Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/25276)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (2/25276)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (3/25276)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/25276)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (5/25276)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (6/25276)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (7/25276)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1 and associated proteins in the differentiating cerebral cortex: induction of caspase-dependent cell death and activation of NF-kappaB. (8/25276)

The developing cerebral cortex undergoes a period of substantial cell death. The present studies examine the role of the suicide receptor Fas/Apo[apoptosis]-1 in cerebral cortical development. Fas mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in subsets of cells within the developing rat cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis. Fas-immunoreactive cells were localized in close proximity to Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cells. The Fas-associated signaling protein receptor interacting protein (RIP) was expressed by some Fas-expressing cells, whereas Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was undetectable in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas activation, was also expressed in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Fas expression was more ubiquitous in embryonic cortical neuroblasts in dissociated culture compared to in situ within the developing brain, suggesting that the environmental milieu partly suppresses Fas expression at this developmental stage. Furthermore, FADD, RIP, and FLIP were also expressed by subsets of dissociated cortical neuroblasts in culture. Fas activation by ligand (FasL) or anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-dependent cell death in primary embryonic cortical neuroblast cultures. The activation of Fas was also accompanied by a rapid downregulation of Fas receptor expression, non-cell cycle-related incorporation of nucleic acids and nuclear translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that adult cortical cell number may be established, in part, by an active process of receptor-mediated cell suicide, initiated in situ by killer (FasL-expressing) cells and that Fas may have functions in addition to suicide in the developing brain.  (+info)

Some common types of blood platelet disorders include:

1. Thrombocytopenia: This is a condition in which there are too few platelets in the blood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including autoimmune disorders, bone marrow disorders, and certain medications.
2. Bernard-Soulier syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the function of platelets and causes easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
3. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the platelets' ability to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding.
4. Platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, infections, and autoimmune disorders. It can lead to excessive bleeding or prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
5. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the development of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to a lack of platelets in the blood.
6. Grey platelet syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the structure of platelets, making them more prone to rupture and lead to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
7. Platelet-type von Willebrand disease: This is a mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together to form clots.
8. acquired platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by various conditions such as infections, medications, and autoimmune disorders.

These disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests, including a complete blood count (CBC) and a platelet function test. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

Premature rupture of fetal membranes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for PROM include:

1. Expectant management: In this approach, the woman is monitored closely without immediately inducing labor. This option is usually chosen if the baby is not yet ready to be born and the mother has no signs of infection or preterm labor.
2. Induction of labor: If the baby is mature enough to be born, labor may be induced to avoid the risks associated with preterm birth.
3. Cesarean delivery: In some cases, a cesarean section may be performed if the woman has signs of infection or if the baby is in distress.
4. Antibiotics: If the PROM is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be given to treat the infection and prevent complications.
5. Steroids: If the baby is less than 24 hours old, steroids may be given to help mature the lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Prevention of premature rupture of fetal membranes includes good prenatal care, avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the abdomen, and avoiding infections such as group B strep. Early detection and management of PROM are crucial to prevent complications for the baby.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The disease is characterized by the presence of hyaline membranes in the distal air spaces of the lungs, which are composed of extracellular material, including surfactant proteins, lipids, and other substances. These membranes impair the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air in the lungs, leading to respiratory failure.

The symptoms of HMD can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Respiratory distress
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Cyanosis (blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen)
* Poor feeding
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)

HMD is usually diagnosed based on clinical findings and chest X-rays. Treatment typically involves providing supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant replacement therapy to help restore normal lung function. In severe cases, HMD can lead to respiratory failure and death if left untreated.

Prevention of HMD includes:

* Proper management of maternal health during pregnancy
* Avoiding smoking and other harmful substances during pregnancy
* Ensuring proper prenatal care and regular check-ups
* Delivering the baby in a medical facility equipped to handle high-risk deliveries

Early recognition and treatment of HMD are critical to preventing complications and improving outcomes for affected newborns.

Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:

1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

... , Glycoproteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Fibronectin Laminin Osteonectin Glycocalyx Media related to Membrane glycoproteins at Wikimedia Commons Membrane+glycoproteins ... Membrane glycoproteins are membrane proteins which play important roles in cell recognition. Examples include: ...
... platelet membrane glycoproteins interact with the extracellular matrix. Membrane glycoproteins GPIa/IIa, GPVI and probably GPIV ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins Platelet+membrane+glycoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins found on platelets (thrombocytes) which play a key role in hemostasis ... The deficiency in glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex synthesis leads to Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Glycoprotein VI is one of the ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact ... Fukuda Minoru (November 1991). "Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. Structure, biosynthesis, and intracellular trafficking". J. ... Holness CL, da Silva RP, Fawcett J, Gordon S, Simmons DL (1993). "Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a ... CD69 (also called gp110 or macrosialin) is a heavily glycosylated integral membrane protein whose structure consists of a mucin ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ... Lewis V, Green SA, Marsh M, Vihko P, Helenius A, Mellman I (Jun 1985). "Glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane". The Journal ... Ogata S, Fukuda M (Feb 1994). "Lysosomal targeting of Limp II membrane glycoprotein requires a novel Leu-Ile motif at a ... Akasaki K, Michihara A, Fukuzawa M, Kinoshita H, Tsuji H (Sep 1994). "Cycling of an 85-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein ...
Buxbaum, Engelbert (2003). "Cationic electrophoresis and electrotransfer of membrane glycoproteins". Analytical Biochemistry. ... For separation of membrane proteins, BAC-PAGE or CTAB-PAGE may be used as an alternative to SDS-PAGE. For electrophoretic ... Membrane proteins, because of their transmembrane domain, are often composed of the more hydrophobic amino acids, have lower ... Glycoproteins have differential levels of glycosylations and adsorb SDS more unevenly at the glycosylations, resulting in ...
Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 is a glycoprotein from a family of Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. The LAMP ... Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster ... and membrane insertion of the 120-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp120): identification of a highly conserved family of ... Although the LAMP1 glycoproteins primarily reside across lysosomal membranes, in certain cases they can be expressed across the ...
2002). "Cationic electrophoresis and electrotransfer of membrane glycoproteins". Analytical Biochemistry. 314 (1): 70-76. doi: ... The oxidized protein is then treated with a complex mixture, generating a new conjugate on the membrane. The membrane is then ... 2009) Eastern blot has been used to describe a blot of proteins on nitrocellulose membrane where the probe is an aptamer rather ... 2005) Eastern blot has been used to describe a blot of proteins on polyvinylidene fluoride membrane where the probe is an ...
CR1 beta membrane glycoprotein modulates the host immune response. Membrane glycoprotein E3 gp19K inhibits the insertion of ... "PHA3620: CR1 beta membrane glycoprotein". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. "PHA3615: E3 gp19K protein". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17 ... Membrane protein E3 RID-alpha and membrane protein E3 RID-beta performs a variety of molecular functions that contribute to ... class I MHC proteins in the host-cell membrane, thereby preventing T-cell lymphocytes from recognizing that the host cell has ...
The S2 region of spike glycoprotein is responsible for membrane fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell, enabling ... The location of membrane fusion-at the plasma membrane or in endosomes-may vary based on the availability of these triggers for ... Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro (3 April 2015). "Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions". ... In addition to fusion of viral and host cell membranes, some coronavirus spike proteins can initiate membrane fusion between ...
Proteins are also used in membranes, such as glycoproteins. When broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3, Lamp3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP3 gene. It is one ... Zhou Z, Xue Q, Wan Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Hung T (2011). "Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 is involved in influenza A ... LAMP3 also known as DC-LAMP (Dendritic cell lysosomal associated membrane glycoprotein) is a member of the LAMP family along ... 1998). "A novel lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein, DC-LAMP, induced upon DC maturation, is transiently expressed in MHC ...
Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro (3 April 2015). "Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions". ... Its membrane topology orients the C-terminus toward the cytosolic face of the membrane and thus into the interior of the virion ... The membrane (M) protein (previously called E1, sometimes also matrix protein) is an integral membrane protein that is the most ... "Studies on membrane topology, N-glycosylation and functionality of SARS-CoV membrane protein". Virology Journal. 6 (1): 79. doi ...
Influenza virus membranes contain two glycoproteins: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. While the hemagglutinin on the surface of ... Sialic acids are found on various glycoproteins at the host cell surface. The virus then moves from sialic acid group to sialic ... After the virus has entered the cell and has replicated, new viral particles bud from the host cell membrane. The hemagglutinin ... Neuraminidases cleave the terminal sialic acid residues from carbohydrate chains in glycoproteins. Sialic acid is a negatively ...
They also bind to cell membranes through integrins and other plasma membrane molecules, such as the dystroglycan glycoprotein ... a glycoprotein from basement membranes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (19): 9933-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)83607 ... macro-plaques or mini-basement membranes in human term fetal membranes?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... Basement membrane assembly is a cooperative process in which laminins polymerise through their N-terminal domain (LN or domain ...
HA is a homotrimeric integral membrane glycoprotein. It is shaped like a cylinder, and is approximately 13.5 nanometres long. ... The host cell membrane then engulfs the virus, a process known as endocytosis, and pinches off to form a new membrane-bound ... Wilson IA, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC (January 1981). "Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A ... The C-terminus of HA2, also known as the transmembrane domain, spans the viral membrane and anchors protein to the membrane. ...
GCPII is a class II membrane glycoprotein. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) to glutamate and N- ... It was found that PSMA was the same as the membrane protein in the small intestine responsible for removal of gamma-linked ... The FOLH1 gene has multiple potential start sites and splice forms, giving rise to differences in membrane protein structure, ... GCPII is a zinc metalloenzyme that resides in membranes. Most of the enzyme resides in the extracellular space. ...
Secretory proteins, mostly glycoproteins, are moved across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Proteins that are transported by ... Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. Rab proteins are key ... The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum is not found in red blood ... The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double-membrane sheets that are located near, and continuous with, ...
... which also house lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. LAMP1 and LAMP2 make up about 50% of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. (See ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with ... Mattei MG, Matterson J, Chen JW, Williams MA, Fukuda M (May 1990). "Two human lysosomal membrane glycoproteins, h-lamp-1 and h- ... "LAMP2 - Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - LAMP2 gene & protein". ...
... a cell membrane efflux pump commonly found in multidrug resistant cells; instead, they overexpress a 95kD membrane glycoprotein ... Ross DD, Gao Y, Yang W, Leszyk J, Shively J, Doyle LA (December 1997). "The 95-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein overexpressed ... gene overexpression in atypical multidrug-resistant cells associated with expression of a 95-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein ... Drug-resistant MCF-AdrVp cells do not overexpress P-glycoprotein, ...
Pancreatic secretory granule membrane major glycoprotein GP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GP2 gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: GP2 glycoprotein 2 (zymogen granule membrane)". Jacob M, Lainé J, LeBel D (1993). "Specific interactions of ... Fukuoka S, Freedman SD, Scheele GA (1991). "A single gene encodes membrane-bound and free forms of GP-2, the major glycoprotein ... Carbohydrate structure of GP-2, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein of zymogen granule membranes". J. Biol. ...
"Entrez Gene: POM121 POM121 membrane glycoprotein (homo sapiens)". Kihlmark M, Imreh G, Hallberg E (October 2001). "Sequential ... Hallberg E, Wozniak RW, Blobel G (Aug 1993). "An integral membrane protein of the pore membrane domain of the nuclear envelope ... Nuclear envelope pore membrane protein POM 121 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POM121 gene. Alternatively spliced ... The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein that localizes to the central spoke ring complex and ...
... is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein. It acts as a receptor and binds to both soluble and immobilized hyaluronan. ... February 1999). "LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan". The Journal of ... February 1999). "LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan". The Journal of ... 2007). "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane ...
Platelet glycoprotein IX (GP9) is a small membrane glycoprotein found on the surface of human platelets. It forms a 1-to-1 ... 1987). "Glycoprotein Ib and glycoprotein IX are fully complexed in the intact platelet membrane". Blood. 69 (5): 1524-7. doi: ... "Alpha-granule membrane mirrors the platelet plasma membrane and contains the glycoproteins Ib, IX, and V". Blood. 87 (4): 1385- ... "Interaction of platelet glycoprotein V with glycoprotein Ib-IX regulates expression of the glycoproteins and binding of von ...
Cardiomyocytes are linked to the basement membrane via specialised glycoproteins called integrins. Humans are born with a set ... This is the direct result of a membrane which allows sodium ions to slowly enter the cell until the threshold is reached for ... They are continuous with the cell membrane, are composed of the same phospholipid bilayer, and are open at the cell surface to ... Cardiomyocytes contain T-tubules, pouches of cell membrane that run from the cell surface to the cell's interior which help to ...
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein and a membrane protein interact. Additionally, in unicellular organisms such as bacteria, ... A membrane ligand (protein, oligosaccharide, lipid) and a membrane protein of two adjacent cells interact. A communicating ... In this type of signaling, a cell places a specific ligand on the surface of its membrane, and subsequently another cell can ... The extracellular matrix is composed of glycoproteins (proteins and mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycan)) produced by the ...
This gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell membrane glycoprotein. In addition to being highly expressed in ... The proteins translated from the gene, is then glycosylated in the ER, and transported to the cell membrane where it is ...
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein and a membrane protein interact. Additionally, in unicellular organisms such as bacteria, ... In exocytosis, membrane-bound secretory vesicles are carried to the cell membrane, where they dock and fuse at porosomes and ... There are three types: A membrane ligand (protein, oligosaccharide, lipid) and a membrane protein of two adjacent cells ... Scaffold protein Biosemiotics Molecular cellular cognition Crosstalk (biology) Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Membrane ...
... belongs to a new class of viral membrane fusion glycoproteins, class III. The herpesvirus glycoprotein B is the most highly ... Herpesvirus glycoprotein B is a viral glycoprotein that is involved in the viral cell entry of Herpes simplex virus (HSV). ... It can be noted that all herpesviruses have glycoproteins gB, gH, and gL. The herpesvirus glycoprotein B is a type-1 ... "Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B associates with target membranes via its fusion loops". J. Virol. 83 (13): 6825-36. doi: ...
Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell-cell interactions. It is ... Glycoprotein-41 (gp41) and glycoprotein-120 (gp120) are HIV viral coat proteins. Soluble glycoproteins often show a high ... The two most common linkages in glycoproteins are N-linked and O-linked glycoproteins. An N-linked glycoprotein has glycan ... P-glycoproteins are critical for antitumor research due to its ability block the effects of antitumor drugs. P-glycoprotein, or ...
Many membrane proteins are glycoproteins and can be purified by lectin affinity chromatography. Detergent-solubilized proteins ... Purification of integral membrane proteins requires disruption of the cell membrane in order to isolate any one particular ... A detergent such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can be used to dissolve cell membranes and keep membrane proteins in solution ... Ultrafiltration concentrates a protein solution using selective permeable membranes. The function of the membrane is to let the ...
In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... "SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Based on the Spike Glycoprotein and Implications of New Viral Variants". Frontiers in Immunology. 12: ...
The membrane consists of a single lipid bilayer surrounded by an S-layer. The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein ... These proteins form a lattice in the membrane. Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving ... H. salinarum express the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin, which acts as a light-driven proton pump. It consists of two parts ... Oesterhelt, D; Stoeckenius, W (1973). "Functions of a new photoreceptor membrane". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber ... membranes and to the linking of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Components of the DGC include dystrophin ( ... "Entrez Gene: SGCA sarcoglycan, alpha (50kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)". Bowe MA, Mendis DB, Fallon JR (Feb 2000). " ... "Primary structure and muscle-specific expression of the 50-kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (adhalin)". The Journal of ...
MAG is localized on the inner membrane of the myelin sheath and interacts with axonal membrane proteins to attach the myelin ... Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG, Siglec-4) is a type 1 transmembrane protein glycoprotein localized in periaxonal Schwann ... Myelin Myelinogenesis NgR Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy Myelin-associated+glycoprotein at ... MAG is a 100 kDA glycoprotein. Uncleaved MAG is a complete transmembrane form, which acts as a signaling and adhesion molecule ...
They showed that human beta interferon was an unusually hydrophobic glycoprotein. This explained the large loss of interferon ... such as membrane bound toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I or MDA5, can trigger release of IFNs. Toll Like ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... with a system that involved the inhibition of the growth of live influenza virus in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes by ...
Membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol transfer protein 2), SBNO1 (strawberry notch homolog 1), ZEB2 (Zinc finger E-box- ... also known as hexabrachion-like protein is a glycoprotein that is expressed in connective tissues including skin, joints and ...
Synovial membrane is divided into two compartments - the outer layer (subintima) and the inner layer (intima). The inner layer ... These cells represent the main source of hyaluronic acid and also other glycoproteins, major components of the synovial fluid. ... The inner lining of the joint consists of the synovium (also called the synovial membrane), a thin layer located between the ... During the progression of this disease the synovial membrane becomes a place where constant inflammatory processes take place, ...
... found on the cell membrane of mycoplasma. It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core ... and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus and glycoprotein B from cytomegalovirus. Several fungal ligands such as ...
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) has been extensively studied as a substrate for TPST and the importance of sulfation ... Its importance can be further demonstrated by the fact as much as 1% of all secreted and membrane tyrosine residues are found ... catalytic region that is located on the luminal side of the membrane. It is localized to the Golgi apparatus, specifically in ... the trans-Golgi region, and acts almost exclusively on secretory and plasma membrane proteins. TPST is about 50-54 kD in size, ...
The active site of OST is located about 4 nm from the lumenal face of the ER membrane. It usually acts during translation as ... Pless DD, Lennarz WJ; Lennarz (January 1977). "Enzymatic conversion of proteins to glycoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... Yeast OST is composed of eight different membrane-spanning proteins in three subcomplexes (one of them is OST4). These octomers ... OST is a component of the translocon in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is ...
... s function as a membrane anchor for the formation of the oligosaccharide Glc3-Man9-GlcNAc2 (where Glc is glucose, Man ... carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins to form a large glycoprotein ...
The structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 include membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N), and ... S2 mediates the membrane fusion of the virus to its potential cell host via the H1 and HR2, which are heptad repeat regions. ... The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, but can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, ... The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" to connect to the ACE2 receptor and enter the host cell. ...
The mechanism of how Galectin-9 activates AMPK involves recognition of exposed lysosomal lumenal glycoproteins such as LAMP1, ... functions and controls AMPK in response to lysosomal damage that can occur upon exposure to endogenous and exogenous membrane ...
It is a type I membrane protein. The protein may play a role in the adhesion of activated T and NK cells to their target cells ... CD96 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and is expressed by all resting ... It is a type I membrane protein. The protein may play a role in the adhesive interactions of activated T and NK cells during ...
Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of a distinct alpha chain and a common beta chain. They ... Charakida M, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P (2003). "The impact of platelet glycoprotein IIIa and Ia polymorphisms in ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... Tsantes AE, Nikolopoulos GK, Bagos PG, Vaiopoulos G, Travlou A (2007). "Lack of association between the platelet glycoprotein ...
Glycoprotein complexes embedded within the viral envelope of these viruses attach to receptors within the host cell's membrane ... Herpes glycoproteins modify the nucleus, allowing the budding of the newly formed virus through the inner lamella of the ... possible that this is because the glycoproteins embedded within the viral envelope attach to and are selective to the membrane ... Whether the virus enters specifically through endocytosis or membrane fusion is still not known in all cases; it is believed to ...
"Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein. Origin of ...
Biomimetic interfaces comprised of S-layer proteins, lipid membranes and membrane proteins. J. R. Soc. Interface 11 (2014) ... Together with his Karin Thorne, he was able to prove that S-layers can also consist of glycoproteins, which was the first ... These results were also the basis for the production of large S-layer ultrafiltration membranes with strictly defined ... and lipid membranes including liposomes and emulsomes in the form of regular lattices. Due to their unique repetitive ...
This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 ... Lozahic S, Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (March 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor ... is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates ... Membrane protein stubs, Blood antigen systems, Transfusion medicine). ...
TLRs are integral membrane glycoproteins with typical semicircular-shaped extracellular parts containing leucine-rich repeats ... with gamma interferon increase production of interleukin-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide through up-regulation of membrane ...
... may refer to: Membrane Inhibitor of Reactive Lysis, CD59, a cell surface glycoprotein that inhibits complement-mediated ...
Membrane glucocorticoid receptor Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (SEGRA) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113580 ... TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and glucocorticoid receptor to induce alpha1-acid glycoprotein gene ... The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the ...
It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious ... vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing the Lassa virus glycoprotein. ...
Based on their localization, PRRs may be divided into membrane-bound PRRs and cytoplasmic PRRs: Membrane-bound PRRs include ... one of the commonest outer residues of asialo-glycoprotein) specific receptors and even many of this family members can also ... Membrane receptor CLRs have been divided into 17 groups based on structure and phylogenetic origin. Generally there is a large ... C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 form the membrane attack complex (MAC). This is another large superfamily of CLRs that includes the ...
... membrane glycoprotein - membrane protein - membrane topology - membrane transport - memory B cell - memory T cell - Mendelian ... plasma membrane - plasmid - plasmin - plasminogen - platelet glycoprotein GPIb-IX complex - platelet membrane glycoprotein - ... cell membrane - cell membrane transport - cell nucleus - cell surface receptor - cellular respiration - cellulose - centriole ... bacterial outer membrane protein - bacterial protein - bacteriorhodopsin - base (chemistry) - base pair - base sequence - basic ...
... which is composed of oligosaccharides attached to membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids. Seven different cell types are ... The complex, which is embedded in the cell membranes of the two joined cells, forms a gap or channel in the middle of the six ... It is regulated by cellular junctions that are localized in the laminal membranes of the cells. This is the main route of ... These glycoproteins, glycolipids, and enzymes catalyze the final digestive stages of luminal carbohydrates and proteins. The ...
Glycoproteins on the surface of the envelope serve to identify and bind to receptor sites on the host's membrane. The ... When these changes are set/finished, there is then and only then, fusion with the host membrane. These glycoproteins mediate ... There are three main types of viral glycoproteins: Envelope proteins, membrane proteins, and spike proteins (E, M, and S). The ... Enveloped viruses enter cells by joining a cellular membrane to their lipid bilayer membrane. Priming by proteolytic processing ...
Hantavirus virions are believed to assemble by association of nucleocapsids with glycoproteins embedded in the membranes of the ... Gc-mediated membrane fusion with the endosomal membrane, triggered by low pH, releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. ... encodes a glycoprotein precursor polyprotein that is co-translationally cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc, ... These glycoproteins, known as Gn and Gc, are encoded by the M segment of the viral genome. They tend to associate ( ...
... defining a family of complexes involved in multiple steps of membrane traffic". Dev. Cell. 1 (4): 527-37. doi:10.1016/S1534- ... complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and glycoprotein ...
The acid forms a pore in the cell membrane through which RNA is injected. Once inside the cell, the RNA uncoats and the (+) ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155, which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... After this time, the cell plasma membrane becomes permeable; at 4-6 hours, the virus particles assemble, and can sometimes be ...
Udeinya, Iroka J. & Van Dyke, K. (‎1980)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoproteins of cultivated Plasmodium falciparum*. Bulletin ...
... both secreted and plasma membrane proteins are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum, then transported, via the Golgi ... Sequence and topology of a model intracellular membrane protein, E1 glycoprotein, from a coronavirus Nature. 1984 Apr;308(5961 ... We have therefore used the E1 glycoprotein from coronavirus MHV-A59 as a viral model for this class of protein. Here we present ... In combination with a previous study of its assembly into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the sequence reveals several ...
GlycoproteinsMembrane GlycoproteinsLysosome-Associated Membrane GlycoproteinsPlatelet Membrane GlycoproteinsFucoseMembrane ... GlycoproteinsMembrane GlycoproteinsLysosome-Associated Membrane GlycoproteinsPlatelet Membrane GlycoproteinsCell Membrane ... Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins. Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.. ... Cell MembraneIntracellular MembranesMembranesCell LineErythrocyte MembraneBlood PlateletsGolgi ApparatusLysosomesEndoplasmic ...
Most cell surface membrane proteins are anchored by a membrane-spanning segment(s) of the polypeptide chain, but another type ... This type of linkage has been identified on membrane proteins involved in adhesion and transmembrane signalling and could be ... We report here that an immunologically important adhesion glycoprotein, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), can ... be anchored to the membrane by both types of mechanism. These two distinct cell-surface forms of LFA-3 are derived from ...
M, membrane glycoprotein; N, nucleocapsid; ORF, open reading frame; S, spike.. Main Article ...
Other tissues are nonreactive with the exception of capillary endothelia and basement membrane in some sites. In addition, the ... all react with the same glycoprotein species, although the epitopes involved may be distinct. The epitope recognized by BI.3C5 ... and ICH3 identify a monomeric cell surface glycoprotein (HPCA-1) of 100-120 kD, which is selectively expressed on human ... Distribution and epitope analysis of the cell membrane glycoprotein (HPCA-1) associated with human hemopoietic progenitor cells ...
Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. In: Blood. 1985 ; Vol ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. / Newman, P. J.; ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. Blood. 1985;65(1):227 ... Newman, P. J., Allen, R. W., Kahn, R. A., & Kunicki, T. J. (1985). Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human ...
Labelling of membrane glycoproteins of cultivated Plasmodium falciparum*  Udeinya, Iroka J.; Van Dyke, K. (‎1980)‎ ...
Membrane Glycoproteins. 1. 2017. 3816. 0.070. Why? Immunoglobulin G. 1. 2017. 4490. 0.070. Why? ...
Membrane Glycoproteins. Chagani S, Kyryachenko S, Yamamoto Y, Kato S, Ganguli-Indra G, Indra AK. 2016. In Vivo Role of Vitamin ...
Glycoprotein p, breast cancer resistance proteins, and multidrug resistance proteins) and metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450 ... but bidirectional effects may be expected with concomitant administered agents via affected membrane transporters ( ... Membrane transporters ABC super family (glycoprotein P; P-gp, Breast cancer-resistance protein; BCRP, and multidrug resistance ... but bidirectional effects may be expected with concomitant administered agents via affected membrane transporters (Glycoprotein ...
platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. *Tests of ... integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/IIIa complex, antigen CD41) ...
Env) glycoprotein, to specific sites on the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanisms behind Gag and Env targeting and assembly ... membrane. We propose that host exocytic processes are intimately involved with promoting Gag and Env targeting and assembly at ... exocyst complex will lead to loss of assembled Gag at the plasma membrane. and therefore prevent viral assembly and budding. As ... of the exocytic (and recycling) trafficking machinery at the plasma membrane are. the exocytic SNARE proteins, and their ...
Categories: Membrane Glycoproteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Putative membrane glycoprotein (Van Damme and Van Loock, 2014). UL6. Y. Putative membrane glycoprotein (Van Damme and Van Loock ... Putative membrane glycoprotein (Van Damme and Van Loock, 2014). RL11. Y. Membrane glycoprotein. Binds IgG Fc domain involved in ... Membrane glycoprotein. Modulates T cell signalling/function (Gabaev et al., 2014; Arcangeletti et al., 2015). ... Membrane glycoprotein. Modulates chemo- and/or cytokine-signalling function (Pérez-Carmona et al., 2018). ...
Specialized tests to identify antibodies that react specifically against platelet membrane glycoproteins are not clinically ... Normal closure times range from 77 to 133 seconds for the Col/ADP membrane and 98 to 185 seconds for the Col/Epi membrane. The ... The PFA-100 uses a disposable test cartridge that contains a membrane impregnated with collagen plus ADP (Col/ADP membrane) or ... via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. This initial interaction (platelet adhesion) sets the stage for other adhesive ...
Membrane glycoprotein CD36: a review of its roles in adherence, signal transduction, and transfusion medicine. Blood. 80:1105- ... Both PS and PE are externally translocated to the outer leaflet of plasma membrane during apoptosis (40, 41). A bridging ... KIM-1 ectodomain bound specifically to PS and to a lesser extent PE but not other membrane phospholipids, PC, or PA (Figure 6E ... Western blot analysis. Cells were lysed and lysates were prepared as previously described (53). Membranes were incubated with ...
Two outwardly projecting glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are inserted in the lipid membrane surrounding the nucleocapsid. E2 appears ... A lipid membrane encapsulates the icosahedral nucleocapsid. ...
The RNP-M complex migrates to an area of the plasma membrane containing glycoprotein inserts, and the M-protein initiates ... The M-RNP complex binds with the glycoprotein, and the completed virus buds from the plasma membrane. Within the central ... The virions aggregate in the large endosomes (cytoplasmic vesicles). The viral membranes fuse to the endosomal membranes, ... The glycoprotein forms approximately 400 trimeric spikes which are tightly arranged on the surface of the virus. The M protein ...
... as a lysosomal integral membrane glycoprotein. J. Neurochem. 87, 1296-1308 (2003). ... Microvilli width was measured from the outer membrane to outer membrane, about halfway up on 10 microvilli throughout a single ... Next, PVDF membranes were incubated in protein-specific primary antibody in blocking buffer at 4 °C o/n. This was followed by 4 ... Next, RPE cells (after bead removal) were scraped off the underlying membrane and collected in 1X TBS buffer and protein was ...
Two membrane glycoproteins of molecular weight 50,000 (E1) and 49,000 (E2), respectively, and a nucleocapsid of 32,000 daltons( ...
... they are the mayor glycoproteins on the membrane of lysosome granules. CD107a molecule is ubiquitously found as intracellular ... A minor fraction (,2%) of LAMP-1 is associated with the plasma membrane of most nucleated cells, presumably as a result of ... selective exchange of lysosomal and plasma membranes. Increased surface expression of LAMP-1 has been observed on transformed ... The CD107a antigen is the heavily glycosylated 110 kDa lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP-1. Together with LAMP-2, ...
... type I membrane glycoprotein also known as thrombomodulin, TM, THRM, THBD, and fetomodulin. ... Single chain, type I membrane glycoprotein, 75 kD Distribution Macrophages, monocytes, subset of myeloid dendritic cells, ... CD141 is a 75 kD, single chain, type I membrane glycoprotein also known as thrombomodulin, TM, THRM, THBD, and fetomodulin. ...
Hantavirus virions are believed to assemble by association of nucleocapsids with glycoproteins embedded in the membranes of the ... Gc-mediated membrane fusion with the endosomal membrane, triggered by low pH, releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm.[13] ... encodes a glycoprotein precursor polyprotein that is co-translationally cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc, ... Nascent virions are then transported in secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and released by exocytosis.[citation needed] ...
Structural characterisation of glycans, which are the sugar portions of glycoproteins that are found in cell membranes and in ... Glycoproteins (green) released from macrophages taken into endothelial cells by endocytosis.. The glycobiology research theme ... Sugar-binding receptors responsible for cell-cell communication and for sugar-directed trafficking of glycoproteins. These ... biotherapeutic recombinant glycoproteins, and basic metabolism impacting on glycosylation. ...
P-glycoprotein, a critical toxin pump in the body, has the ability to remove amyloid plaques from the brain. Researchers say ... Transport of Alzheimers associated amyloid-β catalyzed by P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a critical membrane ... He devoted hours of his own time to use a computer-generated model of P-glycoprotein that he and Wise created. The model allows ... A team of SMU biological scientists has confirmed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has the ability to remove a toxin from the brain ...
... cell surface membrane-acquires a lipoprotein envelop-consists of lipid derived from the host cell membrane and glycoproteins ...
HeLa membrane extract lysate validated for WB. Protein is isolated from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique ... Rat Alpha 1 Acid Glycoprotein / AGP ELISA Kit (ab157729) Primary Anti-ARRDC1 antibody (ab181758) ...
Membrane glycoprotein: Interacts with envelope E protein in the budding compartment of the host cell, which is located between ... Glycoproteins are more hydrophilic than simple proteins. This means glycoproteins are more attracted to water than ordinary ... Retention of import factors at the ER/Golgi membrane leads to a loss of STAT1 transport into the nucleus in response to ... Envelope Protein: The CoV envelope (E) protein is a small, integral membrane protein involved in several aspects of the virus ...
  • Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. (
  • A murine monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein (GP)IIIa was prepared by immunization with a GPIIb- and GPIIIa-enriched Triton X-114 extract of platelet membranes. (
  • Association of the platelet membrane glycoprotein I a C807T gene polymorphism with aspirin resistance. (
  • In the eukaryotic cell, both secreted and plasma membrane proteins are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum, then transported, via the Golgi complex, to the cell surface. (
  • Each of the compartments of this transport pathway carries out particular metabolic functions, and therefore presumably contains a distinct complement of membrane proteins. (
  • However, a major obstacle to the study of such mechanisms is that the isolation and detailed analysis of such internal membrane proteins pose formidable technical problems. (
  • These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. (
  • Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes . (
  • The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. (
  • Most cell surface membrane proteins are anchored by a membrane-spanning segment(s) of the polypeptide chain, but another type of anchor has been described for several proteins: a phosphatidyl inositol glycan moiety, attached to the protein C terminus. (
  • This type of linkage has been identified on membrane proteins involved in adhesion and transmembrane signalling and could be important in the execution of these functions. (
  • The rabies genome encodes five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L). All rhabdoviruses have two major structural components: a helical ribonucleoprotein core (RNP) and a surrounding envelope. (
  • Glycoproteins are more hydrophilic than simple proteins. (
  • This means glycoproteins are more attracted to water than ordinary proteins. (
  • View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins . (
  • The attachment glycoproteins of the paramyxoviruses are type II integral membrane proteins. (
  • There's three surface proteins: the small hydrophobic (SH), G, and the F glycoprotein. (
  • Sugar-binding receptors responsible for cell-cell communication and for sugar-directed trafficking of glycoproteins. (
  • In several cases where the attachment glycoprotein is of the HN type, it is sialic acid moieties which serve as receptors for virus entry. (
  • For paramyxoviruses possessing an H or G attachment glycoprotein the identity of host cell receptors are not known, except in the case of MeV where CD46 can serve as a functional receptor (Naniche et al. (
  • The CD107a antigen is the heavily glycosylated 110 kDa lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP-1. (
  • The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (
  • The manner in which a membrane protein is anchored to the lipid bilayer may have a profound influence on its function. (
  • A lipid membrane encapsulates the icosahedral nucleocapsid. (
  • Two outwardly projecting glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are inserted in the lipid membrane surrounding the nucleocapsid. (
  • Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells. (
  • Anchoring mechanisms for LFA-3 cell adhesion glycoprotein at membrane surface. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies My10, BI.3C5, 12.8, and ICH3 identify a monomeric cell surface glycoprotein (HPCA-1) of 100-120 kD, which is selectively expressed on human hemopoietic progenitor cells. (
  • The glycoprotein forms approximately 400 trimeric spikes which are tightly arranged on the surface of the virus. (
  • Rabies virions are bullet-shaped with 10-nm spike-like glycoprotein peplomers covering the surface. (
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily enters the cell by binding the virus's spike (S) glycoprotein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the cell surface, followed by proteolytic cleavage by host proteases. (
  • We have therefore used the E1 glycoprotein from coronavirus MHV-A59 as a viral model for this class of protein. (
  • The viral membranes fuse to the endosomal membranes, causing the release of viral RNP into the cytoplasm (uncoating). (
  • Within the central nervous system (CNS), there is preferential viral budding from plasma membranes. (
  • Fusion of the membrane of enveloped viruses with the plasma membrane of a receptive host cell is a prerequisite for viral entry and infection and an essential step in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses, such as paramyxoviruses. (
  • These viruses contain two principal membrane-anchored glycoproteins which appear as spikes projecting from the envelope membrane of the viral particle when imaged in the electron microscope. (
  • In a related process, cells expressing these viral glycoproteins at their surfaces can fuse with receptor-bearing cells, resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells (syncytia). (
  • It helps fuse the viral membrane to the host cell or target membrane, and that's how the viral genome gets into the cell to start the replication process. (
  • The three identical protomers grab the host cell, and then the two ends - the one end inserted into the host and the other end inserted into the viral membrane - come back together, they're pulled together, and that creates a fusion core that allows the virus replication process to start. (
  • In RSV, the F protein is anchored in the membrane, and it starts out in one conformation, like a spring-loaded trap. (
  • We report here that an immunologically important adhesion glycoprotein, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), can be anchored to the membrane by both types of mechanism. (
  • Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME. (
  • Together with LAMP-2, they are the mayor glycoproteins on the membrane of lysosome granules. (
  • In combination with a previous study of its assembly into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the sequence reveals several unusual features of the protein which may be related to its intracellular localization. (
  • Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes . (
  • Systems of particular interest include glycobiology of host/pathogen and host/commensal interactions, glycobiology of mammalian fertilization and reproduction, biotherapeutic recombinant glycoproteins, and basic metabolism impacting on glycosylation. (
  • Thus, data derived using AP-3 indicate that significant amounts of free GPIIIa are not present, thereby supporting the hypothesis that GPIIb and GPIIIa exist complexed in a 1:1 stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of intact, nonactivated platelets. (
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (
  • In addition, when platelets are activated, negatively charged phospholipids move from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer. (
  • A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. (
  • Glycoproteins (green) released from macrophages taken into endothelial cells by endocytosis. (
  • and spike glycoprotein or spike protein (red, tall spike). (
  • The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. (
  • Envelope Protein: The CoV envelope (E) protein is a small, integral membrane protein involved in several aspects of the virus' life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. (
  • NCAM-120 is GPI-linked, while NCAM-140 and NCAM-180 are type I transmembrane glycoproteins (4‑6). (
  • Although G protein synthesis is initiated on free ribosomes, completion of synthesis and glycosylation (processing of the glycoprotein), occurs in the endoplamsic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. (
  • The RNP-M complex migrates to an area of the plasma membrane containing glycoprotein inserts, and the M-protein initiates coiling. (
  • As it approaches the cell, the top of it unfolds, and it inserts itself into the target cell membrane. (
  • Structural characterisation of glycans, which are the sugar portions of glycoproteins that are found in cell membranes and in blood and other biological fluids. (
  • Predictive models of sequence specificity for 169 human proteases were constructed and applied to the S glycoprotein together with the method for predicting structural susceptibility to proteolysis of protein regions. (
  • Structural analysis suggests that cleavage of this site induces conformational changes similar to the cleavage at the R815 (S2') position, leading to the exposure of the fusion peptide and subsequent fusion with the membrane. (
  • Sequential immunoprecipitation and Western blotting studies demonstrate that BI.3C5, ICH3, My10, and an antibody directed against endothelial cells, 188.27, all react with the same glycoprotein species, although the epitopes involved may be distinct. (
  • Artificially produced membranes , such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES . (
  • A team of SMU biological scientists has confirmed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has the ability to remove a toxin from the brain that is associated with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Membrane fusion is a ubiquitous cell biological process. (
  • Fusion events which mediate cellular housekeeping functions, such as endocytosis, constitutive secretion, and recycling of membrane components, occur continuously in all eukaryotic cells. (
  • These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION. (
  • One glycoprotein is associated with virion attachment to the host cell and, depending on the particular paramyxovirus, has been designated as either the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN), the hemagglutinin protein (H), or the G protein which has neither hemagglutinating nor neuraminidase activities. (
  • 1993). The second glycoprotein is the fusion protein (F), a type I membrane glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion event between the virion and host cell during virus infection (reviewed in Lamb, 1993). (
  • The spike glycoprotein helps the virus latch onto and gain entry into the host cell, so that the virus can infect the cell. (
  • The M-RNP complex binds with the glycoprotein, and the completed virus buds from the plasma membrane. (
  • The instant invention is directed to providing polypeptides which are a heptad portion of a Henipavirus F protein effective against fusion between a membrane of a paramyxovirus and a plasma membrane of a cell. (
  • Conversely, virus in the salivary glands buds primarily from the cell membrane into the acinar lumen. (
  • This invention relates to peptides, compositions and methods involving these peptides for the inhibition of membrane fusion by paramyxoviruses and, in particular, membrane fusion mediated by Hendra virus and Nipah virus. (
  • Targeting F can neutralize the virus or prevent virus infection, and F is important because it is the protein that mediates membrane fusion. (
  • ORF6 protein (open reading fram 6): Binds to and disrupts nuclear import complex formation by tethering karyopherin alpha 2 and karyopherin beta 1 to the membrane. (
  • The sarcoglycan protein complex is located in the membrane surrounding muscle cells. (
  • Distribution and epitope analysis of the cell membrane glycoprotein (HPCA-1) associated with human hemopoietic progenitor cells. (
  • In this study, we conducted a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis to explore the capacity of human proteases in hydrolyzing peptide bonds of the S glycoprotein. (
  • They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium , sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes . (
  • For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. (
  • It belongs to a family of membrane-bound glycoproteins that are involved in Ca ++ independent cell matrix and homophilic or heterophilic cell-cell interactions. (
  • In the mid-1980s, the fusion glycoprotein (F) , which we'll call F protein, was isolated. (
  • Other tissues are nonreactive with the exception of capillary endothelia and basement membrane in some sites. (
  • After validating our approach on extensively studied S2' and S1/S2 cleavage sites, we applied our method to each peptide bond of the S glycoprotein across all 169 proteases. (
  • Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization). (