Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Diazonium CompoundsMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DelawarePolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)West VirginiaAutoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Fluorocarbon PolymersSolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Benzylammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS based on BENZYLAMINES with the general formula phenyl-CN+R3.
  • He and colleagues recently reported a breakthrough that promises to bring down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells by replacing expensive platinum catalysts with cheaper ones made from metals like nickel. (udel.edu)
  • In addition, new developments in membrane technology highlight the need to explore the performance of catalysts in a higher temperature regime (in the region of 130-200°C). To accomplish these aims the following novel route will be used involving a multidisciplinary approach from theoretical design through to the final operating membrane electrode assembly. (europa.eu)
  • Finally, the behaviour and stability of selected catalysts will be assessed within the single cell environment and their potential for large-scale production investigated. (europa.eu)
  • For Yan, that approach is a new twist on traditional fuel cells, known as proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or PEMFCs, which rely on costly platinum-based catalysts. (nanowerk.com)
  • Yan is co-author on a new paper published in the online version of Nature Nanotechnology ( 'Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells' ) that he views as a roadmap to a unified strategy for HEMFC zero-emission cars based on three arguments. (nanowerk.com)
  • Further, it becomes possible to consider hydrogen fuels containing substantial amounts of impurities, whereas an acidic membrane approach (that in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, PEMFCs) requires high-purity gases and PGM catalysts. (springer.com)
  • Catalysts in the electrodes on either side of the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) promote the two simultaneous half-reactions which allow the chemical energy carried in the fuel and oxidant to be converted directly into electricity. (utexas.edu)
  • In this project, Nikola will bring together advanced concepts in catalysts, ionomers, proton exchange membranes, and gas diffusion layers within a robust MEA by using appropriate, scalable fabrication methods, the company says. (fleetequipmentmag.com)
  • This, in turn, has compelled engineers to (1) work to reduce the platinum loading in the membrane assemblies and (2) find alternate, lower-cost catalysts that offer comparable performance to platinum. (greencarcongress.com)
  • One promising approach to reduce the cost of fuel cells is to switch the operating environment from an acidic to a basic one (that is, a hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell, HEMFC), thus opening up the possibility of using PGM-free catalysts and other cheaper components. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Developers are currently exploring platinum/ruthenium catalysts that are more resistant to CO.PEM fuel cells are used primarily for transportation applications and some stationary applications. (scribd.com)
  • Due to the high cost of these and other similar materials, research is being undertaken to develop catalysts that use lower cost materials as the high costs are still a hindering factor in the widespread economical acceptance of fuel cell technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are many companies which produce custom or low quantity MEAs, allowing different shapes, catalysts or membranes to be evaluated as well, which include FuelCellStore, FuelCellsEtc, HIAT gGmbH and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • At anode, hydroxide ions react with the fuel to produce water and electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a power supply is connected, and air is supplied to the fuel cell electrode, metal contaminants will be drawn through the membrane into the catholyte and trivalent chromium in the bath is oxidized to hexavalent chromium at the outer lead anode. (epa.gov)
  • This work presents a comprehensive mapping of electrochemical impedance measurements under the influence of CO and methanol vapor contamination of the anode gas in a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, at varying load current. (aau.dk)
  • according to the company, this membrane is a significant advance in dmfc technology, and it will take the place of the 40-year-old membrane currently in use, which was actually designed for hydrogen fuel cells. (geek.com)
  • Worcester, Mass. - While cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells offer clear advantages over the electric vehicles that are growing in popularity (including their longer range, their lower overall environmental impact, and the fact that they can be refueled in minutes, versus hours of charging time), they have yet to take off with consumers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hydrogen fuel cells that use PolyFuel's new hydrocarbon-based material, the company claims, will produce less humidity, create up to 15 percent more power, and cost less to manufacture than traditional membrane materials. (typepad.com)
  • The membrane could be used in applications such as hydrogen fuel cells or electrolysers for hydrogen production from water. (psi.ch)
  • Hydrogen fuel cells, like the ones being researched and developed at PSI, could turn the goal of motorised mobility with no impact on the environment into reality. (psi.ch)
  • Cheap hydrogen fuel cells could mean the end of combustion engine - slowly, but surely. (greenoptimistic.com)
  • We have established methods to evaluate key properties that are needed to commercialize polyelectrolyte membranes for fuel cell electric vehicles such as water diffusion, gas permeability, and mechanical strength. (mdpi.com)
  • Among fuel cell types, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) attract most attention due to their high power density, high energy transformation efficiency, and wide range of applications in stationary and portable devices [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The experimental part of the reliability study presented in this work consisted of performing life tests with single proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). (scirp.org)
  • It also showed a very good performance in the fuel cell test rig conforming that it a potential replacement for silicone rubber in PEMFCs. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Although the power density is still low (compared with the peak power density of more than 1,000 mW cm −2 for PEMFCs), it demonstrates the possibility to fabricate low-cost PGM-free fuel cells. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Hence, the challenge is to find binary, ternary or even quaternary non-noble systems, which have the necessarily high rates of hydrogen oxidation and which are stable in the environment of the fuel cell. (europa.eu)
  • The absence of cations is, however, difficult to achieve, as most membranes are conditioned to functional hydroxide or bicarbonate forms out of their initial, chemically stable halogen form, and may significantly impact fuel cell performance by both competitively adsorbing to active sites and exerting Helmholtz-layer effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal analysis revealed that the AEMs were thermally stable up to 220°C. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated by hot pressing and evaluated. (techconnectworld.com)
  • The ammonium-biphosphate ion pairs have exhibited stable performance over a wide range of temperatures from 176-320 degrees F, responded well to changes in humidity and lasted three times longer than most commercial PEM fuel cell membranes. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
  • Many are not stable at temperatures higher than 40°C, but most fuel cells require more extreme operational temperatures. (greenoptimistic.com)
  • Ion irradiation has been investigated as a route for the preparation of mechanically stable and highly durable cross linked sulphonated PEEK for fuel cell application. (bham.ac.uk)
  • 4. A direct organic fuel cell as defined by claim 1 wherein said liquid organic fuel solution includes at least about (5.7 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid, and the cell is operative to produce a power density of at least about 60 mW/cm 2 when operating at about 25 C. (google.com)
  • 5. A direct organic formic acid fuel cell as defined by claim 1 and wherein said C f is between about (10 10 −3 ) moles/ cm 3 and about (20 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid. (google.com)
  • Copolymer membrane was doped with sulfuric acid to ensure proton exchange character. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. (osti.gov)
  • But the membrane can't operate below 284 degrees without degrading the phosphoric acid. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
  • Fuel solutions with different formic acid concentrations are also tested. (weltbild.ch)
  • 3. The aforementioned basic basis is containing nitrogen complex ring, the aforementioned acidic basis carbon acid radical and phosphorus acid radical, is at least one of sulfonate group and the sulfonyl imido basis, In claim 2 non humidification type proton conduction membrane of statement. (go.jp)
  • 1. A fuel cell device comprising at least one membrane comprising a graft (co)polymer comprising a main chain and grafts bonded covalently to said main chain, each ofsaid grafts comprising both (1) at least one proton acceptor group and (2) at least one proton donor group, said grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences. (patentgenius.com)
  • 7. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the proton donor group is an --OH or --SH group, an acid group --CO.sub.2H, --SO.sub.3H or --PO.sub.3H.sub.2, or a salt of amine group. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the grafts correspond to amino acid residues. (patentgenius.com)
  • 10. The fuel cell device according to claim 9, wherein the amino acid residues are obtained from natural .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • 13. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, further comprising grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences, each of which (1) does not comprise at least one proton acceptor group and/or (2) does not comprise at least oneproton donor group. (patentgenius.com)
  • A novel semiconductor-ionic La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta (LSCF)-Sm/Ca co-doped CeO2 (SCDC) nanocomposite has been developed as a membrane, which is sandwiched between two layers of Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li-oxide (NCAL) to construct semiconductor-ion membrane fuel cell (SIMFC). (diva-portal.org)
  • Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. (ku.edu)
  • The researchers achieved the breakthrough by switching the operating environment from acidic to basic, which is enabled by the membranes like the one funded by this IONICS project. (udel.edu)
  • Currently, noble metal based systems alone exhibit both the stability required in the strongly acidic humidified environment of the fuel cell, and the sufficiently large current densities required. (europa.eu)
  • His newly developed membrane is alkaline, not acidic, and makes it possible to use nickel instead of platinum. (greenoptimistic.com)
  • Still, there are some issues with modifying the acidic conditions inside a fuel cell. (greenoptimistic.com)
  • 2. The aforementioned 2nd region has the basic basis as the aforementioned functional group, the aforementioned proton discharge binding site has the acidic basis as the aforementioned functional group, In claim 1 non humidification type proton conduction membrane of statement. (go.jp)
  • However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. (scielo.br)
  • These results showed that the nano-SiO2 reactant was uniformly distributed in the composite membrane. (scientific.net)
  • The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. (energy.gov)