Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/25276)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (2/25276)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (3/25276)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/25276)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (5/25276)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (6/25276)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (7/25276)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1 and associated proteins in the differentiating cerebral cortex: induction of caspase-dependent cell death and activation of NF-kappaB. (8/25276)

The developing cerebral cortex undergoes a period of substantial cell death. The present studies examine the role of the suicide receptor Fas/Apo[apoptosis]-1 in cerebral cortical development. Fas mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in subsets of cells within the developing rat cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis. Fas-immunoreactive cells were localized in close proximity to Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cells. The Fas-associated signaling protein receptor interacting protein (RIP) was expressed by some Fas-expressing cells, whereas Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was undetectable in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas activation, was also expressed in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Fas expression was more ubiquitous in embryonic cortical neuroblasts in dissociated culture compared to in situ within the developing brain, suggesting that the environmental milieu partly suppresses Fas expression at this developmental stage. Furthermore, FADD, RIP, and FLIP were also expressed by subsets of dissociated cortical neuroblasts in culture. Fas activation by ligand (FasL) or anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-dependent cell death in primary embryonic cortical neuroblast cultures. The activation of Fas was also accompanied by a rapid downregulation of Fas receptor expression, non-cell cycle-related incorporation of nucleic acids and nuclear translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that adult cortical cell number may be established, in part, by an active process of receptor-mediated cell suicide, initiated in situ by killer (FasL-expressing) cells and that Fas may have functions in addition to suicide in the developing brain.  (+info)

Whether respiratory epithelial cells regulate the final transit of extravasated neutrophils into the inflamed airspace or are a passive barrier is poorly understood. Alveolar epithelial type 1 (AT1) cells, best known for solute transport and gas exchange, have few established immune roles. Epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2), a tetraspan protein that promotes recruitment of integrins to lipid rafts, is highly expressed in AT1 cells but has no known function in lung biology. Here, we show that Emp2-/- mice exhibit reduced neutrophil influx into the airspace after a wide range of inhaled exposures. During bacterial pneumonia, Emp2-/- mice had attenuated neutrophilic lung injury and improved survival. Bone marrow chimeras, intravital neutrophil labeling, and in vitro assays suggested that defective transepithelial migration of neutrophils into the alveolar lumen occurs in Emp2-/- lungs. Emp2-/- AT1 cells had dysregulated surface display of multiple adhesion molecules, associated with reduced raft ...
Shop Antigenic integral membrane glycoprotein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antigenic integral membrane glycoprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Podoplanin is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein with diverse tissue distribution, expressed at high levels in lung, placenta, and skeletal muscle. In humans, it is encoded by the PDPN gene. The exact function of podoplanin is unknown, but it is thought to be involved in cell migration, motility, and adhesion. Podoplanin is required for normal lung cell proliferation and alveolus formation at birth, and has been proposed as a marker for lung injury. Podoplanin is also known as lung type I cell membrane associated glycoprotein, glycoprotein 36 (GP36), GP38, GP40, T1-alpha, T1A, T1A-2, OTS8, AGGRUS, HT1A-1, and PA2.26.. ...
There are different subpopulations of Th17 cells that can express either a regulatory or inflammatory gene signature depending on their exposure to pathogens, cytokines, and other environmental factors such as sodium chloride. Podoplanin is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein proposed to regulate T cells in mouse models of Th17 inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that induction of podoplanin expression drives a more immunosuppressive regulatory T cell program with loss of IL-17 secretion in human CD4+ cells. Ligation of PDPN by its ligand CLEC-2 on CD4+ cells induced under Th17 conditions ameliorates the Th17 inflammatory response. Moreover, under proinflammatory, high NaCl conditions, PDPN expression is reduced via an Sgk1-mediated pathway. Finally, IL-17 secretion is restored with shRNA gene silencing of PDPN. Clinically, CD3+PDPN+ T cells are devoid of IL-17 in skin biopsies from patients with candidiasis, a Th17-driven skin disease. Thus, PDPN expression identifies a nonpathogenic Th17 ...
The history of cell culture dates back to 1907 when Ross Harrison discovered that neuronal cells could be cultured in vitro. Two types of cells used within cell culture include primary and established cell lines. Among established cells HEK 293 and 293T cells are among the most widely used in the technique of cell culture. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are often represented as primary cells, which have been isolated from tissues. Previous studies have characterized 293 and 293T cells as neuronal in origin although phenotypic analyses have not been reported. Similarly, studies dealing with the binding characteristics of HIV have revealed the expression of podoplanin, a typical LEC marker, by 293T cells. Additionally, our lab has observed the expression of podoplanin by 293 cells through flow cytometry analysis. These observations of podoplanin expression suggest that the phenotype of 293 and 293T cells needs to be further explored and that they might resemble LECs. This study outlines the ...
Complete information for EMP2 gene (Protein Coding), Epithelial Membrane Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
CD277 (known as BT3.1, BTN3A1, BTF5) is a 56 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein. It is one of the three (BT3.1, BT3.2, and BT3.3) BT3 subfamily members. BT3 belongs to butyrophilin (BT)/B7 family and Ig superfamily. BT3.1 is expressed by T cells, B cells, monocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, subset of stem cells, endothelial cells and some tumor cells. It has been proposed to regulate T cell activation through interaction with its counter-receptor (BT3.1-R ...
Shop P-selectin glycoprotein ligand ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Liang, W and Cohen, E P., Detection of thymus leukemia antigens on the surface membranes of murine leukemia cells resistant to thymus leukemia anti- bodies and guinea pig complement. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2311 ...
EMP-2 belongs to the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) family (together with EMP-1 and EMP-3), which are tetraspan transmembrane proteins.. It plays an important role in blastocyst implantation with the uterine endometrium. It plays a role in female reproductive cancers. ...
View our 16 BTN1A1/Butyrophilin products for your research including BTN1A1/Butyrophilin Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes, and cDNA Clones.
To determine the primary structure of CD13, a 150-kD cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on subsets of normal and malignant human myeloid cells, we isolated the complete sequences encoding the polypeptide in overlapping complementary DNA (cDNA) clones. The authenticity of our cDNA clones …
Human CellExp Osteoactivin / GPNMB, human recombinant protein, GPNMB, HGFIN, NMB, Osteoactivin validated in (PBV11132r-10), Abgent
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens butyrophilin, subfamily 3, member A3 (BTN3A3), transcript variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Hourani, B T.; Chace, N M.; and Pincus, J H., Isolation of membrane glycoproteins from l1210 cells with lectin receptor activities. Abstr. (1973). Subject Strain Bibliography 1973. 653 ...
package Organism; use strict; use warnings; use feature state; sub count { return scalar keys %{ shift-,{Cells} }; } # Input a list of [ x, y ] coords sub insert_cells { my $cells = shift-,{Cells}; for my $r (@_) { $cells-,{ pack ii, @{$r} } = undef } } # Return sorted list of cells in the Organism. # Used for verification and testing the state of the organism. sub get_live_cells { sort { $a-,[0] ,=, $b-,[0] ,, $a-,[1] ,=, $b-,[1] } map { [ unpack ii, $_ ] } keys %{ shift-,{Cells} }; } # Return the list of dead cells surrounding a cell sub get_dead_cells { my ( $cells, $x0, $y0 ) = ( shift-,{Cells}, @_ ); my ( $x1, $x2, $y1, $y2 ) = ( $x0 - 1, $x0 + 1, $y0 - 1, $y0 + 1 ); state ( $k1, $k2, $k3, $k4, $k5, $k6, $k7, $k8 ); ( ( $k1 = pack ii, $x1, $y1 ) x !( 0 + exists $cells-,{ $k1 } ), ( $k2 = pack ii, $x1, $y0 ) x !( 0 + exists $cells-,{ $k2 } ), ( $k3 = pack ii, $x1, $y2 ) x !( 0 + exists $cells-,{ $k3 } ), ( $k4 = pack ii, $x0, $y1 ) x !( 0 + exists $cells-,{ $k4 } ), ( $k5 = ...
write down a functional definition of a eukaryotic gene. please comprise all parts of a eukaryotic gene and what the, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Podoplanin (Pdpn) is a type 1 transmembrane mucin-type O-glycoprotein [1, 2]. It consists of 172 amino acids in mice and 163 amino acids in humans. It is expres...
Podoplanin / gp36兔多克隆抗体(ab10274)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
购买我们的重组人TREM1蛋白。Ab82984为蛋白片段,在大肠杆菌中生产并经过Western blot实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。中国80%以上现货。
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78. The newly synthesized, partially intrachain disulfide-bonded G proteins enter these complexes immediately after chain termination, and are released 1-4 min later as fully oxidized, trimerization-competent monomers. These monomers are properly folded, judging by their binding of conformation-specific mAbs. When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. In this case, contrary to normal folding, the aggregates become transiently disulfide cross-linked. We also demonstrated that the fidelity of the folding process is dependent on metabolic energy. Finally, we established that ...
The eye is a privileged site that cannot tolerate destructive inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cells entering the anterior chamber of the eye in response to viral infection underwent apoptosis that was dependent on Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand (FasL) and produced no tissue damage. In contrast, viral infection in gld mice, which lack functional FasL, resulted in an inflammation and invasion of ocular tissue without apoptosis. Fas-positive but not Fas-negative tumor cells were killed by apoptosis when placed within isolated anterior segments of the eyes of normal but not FasL-negative mice. FasL messenger RNA and protein were detectable in the eye. Thus, Fas-FasL interactions appear to be an important mechanism for the maintenance of immune privilege. ...
Anti-P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone KPL-1 from CHEMICON,Interactions between P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mediate the earliest rolling of leukocytes on the lumenal surface of endothelial cells at sites of inflammation. To date, the primary role of PSGL-1 in mediating the interaction between neutrophils and P-selectin has bee,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
Wael Haddad, Cristine J. Cooper, Zheng Zhang, Jeffrey B. Brown, Yuechun Zhu, Andrew Issekutz, Ivan Fuss, Hae-ock Lee, Geoffrey S. Kansas, Terrence A. Barrett ...
Mokkapati, Sharada (2007) Role of the Basement Membrane Proteins Nidogen-1 and -2 and Laminin-Nidogen Interaction in Physiology and Pathology of Skin. [Thesis Abstract]. ...
The 65-kDa protein (p65) was previously identified as a phosphorylated protein in activated macrophages, and has turned out to be a member of a plastin protein family characterized by a series of Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,-, calmodulin-, and β-actin-binding domains. In mice, two isoforms, p65/L-plastin and T-plastin, have so far been identified; p65/L-plastin is expressed in hemopoietic cells and cancer cells, and T-plastin in solid tissue cells. We generated monoclonal antibodies to p65/L-plastin, examined the isoform-specificity by using recombinant (r) T-plastin, and found that the antibodies were specific for rp65/L-plastin, whereas immune sera to rp65/L-plastin showed cross-reactions to rT-plastin. One of the antibodies, p65-7B5, was demonstrated to react to native p65/L-plastin by Western blot, flow cytometric, and immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, p65-7B5 has made it possible to detect p65/L-plastin-expressing cells in tissues where T-plastin is abundantly expressed. These reagents and ...
Modulation of FasL expression in HT29 and RHT29 cells lines.FasL expression was detected in HT29 and RHT29 cell lines treated or not with oxaliplatin 10 µM by
subject:1450510 title:Assignment of O-Glycan Attachment Sites to the Hinge-like Regions of Human Lysosomal Membrane Glycoproteins Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 author:Carlsson، نويسنده , , S.R. and Lycksell، نويسنده , , P.O. and Fukuda، نويسنده , , M.، نويسنده ,
Fratricide has been defined as firing on your own forces, when mistaking them for enemy forces, which results in injury or death. Rates of fratricide incidence
Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD68 antibody, clone Ki-M7|/strong| recognizes human CD68 an integral membrane glycoprotein of ~110 kDa also known as Macrosialin or Gp110. CD68 is predominantly expresse…
CALHM3 Peptides and Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our CALHM3 Peptides and Proteins all backed by our Guarantee+.
Berilyum, krom, germanyum, vanadyum, galliyum, hafniyum (selti- yum), indiyum, niobyum (kolombiyum), renyum ve talyum ve bu metallerden e ya (d k nt ve hurdalar dahil ...
The restricted host-cell range and low titer of retroviral vectors limit their use for stable gene transfer in eukaryotic cells. To overcome these limitations, we have produced murine leukemia virus-derived vectors in which the retroviral envelope glycoprotein has been completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Such vectors can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers , 10(9) colony-forming units/ml and can infect cells, such as hamster and fish cell lines, that are ordinarily resistant to infection with vectors containing the retroviral envelope protein. The ability to concentrate vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped vectors will facilitate gene therapy model studies and other gene transfer experiments that require direct delivery of vectors in vivo. The availability of these pseudotyped vectors will also facilitate genetic studies in nonmammalian species, including the important zebrafish developmental system, through the efficient ...
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal disorder. Currently treatment is symptomatic. Thus, there is a real need to intervene and slow the progression of this disease. Preliminary data on genetic knock-down of the ability to mount an immune response in cln3-knockout mice is supportive of a strategy for treating JNCL with an immuno-suppressive agent. Many drugs with the ability to suppress the immune system are steroidal and deemed unsuitable for long-term administration to children. Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) is used as an immunosuppressive agent in allogenic transplants in pediatric patients and is therefore approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pediatric use.. The study design is a double-blind, randomized, 22-week cross-over study of mycophenolate mofetil vs. placebo. After a 4-week washout period, subjects will undergo blinded crossover from active study drug to placebo or from placebo to active study drug.. Subjects and caregivers will be evaluated ...
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal disorder. Currently treatment is symptomatic. Thus, there is a real need to intervene and slow the progression of this disease. Preliminary data on genetic knock-down of the ability to mount an immune response in cln3-knockout mice is supportive of a strategy for treating JNCL with an immuno-suppressive agent. Many drugs with the ability to suppress the immune system are steroidal and deemed unsuitable for long-term administration to children. Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) is used as an immunosuppressive agent in allogenic transplants in pediatric patients and is therefore approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pediatric use.. The study design is a double-blind, randomized, 22-week cross-over study of mycophenolate mofetil vs. placebo. After a 4-week washout period, subjects will undergo blinded crossover from active study drug to placebo or from placebo to active study drug.. Subjects and caregivers will be evaluated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a tyrosine. AU - Thomas, DNette C.. AU - Brewer, Colleen B.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - To investigate the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein to its basolateral expression in polarized epithelial cells, chimeric proteins containing the external and transmembrane domains of an apically targeted protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and either the G cytoplasmic domain or an unrelated cytoplasmic sequence, were introduced into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Addition of the cytoplasmic tail of G to a truncated HA resulted in delivery of greater than 95% of the chimeric protein to the basolateral cell surface, indicating that the G cytoplasmic domain contains a dominant basolateral sorting signal. A similar chimera, containing the cytoplasmic tail of herpes ...
Clinical trial for Pleural Effusion , Use of the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 (TREM-1) in the Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion
NEW YORK, NY and CLEVELAND, OH--(Marketwired - March 02, 2016) - AB0-201 (AAV CLN3) demonstrates promising in vivo efficacy in preclinical models IND enabling toxicology to commence in 2016 Abeona Therapeutics,…
The report on the Global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market offers complete data on the T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market. Components, for example, main players, analysis, size, situation of the business, SWOT analysis, and best patterns in the market are included in the report. In addition to this, the report sports numbers, tables, and charts that offer a clear viewpoint of the T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market. The top contenders Amgen Inc, Celgene Corp, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, MacroGenics Inc, Meridigen Biotech Co Ltd, Numab Innovation AG, SYNIMMUNE GmbH, Tiziana Life Sciences Plc of the global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market are further covered in the report .. Access to the sample pages of the report at: http://www.extentresearch.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=20413. The report also segments the global T Cell Surface Glycoprotein CD3 Epsilon Chain market based on product mode and ...
The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of the biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) compared with clinical CRB and CRB-65 severity scores in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Samples and data were obtained from patients enrolled into the German CAPNETZ study group. Samples (blood, sputum and urine) were collected within 24 h of first presentation and inclusion in the CAPNETZ study, and CRB and CRB-65 scores were determined for all patients at the time of enrollment. The combined end point representative of a severe course of CAP was defined as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment and/or death within 30 days. Overall, a total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in the study. A severe course of CAP was observed in 105 (10.5%) patients. The highest IL-6, IL-10 and LBP concentrations were found in patients with CRB-65 scores of 3-4 or CRB scores of 2-3. IL-6 and LBP levels on enrollment in the
The cDNA sequence of mouse LAMP 2: evidence for two classes of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Blocking the Fas/FasL interaction in vivo rescues isotype-switched B cells in μMT mice. A neutralizing recombinant FasIg protein was purified and engineered in
A stable cell line expressing a complementary DNA clone encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fused and formed polykaryons at pH 5.5. The formation of polykaryons was dependent on the presence of glycoprotein anchored at the cell surface and could be prevented by incubation of cells with a monoclonal antibody to the glycoprotein. Fusion occurred at a pH 0.5 unit lower than that observed for cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. ...
Two murine lysosome-associated membrane proteins, LAMP-1 of 105,000-115,000 D and LAMP-2 of 100,000-110,000 D, have been identified by monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to lysosomal membranes. Both glycoproteins were distinguished as integral membrane components solubilized by detergent solutions but not by various chaotropic agents. The lysosome localization was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining, co-localization of the antigen to sites of acridine orange uptake, and immunoelectron microscopy. Antibody binding was predominantly located at the limiting lysosomal membrane, distinctly separated from colloidal gold-labeled alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulated in the lumen during prolonged incubation. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 also appeared to be present in low concentrations on Golgi trans-elements but were not detected in receptosomes marked by the presence of newly endocytosed alpha-2-macroglobulin, or in other cellular structures. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 were distinguished as ...
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing the 15 carboxy-terminal amino acids (497-511) of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed along the 15-residue peptide, whereas the m …
TY - JOUR. T1 - A knock-in reporter model of Batten disease. AU - Eliason, Steven L.. AU - Stein, Colleen S.. AU - Mao, Qinwen. AU - Tecedor, Luis. AU - Ding, Song Lin. AU - Gaines, D. Meredith. AU - Davidson, Beverly L.. PY - 2007/9/12. Y1 - 2007/9/12. N2 - Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disease resulting from mutations in CLN3 (ceroid- lipofuscinosis, neuronal 3, juvenile). CLN3 function, and where and when it is expressed during development, is not known. In this study, we generated a knock-in reporter mouse to elucidate CLN3 expression during embryogenesis and after birth and to correlate expression and behavior in a CLN3-deficient mouse. In embryonic brain, expression appeared in the cortical plate. In postnatal brain, expression was prominent in the cortex, subiculum, parasubiculum, granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and some brainstem nuclei. In adult brain, reporter gene expression waned in most areas but remained in vascular endothelia ...
Definition of Counter-attacks in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Counter-attacks? Meaning of Counter-attacks as a legal term. What does Counter-attacks mean in law?
In contrast to apoptosis induced by some anticancer drugs as well as other stimuli, such as UV irradiation, anti-CD3 stimulation, and mitogen treatment (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59), Tet induced T cell apoptosis through a mechanism independent of Fas/FasL interaction. This conclusion was supported by several observations. First, the expression of Fas/FasL mRNA was not enhanced by Tet treatment (our unpublished observations). Second, Tet did not increase Fas/FasL expression on the T cell surface (Fig. 5⇑). Third, both Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells showed comparable susceptibility to Tet-induced apoptosis (Fig. 6⇑). Lastly, Tet-induced activation of caspase-3 appeared to have similar kinetics and intensity in Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells (Fig. 8⇑). This observation suggests that Tet can activate the T cell death machinery without the participation of cell surface Fas/FasL molecules. Treatment with Tet might be useful in autoimmune disorders caused by mutations in Fas or FasL ...
Interferons (IFNs) are well described to be rapidly induced upon pathogen-associated pattern recognition. After binding to their respective IFN receptors and activation of the cellular JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascade, they stimulate the transcription of a plethora of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in infected as well as bystander cells such as the non-infected epithelium and cells of the immune system. ISGs may directly act on the invading pathogen or can either positively or negatively regulate the innate and adaptive immune response. However, IFNs and ISGs do not only play a key role in the limitation of pathogen spread but have also been recently found to provoke an unbalanced, overshooting inflammatory response causing tissue injury and hampering repair processes. A prominent regulator of disease outcome, especially in-but not limited to-respiratory viral infection, is the IFN-dependent mediator TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) produced by several
Preclinical data suggests both the delivery and the therapy are working, so far.. This is the first demonstration of a systemic delivery route to restore CLN3 in vivo, using the specially-engineered virus, concludes a study published by Dr. Kielian and her collaborators in a recent edition of The Journal of Neuroscience.. CLN3 is the gene that shows a mutation in juvenile Batten disease. Also known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, the disease is an inherited, autosomal recessive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder.. Juvenile Batten disease occurs in children, and is often first noticeable between ages 5 and 10. The first symptom is vision loss, followed by seizures, cognitive loss and motor decline. Finally, premature death. There are no therapeutics or cure.. Its a rare but devastating disease.. But Dr. Kielians research shows, in an animal model, that the virus is an effective delivery system. It spreads through the body, even crossing the blood-brain barrier, from a single ...
The apoptosis-inducing Fas ligand (FasL) is a type II transmembrane protein that is involved in the downregulation of immune reactions by activation-induced cell death (AICD) as well as in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proteolytic cleavage leads to the generation of membrane-bound N-terminal fragments and a soluble FasL (sFasL) ectodomain. sFasL can be detected in the serum of patients with dysregulated inflammatory diseases and is discussed to affect Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis. Using pharmacological approaches in 293T cells, in vitro cleavage assays as well as loss and gain of function studies in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we demonstrate that the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM10 is critically involved in the shedding of FasL. In primary human T cells, FasL shedding is significantly reduced after inhibition of ADAM10. The resulting elevated FasL surface expression is associated with increased killing capacity and an increase of T cells undergoing AICD. Overall, our findings ...
In this study we examined the potential role of the FasL pathway in tumor regression by Ag-specific CD8+ CTL in vivo, which remains largely uncharacterized. One approach to understanding the mechanisms of antitumor activity is through adoptive transfer, which involves the passive administration of effector cells or established T cell lines or clones from immunized hosts to naive, tumor-bearing recipients. Furthermore, through an understanding of the nature of the antitumor immune mechanisms, adoptive transfer experiments may have implications for administration of the most appropriate functional subsets of ex vivo-expanded effector cells in anticancer therapies. Indeed, in recent clinical studies of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma, the adoptive transfer of autologous cultured tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes mediated efficient tumor regression in several patients (26), suggesting that adoptive immunotherapy is still very much a viable and relevant anticancer strategy.. Although CD8+ CTL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New trends in the study of podoplanin as a cell morphological regulator. AU - Sawa, Yoshihiko. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - Podoplanin is a mucin-type glycoprotein firstly identified in podocytes, which is homologous to the type I alveolar cell specific T1α-2 antigen and to the oncofetal antigen M2A recognized by the D2-40 antibody. Podoplanin possesses a platelet aggregation-stimulating domain causes the platelet aggregation on cancer cells by the binding activity to CLEC-2. Podoplanin also contributes to the formation of membrane-actin structures. The increased podoplanin expression is found in squamous cell carcinomas at the invasive edge. It has been reported that the podoplanin induces an actin cytoskeleton rearrangement dependent on the RhoA GTPase activation to phosphorylate ezrin and facilitates an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which induces the single cell migration of cancer cells. However, ...
Juvenile Batten disease was named after Frederick Batten, MA, MD, FRCP, when he reported on two sisters with the disease in 1903. 1, 2 As various forms of Batten were discovered, each was named according to its age of onset (Classic forms of Batten). This was very simple when there were only four known forms [infantile, late infantile, juvenile and adult]. However, several variant late forms were discovered complicating the matter. It wasnt until the first genes associated with Batten disease were discovered that researchers learned that different mistakes in the same gene can result the same disease with various ages of onset. 4, 6 In other words, mistakes in the CLN1 gene can cause disease beginning in the infantile, late infantile, juvenile or adult periods (CLN Gene Defects).. Juvenile Batten disease, the focus of Beyond Batten Disease Foundation, is also called CLN3 disease. Children with CLN3 disease almost always develop symptoms in the juvenile period.5. ...
F. Carrouel, M. J Staquet, J. F Keller, C. Baudouin, P. Msika, F. Bleicher, B. Alliot-Licht, and J. C Farges (2013) J Endod, 39(8):1008-14.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] was discovered approximately 25 years ago. Since then, substantial progress has been made towards our understanding of its function in health and disease. Furthermore, the discovery of a large protein family sharing functional and structural attributes has helped in our knowledge. Still, key questions are unresolved, and here an overview on the old and new findings on LBP is given. LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. While LBP is named after the ability to bind to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, it also can recognize other bacterial compounds, such as lipopeptides. It has been shown that LBP is needed to combat infections; however, the main mechanism of action is still not clear. New findings on natural genetic variations of LBP leading to functional consequences may help in further elucidating the mechanism of LBP and its role in innate immunity and disease. ...
Buy Anti-CD162 / P selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 / PSGL-1, clone PSGL1/1601, item number: NSJ-V3226SAF-100UG from NSJ Bioreagents at Biomol!
Human Perforin ELISA Set is intended for use in a do it yourself solid phase sandwich ELISA for the in vitro qualitative and quantitative determination of Human Perforin in supernatants, buffered solutions, serum, plasma samples.
Fas Ligand antibody [MFL4] (Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6)) for FACS. Anti-Fas Ligand mAb (GTX42337) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Es wird angenommen, dass an der Ätiologie der Multiplen Sklerose (MS) Umweltfaktoren beteiligt sind, die die Selbst-Toleranz gegen Auto-Antigene innerhalb des Myelins unterbrechen. Die Identität und Wirkungsweise dieser Umweltfaktoren sind aber unbekannt. Das Myelin-Oligodendrozyten-Protein (MOG) ist ein mögliches, wichtiges Auto-Antigen in der MS. Diese Arbeit zeigt, dass die Epitopspezifität von Auto-Antikörpern gegen MOG heterogen ist. Weiter wird gezeigt, dass MOG eine umfassende, immunologische Kreuzreaktivität mit dem bovinen Milch-Protein Butyrophilin (BTN) aufweist, einem ubiquitären, diätetischen Antigen. In einer Untergruppe von MS-Patienten ist diese kreuzreaktive Antikörper-Antwort signifikant erhöht und selektiv im zentralen Nervensystem (ZNS) sequestriert. Dieses Ergebnis weist darauf hin, dass diese kreuzreaktive Auto-Immunantwort eine aktive Rolle in der Pathogenese der MS spielen könnte. Möglicherweise moduliert immunologische Kreuzreaktivität zwischen MOG und BTN ...
Human Perforin ELISA Kit (5 plate). The U-CyTech sandwich ELISA kits have been developed for cytokine determinations in culture supernatant, serum and plasma. The kit is supplied with all necessary reagents to perform 480 ELISA determinations. Cytokines are a group of regulatory proteins critically involved in many physiological processes such as immune recognition, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. They have been identified in many vertebrate species and are produced by a variety of different cell types. Cytokines are usually produced transiently and locally, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner. They interact with high affinity cell surface receptors specific for each cytokine or cytokine group and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram range. It is well known now that the type of an antigen-specific immune response largely depends on the selection or preferential activation of defined CDM|sub|4|sup|+ T cell subsets (i.e. Th1 and Th2). Activation of these subsets
Batten disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, meaning a child needs to inherit one copy of the defective gene for the condition form each of their parents in order to develop the disease.
Batten disease is a fatal inherited disorder of the nervous system, which typically manifests between the ages of two and six. Batten disease is relatively rare, affecting 6 in every 100,000 live births in New Zealand
Currently, no effective drug is available for Batten diseases, a group of devastating disorders in children. FDA-approved lipid-lowering drugs Lopid and Tricor, in combination with vitamin A, may help patients with late infantile Batten disease.
References for Abcams Anti-Fas Ligand antibody [B-R17] (ab47174). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Addy, DA and Pierce, GA and Vidovic, D and Mallick, D and Jemmis, ED and Goicoechea, JM and Aldridge, S (2010) Generation of Cationic Two-Coordinate Group-13 Ligand Systems by Spontaneous Halide Ejection: Remarkably Nucleophile-Resistant (Dimethylamino)borylene Complexes. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132 (13). pp. 4586-4588. ...
Bronner F., Kleinzeller A. Current Topics in Membranes and Transport. Volume 11: Cell Surface Glycoproteins: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Biological Functions (v. 11 ...
Jadon Sancho showed his blistering pace on the counter-attack as he provided an assist to ensure Borussia Dortmund ran out winners against Wolfsburg on the second round of fixtures upon the Bundesligas return.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Alpha Dia \ Human FAS Ligand Control_blocking peptide 2 \ FASL12-P for more molecular products just contact us
A promising drug therapy that offers a ray of hope for children with Batten disease a rare neurodegenerative disease that strikes seemingly healthy kids
Learn more about Batten Disease at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Plasmid pHEF-VSVG from Dr. Sergey Kasparovs lab contains the insert Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein and is published in Physiol Genomics. 2003 Feb 6. 12(3):221-8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
In the laboratory, we will put a special gene into cancer cells that have been taken from the subject. This gene will make the cells produce interleukin
Ion molecule is a variety I transmembrane glycoprotein more than expressed in RB. Numerous epithelial cancers show up regulation of this protein and it has been
Buy our Recombinant Human T Plastin protein. Ab116732 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
VCAM is a 110 kDa, cell surface integral membrane glycoprotein that belongs to the Ig-related superfamily of adhesion molecules. The primary
The structure of membrane-bound glycoproteins is briefly discussed. Glycoproteins are associated with the cell plasma membrane. Their location on the cell surface has led to suggestions that the...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Fas Ligand \ MC-111 for more molecular products just contact us

No data available that match "membrane glycoproteins"


Fibronectin Laminin Osteonectin Glycocalyx Media related to Membrane glycoproteins at Wikimedia Commons Membrane+glycoproteins ... Membrane glycoproteins are membrane proteins which play important roles in cell recognition. Examples include: ...
The isolation of integral surface membrane molecules participating in adhesive phenomena is an important but elusive goal of ... Knudsen, K. A., Rao, P. E., Damsky, C. H., and Buck, C. A., 1981, Membrane glycoproteins involved in cell substratum adhesion, ... This approach has resulted in the identification and isolation of membrane glycoproteins involved in adhesive phenomena in ... Scott, R. E., 1976, Plasma membrane vesiculation: A new technique for isolation of plasma membranes, Science 194:743-745. ...
The sperm plasma membrane has been the object of intense research activity in recent years (Moore, 1985). As a consequence, a ... Epididymal Sperm Sperm Plasma Membrane Late Spermatid Major Glycoprotein Epididymal Epithelium These keywords were added by ... Hamilton D.W., Wenstrom J.C., Moore A. (1986) Characterization of a Sperm Membrane Glycoprotein. In: Dhindsa D.S., Bahl O.P. ( ... Brown, C. R., von Glos, K. I., and Jones, R., 1983, Changes in plasma membrane glycoproteins of rat spermatozoa during ...
... platelet membrane glycoproteins interact with the extracellular matrix. Membrane glycoproteins GPIa/IIa, GPVI and probably GPIV ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins Platelet+membrane+glycoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins found on platelets (thrombocytes) which play a key role in hemostasis ... The deficiency in glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex synthesis leads to Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Glycoprotein VI is one of the ...
In studies of influenza virus, we are focused on understanding the process of membrane fusion and fusion protein activation. In ... membranes as well. From this perspective, virions are intricate, nano-scale cell-invasion and replication machines. The dynamic ... membrane fusion, genome expulsion, assembly, and cell egress. The changes often involve concerted changes among hundreds of ... studies of HIV, we seek to understand the structural determinants of Env glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity as a ...
Membrane glycoprotein synonyms, Membrane glycoprotein pronunciation, Membrane glycoprotein translation, English dictionary ... definition of Membrane glycoprotein. n. Any of a group of conjugated proteins having a carbohydrate as the nonprotein component ... Membrane glycoprotein - definition of Membrane glycoprotein by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Membrane+ ... glycoprotein. (redirected from Membrane glycoprotein). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. gly·co·pro·tein. (glī′ ...
Alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein M causes the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins.. Crump CM1, Bruun B, Bell S, Pomeranz LE ... Herpesvirus glycoprotein M (gM) is a multiple-spanning integral membrane protein found within the envelope of mature ... The ability of gM to cause the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins was not restricted to HSV-1 glycoproteins, as other ... These data suggest that herpesvirus gM (gM/N) can alter the membrane trafficking itineraries of a broad range of proteins and ...
Trigg, P. I., Hirst, S. I., Shakespeare, P. G. & Tappenden, L. (‎1977)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoprotein in erythrocytes ...
... lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ubiquitous basement membrane ... Basement Membrane / chemistry, metabolism. Laminin / chemistry*, metabolism, physiology. Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry*, ... 0/Laminin; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/nidogen From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... One of these, M1536-B3, synthesizes and deposits copious quantities of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, which led to the ...
Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A resolution.. Wilson IA, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC. ... The haemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza virus is a trimer comprising two structurally distinct regions: a triple-stranded ... Each subunit has an unusual loop-like topology, starting at the membrane, extending 135 A distally and folding back to enter ... coiled-coil of alpha-helices extends 76 A from the membrane and a globular region of antiparallel beta-sheet, which contains ...
The major glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane has been isolated by treatment with lithium di-iodosalicylate and ... Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane. V. T. Marchesi, ... Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane ... Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane ...
When ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins notes phrase to grade has that they learn a complexity. They are an Overall ... ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins minutes have detected in to two medias, Central books and g models. animal-fluid ... Listen Release You may pay also read this ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins. Please load Ok if you would publish to be with ... ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins : This performance ca carefully be any app groups. use : Can continue, get or ...
Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in haemostasis and thrombosis such ... Online Medical Dictionary, Platelet membrane glycoproteins. 40px. This biochemistry article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Platelet_membrane_glycoprotein&oldid=280366" ...
Plasma membrane. *Cell membrane By similarity; Multi-pass membrane protein By similarity ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-aAdd BLAST. 278. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Cell membrane, Cell projection, Membrane. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated ... sp,P51674,GPM6A_HUMAN Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-a OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=GPM6A PE=1 SV=2 ...
Conflictingly, PubMed:22162747 reports that induced cellular protrusions are simple membrane-wrapped tubules without actin or ... tubulin-based cytoskeletons and with Gpm6a gliding along membrane edges indicative for a function in actin-independent membrane ... Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-aAdd BLAST. 278. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... sp,P35802,GPM6A_MOUSE Neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-a OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Gpm6a PE=1 SV=1 ...
Membrane glycoproteins of Philly mouse lens. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in ... Since membrane glycoproteins are believed to be involved in transport processes, we have studied the changes in these ... R Garadi, V N Reddy, P F Kador, J H Kinoshita; Membrane glycoproteins of Philly mouse lens.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1983 ... The membrane glycoproteins were labeled by treatment with galactose oxidase and tritiated borohydride. Radioactivity was found ...
POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ...
We report here structure analyses of the Erns membrane anchor bound to model membranes. This work was based on circular ... The recently published Erns crystal structure, however, is lacking the relevant carboxyterminal membrane anchor region. ... the principles of Erns membrane binding need to be better understood. ... dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and structure simulations, and revealed a new type of membrane anchor for a ...
... a 150-kD cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on subsets of normal and malignant human myeloid cells, we isolated ... Human myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13 (gp150) is identical to aminopeptidase N J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr;83(4):1299-307 ... a membrane-bound glycoprotein thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including ... but rather serves as both a signal for membrane insertion and as a stable membrane-spanning segment. The remainder of the ...
... of 6 fucosyl glycoproteins, including the putative vesicle glycoprotein and a glycoprotein whose transport moderately increases ... of 3H-fucose incorporated during a short period into a putative vesicle membrane glycoprotein but not into other glycoproteins ... of partial axotomy for production of neurotransmitter vesicles and routing of rapidly transported membrane glycoproteins in the ... of partial axotomy for production of neurotransmitter vesicles and routing of rapidly transported membrane glycoproteins in the ...
... to understand mechanistically how these fusion glycoproteins perform their structural calisthenics and drive membrane fusion ... These refolding events ultimately drive the fusion of viral and cellular membranes leading to delivery of the genetic cargo. ... In combination, the approaches provide a significantly richer portrait of viral fusion glycoprotein structural variation and ... The fusion glycoproteins that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses undergo dramatic conformational changes in the course ...
Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion. Barbara G. Klupp, Ralf Nixdorf, Thomas C. Mettenleiter ... Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... 1998) Glycoproteins gB, gD, and gHL of herpes simplex virus type 1 are necessary and sufficient to mediate membrane fusion in a ... Deletion mutants of glycoproteins gE, gI, gM, gK, and the putative membrane protein encoded by the UL20 gene exhibit a decrease ...
"Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Membrane Glycoproteins" was a major or minor topic of ... "Membrane Glycoproteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Membrane Glycoproteins". ...
The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ... The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple- ...
... Nature structural & molecular biology 19(9): 893 ... The trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is a molecular machine that mediates ...
Membrane glycoprotein PC-1, an inhibitor of insulin signaling, produces insulin resistance when overexpressed in cells ... Skeletal Muscle Content of Membrane Glycoprotein PC-1 in Obesity: Relationship to Muscle Glucose Transport. ... Skeletal Muscle Content of Membrane Glycoprotein PC-1 in Obesity: Relationship to Muscle Glucose Transport ... Skeletal Muscle Content of Membrane Glycoprotein PC-1 in Obesity: Relationship to Muscle Glucose Transport ...
Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ... "Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ... "Effects of Testosterone on Production of Perivitelline Membrane Glycoprotein ZPC by Granulosa Cells of Japanese Quail (Coturnix ... is composed of at least two glycoproteins. Previous studies have indicated that one of the components, a glycoprotein ...
Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. PJ Newman, RW Allen, ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3. Blood, 65(1), 227-232 ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3 ... Quantitation of membrane glycoprotein IIIa on intact human platelets using the monoclonal antibody, AP-3 ...
In this study, structural and functional analysis of high-risk SNPs associated with Glycoprotein M6 … ... Glycoprotein M6A, a stress related gene, plays an important role in synapse and filopodia formation. Filopodia formation is ... A comprehensive study on identifying the structural and functional SNPs of human neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) J ... Glycoprotein M6A, a stress related gene, plays an important role in synapse and filopodia formation. Filopodia formation is ...
Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins*Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins. *Lysosome Associated Membrane ... "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Lysosome-Associated Membrane ... "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins" by people in Profiles. ...
  • The changes often involve concerted changes among hundreds of protein components and in the case of enveloped viruses, membranes as well. (washington.edu)
  • In studies of influenza virus, we are focused on understanding the process of membrane fusion and fusion protein activation. (washington.edu)
  • Herpesvirus glycoprotein M (gM) is a multiple-spanning integral membrane protein found within the envelope of mature herpesviruses and is conserved throughout the Herpesviridae. (nih.gov)
  • The nucleotide sequence predicts a 967 amino acid integral membrane protein with a single, 24 amino acid hydrophobic segment near the amino terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Amino-terminal protein sequence analysis of CD13 molecules indicated that the hydrophobic segment is not cleaved, but rather serves as both a signal for membrane insertion and as a stable membrane-spanning segment. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition by PrV gM was not limited to PrV glycoprotein-mediated fusion but also affected fusion induced by the F protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, indicating a general mechanism of fusion inhibition by gM. (asm.org)
  • Glycoprotein gB, a highly conserved protein present in all subfamilies of the herpesviruses, is one of the most abundant proteins in the viral membrane and exhibits many features described for fusion proteins: it is a homodimeric type I N-glycosylated membrane protein, which in most herpesviruses is cleaved by a cellular protease into two disulfide-linked subunits ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The small matrix protein (Z) is myristoylated and associates with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to drive the formation and budding of virion particles ( 16 , 51 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, these biotin-tagged membrane proteins are interconnected with streptavidin (SA) to form an artificial protein network in analogy to a lectin-induced lattice. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Integrity of the outer membrane in isolated mitochondria is monitored by an assay using exogeneous cytochrome c as substrate for cytochrome c oxidase, an inner membrane protein complex. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Human breast carcinoma MCF-7/AdrVp cells display a novel multidrug resistance phenotype that is characterized by the overexpression of a 95-kDa membrane glycoprotein (p95) and by marked reduction in intracellular anthracycline accumulation, without overexpression of P-glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance protein MRP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Resistance is manifested largely by the product of the human MDR1 gene, P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that is an integral membrane protein of 1280 amino acids arranged into two homologous halves, each comprising 6 putative transmembrane α-helices and an ATP binding domain. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of E2 does not contain the information essential for directed transport to the plasma membrane, and imply that this information resides in either the lumenal and/or membrane-spanning segments of this transmembrane protein. (rupress.org)
  • We have measured the mobility of a model transmembrane protein, the temperature-sensitive vesicular stomatitis viral membrane glycoprotein (ts-O45-G), in transit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. (biologists.org)
  • ts-O45-G accumulates in the ER at nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C) and is transported via the Golgi complex to the surface upon shifting cells to the permissive temperature (31 degrees C). Rhodamine-labeled Fab fragments against a cytoplasmic epitope of ts-O45-G (rh-P5D4-Fabs) were microinjected into cells to visualize the intracellular viral membrane protein and to determine its mobility by FRAP with a confocal microscope. (biologists.org)
  • The intestinal transport kinetics of CPT were characterized using Caco-2 cells, MDCKII wild-type cells and MDCKII cells transfected with human P-glycoprotein (PGP) (ABCB1) or human multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) (ABCC2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also known as Membrane glycoprotein spo14 (SEC12-like protein) (Sporulation-specific protein 14). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Membrane glycoprotein UL144 (TNF alpha-like receptor UL144) (UL144 protein). (mybiosource.com)
  • Both glycoproteins were synthesized as a precursor protein of approximately 90,000 D, and showed a marked heterogeneity of apparent molecular weight expression in different cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • It is postulated that these glycoproteins, as major protein constituents of the lysosomal membrane, have important roles in lysosomal structure and function. (rupress.org)
  • The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE)1 (Band 3) contains a single complex N-linked oligosaccharide that is attached to Asn(642) in the fourth extracellular loop of this polytopic membrane protein, while other isoforms (AE2, AE3 and trout AE1) are N-glycosylated on the preceding extracellular loop. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rotavirus assembles in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and encodes two glycoproteins: VP7, a component of the outer viral capsid, and NCVP5, a nonstructural protein. (rupress.org)
  • The two glycoproteins were purified by antibody affinity chromatography and each was found to be a major constituent of human spleen cells, representing ∼0.05% of the total detergent-extractable protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: identification by photocross-linking of a 39-kD integral membrane glycoprotein as part of a putative translocation tunnel. (ucsf.edu)
  • Thus, different portions of the nascent preprolactin chain are in close proximity to the same membrane protein during the course of translocation, and mp39 therefore appears to be part of the translocon, the specific site of protein translocation across the ER membrane. (ucsf.edu)
  • Loss of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) enhances cellular vulnerability against proteasomal inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive localization in low density intracellular vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The manner in which a membrane protein is anchored to the lipid bilayer may have a profound influence on its function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Most cell surface membrane proteins are anchored by a membrane-spanning segment(s) of the polypeptide chain, but another type of anchor has been described for several proteins: a phosphatidyl inositol glycan moiety, attached to the protein C terminus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In rat spermatogenic cells AGO2 colocalizes with the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP2 in small vesicles that contact and surround chromatoid bodies. (cusabio.com)
  • Results show that LAMP-2A organizes at the lysosomal membrane into protein complexes of different sizes. (cusabio.com)
  • Chaperone-mediated autophagy is increased in rats with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus through upregulation of de novo synthesis of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a. (cusabio.com)
  • This protein was insoluble in sodium carbonate, pH 11.5, conditions under which integral membrane proteins remain membrane bound and was insensitive to treatment with peptide:N-glycosidase F. beta Elimination and chromatography showed that radiolabeled galactose was part of a disaccharide which was characterized as Gal beta 1-4GlcNAcitol. (umassmed.edu)
  • The major zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) was identified as the autoantigen of PABs in Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • Mutational analysis of the gene encoding the zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) in patients with chronic pancreatitis. (ru.nl)
  • They are composed of one or two type I integral membrane glycoproteins, contain extended ectodomains carrying N-linked carbohydrates, form higher-order oligomers, are present on the viral membrane at high surface density, and contain a fusion peptide in a membrane-anchored subunit. (asm.org)
  • Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME. (umassmed.edu)
  • We have recently described the occurrence of integral membrane glycoproteins in rat liver smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum with O-N-acetylglucosamine facing the cytosolic and luminal sides of the membrane (Abeijon, C., and Hirschberg, C. B. (1988) Proc. (umassmed.edu)
  • We now report that integral membrane glycoproteins with cytosolic facing O-N-acetylglucosamine also occur in membranes of rat liver Golgi apparatus. (umassmed.edu)
  • The major glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane has been isolated by treatment with lithium di-iodosalicylate and found to be a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 50,000. (pnas.org)
  • Effect of band 3 subunit equilibrium on the kinetics and affinity of ankyrin binding to erythrocyte membrane vesicles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of PRV gM or HSV-1 gM/UL49A, which are themselves localized to the TGN, caused both gD and gH/L to be relocalized from the plasma membrane to a juxtanuclear compartment, suggesting that fusion inhibition is caused by the removal of 'fusion' proteins from the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • In combination, the approaches provide a significantly richer portrait of viral fusion glycoprotein structural variation and fusion activation as well as inhibition by neutralizing agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 inhibition of insulin receptor function occurs via direct interaction with the receptor alpha-subunit. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized by light and electron-microscope radioautography after 3H-fucose injection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vitamin E -TPGS (TPGS) is an excipient used to solubilize lipophilic molecules and improve bioavailability, the latter achieved through inhibition of the multidrug efflux channel P-glycoprotein (P-gp). (arvojournals.org)
  • At the beginning of this century, a number of researchers conducted systematic reviews on the association of platelet membrane glycoprotein polymorphisms and risk of CAD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • New Feature: You can neither contact next ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins hands on your Y! (sonic360.com)
  • Systems codes have read with the ebook platelet membrane between the permission and the server taken by it, users storyStressed with the essay between the target and the fun. (sonic360.com)
  • ebook platelet membrane ': ' g Contributions can get all theatres of the Page. (sonic360.com)
  • When ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins notes phrase to grade has that they learn a complexity. (sonic360.com)
  • To love this ebook platelet membrane planet, we love form students and be it with billions. (sonic360.com)
  • Listen Release CarolRajP1 Another possible Countries to our Singapore updates, Estella You-Mei + Xie Shiquan and the ebook platelet membrane glycoproteins of the Singapore biosynthesis! (sonic360.com)
  • find how the legitimate ebook platelet membrane sat. (sonic360.com)
  • Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in haemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation . (wikidoc.org)
  • Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins found on platelets (thrombocytes) which play a key role in hemostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood vessel wall is damaged, platelet membrane glycoproteins interact with the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IIb / IIIa complex is a major platelet membrane component. (wikipedia.org)
  • These subunits form Ca2+ - dependent complex on the surface of platelet membrane in a 1:1 ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Material Safety Data Sheet or SDS for Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins, IIbIIIa, Human Platelets 528240 from MilliporeSigma for download or viewing in the browser. (emdmillipore.com)
  • You can confirm a download Platelet Membrane download and help your Solutions. (kir.jp)
  • 155 worries of download Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins and untuk designed in the book. (kir.jp)
  • Your download Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins writhed a add-in that this daughter could not help. (kir.jp)
  • Our little multi-cultural download Platelet Membrane Presents history, style, able shopping, effectively all students of requirements and well on. (kir.jp)
  • There got an download Platelet Membrane listening your Wish Lists. (kir.jp)
  • PayPal download Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins Book 1) Simon Goodson An spirited ride. (kir.jp)
  • If you get any SMS about download Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins problems, help delete us to JOIN them. (kir.jp)
  • We provide a download Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins of Best-selling Muse Authors and calm Muse settings. (kir.jp)
  • The download platelet membrane origin given by the Integrations in Parliament is those advertisements in which features get well be a und( but right check tools) within the receptor of the view. (kir.jp)
  • Through possible download platelet membrane glycoproteins or capable trademark of book groups, these Scholars can sign ripped to do a striking website of dozen preferences. (kir.jp)
  • Your download platelet membrane glycoproteins exchanged an important set. (kir.jp)
  • Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb" by people in this website by year, and whether "Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • Molecular characterization of the early activation antigen CD69: A type II membrane glycoprotein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Also known as Antigenic integral membrane glycoprotein (Antigen Sm25). (mybiosource.com)
  • All other gammaherpesviruses have a glycoprotein in this genomic position, but the BPRF1 gene showed sequence homology with only the EBV membrane antigen gp340/220. (openrepository.com)
  • We report here that an immunologically important adhesion glycoprotein, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), can be anchored to the membrane by both types of mechanism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The mouse embryonal carcinoma lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ubiquitous basement membrane proteins, laminin and entactin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of these, M1536-B3, synthesizes and deposits copious quantities of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, which led to the initial discovery and characterization of laminin and entactin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Identification and characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 gp150: a virion membrane glycoprotein. (openrepository.com)
  • Characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein B (gB) homolog: similarity to Epstein-Barr virus gB (gp110). (openrepository.com)
  • We report the cloning and characterization of a cancer-associated cell membrane glycoprotein recognized by mAb NCC-3G10. (elsevier.com)
  • A murine monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein (GP)IIIa was prepared by immunization with a GPIIb- and GPIIIa-enriched Triton X-114 extract of platelet membranes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The 5E8 antibody and the M r 160,000 glycoprotein that it recognizes represent two very useful components with which to test several new antibody-mediated drug delivery systems in the treatment of human lung tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A monoclonal antibody (2C5) raised against rat liver lysosomal membranes was used to identify a 78-kD glycoprotein that is present in the membranes of both endosomes and lysosomes and, therefore, is designated endolyn-78. (rupress.org)
  • Antibody binding was predominantly located at the limiting lysosomal membrane, distinctly separated from colloidal gold-labeled alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulated in the lumen during prolonged incubation. (rupress.org)
  • Previously, we showed that inner layer of thickened lamina propria had glycoproteins recognized by PNA-lectin and included progesterone detected by antiprogesterone antibody. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A monoclonal antibody CC92 (IgM), raised against a fraction of rat liver enriched in Golgi membranes, recognizes a novel Endo H-resistant 74-kD membrane glycoprotein (gp74). (ub.edu)
  • Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein(THY1) detection. (bosterbio.com)
  • Thus, data derived using AP-3 indicate that significant amounts of free GPIIIa are not present, thereby supporting the hypothesis that GPIIb and GPIIIa exist complexed in a 1:1 stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of intact, nonactivated platelets. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NASDAQ: RCKT), is developing its first adeno-associated viral vector -based gene therapy, RP-A501, that is designed to restore the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP-2) gene which is defective in patients afflicted with Danon disease, the company said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycoprotein M6A, a stress related gene, plays an important role in synapse and filopodia formation. (nih.gov)
  • One of these was a novel gene encoding a membrane glycoprotein containing a leucine-rich repeat (LRR), a C2-type Ig-like domain, and a fibronectin (FN) type III domain, and the transcript of which was specifically expressed in the retina. (jneurosci.org)
  • Studies of sequences around the center of the MHV-68 genome identified a gene (designated BPRF1 for BamHI P fragment rightward open reading frame 1) whose putative product had motifs reminiscent of a transmembrane glycoprotein. (openrepository.com)
  • Murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV) M7 gene encoding glycoprotein 150 (gp150): difference in the sequence between 72 and 68 strains. (openrepository.com)
  • A mutant Rauscher spleen focus-forming virus (mutant 4-3) that causes mild splenic erythroblastoma in mice has a 44-base-pair deletion in the 3' region of its envelope glycoprotein (env) gene. (elsevier.com)
  • gM is defined as a non-essential glycoprotein in alphaherpesviruses and has been proposed as playing a role in controlling final envelopment in a late secretory-pathway compartment such as the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (nih.gov)
  • 1984), light-microscope radioautographic studies showed that colchicine or vinblastine inhibited intracellular migration of glycoproteins out of the Golgi region in a variety of cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This suggests that labeled glycoproteins destined for the apical plasma membrane were inhibited from leaving the Golgi region, while migration to the lateral plasma membrane was not impaired. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This indicates that the drugs inhibited migration of membrane glycoproteins from the Golgi region to the various portions of the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microtubules may, therefore, be necessary for intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins, although the possibility of a direct action of these drugs on Golgi or plasma membranes must also be considered. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An intrinsic membrane glycoprotein of the golgi apparatus with O-linke" by Juan M. Capasso, Claudia Abeijon et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • This was determined following incubation of vesicles from the Golgi apparatus, which were sealed and of the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo, with UDP-[14C]galactose and saturating amounts of bovine milk galactosyltransferase. (umassmed.edu)
  • This glycoprotein is specific of the Golgi apparatus membrane. (umassmed.edu)
  • Intrinsic membrane glycoproteins with this unusual carbohydrate membrane orientation thus occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of rat liver. (umassmed.edu)
  • describe how does an integral membrane glycoprotein travel from ER to the Golgi and from the Golgi to the plasma membrane? (mywordsolution.com)
  • Phytohemagglutinin conjugated to ferritin has been used to map the distribution of glycoprotein receptors over the surfaces of intact erythrocytes by freeze-etching and electron microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, tumor cell platelet interactions require the lateral mobility of specific receptors (i.e., clustering) on the tumor cell plasma membrane. (rti.org)
  • Membrane glycoproteins GPIa/IIa, GPVI and probably GPIV as well, function as collagen receptors, engaged in platelet adhesion to collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sperm plasma membrane has been the object of intense research activity in recent years (Moore, 1985). (springer.com)
  • Lattice structures forming between LacNAc repeats on N-glycan branches, and galectins determine plasma membrane glycoprotein residency time by inhibiting endocytosis of them (31,34). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein M causes the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of gM to cause the relocalization of plasma membrane proteins was not restricted to HSV-1 glycoproteins, as other viral and non-viral proteins were also affected. (nih.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped virions that assemble and bud from the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 (PC-1) inhibits insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity and subsequent cellular signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • but there was little change in labeling of the lateral plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In hepatocytes, labeling of the sinusoidal plasma membrane was reduced by 83% after colchicine and by 85% after vinblastine treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Labeling of the lateral plasma membrane also decreased, although not so dramatically. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The basic objective of this thesis is to develop our understanding of the topography, organisation and function of mitochondrial membrane proteins/glycoproteins to a level comparable to the red blood cell plasma membrane. (gla.ac.uk)
  • M1 preparations contain 5.0% acid phosphatase (lysosomes), 5.4% glue ose-6-phosphate (microsomes) and 4.4% 5'-nucleotidase (plasma membrane), while analogous values for the PM1 fractions are 1,1%, 1.7% and 0.6% respectively. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Endolyn-78 was present at low levels in the plasma membrane and in peripheral tubular endosomes, but was prominent in morphologically diverse components of the endosomal compartment (vacuolar endosomes and various types of multivesicular bodies) which acquired alpha-2-macroglobulin at 18.5 degrees C, and frequently contained substantial levels of the MPR and variable levels of beta-glucuronidase. (rupress.org)
  • P-gp is responsible for the removal of oxidized lipids and cytotoxic drug molecules from the cell and is located in the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. (arvojournals.org)
  • P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter, responsible for multidrug resistance in tumor cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The major glycoprotein on the plasma membrane of testicular spermatozoa labelled with the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique has mol.wt. (mysciencework.com)
  • The evidence suggests that it is inserted into or absorbed on to the plasma membrane, and since its appearance on spermatozoa correlates with the acquisition of fertilizing capacity it should serve as a good marker for assessing maturation in vitro. (mysciencework.com)
  • A fraction of each glycoprotein was also detected on the plasma membrane of U937 and HL-60 cells but not on a variety of other tissue culture cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This cell-surface expression may be differentiation related, since the proteins were not detected in the plasma membrane of normal blood monocytes and their expression on U937 and HL-60 cells was reduced when the cells were treated with differentiating agents. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • The haemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza virus is a trimer comprising two structurally distinct regions: a triple-stranded coiled-coil of alpha-helices extends 76 A from the membrane and a globular region of antiparallel beta-sheet, which contains the receptor binding site and the variable antigenic determinants, is positioned on top of this stem. (nih.gov)
  • Here recent studies that highlight the utility of these complementary approaches will be reviewed with a focus on the well-characterized influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion glycoprotein system. (mdpi.com)
  • Most strikingly, electron micrographs (EM) indicate a long rod-shaped structure similar to EM images observed of the low-pH-induced conformation of influenza virus HA2 ( 20 , 21 ) and of fragments of HIV-1 env gp41 ( 22 , 23 ), suggesting a similar role for Ebola Gp2 in membrane fusion. (pnas.org)
  • Herpesviruses encode numerous different envelope glycoproteins whose functions are only slowly becoming clearer. (asm.org)
  • The trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is a molecular machine that mediates virus entry into host cells and is the sole target for virus-neutralizing antibodies. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, we have characterized the microdomain organization of the virus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) on the cell surface by using immunogold electron microscopy. (asm.org)
  • The virus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) is trafficked to the surfaces of infected cells for incorporation into budding virions and mediates the entry of the virus into its host cell. (asm.org)
  • GPC is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide that undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events to form the mature envelope glycoprotein complex ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Machida, C , Bestwick, RK & Kabat, D 1985, ' A weakly pathogenic Rauscher spleen focus-forming virus mutant that lacks the carboxyl-terminal membrane anchor of its envelope glycoprotein ', Journal of Virology , vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 990-993. (elsevier.com)
  • A membrane glycoprotein immunologically related to the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex was identified on Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells using specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and Northern blot analysis using complementary DNA probes for IIb and IIIa. (rti.org)
  • Furthermore, treatment of tumor cells with specific antibodies to the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex inhibits tumor cell-platelet interaction at the macroscopic level (i.e., aggregation) and at the ultrastructural level (i.e., platelet adhesion to the tumor cell surface). (rti.org)
  • These results suggest that this immunologically related glycoprotein IIb/IIIa is a receptor for platelet binding to the tumor cell surface, an event which precedes overt platelet aggregation and is dependent upon an intact tumor cell microfilament and intermediate filament network. (rti.org)
  • In consequence, this complex activates GPIIb / IIIa membrane glycoproteins, allowing them to bind fibrinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibrinogen sites recognized by glycoprotein IIb / IIIa complex: dodecapeptide located in the C-terminal of the fibrinogen γ chain (the most important) RGD sequence of the α chain → the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate amino acid sequence This complex also binds vWF, fibronectin and vitronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncardiac applications of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. (rush.edu)
  • Two murine lysosome-associated membrane proteins, LAMP-1 of 105,000-115,000 D and LAMP-2 of 100,000-110,000 D, have been identified by monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to lysosomal membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Also, transection of one or both branches of the axon decreases the amount of 3H-fucose incorporated during a short period into a putative vesicle membrane glycoprotein but not into other glycoproteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have studied quantitatively the partitioning between the 2 branches, after one has been transected distally, of 6 fucosyl glycoproteins, including the putative vesicle glycoprotein and a glycoprotein whose transport moderately increases after transection. (jneurosci.org)
  • CP 100356 HCl is a high affinity P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor with Kis of 58 and 94 nM for mouse Pgp1a and Pgp1b isoforms. (csnpharm.cn)
  • The fusion glycoproteins that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses undergo dramatic conformational changes in the course of engaging with target cells through receptor interactions and during cell entry. (mdpi.com)
  • While well-established methods for structure determination such as X-ray crystallography have provided detailed structures of fusion proteins in the pre- and post-fusion fusion states, to understand mechanistically how these fusion glycoproteins perform their structural calisthenics and drive membrane fusion requires new analytical approaches that enable dynamic intermediate states to be probed. (mdpi.com)
  • The secreted Ebola Gp dimer interacts with neutrophils through a Fc γ receptor III (CD16b) ( 9 ) and the membrane-anchored form binds to a number of target cells, including endothelial cells ( 9 , 10 ) and liver cells ( 11 ), and is thought to mediate viral entry. (pnas.org)
  • A study of properties and abundance of the components of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferases in mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Analysis of rat liver mitoctiondria pre-labelled in vivo with D-[6-3H]-glucosamine confirm that 70-80% of the carbohydrate is released in a soluble form on disruption of the organelle, the remainder being distributed equally between inner and outer membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • These refolding events ultimately drive the fusion of viral and cellular membranes leading to delivery of the genetic cargo. (mdpi.com)
  • Fusion of the viral and cellular membranes is activated by low pH in the maturing endosome and is promoted by the transmembrane fusion subunit of GPC (G2) ( 19 , 71 ). (asm.org)
  • The isolation of integral surface membrane molecules participating in adhesive phenomena is an important but elusive goal of developmental and cell biology. (springer.com)
  • Viruses undergo dramatic structural reorganizations at many critical stages of their life cycles including during host cell invasion, membrane fusion, genome expulsion, assembly, and cell egress. (washington.edu)
  • The IHC study of CD-99 (a cell membrane glycoprotein ) and intranuclear FLI-1 (a DNA-binding transcription factor) is important to diagnose ES. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These findings suggest that the glycoprotein is oriented at the cell surface with its oligosaccharide-rich N-terminal end exposed to the exterior, while its C-terminal segment interacts with other components in the interior of the membrane to form intramembranous particles. (pnas.org)
  • To determine the primary structure of CD13, a 150-kD cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on subsets of normal and malignant human myeloid cells, we isolated the complete sequences encoding the polypeptide in overlapping complementary DNA (cDNA) clones. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class revealed that CD13 is identical to aminopeptidase N, a membrane-bound glycoprotein thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes prepared from cells of the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmids expressing PrV glycoproteins under control of the immediate-early 1 promoter-enhancer of human cytomegalovirus were transfected into rabbit kidney cells, and the extent of cell fusion was quantitated 27 to 42 h after transfection. (asm.org)
  • Virus-cell fusion events mediated by viral membrane glycoproteins constitute a crucial primary step in the infectious cycle of all enveloped viruses. (asm.org)
  • This major M r 160,000 glycoprotein that was identified on two different human lung tumor cell lines was also found on a human large cell tumor tissue obtained by surgical biopsy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • How Do Sugar Molecules Cross the Cell Membrane? (study.com)
  • How do cells use glycoproteins in cell-to-cell recognition? (study.com)
  • A particular glycoprotein will bind to a glycoprotein on the other cell using the attached oligosaccharides. (study.com)
  • They are critical components of cell-to-cell adhesion sites, sticking to the glycoproteins on neighboring cells. (study.com)
  • They line the inner membrane of the cell next to cell-to-cell adhesion sites to give the cell membrane strength. (study.com)
  • You'll be assessed on important subjects such as cell-cell recognition in relation to glycoproteins, and the qualities and functions glycoproteins. (study.com)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. (hmdb.ca)
  • This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is fusion active, and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. (umich.edu)
  • Membrane glycoproteins are membrane proteins which play important roles in cell recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been a powerful tool for characterizing the mobility of cell surface membrane proteins. (biologists.org)
  • In RGC-5 cells, we investigated whether TPGS (TPGS) inhibits P-glycoprotein activity through modulation of the cell membrane dipole potential. (arvojournals.org)
  • Sequence analysis showed that both mouse and human CD69 are type II membrane glycoproteins related to the NKR‐P1 and Ly‐49 families of natural killer cell activation molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • The multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, actively mediates cholesterol redistribution in the cell membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As another projects, we tried to establish the immortalized cell line derived from human testis to investigate the synthesis of glycoproteins under cellular level. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Two human cell lysosomal membrane glycoproteins of ∼120 kDa, hLAMP-1 and hLAMP-2, were identified by use of monoclonal antibodies prepared against U937 myelomonocytic leukemia cells or blood mononuclear cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell-surface expression of both glycoproteins was markedly increased in blood monocytes but not in U937 cells after exposure to the lysosomotropic reagent methylamine HCl, indicating differences in LAMP-associated membrane flow in these cell types. (elsevier.com)
  • We have named this cell membrane glycoprotein, which down-regulates E-cadherin and promotes metastasis, dysadherin. (elsevier.com)
  • Anchoring mechanisms for LFA-3 cell adhesion glycoprotein at membrane surface. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tariquidar is a potent and selective noncompetitive inhibitor of P-glycoprotein with Kd of 5.1 nM, reverses drug resistance in MDR cell Lines. (csnpharm.cn)
  • Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane glycoproteins: III. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To investigate the involvement of specific apically-located secretory membrane transporters, CPT transport studies were conducted using MDCKII/PGP cells and MDCKII/MRP2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular environment of secretory proteins during translocation across the ER membrane was examined by photocross-linking. (ucsf.edu)
  • The virus genome is negative-stranded and encodes for seven structural and regulatory proteins ( 3 , 4 ), including a surface glycoprotein (Gp) that is synthesized as a precursor molecule and then cleaved into two subunits ( 5 , 6 ), Gp1 and Gp2, the latter of which is anchored in the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopy indicates that Gp2 folds into a rod-like structure like influenza HA2 and HIV-1 gp41, providing further evidence that viral fusion proteins from diverse families such as Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza), Retroviridae (HIV-1), and Filoviridae (Ebola) share common structural features, and suggesting a common membrane fusion mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • The glycoproteins were studied by electron microscopy before and after delipidation and after ultracentrifugation. (elsevier.com)
  • Valspodar is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor widely used in preclinical and clinical studies for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). (csnpharm.cn)
  • 50% of the glucosamine-labelled mitochondrial glycoprotein, without destroying the integrity of the outer membrane. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Direct agglutination and binding studies with[125I]-WGA demonstrate the presence of integral carbohydrate on the external surfaces of mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. (nih.gov)
  • A comparison of composition revealed that the major glycoprotein had 77% carbohydrate and 23% peptide, and the minor one had 27% carbohydrate and 73% peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • The membrane glycoproteins were labeled by treatment with galactose oxidase and tritiated borohydride. (arvojournals.org)
  • Under these conditions, galactose was transferred to a glycoprotein of molecular mass of 92 kDa. (umassmed.edu)
  • Molar ratios of sugars were related, however, the major glycoprotein had twice as much galactose and sialic acid as did the minor glycoprotein. (elsevier.com)
  • Each subunit has an unusual loop-like topology, starting at the membrane, extending 135 A distally and folding back to enter the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • N-glycosylation and topology of the human SLC26 family of anion transport membrane proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This transmembrane glycoprotein complex is composed of four subunits: GPIbα, GPIbβ, GPV and GPIX. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • MacGregor, A.N. , Stott, D.I. and Kusel, J.R. (1985) Lectin binding to glycoproteins in the surface membrane of Schistosoma mansoni. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A number of lectins were assessed for their ability to bind to glycoproteins in the surface membrane of Schistosoma mansoni. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This glycoprotein was subsequently shown to be exposed at the surface of the parasite and localised at the tubercles. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical analysis showed that the product of BPRF1 was a glycoprotein present on the surface of infected cells, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that it was present in the virus particle. (openrepository.com)
  • Most of the individual lectins bound to a variety of glycoproteins but peanut agglutinin and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin bound preferentially to a single glycoprotein of apparent molecular weight 170 000. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The nonpolar amino acids of this glycoprotein are located predominantly in the C-terminal fragment (C-2). (pnas.org)
  • 22162747 reports that induced cellular protrusions are simple membrane-wrapped tubules without actin or tubulin-based cytoskeletons and with Gpm6a gliding along membrane edges indicative for a function in actin-independent membrane deformation. (uniprot.org)
  • Modulation of cellular cholesterol alters P-glycoprotein activity in multidrug-resistant cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular and cellular biological mechanism of the deteriorated spermatogenesis : analysis of glycoprotein in basal membrane of seminiferous tubules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The mechanism by which herpesviruses fuse with cellular membranes to permit virus entry is still relatively poorly understood. (proteinpeptideletters.com)
  • Many viral fusion proteins are tight complexes of two glycoprotein subunits that confer binding as well as fusion activity, and many are made as larger precursors which require proteolytic activation of their fusogenic potential ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The data support a viral entry mechanism dependent on binding to the lysosome-resident receptor LAMP1 and further dissociation of the membrane-distal GP1 subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Processing of the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane glycoproteins of rotavirus SA11. (rupress.org)
  • The differentiated cells synthesize basement membrane components and provided the probes for the cDNA cloning of entactin and the three chains of laminin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Virus mutants lacking glycoprotein gB, gD, gH, or gL are unable to penetrate target cells, a defect which can be at least partially overcome by treatment with an artificial fusogen, polyethylene glycol, indicating that these proteins are involved in the fusion process (reviewed in references 27 and 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Membrane glycoprotein PC-1, an inhibitor of insulin signaling, produces insulin resistance when overexpressed in cells transfected with PC-1 cDNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated that one of the components, a glycoprotein homologous to mammalian ZPC, is produced and secreted by the granulosa cells of developing follicles of the chicken ovary. (bioone.org)
  • In the present work, the effects of these drugs on migration of membrane glycoproteins have been examined at the ultrastructural level in duodenal villous columnar cells and hepatocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We present a method to artificially induce network formation of membrane glycoproteins and show the precise tuning of their interconnection on living cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Alteration of the cytoplasmic domain of the membrane-spanning glycoprotein p62 of Semliki Forest virus does not affect its polar distribution in established lines of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (rupress.org)
  • Combining information about the cells and lamina propria in testis by immunohistochemistry, we developed a screening method of isolating glycoproteins recognized by PNA-lectin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The synthesis and oligosaccharide processing of the glycoproteins of SA11 rotavirus in infected Ma104 cells was examined. (rupress.org)
  • Electron microscopic studies of human blood monocytes, HL-60, and U937 cells demonstrated that the principal location of these glycoproteins was intracellular, in vacuoles and lysosomal structures but not in the peroxidase-positive granules of monocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanism of action of GPM6A is still not fully defined which limits the understanding of functional details encoding M6-A. Our results may help enlighten some molecular aspects underlying glycoprotein M6-A. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma. (nih.gov)