requires activation of caspase-2 and change of mitochondrial membrane potential. AU - Lee, Jenq Chang. AU - Su, Chun Li. AU - Chen, Lin Lin. AU - Won, Shen Jeu. PY - 2009/4/30. Y1 - 2009/4/30. N2 - Formosanin C is a pure compound isolated from Paris formosana Hayata (Liliaceae). The antitumor efficacy of formosanin C has been observed in cultured cells and animal systems. However, the molecular mechanisms of formosanin C remain unknown. The results of the present study indicate that formosanin C induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells characterized by exposure of phosphatidylserine, accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 phase, fragmentation of DNA, and change of nuclear morphology in a time- and dose-related manner. The apoptotic signaling cascades may proceed via proteolytic activation of caspase-2, change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δεm), release of cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct IAP binding protein with ...
The mitochondrial membrane potential, mtMP, is the electric part of the protonmotive force, ΔpH+. Δψ = ΔpH+ - ΔµH+ / F mtMP or Δψ is the potential difference across the inner mitochondrial (mt) membrane, expressed in the electric unit of volt [V]. Electric force of the mitochondrial membrane potential is the electric energy change per motive electron or per electron moved across the transmembrane potential difference, with the number of motive electrons expressed in the unit coulomb [C]. The chemical part of the protonmotive force, µH+ / F stems from the difference of pH across the mt-membrane. It contains a factor that bridges the gap between the electric force [J/C] and the chemical force [J/mol]. This factor is the Faraday constant, F, for conversion between electric force expressed in joules per coulomb or Volt [V=J/C] and chemical force with the unit joules per mole or Jol [Jol=J/mol], F = 96.4853 kJol/V = 96,485.3 C/mol Abbreviation: mtMP, Δψ [V] Reference: Mitchell 1961 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exogenous adenosine Reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential of murine oocytes during the latter half of in vitro maturation and pronuclear formation following chemical activation. AU - Fujii, Wataru. AU - Funahashi, Hiroaki. PY - 2009/5/13. Y1 - 2009/5/13. N2 - The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of nucleosides on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes. Oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs) were collected from large antral follicles 4 h after eCG-hCG treatment and cultured in maturation medium with or without nucleosides (4 ribo- and 4 deoxyribonucleosides) for 12 h. A majority of the oocytes examined developed to the metaphase-II stage, and the same result was found with in-vivo matured oocytes. However, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was significantly lower in the oocytes matured in the presence of nucleosides than in the nucleoside-free controls. Oocyte MMP increased in vivo between 8 to 12 h after hCG injection, whereas no increases in ...
Purified Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Orange Fluorescence) from Creative Biomart. Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Orange Fluorescence) can be used for research.
Maternal smoking has been recognized as a common cause of low birth weight, preterm birth and the decrease of gestational age period. Unfortunately, there is an increasing interest within public especially woman in Iran in the tobacco products consumption. On the other hand, the deleterious effect of maternal smoking on human fetus in pregnancy period especially in the first trimester encouraged us to investigate toxicity mechanisms of cigarette smoke on mouse fetus mitochondria. For this purpose different concentrations of standardized cigarette smoke extract (1, 10 and 100%) were administrated on mitochondria isolated from fetus of NMRI mice on the 15 day of gestation. Our results showed a significant increase in ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial swelling and finally a decrease in ATP concentration in the CSE-treated isolated fetus mitochondria. Our results suggest that CSE-induced embryo toxicity is the result of disruptive effect on
Concurrently, manipulation of mitochondrial activity and its monitoring have enormous significance in cancer therapy and diagnosis. In this context, a fluorescent probe MitoDP has been developed for validating H2S mediated protonophore (2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP) induced mitochondrial membrane potential change, ROS formation and ATP depletion in cancer cells. The extent of protonophore activation for mitochondrial dysfunction is monitored through fluorescence signalling at 450 nm. The current study provides a proof for the concept of endogenous H2S-mediated controlled and spatial release of bioactive agents, or toxins specifically in mitochondria of cancer cells.. ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Motility, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored in extender supplemented with GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Diabetes is closely associated with increased oxidative stress, especially originating from the mitochondria. A mechanism to reduce increased mitochondria superoxide production is to reduce the mitochondria membrane potential by releasing protons across the mitochondria membrane. This phenomenon is referred to as mitochondria uncoupling since oxygen is consumed independently of ATP being produced and can be mediated by Uncoupling Proteins (UCPs). However, increased oxygen consumption is potentially detrimental for the kidney since it can cause tissue hypoxia. Therefore, this thesis aimed to investigate the role of mitochondria uncoupling for development of diabetic nephropathy.. UCP-2 was demonstrated to be the only isoform expressed in the kidney, and localized to tubular segments performing the majority of tubular electrolyte transport. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats increased UCP-2 protein expression and correlated to increased non-transport dependent oxygen consumption in isolated ...
Questo indirizzo email è protetto dagli spambots. È necessario abilitare JavaScript per vederlo.. BACKGROUND. Emy Basso graduated from the University of Padova with a B.S. Degree in Biology in 1994. From the same University she earned a M.S. Degree in Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, in 1998. She then went to the Vollum Institute at the Oregon Health & Sciences University for three years of postgraduate research in Molecular Biology. From 2001 until 2011 she worked as staff scientist at the University of Padova. She joined the CNR in December 2011 with a researcher position.. Research summary. Over the years Ive been involved in studying mitochondrial physiology, and specifically the occurrence of a sudden increase in permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane known as permeability transition (PT), which participates in the mechanisms of cell death through the loss of mitochondria membrane potential and the release of proapoptotic molecules. I was involved in the production of a ...
Since the discovery of the mitochondrial cristae in the mid-20th century (Palade, 1953), imaging these structures in real time has remained a formidable challenge. Because of the necessity of freezing or fixing samples before imaging, EM is incompatible with probing cristae in living cells. Conversely, whereas conventional optical microscopy has permitted live-cell imaging of mitochondria, the Abbe diffraction limit has wholly obscured the intricacies of the IMM. Recent advancements in high- and super-resolution imaging technologies, however, have enabled the visualization of cristae in living cells, leading to an appreciation that cristae are not static structures but appear to possess their own dynamics comparable with the fusion and fission that regulate the plasticity of the larger mitochondrial network (Huang X et al, 2018; Stephan et al, 2019; Giacomello et al, 2020; Kondadi et al, 2020). Furthermore, we recently showed that cristae are functionally independent bioenergetic compartments, ...
The Oroboros O2k-Workshop is an advanced course which covers an introduction to basic concepts on mitochondrial membrane potential: proton pumps, ion gradients, electrochemical potential (proton motive force) and the measurement of mt-membrane potential in biological samples (isolated mitochondria, homogenate) with potentiometric (O2k-TPP+ ISE-Module) and fluorescence method (TMRM, safranin/O2k-Fluo LED2-Module). Data analysis - from TPP+ to mt-membrane potential - constitutes a major topic ...
Image Analyst MKII back-calculates mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in millivolts that drive changes in the fluorescence intensities.
Treatment of cells with a proteosome inhibitor stabilizes a 52-kD PINK1 fragment (Lin and Kang, 2008; Zhou et al., 2008), suggesting that proteosome-independent proteolysis yields a 52-kD form of PINK1 that is subsequently degraded by the proteosome (Narendra et al., 2010). When we treated PARL KO MEFs transiently overexpressing PINK1-V5/His with MG132, the 52-kD fragment of PINK1 (Fig. 1 c, red arrowhead) was absent, and a 60-kD predicted ΔMTS-PINK1 (Fig. 1 c, orange arrowhead) was stabilized, suggesting that PARL-mediated proteolysis normally generates the 52-kD fragment. Rhomboid proteases such as PARL cleave proteins in and around membrane-spanning domains (Urban et al., 2001; Sík et al., 2004; Strisovsky et al., 2009). PARL-mediated cleavage of PINK1 in the predicted membrane-spanning domain between residues 94 and 110 would yield a protein fragment of 52 kD, which is consistent with the molecular mass of the fragment stabilized by MG132 and absent in the PARL KO MEFs.. To further analyze ...
Cell surface blebbing is an early consequence of hypoxic and toxic injury to cells. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ has been suggested as the stimulus for bleb formation and the final common pathway to irreversible cell injury. Here, using digitized low-light video microscopy, we examine blebbing, c …
Methods The model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was established through hypoxia for 6 h and reoxygenation for 4 h in cardiomyocytes of H9c2, We measured the survival rate by Typan blue exclusion, apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes by FACS analysis, and mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 fluorescent probe. All measurement data were expressed as mean±SD of mean, and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA analysis and Dunnett test. Differences were considered significant when P was,0.05.. ...
The major risk associated with aircraft flight generally refers to a potential collapse of the aircraft, but there is an unspoken threat: blood clots in the legs because of the... By cip Published ...
A century of scientific research has established that mitochondria dysfunction is one of the most prevalent and profound phenotypes of human cancer cells. At th...
Mitochondrial Rescue LLC, an international health organization, is proud to bring its mitochondrial therapy for peoples wellness. The company aims to support and train practitioners with their scientific program to Rescue an individuals mitochondria. The company introduces mitochondrial treatment as a new paradigm to heal and target the roots of the diseases of an individuals body.. Mitochondrial Rescue LLC will conduct scientific testing with the help of their Heart Rate Variability to help practitioners in determining the power levels of the body and the stress under it. The team of the company believes that there is a better way to identify the source of the bodys power called mitochondria. Their mitochondrial therapy will help individuals to improve their health and longevity.. The mitochondrial therapy of Mitochondrial Rescue LLC can be a better paradigm for the health of the people. Health is essential to enjoy a happier and satisfying life. So, Mitochondrial Rescue LLC develops its ...
NIR Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Flow Cytometry) (ab112149). MOMP detection in FL4 channel. Ex/Em: 635/660 nm. Ideal for multi-parameter studies.
TCL1A Enhances the phosphorylation and activation of AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3. Promotes nuclear translocation of AKT1. Enhances cell proliferation, stabilizes mitochondrial membrane potential and promotes cell survival. Homodimer. Interacts with AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3 (via PH domain). Interacts with PNPT1; the interaction has no effect on PNPT1 exonuclease activity. Restricted in the T-cell lineage to immature thymocytes and activated peripheral lymphocytes. Preferentially expressed early in T- and B-lymphocyte differentiation. Belongs to the TCL1 family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Congrats to How - he successfully completed his master studies with the analysis of mitochondrial membrane potentials in the Bergami Lab. He disappeared for hours to get live cell imaging running and put a lot efforts in the analysis of the obtained signals. Unfortunately there are rumors that he might leave us to start his…
TOKYO (CBS.MW) - Corning said that the impact of any potential loss of fiber export volume to China due to the Chinese governments recent dumping...
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The lipophilic cation JC‐1 (5,5′,6,6′‐tetrachloro‐1,1′,3,3′‐tetraethyl‐benzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide) has been used for more than 20 years as a specific dye for measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)
Diabetes is closely associated with increased oxidative stress, especially originating from the mitochondria. A mechanism to reduce increased mitochondria superoxide production is to reduce the mitochondria membrane potential by releasing protons across the mitochondria membrane. This phenomenon is referred to as mitochondria uncoupling since oxygen is consumed independently of ATP being produced and can be mediated by Uncoupling Proteins (UCPs). However, increased oxygen consumption is potentially detrimental for the kidney since it can cause tissue hypoxia. Therefore, this thesis aimed to investigate the role of mitochondria uncoupling for development of diabetic nephropathy.. UCP-2 was demonstrated to be the only isoform expressed in the kidney, and localized to tubular segments performing the majority of tubular electrolyte transport. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats increased UCP-2 protein expression and correlated to increased non-transport dependent oxygen consumption in isolated ...
Effect of arsenic, amla and their co-treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential of thymocytes of mice. Cells were incubated with Rh 123 and fluorescence was
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Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) provide signals to control crucial events such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, alterations in gene transcription and cell death (Berridge et al., 2003; Bootman et al., 2001; Orrenius et al., 2003). Ca2+ signals, physiological and pathological, are modulated by the activity of mitochondria (Berridge, 2002; Hajnoczky et al., 2000; Jacobson and Duchen, 2004). These organelles accumulate Ca2+ via an electrogenic uniporter when [Ca2+]c exceeds ∼100 nM, using the potential, ΔΨm, generated across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the activity of the electron-transport chain (Becker et al., 1980; Nicholls and Crompton, 1980). Mitochondria release Ca2+ more slowly back to the cytosol via a Na+- or H+-antiporter (Crompton et al., 1978; Rottenberg and Marbach, 1990). In this way, mitochondria act as localized [Ca2+]c buffering units and might modulate Ca2+ feedback-inhibition or activation mechanisms (Collins et al., 2000; Hajnoczky ...
Increased O2 metabolism resulting in chronic hypoxia is common in models of endstage renal disease. as increased circulating malondialdehyde, remained unaffected. All parameters investigated were unaffected by scrambled siRNA. In conclusion, mitochondrial uncoupling via UCP-2 regulates mitochondria membrane potential in diabetes. However, blockade of the diabetes-induced upregulation of UCP- 2 results in excessive uncoupling and reduced oxidative stress in the kidney via activation of ANT. Introduction The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is increasing rapidly world-wide [1], but presently there is no treatment and approximately 45% of all cases of end-stage renal disease are due to diabetic nephropathy [2]. The recent focus of mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy has shifted from the glomerulus to the proximal Itgb2 tubule [3]. The kidney proximal tubule performs a majority of the active transport in the kidney, which requires a high ATP production and a high cellular content of ...
Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have, also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules. Depending on the approach used, and the cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials, more than 1000-fold higher mitochondrial concentration can be achieved. Mitochondrial targeting has been developed to study mitochondrial physiology and dysfunction and the interaction between mitochondria and other subcellular organelles and for treatment of a variety of diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. In this Review, we discuss efforts to target small-molecule compounds
Altmetric calculates a score based on the online attention an article receives. Each coloured thread in the circle represents a different type of online attention. The number in the centre is the Altmetric score. Social media and mainstream news media are the main sources that calculate the score. Reference managers such as Mendeley are also tracked but do not contribute to the score. Older articles often score higher because they have had more time to get noticed. To account for this, Altmetric has included the context data for other articles of a similar age. ...
ice for 30 min. The concentration of the extracted protein was quantified by the Bradford protein assay kit. Later, the protein samples were mixed with 2× protein buffer and boiled for 5 min. The lysates of treated and control cell samples were separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrotransfered onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. The membranes were blocked with 5% bovine serum albumin in Tris-buffered saline-Tween-20 (TBST) and then incubated with the primary Pertussis Toxin at 4 °C overnight. Subsequently, the membranes that were washed three times with TBST for about 15 min each time were further incubated with the corresponding secondary antibodies for 1.5 h. The protein bands were examined using the ECL reagent according to instructions and visualized by the Quantity One software. 2.10. Statistical analysis ...
Programmed cell death: regulated necrosis. During regulated necrosis, different stimuli are recognized or sensed by specific receptors on the cell surface or inside cells. The activation of the necrosome stimulates different signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial hyperpolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cellular disintegration. A recent study revealed that germanium nanoparticles trigger necrostatin-1-inhibitable cell death with a reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential ...
Measles is caused by measles virus which is single-stranded, negative sense enveloped RNA virus. It is well known to be highly contagious. Its airborne but is spread also via direct contact with secretions. The only host of this virus is human. Each year it infects 20-40 million people around the world, one to two millions ...
UNLABELLED: The TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial HSP that has been related to drug resistance and protection from apoptosis in colorectal and prostate cancer. Here, the effect of TRAP1 ablation on cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function was determined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, the prognostic value of TRAP1 was evaluated in patients with NSCLC. These results demonstrate that TRAP1 knockdown reduces cell growth and clonogenic cell survival. Moreover, TRAP1 downregulation impairs mitochondrial functions such as ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methylester) uptake, but it does not affect mitochondrial density or mitochondrial morphology. The effect of TRAP1 silencing on apoptosis, analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoblot expression (cleaved PARP, caspase-9, and caspase-3) was cell line and context dependent. Finally, the prognostic potential of TRAP1 expression in
The mutual relationship between mitochondrial structure and function is an emerging focus of biology and medicine. In the muscle, the Ca2+-driven contractile activity has to be dynamically matched by energy supply. Both Ca2+ homeostasis and energy metabolism rely on mitochondrial function. Based on recent evidence mitochondrial activity in ATP generation, in Ca2+ handling and even in cell death depends on continuous restructuring of the individual mitochondria in several cell types. Furthermore, Ca2+ the central regulator of muscle contraction emerges as a key signaling molecule in organellar dynamics. However, it has been difficult to study the mitochondrial fusion, fission and positioning in skeletal or cardiac muscle. Excitingly, recent advances in live cell microscopy and in the fluorescent protein technology provide a means to study mitochondrial dynamics and its signaling mechanisms in the muscle. The significance of these studies is further emphasized by the data on the possible ...
The prediction of impending collapse of deep tunnel is one of the most difficult problems. Collapse mechanism of deep tunnel in layered soils is derived using a new curved failure mechanism within the framework of upper bound theorem, and effects of seepage forces are considered. Nonlinear failure criterion is adopted in the present analysis, and the possible collapse shape of deep tunnel in the layered soils is discussed in this paper. In the layered soils, the internal energy dissipations along velocity discontinuity are calculated, and the external work rates are produced by weight, seepage forces and supporting pressure. With upper bound theorem of limit analysis, two different curve functions are proposed for the two different soil stratums. The specific shape of collapse surface is discussed, using the proposed curve functions. Effects of nonlinear coefficient, initial cohesion, pore water pressure and unit weight on potential collapse are analyzed. According to the numerical results, with ...
We have developed a molecular model to describe the structural changes and potential collapse of weak polyelectrolyte layers end-tethered to planar surfaces and spherical nanoparticles as a function of pH and divalent ion concentration. In particular, we describe the structural changes of polymer-coated nano
Rhodamine 123是一种可以通透细胞膜的选择性染色活细胞线粒体的阳离子黄绿色荧光染料,广泛用作检测线粒体膜电位(mitochondrial membrane potential)的荧光探针,也常用于细胞凋亡检测。在正常细胞中,Rhodamine 123能够依赖线粒体跨膜电位(mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ΔΨm)选择性进入线粒体基质,荧光强度减弱或消失(quench);在凋亡发生时,线粒体膜完整性被破坏,线粒体膜通透性转运孔开放,从而引起线粒体跨膜电位的崩溃,Rhodamine 123从线粒体基质中释放出来,黄绿色荧光增强(dequench)。该荧光可用荧光显微镜、流式细胞仪或其它荧光检测设备检测,通过荧光信号的强弱来确定线粒体膜电位的变化和凋亡的发生 ...
In this issue of Circulation Research, Das et al19 report that GSK-3 inhibitors induce dephosphorylation of VDAC, thereby reducing adenine nucleotide (such as ATP) transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane. The action of the GSK-3 inhibitors on VDAC not only preserves ATP by blocking mitochondrial consumption of ATP generated through anaerobic glycolysis but also prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading and oxidative stress by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, this effect of GSK-3 inhibition appears to be independent of mPTP opening.. The findings of Das et al19 suggest that inhibition of GSK-3 may facilitate hypoxic adaptation during ischemia through dephosphorylation of VDAC. Under hypoxic conditions, generation of ATP shifts from oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria to glycolysis in the cytoplasm, a phenomenon known as metabolic adaptation described by Louis Pasteur in the 19th century. This process is controlled by transcription factors, such as ...
This figure shows how the membrane potential can be measured by using a special voltmeter that is electrically connected to the interior of the cell via a glass microelectrode.
Goldman Sachs isnt the only trading firm facing potential losses after the bank on Tuesday flooded the U.S. stock-options market with erroneous orders. Jacob Bunge reports on The News Hub. Photo: AP.
In this application is disclosed an excellent composition for preventing and/or treating the expression of clinical symptoms in a disease caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized in that sai
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Physiology Test Question - A change in the membrane potential (Vm) from the resting value of -50 mV to a new value of -90 mV is referred to as:
July 2018). "Mitochondrial membrane potential". Analytical Biochemistry. 552: 50-59. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2017.07.009. PMC 5792320 ... This proton gradient is largely but not exclusively responsible for the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM). It allows ATP ... At the inner mitochondrial membrane, electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass through the electron transport chain to oxygen, which ... Protons can be physically moved across a membrane; this is seen in mitochondrial Complexes I and IV. The same effect can be ...
"Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Living Cells". Annual Review of Cell Biology. Lan Bo Chen, Andrew Murray, Rosalind A. Segal ... Chen, Lan Bo (1988-11-01). "Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Living Cells". Annual Review of Cell Biology. 4 (1): 155-181. ... Lampidis, Theodore J.; Salet, Christian; Moreno, Giuliana; Chen, Lan Bo (1984-09-01). "Effects of the mitochondrial probe ...
"Mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells."Annu Rev Cell Biol. 4 (1988) 155-181 Darzynkiewicz Z, Traganos F, Staiano- ... "Mitochondrial inner membrane electrophysiology assessed by rhodamine-123 transport and fluorescence" Annals of Biomedical ... This use relies on the fact that rhodamine 123 accumulates in membranes in a manner which is dependent on membrane polarization ... Rhodamine fluorescence can also be used as a measure of membrane polarization in live cell assays both within mitochondria and ...
Involvement in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (36): 33249-57. doi: ... Involvement in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (36): 33249-57. doi: ... It may play important roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and in protection against oxidant-induced ... The encoded protein may play important roles in the regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and in protection ...
Further more it helps to stabilise mitochondrial membrane potential. This protein exists as a homodimer. It interacts with AKT1 ...
Nicholls DG, Ward MW (April 2000). "Mitochondrial membrane potential and neuronal glutamate excitotoxicity: mortality and ... and the storage capacity increases with potential across mitochondrial membranes. Therefore, when the uncoupling proteins ... An uncoupling protein (UCP) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is a regulated proton channel or transporter. An ... This, in turn, increases proton leak from the mitochondria, lowering the proton-motive force across mitochondrial membranes, ...
The loss of IMM impermeability is followed by membrane potential dissipation and disintegration of both mitochondrial membranes ... The outcome is membrane potential dissipation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Chromatin condensation and ... Contrasting with apoptosis, membrane integrity is not maintained in pyroptosis, while mitochondrial membrane integrity is ... The main event in this process is the loss of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) impermeability. The precise mechanisms leading ...
When the mitochondrial membrane potential changes, apoptosis-inducing factors (AIFs) are also released. These trigger apoptosis ... This leads to an increase in mitochondrial calcium, dropping its membrane potential. The pore permeability changes, and ... This distress is caused by the attack of the cellular membrane of the gills, which causes a large influx of salt ions. Research ... This makes it easier for it to interact with anionic membranes, such as those in tumor cells, which are inherently more acidic ...
Mitochondrial membrane potential is hyperpolarized to prevent voltage-sensitive permeability transition pores (PTP) from ... "Why cancer cells have a more hyperpolarised mitochondrial membrane potential and emergent prospects for therapy". bioRxiv ... Gottlieb E, Armour SM, Harris MH, Thompson CB (2003). "Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates matrix configuration and ... October 2011). "Ketogenic diets as an adjuvant cancer therapy: History and potential mechanism". Redox Biol. 2C (3): 327-337. ...
"Life cell quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential at the single organelle level". Cytometry Part A. 73A (2): 129-138 ... "BacMam system for high-level expression of recombinant soluble and membrane glycoproteins for structural studies". Protein Expr ... "Baculovirus-Mediated Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells Does Not Alter Their Transcriptional and Differentiating Potential but ... delivered GFP fusion to a kinase substrate Structural Biology BacMam system has been used to produce soluble and membrane ...
... channel activation reduces anoxic injury by restoring mitochondrial membrane potential". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. ... This is due to alternating inner membrane potential, imbalanced trans-membrane ion transport, and an overproduction of free ... Inoue I, Nagase H, Kishi K, Higuti T (July 1991). "ATP-sensitive K+ channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane". Nature. 352 ( ... This helps restore proper membrane potential, allowing further H+ outflow, which continues to provide the proton gradient ...
Ramanujam, Nimmi (2019). "Optical imaging of glucose uptake and mitochondrial membrane potential to characterize Her2 breast ...
"Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential is associated with increase in mitochondrial volume: physiological role in neurones". ... "The electroanalytical response of the bilayer lipid membrane to valinomycin: membrane cholesterol content". Anal. Chim. Acta. ... This ionophore is used to study membrane vesicles, where it may be selectively applied by experimental design to reduce or ... Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium- ...
Lipid peroxidation of the inner mitochondrial membrane reduces the electric potential and the ability to generate energy. It is ... "Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the "immortal" jellyfish with a reversible life ... is shown to reverse senescence and restore the proliferation and differentiation potential of senescent stem cells. In many ... These processes termed oxidative stress are linked to the potential benefits of dietary polyphenol antioxidants, for example in ...
"The Human Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome Gene MPV17 Encodes a Non-selective Channel That Modulates Membrane Potential". ... "MPV17 encodes an inner mitochondrial membrane protein and is mutated in infantile hepatic mitochondrial DNA depletion". Nature ... It is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein, which has a so far largely unknown role in mtDNA maintenance. Protein MPV17 is ... "Entrez Gene: MPV17 MpV17 mitochondrial inner membrane protein". Uusimaa J, Evans J, Smith C, Butterworth A, Craig K, Ashley N, ...
... disrupts the potential of the membrane and causes mitochondrial lumps. All of these effects bet on membrane fluidity. It's ... Its dependence on membrane fluidity". Mitochondrion. 5 (4): 272-81. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2005.05.002. PMID 16050990. García, ... "Agaric acid induces mitochondrial permeability transition through its interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocase. ... Agaric acid induces the mitochondrial permeability transition by collaborating with adenine nucleotide translocase. It ...
This is induced predominantly by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a high percentage of cells. DNA strand breaks ... An increase in Ru (III) reduction potential positively correlates with the complex's antiproliferative activity. KP1019 binds ... but glutathione is a good candidate as it reduces promiscuously and has a reduction potential on par with the transition of Ru ... and determination of reduction potential. The active form of KP1019 has Ru in its 2+ state. The hypoxic environment of cancer ...
They are mitochondrial membrane proteins that interact with each other to facilitate mitochondrial targeting. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Requires the Inner Membrane Potential, and Is Mediated by Mitofusins". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (12): 4343-54. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02- ... Rojo M, Legros F, Chateau D, Lombès A (2003). "Membrane topology and mitochondrial targeting of mitofusins, ubiquitous ... The protein encoded by this gene is a mediator of mitochondrial fusion. This protein and mitofusin 2 are homologs of the ...
It assembles into a 300 kDA complex which is dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulating over time. The ... This protein localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is exposed to the intermembrane space. Mutations in this gene ... The encoded protein localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is exposed to the intermembrane space. This protein's N- ... Mitochondrial complex IV, or cytochrome c oxidase, is a large transmembrane protein complex that is part of the respiratory ...
Additionally, GPDH is one of the enzymes involved in maintaining the redox potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... In conjunction, Mitochondrial GPDH, or GPD2, is embedded on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, overlooking ... Since the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to both NADH and NAD+, these cannot be freely exchanged between the ... Once the glycerol-3-phosphate has moved through the outer mitochondrial membrane it can then be oxidised by a separate isoform ...
It induces a sudden loss of membrane potential which is followed by membrane rupture and initiation of apoptosis. Also ... Mitochondrial Hsp90 is involved in complex signaling pathway that prevents initiation of induced apoptosis. Gamitrinib is a ... This also indicates that drugs that are developed should also have potential to adopt unique C shape conformation in order to ... It is less toxic with same therapeutic potential as Geldanamycin. It is the first HSP90 inhibitor to be evaluated in clinical ...
ADP HK2 is believed to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential by keeping ADP levels high. It also prevents apoptosis in ... HK2 reduces ROS levels indirectly by keeping ADP levels at the outer mitochondrial membrane high. If ADP levels fall, the rate ... Here, HK2 is bound to an anion channel in the outer mitochondrial membrane called VDAC. TIGAR binds hexokinase 2 and increases ... a protein called Hif1α is activated and causes TIGAR to re-localise from the cytoplasm to the outer mitochondrial membrane. ...
... can localize to the mitochondria where HBx decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential and causes increased release of ...
... including vesicle fusion and the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both these processes are important for acetylcholine ... This could lead to pharmacological effect by means of the damage to the membranes and membrane proteins, or by the ... Membrane damage by the PLA2 activity allows PLA2 to enter cells and specifically bind to proteins and receptors either ... This means the phospholipase A2 cannot adsorb onto a lipid/water interface from the cell membrane. Residues on the CB subunit ...
PTPIP51 has been observed to induce apoptosis by disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of ... PTPIP51 is a member of the RMDN protein family and localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. This ... The ultrastructural appearance of necrosis is quite different, the main features being mitochondrial swelling, plasma membrane ... In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies ...
High levels of IRGMd triggers mitochondrial fission, leads to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and causes host cell ... change in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. Human IRGM like its mouse counterpart, has been shown to play a role ... Additionally, it has been shown to bind to mitochondrial membrane lipid, cardiolipin and influence a change in the morphology ... Under certain conditions, mitochondrial fission and its associated proteins promote autophagy whereas mitochondrial fusion ...
The authors also showed for the first time that the changes in the electric potential (ΔΨ) across the plasma membrane of the ... Gregan J, Bui DM, Pillich R, Fink M, Zsurka G, Schweyen RJ (Feb 2001). "The mitochondrial inner membrane protein Lpe10p, a ... The human protein, hsaMrs2p, has been localised to the mitochondrial membrane in mouse cells using a GFP fusion protein. Very ... First, Mg2+ uptake was directly dependent on the electric potential (ΔΨ) across the boundary membrane. Second, the uptake is ...
... by localization of HBx to the mitochondria where HBx decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, another HBV ... Penetration Following endocytosis, the virus membrane fuses with the host cell's membrane, releasing the nucleocapsid into the ... NTCP is mostly found in the sinusoidal membrane of liver cells. The presence of NTCP in liver cells correlates with the tissue ...
Mitochondria appear to have a key role in palladium toxicity via mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and depletion of the ... Hydrogen easily diffuses through heated palladium, and membrane reactors with Pd membranes are used in the production of high ... Shu, J.; Grandjean, B. P. A.; Neste, A. Van; Kaliaguine, S. (1991). "Catalytic palladium-based membrane reactors: A review". ... ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7. Zereini, Fathi; Alt, Friedrich (2006). "Health Risk Potential of Palladium". Palladium emissions in the ...
The hydrogen flux disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential and results in mitochondrial swelling, outer membrane rupture, ... The rapid return of myocardial blood supply is critical in order to save the ischemic heart, but it also has the potential to ... These changes impair mitochondrial energy production and drive cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Intralipid (5mL/kg) provided five ... Intralipid is currently being studied for its potential use as a cardioprotective agent, specifically as a treatment for ...
... which is mostly suspended from the roof of the mantle cavity by numerous membranes. The tract consists of a crop, where the ... inferred from three mitochondrial and six nuclear loci: a comparison of alignment, implied alignment and analysis methods". ... This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a potential predator without being recognised.[76] A ...
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... Hansen, D.M.; Donlan, C.J.; Griffiths, C.J.; Campbell, K.J. (April 2010). "Ecological history and latent conservation potential ... "Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 95 ... Hicks, J; Farmer, CG (1999). "Gas Exchange Potential in Reptilian Lungs: Implications for the Dinosaur-Avian Connection". ...
lysosomal membrane. • cell junction. • dendrite. • presynapse. • mitochondrial inner membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • ... regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic. • amyloid precursor protein ... nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • Golgi membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • smooth ... plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body ...
... creating an electrochemical potential difference across the [mitochondrial inner] membrane". p96 ... It is powered by a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. This is the result of the series of redox reactions.[2] What ...
Some of these potential drugs target the inflammatory response or the specific site(s) of injury. Others modulate the activity ... Arita Y, Harkness SH, Kazzaz JA, Koo HC, Joseph A, Melendez JA, Davis JM, Chander A, Li Y. (2006) Mitochondrial localization of ... Prolonged inflammation and destruction of pneumocytes leads to fibroblastic proliferation, hyaline membrane formation, tracheal ... Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and ...
Bee venom is under laboratory and clinical research for its potential properties and uses in reducing risks for adverse events ... While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects (and is used in fights ... inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data"". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 315. doi:10.1016/j. ... However, despite contributing substantially to crop pollination, there is debate about the potential spillover to natural ...
SVCT1 and SVCT2 import the reduced form of ascorbate across plasma membranes.[102] GLUT1 and GLUT3 are glucose transporters, ... l-Galactonolactone then reacts with the mitochondrial flavoenzyme l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic ... Prockop DJ, Kivirikko KI (1995). "Collagens: molecular biology, diseases, and potentials for therapy". Annual Review of ... Scurvy leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are ...
... mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and membrane fatty acid composition". J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 61 (8): ... Chen, D; Guarente, L (2007). "SIR2: a potential target for calorie restriction mimetics". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 13 (2 ... In some cases, dietary restriction requires mitochondrial respiration to increase longevity (chronological aging), and in some ... age-related mitochondrial abnormalities; and preserved muscle stem cell function.[55] Muscle tissue grows when stimulated, so ...
The energy of O2 [1] released is used to create a chemiosmotic potential by pumping protons across a membrane. This potential ... The mitochondrial electron transport chain proton pump transfers across the inner membrane 10 H+ / 1 NADH+H+ (4 + 2 + 4) or 6 H ... to mitochondrial FAD by the glycerol phosphate shuttle located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ... due to NADH transport over the mitochondrial membrane ... The potential of NADH and FADH2 is converted to more ATP ...
... es typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators. If approached, ... Mitochondrial DNA haplotype comparisons suggest that it diverged from the other ostriches not quite 4 mya due to formation of ... This subtype increases oxygen affinity in order to transport oxygen across the allantoic membrane of the embryo.[73] This can ... "Phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus)" (PDF). Auk. 110 (3): 614-622. doi:10.2307/ ...
ACTH also enhances transcription of mitochondrial genes that encode for subunits of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ... The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes ... potential peptide. 105-134 corticotropin. adrenocorticotropic hormone. ACTH. 138-176 melanotropin alpha. melanocyte-stimulating ... "Mitochondrial-genome-encoded RNAs: differential regulation by corticotropin in bovine adrenocortical cells". Proceedings of ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... Papilloma virus has been proposed in several studies to have a potential role in prostate cancer, but as of 2015 the evidence ... "Cytoprotective Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP-1 As a Novel Molecular Target in Localized and Metastatic Prostate Cancer". Am. J ... The American Cancer Society's position regarding early detection is "Research has not yet proven that the potential benefits of ...
The membrane has no hair follicles or sweat glands, except between the fingers.[54][56] For bat embryos, apoptosis (cell death ... 1998). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome of a Neotropical Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, and a New Hypothesis of the ... Rydell, J.; Speakman, J. R. (1995). "Evolution of nocturnality in bats: Potential competitors and predators during their early ... This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ...
Kato K, Zorumski C (1996). "Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger". J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 14 (1- ... Liu, Zhengchang; Butow, Ronald A. (December 2006). "Mitochondrial retrograde signaling". Annual Review of Genetics. 40: 159-185 ... Carta, Mario (2014). "Membrane Lipids Tune Synaptic Transmission by Direct Modulation of Presynaptic Potassium Channels". ... Kato K, Clark G, Bazan N, Zorumski C (1994). "Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger in CA1 hippocampal ...
... or RBC membrane defects - or other problems, the RBC half-life is frequently shortened. In these individuals, an alternative ... "A9 dopaminergic neurons may be at particular risk since in addition to their high mitochondrial activity they are under intense ... The development of α and β genes created the potential for hemoglobin to be composed of multiple subunits, a physical ... "Is hemoglobin an essential structural component of human erythrocyte membranes?". J Clin Invest. 42 (4): 581-88. doi:10.1172/ ...
mitochondrial inner membrane. • respiratory chain. • nucleus. • mitochondrial intermembrane space. Biological process. • ... Class III comprises the low redox potential multiple-heme cytochromes. The heme c groups are structurally and functionally ... Cytochrome c binds to cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus anchoring its presence and keeping it from ... The hemoprotein is then detached from the mitochondrial inner membrane and can be extruded into the soluble cytoplasm through ...
However, the NMDA receptor cation channel is blocked by Mg2+ at resting membrane potential.[109] Magnesium unblock is not ... Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors promote death signaling; they cause transcriptional shut-off, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ... All the subunits share a common membrane topology that is dominated by a large extracellular N-terminus, a membrane region ... The membrane domain contributes residues to the channel pore and is responsible for the receptor's high-unitary conductance, ...
Complex III is present in the inner mitochondrial membrane of all aerobic eukaryotes and the inner membranes of most eubacteria ... it generates an electrical field across the membrane also called the membrane potential. Proton transport becomes electrogenic ... The plasma membrane H+. -ATPase is a single subunit P-type ATPase found in the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, protists and ... The plasma membrane H+. -ATPase creates the electrochemical gradients in the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, protists, and ...
There are several potential physiologic mechanisms for hypoxemia, but in patients with COPD the predominant one is V/Q ... Lactic acid build up (in tissues and blood) is a sign of inadequate mitochondrial oxygenation, which may be due to hypoxemia, ... Membrane method of gas concentration. *Pressure swing adsorption. *Oxygen analyser. *Oxygen compatibility ...
"Phylogeographic differentiation in the mitochondrial control region in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss 1817)". ... "The potential impact of native Australian trypanosome infections on the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)". ... "On the arrangement of the embryonic membranes in marsupial mammals". Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. s2-24 (96): ... "Historically low mitochondrial DNA diversity in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)". BMC Genetics. 13 (1): 92. doi:10.1186/1471- ...
Potential for high sequence yield, depending upon sequencer model and desired application.. Equipment can be very expensive. ... Protein nanopore sequencing utilizes membrane protein complexes such as α-hemolysin, MspA (Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin A) or ... MS-based sequencing methods have been used to compare the sequences of human mitochondrial DNA from samples in a Federal Bureau ... The use of tunnelling currents has the potential to sequence orders of magnitude faster than ionic current methods and the ...
These PAMPs are recognized by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, which may be membrane-bound ... Other potential causes of similar signs and symptoms include anaphylaxis, adrenal insufficiency, low blood volume, heart ... possibly with a toxic effect on mitochondrial function.[47] Although etomidate has a minimal effect on the cardiovascular ... Some hospitals use alerts generated from electronic health records to bring attention to potential cases as early as possible.[ ...
The domesticated moth cannot fly, so it needs human assistance in finding a mate, and it lacks fear of potential predators. The ... Bombyx mori from Chinese Bombyx mandarina and paternal inheritance of Antheraea proylei mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular ... Lysocin E is a new antibiotic that targets menaquinone in the bacterial membrane. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11, 127-133 PMID 25485686 ...
Wang X, Quinn PJ (July 1999). "Vitamin E and its function in membranes". Progress in Lipid Research. 38 (4): 309-36. doi: ... The potential role of the pro-oxidant role of uric acid in (e.g.) atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke is considered above. ... Lenaz G (2001). "The mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species: mechanisms and implications in human pathology". ... It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes ...
The lipidated form of LC3, known as LC3-II, is attached to the autophagosome membrane. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected ... Balk J, Leaver CJ (2001). "The PET1-CMS Mitochondrial Mutation in Sunflower Is Associated with Premature Programmed Cell Death ... "Chemical inhibitor of nonapoptotic cell death with therapeutic potential for ischemic brain injury". Nature Chemical Biology. 1 ... Yoshida, H (1998). "Apaf1 is required for mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and brain development". Cell. 94: 739-750. doi: ...
Each septum forms a sandwich with connective tissue in the middle and mesothelium (membrane that serves as a lining) from the ... Scaps, P. (February 2002). "A review of the biology, ecology and potential use of the common ragworm Hediste diversicolor". ... "A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of ...
... by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again ... aged 55-79 to use aspirin when the potential benefit of a reduction in MI for men or stroke for women outweighs the potential ... Acetylsalicylic acid is quickly absorbed through the cell membrane in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The increased pH ... May 2000). "Uncoupling of intestinal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase are required for ...
Several other kinds of medications have potential for use in treating hyperuricemia. In people receiving hemodialysis, ...
The membrane transport proteins that move melatonin across a membrane include, but are not limited to, glucose transporters, ... Maestroni GJ (March 2001). "The immunotherapeutic potential of melatonin". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 10 (3): 467-76. doi: ... Melatonin occurs at high concentrations within mitochondrial fluid, greatly exceeding the concentration of melatonin in blood ... Peres MF, Masruha MR, Zukerman E, Moreira-Filho CA, Cavalheiro EA (April 2006). "Potential therapeutic use of melatonin in ...
cell membrane. • extracellular matrix. • collagen-containing extracellular matrix. Biological process. • apoptotic cell ... positive regulation of mitochondrial calcium ion concentration. • peptide cross-linking. • positive regulation of cell adhesion ... It is also being studied as an attenuator of metastasis in certain tumors.[11] tTG shows promise as a potential therapeutic ... intrinsic component of plasma membrane. • cytosol. • extracellular exosome. • focal adhesion. • mitochondrion. • endoplasmic ...
JC-1: alternative excitation wavelengths facilitate mitochondrial membrane potential cytometry. Access & Citations. * 23k ...
... an impaired ETC is not able to generate a mitochondrial membrane potential. ρ° cells are able to sustain mitochondrial membrane ... E-F) Relative mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) (E) and mitochondrial membrane potential (F) of intact WT and DN-POLG ... C-D) Relative mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) (C) and mitochondrial membrane potential (D) of intact DN-POLG-Cas9- ... Mitochondrial metabolism is necessary for the maintenance of oxidative TCA cycle function and mitochondrial membrane potential ...
It has been reported that mitochondrial metabolic and biophysical parameters are associated with degenerative diseases and the ... Wafer-scale mitochondrial membrane potential assays Tae-Sun Lim,a Antonio Davila Jr,bc Katayoun Zand,a Douglas C. Wallacec and ... Wafer-scale mitochondrial membrane potential assays T. Lim, A. Davila Jr, K. Zand, D. C. Wallace and P. J. Burke, Lab Chip, ... Membrane potential changes of isolated mitochondria from various well-established cell lines such as human HeLa cell line ( ...
... Author(s). Daly, Margaux E. ( ... In particular, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was investigated as a predictor of a cells likelihood to avoid apoptosis ... Membrane-permeable cryoprotectants, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, though widely used, can be extremely toxic to the cell. More ... Morphological differences such as extent of membrane blebbing were observed as well, verifying that cells with a high MMP are ...
The Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (II) is expected to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells ... The Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (II) is a fluorescent assay that detects the mitochondrial membrane potential in ... Mitochondrial membrane potential is a key indicator of its function and cell health (1,2). The dissipation of mitochondrial ... and a mitochondrial membrane potential disruptor CCCP (carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone). TMRE is a cell membrane ...
Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by these esters was revealed. Tetradecyl gallate induced a loss of 53% of the ... the interference of these substances on the mitochondrial membrane potential of the parasites was assessed, allowing the study ... mitochondrial membrane potential, at IC,sub,50,/sub, value. ... Here, the trypanocidal potential of gallates was assayed in ... Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay. The influence of the treatments with the gallates in the mitochondrial membrane ...
Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, ... In total, this review will help illustrate both the strengths and potential pitfalls of common mitochondrial membrane potential ... Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, ... Mitochondrial membrane potential probes and the proton gradient: a practical usage guide Biotechniques. 2011 Feb;50(2):98-115. ...
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Is Required for MAVS-Mediated Antiviral Signaling. By Takumi Koshiba, Kai Yasukawa, Yusuke ... Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Is Required for MAVS-Mediated Antiviral Signaling. By Takumi Koshiba, Kai Yasukawa, Yusuke ... Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Is Required for MAVS-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
JC-10 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Flow Cytometry) (ab112133) has been cited in 2 publications. References for ...
Such induction was associated with the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. These activities led to the cleavage of ... suggesting that the compounds deserve more extensive investigation of their potential medicinal applications. ... Such induction was associated with the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. These activities led to the cleavage of ... Diterpenylhydroquinones from Natural ent-Labdanes Induce Apoptosis through Decreased Mitochondrial Membrane Potential. Joan ...
... Nature. 1987 Jan 1-7;325(6099):78- ... Here, using digitized low-light video microscopy, we examine blebbing, cytosolic free Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential ... Cell death was precipitated by a sudden breakdown of the plasma membrane permeability barrier, possibly caused by rupture of a ...
... ... mitochondrial membrane potential (MP)] of individual sperm. Domestic dog sperm are labeled with a cationic fluorescent probe, ... "Use of laser tweezers to analyze sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential," Journal of Biomedical Optics 13(1), ... "Use of laser tweezers to analyze sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1) 014002 (1 January ...
A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells has been developed by using ... A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential using the J-aggregate forming lipophilic ... a drug known to affect mitochondrial membrane potential, while the K+/H+ ionophor nigericin, known to affect intracellular pH ... but not mitochondrial membrane potential, was used as control. The incubation with valinomycin for 10 min. at 37 degrees C in a ...
In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD) on mitochondrial membrane potential and ... Thus, the increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP concentrations in the brain of our aged mice due to T3CD was ... Measurement of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Concentrations. Basal MMP was determined ... In the present study, we found higher ATP concentrations and higher mitochondrial membrane potential in the murine brain due to ...
... is an important parameter of mitochondrial function that has been used as an indicator of cell apoptosis. ... JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) ... JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is an important parameter of mitochondrial ...
CAPE ALL Apoptosis Mitochondrial membrane potential Cytotoxicity This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using JC-1 dye by flow cytometric analysis and under fluorescent ... Caffeic acid phenethyl ester triggers apoptosis through induction of loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CCRF-CEM cells ... Chen JC, Zhang X, Singleton TP, Kiechle FL (2004) Mitochondrial membrane potential change induced by Hoechst 33342 in ...
When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial ... targeted to inner and outer mitochondrial membranes depending on the presence of mitochondrial membrane potential and may ... Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL. Seok Min Jin, Michael Lazarou ... Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL. Seok Min Jin, Michael Lazarou ...
The possibility that Bcl-xL regulates mitochondrial membrane potential by acting at the inner mitochondrial membrane led us to ... Given that F1FO-ATP synthase directly affects mitochondrial membrane potential and having identified the mitochondrial ATP ... Importantly, Bcl-xL is required to stabilize the membrane potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane. By decreasing ... that Bcl-xL stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane potential by limiting total ion flux across the mitochondrial membrane. ...
For fluorescence detection of mitochondrial membrane potential, a key measure of cell viability. Healthy cells stain red & ... JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection Kit is used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential changes in cells, a key ... JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection Kit JC-1 dye is used for fluorescence-based measurement of mitochondrial ... The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential is a hallmark for apoptosis. It is an early event preceding phosphatidylserine ...
Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by altering mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ROS ... the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the cell apoptosis. Sodium fluoride (NaF) at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8 ... mitochondrial membrane potential] was decreased. In summary, these data suggested that NaF-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis is ...
"Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial" was a ... Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial*Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial. *Membrane Potentials, Mitochondrial. *Mitochondrial ... "Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial" by people in Profiles. ...
Interaction of a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye, rhodamine 800, with rat mitochondria, cells, and perfused ... Fluorescence, absorbance, and binding of a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive probe, rhodamine 800 (rhod800), were ... "Interaction of a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye, rhodamine 800, with rat mitochondria, cells, and perfused ... "Interaction of a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye, rhodamine 800, with rat mitochondria, cells, and perfused ...
Mitochondrial membrane potential correlates with MC degranulation through FcγR receptors and is inhibited by fullerene ... As seen in Fig 2B, change in mitochondrial membrane potential as a function of time with fixed concentration of IC stimulus was ... Mentions: Unstable mitochondrial membrane potential regulates ROS production [47]. Our previous work strongly suggested that ... As seen in Fig 2B, change in mitochondrial membrane potential as a function of time with fixed concentration of IC stimulus was ...
JC-10 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay measures mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring fluorescence of JC-10 dye ... JC-10 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential is one of the key parameters of mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial membrane potential is one of the key parameters of mitochondrial function and serves as an indicator of cell ... JC-10 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay is based upon JC-10 dye, which is a superior alternative to JC-1 dye due to its ...
Induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI]. ... Mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI].sub.m]) for cellular energy status Mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[ ... through the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. LC-ESI-MSMS ... Loss of mitochondria membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI].sub.m]) Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI]. ...
GM1 and nerve growth factor modulate mitochondrial membrane potential and neurofilament light mRNA expression in cultured ... The mitochondrial membrane potential of neurons was lowest for neurons treated with Glu alone, and that for neurons treated ... The mitochondrial membrane potential of neurons was lowest for neurons treated with Glu alone, and that for neurons treated ... NGF and GM1 may function by maintaining normal mitochondrial membrane potential or by promoting NF-L mRNA expression. SN - 1532 ...
Mitochondrial membrane potential in perfused liver. Value. 118 mV Range: ±10 Table - link mV ... Mitochondrial proton electrochemical potential across the inner membrane in isolated rat liver. ... Mollica MP, Iossa S, Liverini G, Soboll S. Steady state changes in mitochondrial electrical potential and proton gradient in ... Electric potential across mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria. ID: 101102 Mitochondrial and cytosolic water content in liver ...
The mitochondrial membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in smooth muscle Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Ward, M. W., Rego, A. C., Frenguelli, B. G. and Nicholls, D. G. (2000). Mitochondrial membrane potential and glutamate ... Buckman, J. F. and Reynolds, I. J. (2001). Spontaneous changes in mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured neurons. J. ... Huser, J. and Blatter, L. A. (1999). Fluctuations in mitochondrial membrane potential caused by repetitive gating of the ...
To determine the effect of activating RXR on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in ... Conclusions Activating RXR inhibited apoptosis and prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H/R injury ... and mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 fluorescent probe. All measurement data were expressed as mean±SD of mean, and ... protected cells from H/R-induced cell injury and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the protective effect of 9-c RA ...
Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and protection by inhibitors of uniport Ca++ transduction.. C E Thomas and D J Reed ... Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and protection by inhibitors of uniport Ca++ transduction.. C E Thomas and D J Reed ... Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and protection by inhibitors of uniport Ca++ transduction.. C E Thomas and D J Reed ... Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and protection by inhibitors of uniport Ca++ transduction. ...
  • In particular, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was investigated as a predictor of a cell's likelihood to avoid apoptosis from freeze-induced stress. (mit.edu)
  • Villena J, Madrid A, Montenegro I, Werner E, Cuellar M, Espinoza L. Diterpenylhydroquinones from Natural ent -Labdanes Induce Apoptosis through Decreased Mitochondrial Membrane Potential. (mdpi.com)
  • JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is an important parameter of mitochondrial function that has been used as an indicator of cell apoptosis. (sophia.org)
  • Baxa DM, Luo X, Yoshimura FK (2005) Genistein Induces apoptosis in T lymphoma cells via mitochondrial damage. (springer.com)
  • Here, we studied the fluoride-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms including the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the cell apoptosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In summary, these data suggested that NaF-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis is mediated by direct increased intracellular ROS and downregulated [mitochondrial membrane potential]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The extract also induced a remarkable decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][PSI]m) leading to apoptosis of cancer cells used. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To determine the effect of activating RXR on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative injury. (bmj.com)
  • Methods The model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was established through hypoxia for 6 h and reoxygenation for 4 h in cardiomyocytes of H9c2, We measured the survival rate by Typan blue exclusion, apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes by FACS analysis, and mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 fluorescent probe. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Activating RXR inhibited apoptosis and prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H/R injury in rat cardiomyocytes H9c2, which suggests that stabilisation of mitochondrlal membrane potential may be involved in the protection of activating RXR against oxidative stress in H9c2. (bmj.com)
  • Mitochondrial cytochrome c release in apoptosis occurs upstream of DEVD‐specific caspase activation and independently of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (Orange Fluorescence) is a fluorescent assay used to detect cell apoptosis by monitoring the loss of mitochondiral membrane potential with flow cytometry. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This particular kit is designed to detect cell apoptosis by measuring the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Cells were collected 48 hours after irradiation, and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay was carried out to analyze apoptosis (B). Mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions were prepared and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-Bax, Bcl-xL, and cytochrome c antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • JC1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection Kit: In situ detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. (celltechnology.com)
  • Cell permeability allow direct measurement of apoptosis and mitochondrial potential in live cells. (celltechnology.com)
  • Detection of the mitochondrial permeability transition event provides an early indication of the initiation of cellular apoptosis. (celltechnology.com)
  • Loss of mitochondrial (YD) is indicative of apoptosis and can be detected by a unique fluorescent cationic dye, 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl- benzamidazolocarbocyanin iodide, commonly known as JC-1. (celltechnology.com)
  • Adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in adult cardiac myocytes involves MMP-2-mediated disruption of β1 integrin signaling and mitochondrial pathway - Bindu Menon,Mahipal Singh, Robert Ross, Jennifer N. Johnson and Krishna Singh - Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290: C254-C261, 2006. (celltechnology.com)
  • Conclusion: Sclareol can inhibit the proliferation of MG63 cells, and induce cell apoptosis and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. (alliedacademies.org)
  • These results suggested the inhibition of osteosarcoma cells by sclareol via both apoptosis induction and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential is a hallmark for apoptosis. (celltechnology.com)
  • The mitochondrial permeability transition is an important step in the induction of cellular apoptosis. (celltechnology.com)
  • Palmitate-induced activation of mitochondrial metabolism promotes oxidative stress and apoptosis in H4IIEC3 rat hepatocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are early events of dexamethasone-induced thymocyte apoptosis. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Background: Until now, the simultaneous analysis of several parameters during apoptosis, including DNA content and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi), has not been possible because of the spectral characteristics of the commonly used dyes. (unimore.it)
  • Methods: U937 cells were treated with the flavonoid quercetin (Qu) and stained with JC-1 to detect AT, propidium iodide (PI) for cell viability, Hoechst 33342 for DNA content, Annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor-647 for detection of phosphatidilserine (PS) exposure, marker of early apoptosis, or Mitotracker Deep Red for the determination of mitochondrial mass. (unimore.it)
  • Conclusions: During Qu-induced apoptosis, loss of Delta Psi, PS exposure, and decrease of mitochondrial mass are early events that precede permeability to PI and loss of DNA. (unimore.it)
  • ER-targeting curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs reduced and delayed extracellular calcium entry and protected the cells from mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Curcumin induces the activation of caspase-8, -2, and -9, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c , and activation of caspase-3 and concomitant PARP cleavage, but the addition of caspase inhibitors only partially blocked the curcumin-mediated apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5) R-2HW prevents Ara-c induced apoptosis, prevents mitochondrial membrane potential changes and GAPDH protein and mRNA changes, but has no effect on low K + induced apoptosis. (usask.ca)
  • Taken together, these results provide good evidence that some forms of apoptosis involve a change of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by altered subcellular GAPDH. (usask.ca)
  • Simultaneous, but not sequential, exposure of U937 cells to 100 n m FP and 10 n m PMA significantly increased apoptosis manifested by characteristic morphological features, mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage while markedly inhibiting cellular differentiation, as reflected by diminished plastic adherence and CD11b expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these findings indicate that FP modulates the expression/activity of multiple signaling and cell cycle regulatory proteins in PMA-treated leukemia cells and that such alterations are associated with mitochondrial damage and apoptosis rather than maturation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis is a form of cell death characterized by several features including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromosome condensation, nuclear fragmentation, DNA laddering, and the eventual engulfment of the cell by phagosomes. (abcam.com)
  • Following permeabilization, the release of proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space promotes caspase activation and apoptosis. (abcam.com)
  • Conversely, overexpression of IHG-1 leads to increased mitochondrial fusion and also protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial fusion ensures mixing of organelle components, ensures preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential, protects against oxidant stress and apoptosis, and allows for optimal bioenergetic function ( 23 - 27 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • apoptosis, proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψ m ), oxidative stress, along with expression pattern of heat responsive genes and miRNAs were determined. (portlandpress.com)
  • Mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential of cultured cerebellar neurons during glutamate-induced necrosis, apoptosis, and tolerance. (rcsi.com)
  • Disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential is one of the earliest intracellular events that occur following induction of apoptosis. (abbkine.com)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction may result in elevated production of reactive oxygen species. (hindawi.com)
  • MC inhibition by fullerene derivatives was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and FcγR-mediated increases in cellular reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. (nih.gov)
  • sFlt-1 exacerbated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in ECs and trophoblasts exposed to serum from preeclamptic women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX2), which mediates the massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by stimulated leukocytes, is composed of membrane-bound and cytosolic subunits ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Regardless of the initial injury, which could be toxic, mechanical, metabolic, or genetic, degeneration of axons shares a common mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we investigated the mechanisms for Pro370Leu mutant myocilin to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells obtained from POAG individuals. (molvis.org)
  • In diabetes, increased glucose metabolism resulting in increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is believed to be the primary event leading to the development and progression of diabetic vascular complications ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed during CoCl 2 treatment along with increases in mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (medsci.org)
  • When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • the matrix is surrounded by the inner mitochondrial membrane, which in turn is separated by the intermembrane space from the outer mitochondrial membrane. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The outer mitochondrial membrane contains several proteins involved in organellar protein import, such as Tom70 or Tom20 [8]. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The outer mitochondrial membrane localization of MondoA suggests that it is positioned to coordinate the adaptive transcriptional response to a cell's most abundant energy sources, cytoplasmic glucose and mtATP. (elifesciences.org)
  • The outer mitochondrial membrane forms the border of mitochondria towards the cellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic divalent mercury (Hg++) alter the flux of ions and small molecules across nerve terminal membranes by mechanisms that may involve membrane depolarization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Consequently, mitochondrial depolarization is indicated by a decrease in the red/green fluorescence intensity ratio. (mobitec.com)
  • For example, Rh123 is relatively insensitive to ΔΨm changes and DiOC 6 (3) cannot distinguish between depolarization of the plasma membrane and changes at ΔΨm in several physiological or pathological conditions when both events can take place. (docplayer.net)
  • CCCP causes quick mitochondrial membrane depolarization, greatly reducing the FL2 red fluorescence signal, thus providing a green-signal only positive control. (docplayer.net)
  • Intriguingly, the same inhibitors also significantly reduced FLG- or GO-induced mitochondrial depolarization and cytotoxicity. (rsc.org)
  • This study shows that FLG and GO induce a cytotoxic effect due to a sustained mitochondrial depolarization. (rsc.org)
  • Programmed cell death was associated with activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, release of cytochrome c , and activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mitochondria depolarization was measured using the potential-sensitive color, JC-1. (molvis.org)
  • There were no effects on GSH levels or mitochondrial depolarization either. (molvis.org)
  • Rhodamine-123 fluorescence measured the alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating a significant depolarization in the mitochondria isolated from aged rats as compared to mitochondria isolated from the other age groups. (rjb.ro)
  • Experiments with ruthenium red, an effective blocker of Ca 2+ uniporter, confirms the Ca 2+ -dependent membrane depolarization and ROS generation. (rjb.ro)
  • In two human cell lines (K562 and U937), we have studied by flow cytometry the changes in membrane potential provoked by the K+ ionophor valinomycin, a drug known to affect mitochondrial membrane potential, while the K+/H+ ionophor nigericin, known to affect intracellular pH but not mitochondrial membrane potential, was used as control. (nih.gov)
  • Cell viability was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, ultrastructural alterations were examined using inverse phase contrast microscopy and electron microscopy, mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using rhodamine 123 labeling and flow cytometry, and neurofilament light (NF-L) mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Significantly, the mitochondrial membrane potential of α and β RNAi cells was decreased compared to wild-type cells, as detected by MitoTracker Red CMXRos fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • Cells were then stained with JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection Kit for 15 minutes and analyzed by flow cytometry. (celltechnology.com)
  • JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection Kit provides a quick and reliable method to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential changes in apoptotic cells using flow cytometry. (mobitec.com)
  • Percentages of CD8+Annexin V+ (ANX+) and CD8+CD95+ cells, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax in CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured by quantitative flow cytometry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, particularly in the context of cell fate determination in biological and biomedical research. (nih.gov)
  • JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit is a fluorescence-based method for tracing the behavior of mitochondria. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The JC-1 Assay Kit uses a unique cationic dye (5,5',6,6'- tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide) to signal the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. (mobitec.com)
  • Assay Protocol This protocol was performed using Accuri s JC-1 Mitochondrial Potential Assay Kit (KR310). (docplayer.net)
  • MCE JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit uses JC-1 to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential in variety of cell types, as well as intact tissues and isolated mitochondria. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Abbkine Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (JC-1) provides a simple method for distinguishing between healthy and apoptotic cells by detecting the changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, based on a carbocyanine dye, JC-1. (abbkine.com)
  • Fig. Hela cells stained with Abbkine Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit (JC-1). (abbkine.com)
  • In apoptotic cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential collapses, which results in failure to retain JC-10 dye and the dye returns to its monomeric green form (EX/Em= 490/525 nm) in the cytosol. (gbiosciences.com)
  • This dye has been incorporated into the user-friendly kit for the simple and reproducible detection of the membrane potential (YD) event in apoptotic cells. (celltechnology.com)
  • In apoptotic cells, where the mitochondrial membrane potential is compromised, the cationic dye does not accumulated in the mitochondria and these cells exhibit a lower fluorescence signal. (celltechnology.com)
  • The ability of vitamin E and desferrioxamine to inhibit the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential indicates that oxidative damage is involved in producing mitochondrial dysfunction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate whether sFlt-1 causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to disruption of normal functioning in endothelial and placental cells in preeclampsia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, results obtained in ECs exposed to serum from preeclamptic subjects demonstrated that increased sFlt-1 leads to metabolic perturbations accountable for mitochondrial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, our results establish the early metabolic perturbations induced by sFlt-1 and the resulting endothelial and mitochondrial dysfunction in preeclampsia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to multiple diseases and pathophysiologies, including a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders. (scienceexchange.com)
  • This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in Deltapsi and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. (ru.nl)
  • Our findings suggested that Pro370Leu mutant myocilin causes mitochondrial defects, which may lead to TM cell dysfunction and even cell death. (molvis.org)
  • We also discuss instances in which the effects of NO on the electron transport chain might lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and pathology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Excessive production of NO and mitochondrial dysfunction have for many years been independently associated with pathophysiological mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the fact that NO inhibits mitochondrial respiration suggests that there may be instances in which NO production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and pathology could be intimately related. (ahajournals.org)
  • Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction may restore the phagocytic defect in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • The absence of extracellular Ca++ resulted in a marked decline of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential which could be prevented by ruthenium red, ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'tetraacetic acid, the antioxidant vitamin E and the iron chelator, desferrioxamine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, oxidative stress induced by treatment with the redox active agent paraquat and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea had little effect on mitochondrial transmembrane potential and malondialdehyde formation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage were not affected by ruthenium red or La . These results indicate that the incubation of rat hepatocytes in the absence of extracellular Ca++ creates an unusual oxidative stress which markedly affects mitochondrial function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • mtMP or Δ ψ is the potential difference across the inner mitochondrial (mt) membrane, expressed in the electric unit of volt [V]. Electric force of the mitochondrial membrane potential is the electric energy change per 'motive' electron or per electron moved across the transmembrane potential difference, with the number of 'motive' electrons expressed in the unit coulomb [C]. (oroboros.at)
  • During this process, several key events occur in mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators such as cytochrome c, changes in electron transport, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). (docplayer.net)
  • The outer membrane consists of two types of integral proteins, including proteins with transmembrane β-barrel and proteins with one or more α-helical membrane anchors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each is an extremely complex transmembrane structure that is embedded in the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that inducible depletion of mitochondrial DNA (ρ(ο) cells) diminished respiration, oxidative TCA cycle function, and the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in diminished cell proliferation, hypoxic activation of HIF-1, and specific histone acetylation marks. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that distinct mitochondrial functions associated with respiration are necessary for cell proliferation, epigenetics, and HIF-1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • The assays provide valuable insight into two primary arms of cellular metabolism by reporting on extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) related to glycolysis and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) related to mitochondrial respiration [1]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Niclosamide treatment results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) and an increase in respiration rate. (bioz.com)
  • Recovery of cellular respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function requires coordinated expression of transcription factors encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genes, including mitochondrial transcription factor A (T-fam) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we find that ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are important for normal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven production of several proinflammatory cytokines and for the enhanced responsiveness to LPS seen in cells from patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), an autoinflammatory disorder caused by missense mutations in the type 1 TNF receptor (TNFR1). (rupress.org)
  • Earlier observations made by various laboratories indicating that nitric oxide (NO) at physiological concentrations modulates respiration through the reversible inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome C oxidase, in competition with O 2 , 5-7 gave rise to the hypothesis that NO may have an important function in the regulation of such mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, because MondoA responds to both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, MondoA may function as a master sensor of cellular energy charge. (elifesciences.org)
  • The energy stored from the process of respiration in reduced compounds (such as NADH and FADH) is used by the electron transport chain to pump protons into the intermembrane space, generating the electrochemical gradient over the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFAM and PGC1 α are key transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • GABP transcription factor (nuclear respiratory factor 2) is required for mitochondrial biogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The TLR4-mediated AKT activation and mitochondrial biogenesis required activation of adaptor protein MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, using a genetic approach, we show that the AKT1 isoform is pivotal in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in response to TLR4 agonist. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, there is evidence that NO promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by a mechanism that is independent of cytochrome C oxidase but involves activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Induced in high glucose-1 (IHG-1) is a conserved mitochondrial protein associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) that amplifies profibrotic transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling and increases mitochondrial biogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IHG-1 is a highly conserved protein localized to mitochondria and plays an important regulatory role in mitochondrial biogenesis by stabilizing the transcriptional cofactor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and TGF-β1 signaling induce increased mitochondrial biogenesis and alterations in mitochondrial dynamics ( 11 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The outer membrane mitochondrial proteins carry out functions for mitochondrial biogenesis and integration between mitochondria and the cellular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFAM activates the duplication of mitochondrial DNA molecules, thereby orchestrating mitochondrial bioenergetics and ATP production [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence we investigated the role of LPS-mediated AKT activation in mitochondrial bioenergetics and function in cultured murine macrophages (B6-MCL) and bone marrow-derived macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • This might be, at least in part, because of the effect of inflammation on mitochondrial bioenergetics and mitochondrial injury. (jimmunol.org)
  • A failure of mitochondrial bioenergetics has been shown to be closely associated with the onset of apoptotic and necrotic neuronal injury. (rcsi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that propofol might impair mitochondrial electron transport chain and ATP production in rat brain synaptosomes, human platelets, and guinea pig cardiomyocytes. (asahq.org)
  • Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (Deltapsi). (ru.nl)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been known for many years to bind to cytochrome C oxidase, the terminal acceptor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, in competition with oxygen. (ahajournals.org)
  • This kit contains CCCP that causes an uncoupling of the proton gradient, which established during the normal activity of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, and thus, dissipates the mitochondrial electrochemical potential and may be used as a control that prevents JC-1 aggregation. (abbkine.com)
  • The electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of protein complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes in the electron transport chain harvest the energy of the redox reactions that occur when transferring electrons from a low redox potential to a higher redox potential, creating an electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic organisms the electron transport chain, and site of oxidative phosphorylation, is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is found on the thylakoid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the inner mitochondrial membrane, electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass through the electron transport chain to oxygen, which is reduced to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy obtained through the transfer of electrons down the electron transport chain is used to pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical proton gradient (ΔpH) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SAM Complex is essential for sorting and assembling beta-barrel proteins from the intermembrane space side into the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passage of electrons between donor and acceptor releases energy, which is used to generate a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane by "pumping" protons into the intermembrane space, producing a thermodynamic state that has the potential to do work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spermatozoa are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress due to the high membrane content of polyunsaturated fatty acid and the intracellular deficiency of antioxidant enzymes [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the present study was designed to find out the effect of curcumin on intracellular ROS formation and its potential link with curcumin-induced cytotoxicity in HuT-78 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The intensity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation also increased in proportion with the harshness of cold, while the efficiency of ATP generation was equally effective in all three acclimation temperatures. (biologists.org)
  • Contain CCC (Potent mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler). (abbkine.com)
  • B) RNA-seq analysis of mitochondrial transcripts in three independent samples of DN-POLG cells untreated or treated with doxycycline (10 ng/ml) for 3, 6 and 9 days. (nih.gov)
  • E-F) Relative mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) (E) and mitochondrial membrane potential (F) of intact WT and DN-POLG cells untreated or treated with doxycycline (10 ng/ml) for 3, 6 and 9 days. (nih.gov)
  • Morphological differences such as extent of membrane blebbing were observed as well, verifying that cells with a high MMP are more likely to survive the cryopreservation process. (mit.edu)
  • A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells has been developed by using the lipophilic cationic probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1), whose monomer emits at 527 nm after excitation at 490 nm. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we aimed at examining apoptotic effects of CAPE on CCRF-CEM leukemic cells and at determining the roles of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cell death. (springer.com)
  • JC-1 dye is used for fluorescence-based measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential changes in cells, a key measure of cell viability. (biotium.com)
  • Results We showed that the RXR agonist 9-cis retinoid acid (9-c RA) protected cells from H/R-induced cell injury and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the protective effect of 9-c RA against H/R was abolished when pretreated with HX531 (RXR pan-antagonist). (bmj.com)
  • When HL-60 cells were differentiated to neutrophil-like cells, they lost mitochondrial supercimplex organisation while gaining increased aerobic glycolysis, just like neutrophils. (eur.nl)
  • The study of sclareol in inhibiting proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by apoptotic induction and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Compared to control group, sclareol significantly depressed mitochondrial membrane potential of MG63 cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In healthy cells the cationic dye is accumulated by the mitochondria in proportion to the DeltaPsi (membrane potential). (celltechnology.com)
  • In healthy cells, the JC-1 accumulates in the mitochondrial to form J-aggregates, which become red fluorescence. (mobitec.com)
  • Xenograft studies confirmed that the expression of BAP1 reduces tumor growth and progression in vivo by lowering the levels of pro-survival factors such as Bcl-2, which in turn diminish the survival potential of the tumor cells. (nature.com)
  • The phenomenon has been modeled by molecular dynamics and directly proved by experiments on bilayer planar phospholipid membrane, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and yeast cells. (pnas.org)
  • 1 For this reason, ΔΨm is an important parameter of mitochondrial function and has been used as an indicator of healthy cells. (docplayer.net)
  • In healthy cells with high mitochondrial ΔΨm, JC-1 spontaneously forms complexes known as J-aggregates with intense red fluorescence. (docplayer.net)
  • Our results indicate that eASN enhanced the free radicals level, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, cells viability and activated cells' death. (springer.com)
  • The electrostatic barrier model of ion transport through the plasma membrane (see scheme on the right) accurately describes the behavior of the probes in cells. (imageanalyst.net)
  • The cellular ultrastructure (Fig. 2B, F) showed that the untreated cells had a smooth surface and maintained the integrity of the plasma membrane, whereas the Se-β-Lg-treated cells displayed a cell shrinkage, even collapse, and eversion of the cytoplasmic membrane. (ko-143.com)
  • Red is indicative of cells with polarised mitochondrial membranes. (bioz.com)
  • FLIM with the culture of human colon cancer HCT116 cells allowed observation of the heterogeneity of mitochondrial polarization during the cell cycle progression. (ucc.ie)
  • TNFR1 mutant cells exhibit altered mitochondrial function with enhanced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial ROS generation, and pharmacological blockade of mitochondrial ROS efficiently reduces inflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation in cells from TRAPS patients and healthy controls. (rupress.org)
  • Altered mitochondrial membrane potential, mass, and morphology in the mononuclear cells of humans with type 2 diabetes. (mcw.edu)
  • Despite the pathophysiologic relevance, no valid and reproducible method for measuring mitochondrial homeostasis in human inflammatory cells is available currently. (mcw.edu)
  • We employed 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'3,3'-tetraethylbenzamidazol-carboncyanine (JC-1) to estimate mitochondrial membrane potential (Psi(m)) and acridine orange 10-nonyl bromide (NAO) to assess mitochondrial mass in human mononuclear cells isolated from blood. (mcw.edu)
  • Valid and reproducible measurements of mitochondrial homeostasis can be made in human mononuclear cells using these fluorophores. (mcw.edu)
  • Furthermore, potentially clinically relevant perturbations in mitochondrial homeostasis in T2DM human mononuclear cells can be detected. (mcw.edu)
  • In this study, the authors stain a mixed population of T cells with a chemical which causes cells with a large mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) to fluoresce more strongly (using TMRM). (blogspot.com)
  • They find that fractions with low membrane potential are enriched for SCM cells, whereas fractions with high membrane potential are enriched for EM cells. (blogspot.com)
  • The key step in the intrinsic cell death pathway is the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, after which cells are committed to cell death. (abcam.com)
  • Up-regulated Bax and Bcl-XL expression, the elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and its association with ANX binding implicate the mitochondrial pathway in death of CD8+ T cells of patients with SCCHN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This finding implicates the mitochondrial pathway in the control of survival and death of T cells in the peripheral circulation of patients with SCCHN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Established, but not restricted to, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MitoLoc reproducibly measures changes in membrane potential induced by the uncoupling agent CCCP, by oxidative stress, in respiratory deficient cells, and in Δfzo1, Δref2, and Δdnm1 mutants that possess fission and fusion defects. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Confocal microscopy and the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Green were used to obtain three-dimensional images of the mitochondrial network in cardiomyocytes and L6 skeletal muscle cells in culture. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondria, the site of most energy production in eukaryotic cells, have a double membrane structure: an outer membrane and a folded inner membrane. (abbkine.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate manufacturable wafer-scale mitochondrial functional assay lab-on-a-chip devices, which require mitochondrial protein quantities three orders of magnitude less than current assays, integrated onto 4′′ standard silicon wafer with new fabrication processes and materials. (rsc.org)
  • The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. (rupress.org)
  • Uncoupling protein 2 impacts endothelial phenotype via p53-mediated control of mitochondrial dynamics. (umassmed.edu)
  • Ruthenium red and La , which block Ca++ uptake through the mitochondrial uniport, totally prevented malondialdehyde formation, glutathione and protein thiol oxidation and vitamin E loss induced by Ca++ omission. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purity of mitochondrial fractions was assessed by immunoblotting with anti-cytochrome c , HSP70, and PCNA, a cytosolic/nuclear protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (right). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 11 Depending on the system under study, protection was shown to be associated with an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ), 9 with an increase in glycolytic output linked to upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) 12 or with changes in calcium efflux leading to the induction of the cytoprotective chaperone protein Grp78. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial fission relies on another GTPase: cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which translocates to mitochondria under circumstances that promote fission to interact with mitochondrial outer membrane protein fission 1 (Fis1) ( 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial fusion, which was assessed by measuring the expression of proteins optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), declined due to CoCl 2 exposure, but B355252 addition was able to elevate Mfn2 expression while OPA1 expression was unchanged. (medsci.org)
  • Mitochondrial fission, measured by phosphorylated dynamin-related protein 1 (p-DRP1) and fission protein 1 (FIS1) expression, also decreased following CoCl 2 exposure, and was stabilized by B355252 addition. (medsci.org)
  • Protein sorting into the mitochondrial compartments always starts at the TOM complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • VDAC is the most abundant protein in the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential correlates with MC degranulation through FcγR receptors and is inhibited by fullerene derivatives.In Fig 2A, change in mitochondrial membrane potential as a function of the concentration of IC stimulus was assessed. (nih.gov)
  • As seen in Fig 2B, change in mitochondrial membrane potential as a function of time with fixed concentration of IC stimulus was assessed. (nih.gov)
  • This increased metabolic heat production occurred in parallel with an upregulation of avUCP, which was not associated with a change in mitochondrial membrane conductance. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that PINK1 and Parkin may normally participate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway that is defective in certain familial forms of Parkinson's disease. (rupress.org)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte injury via a mitochondrial pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apoptotic stimulation activates at least 1 of the 2 major apoptotic pathways, the intrinsic or mitochondrial cell death pathway and the extrinsic or receptor-mediated cell death pathway ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mitochondrial pathway leads to disruption of mitochondrial membrane, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which then binds to the apoptotic protease activating factor complex and triggers the activation of procaspase-9 to active caspase-9 ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also provide evidence indicating that insulin increases mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes through the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data demonstrate for the first time in our knowledge that insulin acutely regulates mitochondrial metabolism in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism that depends on increased mitochondrial fusion, Opa-1, and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The technology back-calculates plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in millivolt values that drive changes in the time courses of fluorescence intensities. (imageanalyst.net)
  • In this context, we provide an overview of some of the important technical considerations, controls, and parallel complementary assays that can be employed to help ensure appropriate interpretation of results, thus providing a practical usage guide for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potentials with cationic probes. (nih.gov)
  • The calibration requires two axillary assays ( measurement of mitochondria:cell volume fractions and the binding affinity/activity of TMRM to membranes ). (imageanalyst.net)
  • This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propofol on the modulation of macrophage functions from the aspects of cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative ability, and IFN-γ mRNA production and its possible mechanism from the viewpoint of mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP production. (asahq.org)
  • In this view, we recently demonstrated the ability of a few layer graphene (FLG) and different GOs to induce a sustained cytotoxicity related to a reduced mitochondrial activity in human skin HaCaT keratinocytes, a preliminary in vitro model to investigate skin toxicity. (rsc.org)
  • Mitochondria Membrane Potential Kit, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • JC-1 and TUNEL staining detected significant apoptotic events, such as the loss of mitochondria membrane potential and DNA fragmentation, respectively. (medsci.org)
  • Moreover, the mitochondria membrane potential decreased, DNA fragmentation increased, leading to an increase in the apoptotic cell percentage. (medsci.org)
  • Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, at regular intervals, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (JC-1 staining) and cellular senescence (senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining) were assessed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular immune response to pathogens requires high energy in the form of ATP, and it appears that TLR-mediated mitochondrial ROS (mROS) are important for macrophage bactericidal activity ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. (ru.nl)
  • The sensitivity of the probe is measured by assessing the effects of a mitochondrial uncoupling agent (CCCP) on MP of free swimming sperm. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Typically, the membrane potential of mitochondria is completely lost after 15 minutes of treatment with 50μM CCCP. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Domestic dog sperm are labeled with a cationic fluorescent probe, DiOC 2 (3), that reports the MP across the inner membrane of the mitochondria located in the sperm's midpiece. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using JC-1 dye by flow cytometric analysis and under fluorescent microscope. (springer.com)
  • We have previously optimized 2-NBDG imaging [4], and have recently incorporated a fluorescent cationic dye (TMRE, Ex/Em 545/590nm) to report on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cationic dye is cell permeable and has a strong fluorescent signal in the red region and exhibits low membrane potential independent (non specific) binding and toxicity. (celltechnology.com)
  • Competitive interactions of amphipathic polycationic peptides and cationic fluorescent probes with lipid membrane: experimental approaches and computational model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitochondrial functions were revealed by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production, which were found by fluorescent probe 5,5′,6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'3,3′-tetraethylbenzimid azolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and a luciferin/luciferase-based ATP assay, respectively. (molvis.org)
  • Here we present a simple method for the simultaneous quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential and network morphology that is based on computational co-localisation analysis of differentially imported fluorescent marker proteins. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Our protocol was successfully applied to assess changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential in diverse cell types from different organisms. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to define and validate reproducible methods for measuring relevant mitochondrial perturbations and to determine whether these methods could discern mitochondrial perturbations in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is a condition associated with altered mitochondrial homeostasis. (mcw.edu)
  • COPD macrophages show defective phagocytosis, which is associated with altered mitochondrial function and an inability to regulate mROS production. (ersjournals.com)
  • Brain aging is accompanied by decreased mitochondrial function, increased oxidative stress, decreased proteasomal activity, and the accumulation of cytotoxic amyloid beta peptides. (hindawi.com)
  • Its specificity for mitochondrial accumulation has been established ( 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria, indicated by a fluorescence emission shift from green (529 nm) to red (590 nm). (mobitec.com)
  • In addition to nuclear, SYTO 16 and 24 dyes also display mitochondrial accumulation. (ucc.ie)
  • Any event that dissipates the mitochondrial membrane potential prevents the accumulation of the JC-1 dye in the mitochondria and thus, the dye remains in the cytoplasm in its monomer form, leading to a shift from red (agglomerated JC-1, Ex/Em = 585/590 nm) to green fluorescence (JC-1 monomers, Ex/Em = 510/527 nm). (abbkine.com)
  • Mitochondrial metabolism is necessary for the maintenance of oxidative TCA cycle function and mitochondrial membrane potential. (nih.gov)
  • Previous attempts to decipher whether mitochondria are necessary for biological outcomes have been hampered by genetic and pharmacologic methods that simultaneously disrupt multiple functions linked to mitochondrial metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Tetraphenylphosphonium was shown to be a useful chemical indicator of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in 1969 ( 1 ) and has been used for in vitro studies of myocardial metabolism ( 2-7 ) and tumor imaging in which differences between normal and malignant cell ΔΨm are exploited to facilitate tumor identification ( 8 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • HTR-8/SVneo displayed a strong basal glycolytic metabolism, remaining less sensitive to sFlt-1-induced mitochondrial impairment. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been reported that mitochondrial function is impaired and brain energy metabolism is interrupted in chronic and acute models of HE [13-15]. (termedia.pl)
  • VDAC plays a crucial role in facilitating energy metabolism by transporting ADP and ATP in and out of the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial accumulations of p53 and Bcl-2 family membrane proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After sonication for 30 s and incubation at 65°C for 10 min, the proteins (20 μl) were separated by SDS/PAGE on a 4-12% gel and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher & Schuell) for Western blot analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the expression of Opa-1 and mitofusins, proteins of the mitochondrial fusion machinery, is dramatically altered in obese and insulin-resistant patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as mitochondrial carrier proteins, are proteins which exist in the membranes of mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors play a role in the function of mitochondrial membrane transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TOM complex, part of the TOM/TIM supercomplex, is essential for the translocase of almost all mitochondrial proteins which consists of at least 7 different subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β-barrel of Sam50 is the functional domain that inserts and folds substrate proteins into the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Tom40, VDAC has a β-barrel structure with antiparallel β-strands that can facilitate the passage of β-barrel membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The import pathways of α-helical membrane anchors or signal-anchored proteins are carried out mainly by outer membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenyltriphenylphosphonium ( 18 F-TPP) is useful for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). (onlinejacc.org)
  • In vivo measurement of ΔΨm has potential value in the assessment of heart failure pathophysiology and therapy as well as assessment of myocardial viability and so may be a very useful clinical tool. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The O2k-MultiSensor system provides a potentiometric and a fluorometric module for measurement of the mt-membrane potential. (oroboros.at)
  • Several SUIT protocols are focused on the measurement of mt-membrane potential by potentiometric and fluorometric techniques. (oroboros.at)
  • Image Analyst MKII provides the complete plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement technique developed by Akos Gerencser and colleagues (17) . (imageanalyst.net)
  • MitoLoc simplifies the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential in parallel to detect morphological changes in mitochondrial networks. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, genetic reconstitution of the mitochondrial membrane potential restored ROS, which were necessary for hypoxic activation of HIF-1 and cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane potential changes of isolated mitochondria from various well-established cell lines such as human HeLa cell line (Heb7A), human osteosarcoma cell line (143b) and mouse skeletal muscle tissue were investigated and compared. (rsc.org)
  • Membrane-permeable cryoprotectants, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, though widely used, can be extremely toxic to the cell. (mit.edu)
  • Overall, the compounds showed potent proapoptotic effects on the two different cancer cell lines, suggesting that the compounds deserve more extensive investigation of their potential medicinal applications. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, using digitized low-light video microscopy, we examine blebbing, cytosolic free Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential and loss of cell viability in individual cultured hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Cell death was precipitated by a sudden breakdown of the plasma membrane permeability barrier, possibly caused by rupture of a cell surface bleb. (nih.gov)
  • Chen JC, Zhang X, Singleton TP, Kiechle FL (2004) Mitochondrial membrane potential change induced by Hoechst 33342 in myelogenous leukemia cell line HL-60. (springer.com)
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential is one of the key parameters of mitochondrial function and serves as an indicator of cell health. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Furthermore, the potent inhibitory effects of ruthenium red and La suggest that Ca++ movement through the uniport, perhaps indicative of mitochondrial Ca++ cycling, plays a major role in generating this oxidative stress and promoting cell injury. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ΔΨM is an important parameter of mitochondrial function and has been used as an indicator of cell health. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Mitochondrial fractions (top) and whole cell lysates (bottom) were then prepared 24 hours later. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell Technology utilizes a cationic dye to visualize mitochondrial membrane potential (15-17). (celltechnology.com)
  • See how effects of ΔψP, cell and mitochondrial geometry and fluorescence background accounted for to calculate mV values. (imageanalyst.net)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of JC-1 fluorescence is best performed using two dimensional green versus red fluorescence plots, where the ratio of green to red fluorescence allows comparative measurements of membrane potential between cell populations. (docplayer.net)
  • The algorithm also takes cell size, mitochondrial content, ΔψP, probe binding and auto- or background fluorescence into account to calculate ΔψM. (imageanalyst.net)
  • The lysates of treated and control cell samples were separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrotransfered onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. (ko-143.com)
  • Mitochondrial Membrane Potential, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. (bioz.com)
  • The main motivation of the project is to understand the interaction of various mitochondria using live cell imaging of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) (See Figure 1). (interfacegroup.ch)
  • The student will work within a team of engineers and biologists to create a mathematical model that governs single mitochondria electrical charge dynamics and use this model in order to account for the observed mitochondrial membrane potential interactions in a kidney tubular cell. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • The observed fluctuations within the mitochondrial network of the cell pose a challenging and yet unexplained phenomenon, for which mathematical modeling will bring new insights. (interfacegroup.ch)
  • Mitochondrial recovery during inflammatory processes such as sepsis is associated with cell survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • TMRM‐FLIM enabled to visualize the differences in membrane potential between Lgr5‐positive and other proliferating and differentiated cell types. (ucc.ie)
  • Mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and morphologic changes are important in inflammatory cell activation. (mcw.edu)
  • The current study conducted to understand the role of Ca 2+ in varying mitochondrial membrane potentials in alleviating the oxidative burden on the cell. (rjb.ro)
  • These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. (ru.nl)
  • During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of Deltapsi and mitochondrial morphology. (ru.nl)
  • Together, these findings indicate that IHG-1 is a novel regulator of both mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetic function and contributes to cell survival following oxidant stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • JC-1 can be used as an indicator of mitochondrial potential in a variety of cell types, including myo-cytes and neurons, as well as in intact tissues and isolated mitochondria. (abbkine.com)
  • Measure mitochondrial membrane potential as an indicator of cell health. (abbkine.com)
  • A new method for the cytofluorimetric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential using the J-aggregate forming lipophilic cation 5,5',6,6'-tetrac. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential Using JC‐1. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In addition to oxidative stress, an increase in mitochondrial calcium is fundamental for mPTP opening ( Bernardi, 2013 ), and it is known that axotomy increases calcium in the axon above the normal range ( Ziv and Spira, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Such induction was associated with the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. (mdpi.com)
  • The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. (umassmed.edu)
  • The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Active mitochondria are characterized by a membrane potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the driving force for ATP production. (scienceexchange.com)
  • 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) activates stimulator of interferon gene (STING)-dependent innate immune pathways and is regulated by mitochondrial membrane potential. (umassmed.edu)
  • Such ΔΨ m depolarizations could be mimicked by increased exposure to either fluorescence excitation light or the ΔΨ m -sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and were inhibited by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, catalase, Trolox and TEMPO) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP)-inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that calcium release from the axonal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through ryanodine and IP 3 channels activates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and contributes to axonal degeneration triggered by both mechanical and toxic insults in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mitochondrial ATP synthase couples the electrochemical proton gradient to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP ( 5 , 11 , 26 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • This process is typically defined as a collapse in the electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial membrane, as measured by the change in the membrane potential (YD). (celltechnology.com)
  • During this process, the electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial membrane collapses. (celltechnology.com)
  • Ca 2+ uptake by mitochondria might both modulate the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) to limit ATP production. (biologists.org)
  • The membrane-bound subunits of NOX2 comprise gp91 phox and p22 phox , whereas the cytosolic components include p40 phox , p47 phox , p67 phox , and small GTPase Rac1/2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice. (hindawi.com)
  • In Fig 2C, Fullerene derivatives inhibit IC-induced increases in mitochondrial membrane potential. (nih.gov)
  • We found that low pH medium increases mitochondrial ATP (mtATP), which is subsequently exported from the mitochondrial matrix. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mollica MP, Iossa S, Liverini G, Soboll S. Steady state changes in mitochondrial electrical potential and proton gradient in perfused liver from rats fed a high fat diet. (harvard.edu)
  • This proton gradient is largely but not exclusively responsible for the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM). (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion is important in maintaining mitochondrial quality. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We further found that mitochondrial dynamics, the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission, were perturbed by CoCl 2 treatment. (medsci.org)
  • NGF and GM1 may function by maintaining normal mitochondrial membrane potential or by promoting NF-L mRNA expression. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. (ru.nl)
  • Fluorescence, absorbance, and binding of a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive probe, rhodamine 800 (rhod800), were measured in isolated rat mitochondria, hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, and hearts in the presence or absence of mitochondrial uncouplers. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • In the absence of mitochondrial uncoupling, these data indicate a clear link between avUCP expression and the capacity of ducklings to adjust their muscular aerobic activity to cold exposure. (biologists.org)
  • Given the role of insulin in the control of cardiac energetics, the goal of this study was to investigate whether insulin affects mitochondrial dynamics in cardiomyocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cytochrome C oxidase is situated on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome C and the reduction of O 2 to water in a process linked to the pumping of protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fluorescence intensity changes of redistribution-type potentiometric probes reflect potentials distorted in time by their slow diffusion across the plasma membrane. (imageanalyst.net)