Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Diazonium CompoundsMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DelawarePolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)West VirginiaAutoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Fluorocarbon PolymersSolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Benzylammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS based on BENZYLAMINES with the general formula phenyl-CN+R3.
Richard Yeo (scientist)
"Perfluorinated Membranes". Handbook of Fuel Cells. 3. John Wiley & Sons. 2003. p. 368. Official website. ... 1982). "Applications of Perfluorosulfonated Polymer Membranes in Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Load Leveling Devices". ... of the unique swelling behavior of Nafion membrane was cited and described by Doyle and Rajendran in the Handbook of Fuel Cells ... "Transport Properties of Nafion Membranes in Electrochemically Regenerative Hydrogen/halogen Cells," J. of Electrochem. Soc.,126 ...
Their fuel cells differ from traditional ones since they use a hydrocarbon membrane, instead of a fluorocarbon membrane. ... Bourne, S. (2012). "ITM's membrane technology unlocks the power of hydrogen". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2012 (7): 12-12. doi:10.1016 ... HFuel is suited to small fleet and early "hydrogen highway" applications of both fuel cell and hydrogen engine vehicles (FCV ... "ITM Power plans flotation in UK". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2004 (6): 5-9. 2004. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(04)00204-4. "ITM Power - ...
Hyundai ix35 FCEV
The fuel cell is a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The Hyundai ix35 FCEV is in production since 2013, a production ... The Tucson Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) is a test fuel cell vehicle for Hyundai's 2nd generation hydrogen fuel cell. The ... by 2025 Hyundai fcev deployment First production Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell Vehicle prepped for Geneva Hyundai Motor's fuel-cell ... hydrogen tanks for hydrogen storage contain enough fuel for a 369 miles (594 km) drive. The Hyundai ix35 fuel cell electric ...
... was found effective as a membrane for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells by permitting hydrogen ion transport ... The figure to the right shows a chlor-alkali cell where Nafion functions as a membrane between half cells. The membrane allows ... Nafion has received a considerable amount of attention as a proton conductor for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells ... Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Chen, Q. (2007). "Parallel cylindrical water nanochannels in Nafion fuel-cell membranes". Nature Materials. 7 ...
... candidate among many other aromatic hydrocarbon-based polymers for highly durable proton-exchange membranes in fuel cells. ... The biggest challenge for SPES application in fuel cells is improving its chemical durability. Under oxidative environment, ... Borup, Rod (2007). "Scientific aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cell durability and degradation". Chemical Reviews. 107 (10 ... Such membranes can be used in applications like hemodialysis, waste water recovery, food and beverage processing, and gas ...
It uses a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell to generate about 200 Watts. It can reach approximately 25 km/h and, on a full ... The PHB is a hydrogen bicycle, power-assisted by an electric motor that gets its electricity from a fuel cell. It is ... As stated by the manufacturer, those who already have a bike don't need to change the original frame structure; the fuel cell ... Hydrogen vehicle Pearl Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bicycle, Ecogeek Pearl Hydrogen China Valeswood ETD Ltd, UK Shanghai Daily. ...
In recent years, polybenzimidazole found its application as a membrane in fuel cells. Brinker and Robinson invented the first ... This renders the possible application to high temperature fuel cells. Cell performance test show a good stability in ... "High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazoles for fuel cells". Progress in Polymer Science. 34 (5): ... The elevated temperature increases the kinetic rates of the fuel cell reactions. It also can reduce the problem of the catalyst ...
Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics
2004 - Geoffrey Ballard - Founder of Ballard Power Systems, developer of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. 2007 - Geoffrey H ... Electrolysis Cell Design For Ion Exchange Membrane Chlor-Alkali Process in: Electrochemical Cell design. Boston, MA: Springer ... fuel cells and super capacitors at University of Southampton. Electrochemical engineering Electrochemistry (eds.), Allen J. ... 1997 - Maomi Seko - Developer of ion exchange membranes for chlor-alkali process and president of Asahi Chemical Industry. 2002 ...
It uses a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell to generate about 8 hp or 6 kilowatts. The Discovery Channel has indicated it can ... "Fuel cell motorcycle". youtube.com. Retrieved 2006-10-11. Intelligent Energy Business Week article Fuel cell motorcycle, The ... The ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle) is an electric motorcycle prototype powered by an hydrogen fuel cell. It was developed by ... Hydrogen vehicle "Fuel cell motorcycle". youtube.com. Retrieved 2006-10-11. "Intelligent Energy". Retrieved 2007-04-02. " ...
... which has implications for the type of membrane needed. In RED, as in a fuel cell, the cells are stacked. A module with a ... and membranes and increasing the membrane performance. In 2007 the Directorate for Public Works and Water Management, Redstack ... The membrane halves the pressure differences which results in a water column of approximately 135 meters. The energy potential ... The chemical potential difference between salt and fresh water generates a voltage over each membrane and the total potential ...
United States hydrogen policy
Most hydrogen fuel cells today are of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) type. A PEM converts the chemical energy released ... By 2013, there were more than 4,000 fuel cell forklifts in the US. Hydrogen fuel cells also have the potential to replace or ... FuelCells.org also provides a fuel cell Policy Activity Wrapup for fuel cells and hydrogen for the year 2010. This wrap-up ... The fuel cells made at this time were most similar to today's phosphoric acid fuel cells. ...
Caesium hydrogen sulfate
Ecklund-Mitchell, Lars E. Development of thin CsHSO4 membrane electrode assemblies for electrolysis and fuel cell applications ... Ecklund-Mitchell, Lars E. Development of thin CsHSO4 membrane electrode assemblies for electrolysis and fuel cell applications ... "CsHSO4 as proton conductor for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry ... "CsHSO4 as proton conductor for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry ...
Graphenated carbon nanotube
"Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrids as Robust Catalyst Supports in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells". Journal of The ... high surface area conductive catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells electrode applications with enhanced ... "The Direct Growth of Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrids as Catalyst Support for High-Performance PEM Fuel Cells". ECS ...
Dynamic vapor sorption
Water is typically supplied to the fuel cell by humidifying the gas feed stream. The level of hydration within the proton ... T.V Nguyen and N. Vanderborgh, J. Membrane Sci. 143 (1998) 235. W-k. Lee, S. Shimpalee, and J.W. Van Zee, J. Electrochem. Soc. ... For these reasons, DVS has been used to study the water sorption and transport properties of proton exchange membranes. ... and vapor sorption kinetic results can yield vital information for materials ranging from pharmaceuticals to fuel cells. ...
It uses water added to sodium borohydride which releases hydrogen fuel for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. It can be re- ... Kits using copper-magnesium cells activated by water or the liquid sample itself are also in development. Another water- ... The HydroPak uses water-activated disposable fuel cartridges as an alternative to lead acid battery packs and portable ... charged simply by replacing the fuel cartridge rather than the lengthy recharging that other batteries require, however the ...
Sea Water Desalination Fuel cell membranes Industrial Water Hotels and Restaurant water Heating water Boiler and cooling water ... BWT is also entering a new business sector to develop membranes for fuel cells and batteries. The filter cartridge for table ... membrane technology microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, reverse osmosis), pure steam generators, pure water ... distillation, UV systems, ozone generators, ion exchange membranes, electrolysis, electrodialysis, electrodeionisation,chlorine ...
Like other fuel cell powered vehicle, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell in this drive system uses hydrogen to produce ... the basic power source is a liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (Proton's "PM Basic A 50" fuel-cell system). Lead- ... UJV Collaborate on Fuel Cell Bus, HybridMile.com, 21-05-2009, Retrieved on 10-06-2009 Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH. ... Proton Motor Fuel Cell's Triple-hybrid drive system comprises three sources of energy, namely hydrogen fuel cells, batteries, ...
Fast ion conductor
These materials are used to allow oxygen to move through the solid in certain kinds of fuel cells. Zirconium dioxide can also ... As solid electrolytes they allow the movement of ions without the need for a liquid or soft membrane separating the electrodes ... Solid electrolytes find use in all solid-state supercapacitors, batteries, and fuel cells, and in various kinds of chemical ... Fast ion conductors are used primarily in solid oxide fuel cells. ...
Graphitic carbon nitride
When in the form of thin membranes, proton conductors are an essential part of small, inexpensive fuel cells. The polymer ... Proton conduction has also been observed in the new type of proton conductors for fuel cells - protic organic ionic plastic ... nafion is a typical proton conductor in fuel cells. A jelly-like substance similar to nafion residing in the ampullae of ... perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells ...
Brown adipose tissue
... and brown fat cells without PRDM16 were converted into muscle cells. The mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell utilize fuels to ... across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This energy is used to synthesize ATP when the protons flow across the membrane (down ... muscle cells), adipocytes, and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). The classic population of brown fat cells and muscle cells both ... "Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human". Cell. 150 (2): 366-76. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
"System integration of China's first proton exchange membrane fuel cell locomotive". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. ... "Japanese fuel cell rail vehicle in running tests". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2006 (12): 2-3. 2006. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(06)71254-8 ... PDF). Fuel Cell Today. "BNSF Railway and Vehicle Projects Demonstrate Experimental Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Switch Locomotive." BNSF ... "Fuel-Cell-Powered Mine Locomotive." Sandia National Laboratories, 2004. "Development of the World's First Fuel Cell Hybrid ...
Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide...
Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide ... Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide ... title = "Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon ... Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide ...
Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells - DTU Orbit
Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Publication: ... Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Journal of ... Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Journal of ... Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. / Yang, ...
Better fuel cell membranes | UDaily
This membrane work is a critical part of a larger overall effort at UD to make platinum-free fuel cells a commercial reality ... Better fuel cell membranes. Article by Diane Kukich Photo by Kathy F. Atkinson September 15, 2016 ... He and colleagues recently reported a breakthrough that promises to bring down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells by replacing ... IONICS project teams are paving the way for technologies that overcome the limitations of current battery and fuel cell ...
Fuel Cell Membranes | AIChE
Membranes have played increasingly important roles in fuel cells. For fuel cells, membranes are involved in fuel processing and ... 180oC and new membranes for alkaline fuel cells, are critical to the widespread use of fuel cells. Original and review papers ... on membranes for fuel cell applications are sought, including (1) fuel processing, (2) proton-exchange membranes, (3) hydroxyl ... the performance of fuel cell on the cathode side. Proton-exchange and hydroxyl ion-exchange membranes and membrane electrode ...
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology - 1st Edition
Purchase Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low- ... Fundamentals of polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology. Chapter 1: Fuels and fuel processing for ... Covers the fundamental science and engineering of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel ...
Nanomaterials in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells | SpringerLink
H. Dai, H.M. Zhang, Q.T. Luo, Y. Zhang, C. Bi, Properties and fuel cell performance of proton exchange membranes prepared from ... Zhang Y., Xue R., Yuan W., Liu X. (2018) Nanomaterials in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. In: Li F., Bashir S., Liu J. ( ... Although significant advancements have been achieved for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in recent years, PEMFCs ... Z. Yuan, Y. Zhang, J. Leng, Y. Gao, X. Liu, Development of a 4-cell air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell stack. J. ...
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell humidity sensor - Ford Motor Company
A humidity sensing device for determining the amount of humidity in at least one primary fluid stream that is passed to a fuel ... cell stack is provided. The sensing device includes an outer housing and ... 154 for ensuring the proper operation of the membranes in the fuel cells in the fuel cell stack 108. The first humidity sensor ... Fuel cell system. 2004-09-23. Enjoji et al.. 6706430. Electronic by-pass of fuel cell cathode gas to combustor. 2004-03-16. ...
mf22 revision | Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell | Hydrogen
operated at 0.8 V and maximum power of the fuel cell. . Wildgoose A hydrogen fuel cell has been constructed and approximations ... Calculate the current and power when the cell is operated at 0.8 V and maximum power of the fuel cell. i = (VOC - Vcell) / k ... A hydrogen fuel cell has been constructed and approximations of the performance can be analysed by a linear approximation of an ... cell using n-type TiO2 and p-type NiO . Fielden What are the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem cell in comparison to a ...
Fuel cell membrane electrode and seal assembly - Ballard Power Systems Inc.
A fully supported membrane assembly for an electrochemical fuel cell is provided. A first and second layer of porous ... 2 is an end view of the fuel cell stack assembly 10 illustrated in FIG. 1, showing hydrogen (fuel) gas inlet 71, hydrogen (fuel ... The membrane assembly of claim 36 wherein said membrane is a solid polymer ion exchange membrane. 38. The membrane assembly of ... 2. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said membrane is a solid polymer ion exchange membrane. 3. The membrane ...
Mathematical Modeling of Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells | SpringerLink
... fuel cell has been greatly facilitated by the rapid development of AEM fuel cell in recent years. Mathematical modeling has ... The modeling work on the alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) ... In: An L., Zhao T. (eds) Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. ... Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane. J. Power ... A review of radiation-grafted polymer electrolyte membranes for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. J. Power ...
Patent US7569297 - Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention - Google Patents
... and jf c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate. ... Kf is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, ℑ is ... The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t: t ≥ n f D f C f K f j f c where Cf is the formic acid fuel concentration over ... A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer ...
Membrane gives fuel cells a boost - Geek.com
... announced on monday that it has released a fuel cell membrane that is intended for use in direct methanol fuel cells (dmfc). ... i guarantee youd choose the much cheaper fuel cell. besides, fuel cells do work now, and are on sale from a number of ... Membrane gives fuel cells a boost. By 01.20.2004 :: 11:17AM EST 01.20.2004 ... these vehicles are dual fuel and seem more realistic than fuel cells for the next 25 years. at the same time more use of ...
Mass Spectrometry of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
"Chapter four-polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells," in Advances in Fuel Cells, K. D. K. T. S. Zhao and ... technique for direct alcohol fuel cell characterization," in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell ... Y. S. Kim and P. Zelenay, "Direct methanol fuel cell durability," in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability, F. N. Büchi, M. ... "Mathematical model of a direct methanol fuel cell," Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 43-48, 2004 ...
339a) Molecular Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Fuel Cell | AIChE Academy
Molecular Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Fuel Cell Seung Soon Jang ... For fair comparison, we simulate proton and anion exchange membrane fuel cell using the same polymer backbone with the same ... We present what we have learned from our researches on polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell systems using molecular ... Based on these understanding on the proton exchange membranes, we pursue the working principles in anion exchange membranes. ...
Development of Carbon Composite Bipolar Plate for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell in Passenger Vehicle
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) is expected to be one of the major power source for the future passenger vehicle as it ... PEMFC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) is expected to be one of the major power source for the future passenger vehicle ... Development of Carbon Composite Bipolar Plate for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell in Passenger Vehicle 2008-01-0313. ... "Development of Carbon Composite Bipolar Plate for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell in Passenger Vehicle," SAE Technical ...
Polymers | Free Full-Text | Modeling and Simulation for Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
In order to achieve high mechanical strength, the molecular structure should be such that the hydrated membrane contains narrow ... For calculating water diffusion and gas permeability through the membranes, the dissipative particle dynamics-Monte Carlo ... in which the direction to enhance the diffusivity by improving membrane structure can be clearly seen. ... approach was applied, while mechanical strength of the hydrated membrane was simulated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As ...
New liquid-metal membrane technology may help make hydrogen fuel cell vehicles viable | EurekAlert! Science News
One reason is the high cost and complexity of producing hydrogen fuel, which can be reduced by using membranes to separate ... Conventional palladium membranes are expensive and fragile. A new study at Worcester Polytechnic Institute shows that membranes ... While hydrogen fuel cell cars offer advantages over electric vehicles, they have yet to take off. ... New liquid-metal membrane technology may help make hydrogen fuel cell vehicles viable Separation membranes hold the key to ...
Non-noble catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell anodes | FCANODE Project | FP6 | CORDIS | European Commission
For PEM Fuel Cells to attain economic viability for mass production, catalyst cost must be reduced. Currently, platinum-based ... NMP-2004-18.104.22.168 - Basic materials and industrial process research on functional materials for fuel cells ... which have the necessarily high rates of hydrogen oxidation and which are stable in the environment of the fuel cell.. In ... Theory studies will be used to calculate critical bond energies and activation barriers of processes relevant to the fuel cell ...
Wiley: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling - Fengge Gao, Benjamin Blunier, Abdellatif Miraoui
Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile ... Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling. Fengge Gao, Benjamin Blunier, Abdellatif Miraoui ... The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly ... Part 3: 1D Dynamic Model of a Nexa Fuel Cell Stack 147 ... Part 2: Modeling of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 47. ...
DuPont Fuel Cells Introduces New Extended Life Membrane - Renewable Energy World
... an extended life membrane that combines the advantages of mechanical reinforcement with enhanced chemical stability, enabling ... DuPont Fuel Cells announced the introduction of DuPont Nafion XL, ... DuPont Fuel Cells. "Our latest innovation, the Nafion XL membrane, is a prime example because it enables a step change in ... DuPont Fuel Cells announced the introduction of DuPont Nafion XL, an extended life membrane that combines the advantages of ...
Polyfuel fuel cell membrane is thinner, gives 40% more power | Mobile Magazine
... fuel cells are the way of the future. Polyfuel hopes to lead the way, having just announced today a new fuel cell membrane that ... The membranes are said to be the "heart of the fuel cell", providing 200 milliwatts of peak power per square centimeter, ... more power than any fuel cell membrane previously available." More power is always a good thing, right? ... One engineer is quoted as saying "A fuel cell can never deliver too much power, or be too efficient." ...
Global Market for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell MEA Components
... membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components should reach $2.6 billion by 2022 from $766 million in 2017 at a compound annual ... The global market for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) ... The membrane for PEM fuel cells market is estimated at $334 ... Membranes for PEM fuel cells represent 33% of the market, but only a small fraction, 3%, of the overall U.S. membrane market. ... Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells. Jul 2018, FCB035F, BCC Publishing ...
Global Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Industr
The Global Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional - Market Research Reports ... Figure Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Picture and Specifications of Plug Power. Table Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ... Figure Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Picture and Specifications of Protonex. Table Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ... Figure Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Picture and Specifications of FuelCell Energy. Table Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel ...
Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells - Wikipedia
... anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), or alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs), are a type of alkaline fuel cells (AFCs ... solid oxide fuel cells and phosphoric acid fuel cells. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) are functionally ... Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFC) also known as hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), ... Proton Exchange Membrane Alkaline fuel cell Winter, M; Brodd, R. J. (2004). "What are batteries, fuel cells, and ...
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Performance of a Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Copolymer Membrane
Single cell performance of the copolymer membrane was tested in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell test station. The ... Among fuel cell types, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) attract most attention due to their high power density ... Single Cell Performance Test. The standard fuel cell test station was described elsewhere . Copolymer membrane was ... Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Performance of a Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Copolymer Membrane. Hasan ...
Dynamic behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under transportation cycle load - IEEE Conference Publication
The Energy Blog: PEM Fuel Cell Membranes
... characteristics of membranes are not totally satisfied by todays membranes when applied to a hydrogen automotive fuel cell. ... The PEM is the key to the fuel cell technology; it must permit only the necessary ions to pass between the anode and cathode. ... The best-known and most widely used membrane material today is... ... The hydrogen fuel cell electrolyte or more commonly the polymer ... electrolyte membrane (PEM) is a material that looks something like ordinary kitchen plastic wrap. It conducts only positively ...
Materials Issues in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
However, in a fuel cell the electrodes are not consumed. Rather, a fuel cell consumes fuel (hydrogen for PEM fuel cells) at the ... The US DOE Fuel Cell subprogram emphasizes polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as replacements for internal ... Figure 1 Illustration of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operating on hydrogen fuel and oxygen from air. ... Fuel Cell Description. A fuel cell electrocatalytically generates electricity in a manner analogous to batteries. ...
On Gas Contaminants, and Bipolar Plates in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Alloys, Bipolar Plate, Electroplated Coatings, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Contact Resistance, Molybdenum, PEM Fuel Cell, ... 1. Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Ammonia ... The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy ... On Gas Contaminants, and Bipolar Plates in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Acevedo Gomez, Yasna KTH, School of Engineering ...
Cost Cutting Cell Membrane Research for Hydrogen Fuel
... has been a new high power density fuel cell membrane. Backed by funding from the Carbon ... a leading energy storage and provider of clean fuel, ... fuel cell, fuel cell membrane, fuel cell news, fuel cell ... fuel cell storage, fuel cell technology, hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon membrane, hydrogen cell, hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel cell ... hydrogen fuel cell research, hydrogen fuel cell storage, hydrogen fuel cell technology, hydrogen fuel cells, hydrogen market, ...
New study sets performance targets for metal-free fuel cell membrane
The best road to zero-emission vehicles may be with fuel-cell technology. It preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles, ... For Yan, that approach is a new twist on traditional fuel cells, known as proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or PEMFCs, which ... New study sets performance targets for metal-free fuel cell membrane. (Nanowerk News) The pathway to zero-emission vehicles has ... Yan and his research team are pursuing an alternative technology, the hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell (HEMFC), because of ...
AnodeElectrode assembliesCatalystCathodeCatalystsAssembliesAnodeElectrolyte membranesProtonsExchange membranesElectrochemicalHydrocarbon membraneHydrogen fuelAnion exchangePolyelectrolyte membranes for fuelPEMFCsStableIonomerAssemblyPorousAlkaline polymerPerfluorosulfonic acidAcidNanocompositeAdvancesPerformancePFSAAcidicAnodesComposite Membrane
- For fuel cells, membranes are involved in fuel processing and as proton-exchange and hydroxyl ion-exchange materials in membrane electrode assemblies. (aiche.org)
- Proton-exchange and hydroxyl ion-exchange membranes and membrane electrode assemblies, including cost-effective Nafion replacements particularly for 120 - 180oC and new membranes for alkaline fuel cells, are critical to the widespread use of fuel cells. (aiche.org)
- Original and review papers on membranes for fuel cell applications are sought, including (1) fuel processing, (2) proton-exchange membranes, (3) hydroxyl ion-exchange membranes, and (4) membrane electrode assemblies. (aiche.org)
- This BCC Research analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). (bccresearch.com)
- Nafion membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) set the standard for power density and durability in a variety of fuel cell applications from buses, forklifts, and scooters to laptops, cellular phones, and stationary generators. (typepad.com)
- Abstract 72452S03-I This project will develop and commercialize ion-conducting thermally stable polymers for use as high-temperature proton exchange membrane/membrane electrode assemblies (PEM/MEA) materials. (sbir.gov)
- The objective of this proposal is the development of a new generation of advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) technologies, based on advances in supra molecular chemistry and engineering , which will serve as the foundation for the development of PEM based membrane electrode assemblies (MEA's) and ultimately, fuel cells. (epa.gov)
- In this paper, an integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is accomplished by using a mixed ionic-electronic conductor. (diva-portal.org)
- A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. (energy.gov)
- 5. The membrane assembly of claim 1 wherein each of said layers of sheet material further includes a catalyst on at least a portion thereof, said layers of sheet material rendered electrochemically active in the area containing said catalyst. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 6. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5 wherein said catalyst comprises platinum. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 7. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5 wherein said catalyst is included on at least a portion of the surface of each of said layers of sheet material facing said membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 8. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 7 wherein said catalyst is included on the central portion of each of said layers of sheet material, said central portion substantially coinciding with the flow field carrying reactant gas to said sheet material layer. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Virtually all of the hydrogen produced in the United States is obtained from hydrocarbon fuels, primarily natural gas, through steam reforming, a multi-step process in which the hydrocarbons react with high-temperature steam in the presence of a catalyst to produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and molecular hydrogen (H2). (eurekalert.org)
- The motors are powered by electricity generated inside the fuel cell when hydrogen and oxygen combine in the presence of a catalyst (the only "waste" product is water). (eurekalert.org)
- For PEM Fuel Cells to attain economic viability for mass production, catalyst cost must be reduced. (europa.eu)
- The large majority of membranes/ionomer that have been developed are fully hydrocarbon, allowing for much easier catalyst recycling and lower fuel crossover. (wikipedia.org)
- The protons travel through a membrane material to the cathode while the electrons travel via an external circuit to the cathode where they combine with the protons and oxygen on the cathode catalyst to form water and complete the cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The most common catalyst used is platinum on carbon (Pt/C), which has shown the best performance in the fuel cell until now. (diva-portal.org)
- The results show that ammonia not only provokes changes in the polymer membrane but also in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes. (diva-portal.org)
- The disruptive approach of applying alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) potentially meets several of the challenges facing other approaches to low temperature fuel cells, including the otherwise high catalyst and fuel costs. (springer.com)
- To generate electricity, PEM fuel cells rely on two chemical compartments separated by a permeable catalyst membrane. (nanowerk.com)
- Evaluation of the experimental results shows two main causes for fuel cell break down: (1) the presence of tetra hydrofuran in the fuel causing poisoning of the anode catalyst and eventual cell decay, and (2) ion exchange membrane dry-out due to low current loading and extended periods on open circuit voltage. (dtic.mil)
- Catalyst coated gas diffusion layers or catalyst coated membranes were made to test the stability of the polymers in the catalyst bed when exposed to the alcohol-ketone pair. (queensu.ca)
- The sleeve comprises a proton exchange membrane encapsulating a substantially planar anode in ionic communication with a catalytically effective amount of a noble metal catalyst. (swri.org)
- A cylindrical fuel cell is made by abutting a flexible, porous cathode to the sleeve in ionic communication with a noble metal catalyst and wrapping the sleeve and the cathode around one of the hydrogen inlets. (swri.org)
- Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. (unt.edu)
- Yan believes that HEMFCs can solve some of the most significant commercialization barriers of PEM fuel cells, including catalyst cost and durability, while at the same time achieving PEMFCs' high power and energy density. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- The global market value of components for PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (MEA) as defined by the membrane, the bipolar plates, the gaseous diffusion layers, and the catalyst ink and electrodes, is an estimated $383 million in 2010. (bccresearch.com)
- A significant reduction of PEM fuel cells costs can beachieved through the development of an alternative low-cost cathode catalyst, which forms the objective of the present thesis. (bl.uk)
- Finally, the activity of selected catalysts has been assessed through testing two catalyst candidates in a small scale PEM fuel cell. (bl.uk)
- Owing to its high activity and low cost, the catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells, the team suggested. (greencarcongress.com)
- One possibility is to use Raney Ni as the HOR catalyst in liquid alkaline fuel cells. (greencarcongress.com)
- Current versions of fuel cells use platinum as a catalyst for their operation, and, as most of the people know, platinum is an expensive metal. (greenoptimistic.com)
- The new membrane can also be mixed with the catalyst itself (nickel), making the whole assembly more efficient, because the contact surface between them is increased. (greenoptimistic.com)
- The degradation under H2 starvation conditions occur in the catalyst layer, mainly in the anode, while the membrane is not affected. (aau.dk)
- Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane. (energy.gov)
- A set of governing equations, conservation of mass, momentum, species, energy and charge for gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers and the membrane regions are considered. (thescipub.com)
- PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer as an electrolyte and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. (scribd.com)
- The platinum catalyst is also extremely sensitive to CO poisoning, making it necessary to employ an additional reactor to reduce CO in the fuel gas if the hydrogen is derived from an alcohol or hydrocarbon fuel. (scribd.com)
- A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an assembled stack of proton exchange membranes (PEM) or alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM), catalyst and flat plate electrode used in fuel cells and electrolyzers. (wikipedia.org)
- Y.F. Zhang, P. Zhang, B. Zhang, J.M. Li, H.C. Deng, X.W. Liu, Development of an air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell with the cathode shutter current collectors. (springer.com)
- Y. Li, X.L. Zhang, L. Nie, Y.F. Zhang, X.W. Liu, Stainless steel fiber felt as cathode diffusion backing and current collector for a micro direct methanol fuel cell with low methanol crossover. (springer.com)
- A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. (google.com)
- the membrane, which provides a layer between the cathode and the anode in the fuel cell, is a honeycombed plastic polymer that also includes platinum and other materials. (geek.com)
- In an AAEMFC, the fuel, hydrogen or methanol, is supplied at the anode and oxygen through air, and water are supplied at cathode. (wikipedia.org)
- Fuel is oxidized at anode and oxygen is reduced at cathode. (wikipedia.org)
- Electrochemical reactions when hydrogen is the fuel At Anode: H2 + 2OH− → 2H2O + 2e− At cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4e− → 4OH− Electrochemical reactions when methanol is the fuel At anode: CH3OH + 6OH− → CO2 + 5H2O + 6e- At cathode: 3/2O2 + 3H2O + 6e− → 6OH− The alkaline fuel cell used by NASA in 1960s for Apollo and Space Shuttle program generated electricity at nearly 70% efficiency using aqueous solution of KOH as an electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
- The most significant advantage of AAEMFCs is that under alkaline conditions, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics at the cathode are much more facile than in PEMFCs, potentially allowing use of inexpensive, non-noble metal catalysts such as silver or iron phthalocyanines for the cathode and nickel for the anode (fuel electrode). (wikipedia.org)
- Also, methanol crossover from anode to cathode is reduced in AAEMFCs compared to PEMFCs, due to the opposite direction of ion transport in the membrane, from cathode to anode. (wikipedia.org)
- By forcing the material to self-assemble into structural blocks and conductive blocks, PolyFuel can make membranes that not only are 16 times stronger, but also allow the hydrogen protons to flow more freely to the cathode side of the cell. (typepad.com)
- Rather, a fuel cell consumes fuel (hydrogen for PEM fuel cells) at the anode and oxygen from the air at the cathode. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The combination of the anode/membrane/ cathode layers is called the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Most of the current research on catalysts for PEM fuel cells is focused on the cathode. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Unfortunately, the presence of the 1-phenyl-1-propanol product could not be proved by EIS or CV on the fuel cell, or by GC-FID of the cathode effluent. (queensu.ca)
- The nanosized TiO2 particles that have hygroscopic property are expected to adsorb the water produced from the cathode reaction and to release the water once the proton exchange membrane needs water. (scientific.net)
- High current density operation raises the temperature of the cell, but simultaneously increases the water content at the cathode, causing an increase of the contact resistance. (diva-portal.org)
- Governing equations are solved in all cell layers including cathode and anode electrodes by finite volume method using a single-region approach. (magiran.com)
- For large fuel cells and complete fuel cell stacks in particular, well designed anode and cathode inlet and outlet sections are expected to aid in achieving flatter quantities distributions and in preventing hot spots over the membrane electrode assembly area, and to develop proper start-up, shut-down, and tempering concepts. (logos-verlag.de)
- Water content in the fuel cell is given basically by the generation of the water in the cathode due to the reaction, the humidity of the inlet gases and the transport trough the membrane. (csic.es)
- The experimental part of this thesis focuses on the development an assessment of alternative cathode catalysts for PEM fuel cells. (bl.uk)
- Thus the membrane is unsuitable for automotive applications, where water condensation from cold engine start-ups and other normal reactions at the fuel cell cathode unavoidably bring the temperature down into undesirable ranges that leach the phosphoric acid out of the reaction. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are based on two half-cell reactions: hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at the anode and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. (greencarcongress.com)
- It is found that water transport across the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is noteworthy and that water vapor partial pressure on the anode outlet is almost always higher than on the cathode outlet, even when using dry hydrogen. (upc.edu)
- A fuel cell includes a proton-exchange membrane, and a cathode and anode fixed on its opposite sides. (patents.com)
- 10. With the anode and the cathode either of the claim 1-8 the non humidification type proton conduction membrane of statement was arranged in 1 sections, the fuel cell. (go.jp)
- This barrier allows the transport of the protons from the anode to the cathode through the membrane but forces the electrons to travel around a conductive path to the cathode. (wikipedia.org)
- He and colleagues recently reported a breakthrough that promises to bring down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells by replacing expensive platinum catalysts with cheaper ones made from metals like nickel. (udel.edu)
- In addition, new developments in membrane technology highlight the need to explore the performance of catalysts in a higher temperature regime (in the region of 130-200°C). To accomplish these aims the following novel route will be used involving a multidisciplinary approach from theoretical design through to the final operating membrane electrode assembly. (europa.eu)
- Finally, the behaviour and stability of selected catalysts will be assessed within the single cell environment and their potential for large-scale production investigated. (europa.eu)
- For Yan, that approach is a new twist on traditional fuel cells, known as proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or PEMFCs, which rely on costly platinum-based catalysts. (nanowerk.com)
- Yan is co-author on a new paper published in the online version of Nature Nanotechnology ( 'Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells' ) that he views as a roadmap to a unified strategy for HEMFC zero-emission cars based on three arguments. (nanowerk.com)
- Further, it becomes possible to consider hydrogen fuels containing substantial amounts of impurities, whereas an acidic membrane approach (that in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, PEMFCs) requires high-purity gases and PGM catalysts. (springer.com)
- Catalysts in the electrodes on either side of the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) promote the two simultaneous half-reactions which allow the chemical energy carried in the fuel and oxidant to be converted directly into electricity. (utexas.edu)
- In this project, Nikola will bring together advanced concepts in catalysts, ionomers, proton exchange membranes, and gas diffusion layers within a robust MEA by using appropriate, scalable fabrication methods, the company says. (fleetequipmentmag.com)
- This, in turn, has compelled engineers to (1) work to reduce the platinum loading in the membrane assemblies and (2) find alternate, lower-cost catalysts that offer comparable performance to platinum. (greencarcongress.com)
- One promising approach to reduce the cost of fuel cells is to switch the operating environment from an acidic to a basic one (that is, a hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell, HEMFC), thus opening up the possibility of using PGM-free catalysts and other cheaper components. (greencarcongress.com)
- Developers are currently exploring platinum/ruthenium catalysts that are more resistant to CO.PEM fuel cells are used primarily for transportation applications and some stationary applications. (scribd.com)
- Due to the high cost of these and other similar materials, research is being undertaken to develop catalysts that use lower cost materials as the high costs are still a hindering factor in the widespread economical acceptance of fuel cell technology. (wikipedia.org)
- However, there are many companies which produce custom or low quantity MEAs, allowing different shapes, catalysts or membranes to be evaluated as well, which include FuelCellStore, FuelCellsEtc, HIAT gGmbH and many others. (wikipedia.org)
- At anode, hydroxide ions react with the fuel to produce water and electrons. (wikipedia.org)
- When a power supply is connected, and air is supplied to the fuel cell electrode, metal contaminants will be drawn through the membrane into the catholyte and trivalent chromium in the bath is oxidized to hexavalent chromium at the outer lead anode. (epa.gov)
- This work presents a comprehensive mapping of electrochemical impedance measurements under the influence of CO and methanol vapor contamination of the anode gas in a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, at varying load current. (aau.dk)
- T. Zhou, R. Shao, S. Chen, X. He, J. Qiao, J. Zhang, A review of radiation-grafted polymer electrolyte membranes for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. (springer.com)
- Y. S. Kim and B. S. Pivovar, "Chapter four-polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells," in Advances in Fuel Cells , K. D. K. T. S. Zhao and N. Trung Van, Eds. (hindawi.com)
- The state-of-the-art membrane material is based on perfluorosulfonic acid that depends on the presence of water in the membrane to conduct the protons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In this kind of fuel cell the hydrogen ions (protons) migrate from the fuel electrode to the air electrode to react with oxygen to generate water and power. (psi.ch)
- That's why the cell needs a membrane which allows protons to pass but prevents the passage of gases. (psi.ch)
- Fuel-cell PEMs (proton-exchange membranes) allow the excretion of protons - the husk, in a sense - of the material providing the electrons that form the fuel cell 's electrical output. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- If the protons can't pass easily within the cell, the fettered flow reduces the electrical output. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Led by Yushan Yan, Distinguished Professor of Engineering, the research at UD will focus on creating a series of polymer-based hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). (udel.edu)
- The project, "Highly Conductive, Stable and Robust Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Based on Poly (Aryl Piperidinium)," is one of 16 funded through the $37 million program, which is aimed at transforming energy storage and conversion. (udel.edu)
- H. Dai, H.M. Zhang, Q.T. Luo, Y. Zhang, C. Bi, Properties and fuel cell performance of proton exchange membranes prepared from disulfonated poly (sulfide sulfone). (springer.com)
- G. Merle, M. Wessling, K. Nijmeijer, Anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: A review. (springer.com)
- Based on these understanding on the proton exchange membranes, we pursue the working principles in anion exchange membranes. (aiche.org)
- Polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes doped with strong acids predominate over other proton exchange membranes due to their stable proton conductivity at temperatures higher than 100°C. However, synthesis of high molecular weight PBI polymer is difficult and cost is quite high. (hindawi.com)
- Varcoe JR, Slade RCT (2005) Prospects for alkaline anion-exchange membranes in low temperature fuel cells. (springer.com)
- Zeng R, Varcoe JR (2011) Alkaline anion exchange membranes for fuel cells - a patent review. (springer.com)
- Yan JL, Hickner MA (2010) Anion exchange membranes by bromination of benzylmethyl-containing poly(sulfone)s. (springer.com)
- Sata T, Tsujimoto M, Yamaguchi T, Matsusaki K (1996) Change of anion exchange membranes in an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at high temperature. (springer.com)
- The anion-exchange membranes studied are a key component of certain polymer electrolyte fuel cells and serve to transfer charged particles (anions) while at the same time retaining gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (fz-juelich.de)
- In contrast, fuel cells using anion exchange membranes instead of proton-exchange membranes (Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, AEMFC), can do without acid-resistant precious metals. (fz-juelich.de)
- Standard anion-exchange membranes are usually made of a robust, electrically non-conductive, gas-impermeable and water-repellent polymer layer. (fz-juelich.de)
- Anion-exchange membranes with many hydrophobic graft copolymers in the conductive phase (below) form nanoscale puddles of water and undergo alkaline degradation. (fz-juelich.de)
- A detailed study of the D (a divinyl kenzene polymer substituted with sulfonic acid) and R ('D' membrane where a teflon polymer is substituted for the divinylbenzene) type ion exchange membranes for manpack fuel cells is presented. (dtic.mil)
- This is the first time that supra molecular structures based on ionomeric polyimide, polybenzimidazole and polyoxazole copolymers and surfactants will be used for the synthesis of directional proton exchange membranes. (epa.gov)
- A professor at the University of California, Riverside has won a grant to study quaternary phosphonium-based hydroxide exchange membranes for use in next-generation fuel cells. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- A fully supported membrane assembly for an electrochemical fuel cell is provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 1. A membrane electrode assembly for an electrochemical fuel cell comprising first and second layers of porous electrically conductive sheet material and a membrane interposed therebetween, said layers of sheet material covering and supporting substantially the entire surface of said membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Mathematical modeling has been widely recognized as a powerful tool to quantify the physical and electrochemical processes inside the fuel cells. (springer.com)
- The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy through two electrocatalytic reactions. (diva-portal.org)
- Fundamentally, fuel cells are gas fed batteries, i.e. devices that convert chemical energy directly into electrical and thermal energy by the electrochemical combustion of a fuel, usually hydrogen. (scirp.org)
- By switching the electrochemical reactions in fuel cells from an acidic medium to a basic one, and utilizing a highly conductive hydroxide exchange membrane (HEM), high-performance hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs) are radically different from the proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) that have been intensively researched and developed over the past two decades. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- A fuel cell is a device that gives electric power directly from electrochemical reduction and oxidation reactions. (csic.es)
- MPLs made of graphene (G-MPL) have been fabricated and assessed through morphological, microstructural, physical, and electrochemical characterizations and performance testing in a single scaled-up cell. (uwaterloo.ca)
- Fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that convert chemical energy to electrical energy efficiently. (utexas.edu)
- Bentham, Daniel WIPO patent WO/2008/007108 Current distribution system for electrochemical cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The new hydrocarbon membrane is just 20-microns thick and will be an integral part of "power applications such as notebook computers and cell phones. (mobilemag.com)
- PolyFuel claims to have a hydrocarbon membrane capable of working within a broader range of temperatures and producing more power per square centimeter than fuel cell membranes in use today. (typepad.com)
- The company has developed the hydrocarbon membrane to be used with hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
- Until now, the challenge in adopting such a hydrocarbon membrane has been that the interface between the electrode and hydrocarbon membrane is weak. (nanowerk.com)
- The researchers achieved this by moulding a pattern of tiny cylindrical pillars on the face of the hydrocarbon membrane. (nanowerk.com)
- The pillar-patterned hydrocarbon membrane is cast using silicone moulds. (nanowerk.com)
- according to the company, this membrane is a significant advance in dmfc technology, and it will take the place of the 40-year-old membrane currently in use, which was actually designed for hydrogen fuel cells. (geek.com)
- Worcester, Mass. - While cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells offer clear advantages over the electric vehicles that are growing in popularity (including their longer range, their lower overall environmental impact, and the fact that they can be refueled in minutes, versus hours of charging time), they have yet to take off with consumers. (eurekalert.org)
- Hydrogen fuel cells that use PolyFuel's new hydrocarbon-based material, the company claims, will produce less humidity, create up to 15 percent more power, and cost less to manufacture than traditional membrane materials. (typepad.com)
- The membrane could be used in applications such as hydrogen fuel cells or electrolysers for hydrogen production from water. (psi.ch)
- Hydrogen fuel cells, like the ones being researched and developed at PSI, could turn the goal of motorised mobility with no impact on the environment into reality. (psi.ch)
- Cheap hydrogen fuel cells could mean the end of combustion engine - slowly, but surely. (greenoptimistic.com)
- The modeling work on the alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cell has been greatly facilitated by the rapid development of AEM fuel cell in recent years. (springer.com)
- Y.S. Kang, Y. Heo, P. Kim, S.J. Yoo, Preparation and characterization of Cu-N-C electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells. (springer.com)
- For fair comparison, we simulate proton and anion exchange membrane fuel cell using the same polymer backbone with the same molecular variables such as molecular weight, equivalent weight, water contents, and so on. (aiche.org)
- The only difference is the ionic entities: the proton exchange membrane has sulfonate group with hydronium, whereas the anion exchange membrane has trimethyl ammonium group with hydroxide. (aiche.org)
- Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFC) also known as hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), or alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs), are a type of alkaline fuel cells (AFCs). (wikipedia.org)
- Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) are functionally similar to AFCs, the difference being AAEMFCs employ a solid polymer electrolyte while AFCs use aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
- In alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell, aqueous KOH is replaced with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, that can conduct hydroxide ions. (wikipedia.org)
- The biggest challenge in developing AAEMFCs is the anion exchange membrane (AEM). (wikipedia.org)
- Yanagi H, Fukuta K (2008) Anion exchange membrane and ionomer for alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). (springer.com)
- Adams LA, Poynton SD, Tamain C, Slade RCT, Varcoe JR (2008) A carbon dioxide tolerant aqueous-electrolyte-free anion-exchange membrane alkaline fuel cell. (springer.com)
- A novel alkaline polymer anion exchange membrane (AEM) was formulated based on poly (vinyl alcohol) with dinonylnaphthalenedisulfonic acid with different contents and KOH doping. (techconnectworld.com)
- The advantages of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) over proton exchange membrane fuel cells is the motivation for this dissertation. (umass.edu)
Polyelectrolyte membranes for fuel1
- Among fuel cell types, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) attract most attention due to their high power density, high energy transformation efficiency, and wide range of applications in stationary and portable devices [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The experimental part of the reliability study presented in this work consisted of performing life tests with single proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). (scirp.org)
- It also showed a very good performance in the fuel cell test rig conforming that it a potential replacement for silicone rubber in PEMFCs. (lboro.ac.uk)
- Although the power density is still low (compared with the peak power density of more than 1,000 mW cm −2 for PEMFCs), it demonstrates the possibility to fabricate low-cost PGM-free fuel cells. (greencarcongress.com)
- Hence, the challenge is to find binary, ternary or even quaternary non-noble systems, which have the necessarily high rates of hydrogen oxidation and which are stable in the environment of the fuel cell. (europa.eu)
- The absence of cations is, however, difficult to achieve, as most membranes are conditioned to functional hydroxide or bicarbonate forms out of their initial, chemically stable halogen form, and may significantly impact fuel cell performance by both competitively adsorbing to active sites and exerting Helmholtz-layer effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Thermal analysis revealed that the AEMs were thermally stable up to 220°C. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated by hot pressing and evaluated. (techconnectworld.com)
- The ammonium-biphosphate ion pairs have exhibited stable performance over a wide range of temperatures from 176-320 degrees F, responded well to changes in humidity and lasted three times longer than most commercial PEM fuel cell membranes. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Many are not stable at temperatures higher than 40°C, but most fuel cells require more extreme operational temperatures. (greenoptimistic.com)
- Ion irradiation has been investigated as a route for the preparation of mechanically stable and highly durable cross linked sulphonated PEEK for fuel cell application. (bham.ac.uk)
- The first objective was to find a compatible polymer that would work as either an ionomer/binding agent and as a membrane in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the TRFC. (queensu.ca)
- The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer. (ku.edu)
- The layers of sheet material and the membrane are bonded together to form a consolidated assembly. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Openings are formed in the layers of sheet material and the membrane to accommodate the passage of fluids through the assembly. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Fabrication of gas impervious edge seal for a bipolar gas distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 2. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said membrane is a solid polymer ion exchange membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 2 wherein said sheet material comprises carbon fiber paper. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 4. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 3 wherein said membrane has a thickness between about 0.001 inches and about 0.005 inches. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 10. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5, said layers of sheet material and said membrane having openings formed therein to accommodate the passage of fluids through said assembly. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 11. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 10 wherein said fluids include fuel gas, oxidant gas and coolant. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 12. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 11 wherein said coolant is water. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 14. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 10 wherein each of said layers of sheet material has grooves formed in the surface thereof facing away from said membrane, said grooves having an extrudable sealant material deposited therein, said grooves generally circumscribing said fluid passage openings. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The U.S. Department of Energy has awarded Nikola Motor Company a $1.7 million grant to advance its research into fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (MEA). (fleetequipmentmag.com)
- An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. (energy.gov)
- A first and second layer of porous electrically conductive sheet material, such as carbon filter paper, has a solid polymer ion exchange membrane interposed therebetween. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Some of the most advanced membranes were produced by retired WPI chemical engineering professor Yi Hua "Ed" Ma, who, with considerable funding from industry and the U.S. Department of Energy, pioneered a process for binding palladium to a porous steel tube, resulting in palladium layers as thin as 5 to 10 microns. (eurekalert.org)
- Our previous work using a laboratory-scale porous ceramic membrane cell has shown that metal impurities present in hard-chromium plating solutions can be removed and concentrated as a metal hydroxide sludge by operating a parallel, "in-tank", small-scale electrolysis process. (epa.gov)
- The different designs of free-standing mu-SOFC membranes and mu-SOFCs deposited on porous substrates are presented. (mit.edu)
- Micro fuel cells based on porous silicon membranes are developed and characterized in this work and are demonstrated to be a promising candidate for powering portable electronic instruments. (weltbild.ch)
- Proton conductivities of porous silicon membranes are derived using impedance spectroscopy. (weltbild.ch)
- It is shown that pore morphology determines the transport property of the porous silicon membrane through the volume fraction of the proton conducting phase in the membrane. (weltbild.ch)
- A percolation model is shown to well explain the transport phenomena in porous silicon membranes. (weltbild.ch)
- Finally, micro fuel cells are fabricated using porous silicon membranes with different thickness and different pore morphologies, and their performances are tested. (weltbild.ch)
- With formic acid solution as the fuel, the micro fuel cells based on either p-type or n-type porous silicon membrane produce promising peak power density. (weltbild.ch)
- The model accommodates multi-component diffusion in the porous electrodes and therefore offers the potential to further investigate the effects of contaminants such as carbon monoxide on cell performance. (lboro.ac.uk)
- Zeng R, Poynton SD, Kizewski JP, Slade RCT, Varcoe JR (2010) A novel reference electrode for application in alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. (springer.com)
- Zhang says: "There has hitherto been no commercial alkaline polymer electrolyte suitable for fuel cell use. (greenoptimistic.com)
- 4. A direct organic fuel cell as defined by claim 1 wherein said liquid organic fuel solution includes at least about (5.7 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid, and the cell is operative to produce a power density of at least about 60 mW/cm 2 when operating at about 25 C. (google.com)
- 5. A direct organic formic acid fuel cell as defined by claim 1 and wherein said C f is between about (10 10 −3 ) moles/ cm 3 and about (20 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid. (google.com)
- Copolymer membrane was doped with sulfuric acid to ensure proton exchange character. (hindawi.com)
- Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. (osti.gov)
- But the membrane can't operate below 284 degrees without degrading the phosphoric acid. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Fuel solutions with different formic acid concentrations are also tested. (weltbild.ch)
- 3. The aforementioned basic basis is containing nitrogen complex ring, the aforementioned acidic basis carbon acid radical and phosphorus acid radical, is at least one of sulfonate group and the sulfonyl imido basis, In claim 2 non humidification type proton conduction membrane of statement. (go.jp)
- 1. A fuel cell device comprising at least one membrane comprising a graft (co)polymer comprising a main chain and grafts bonded covalently to said main chain, each ofsaid grafts comprising both (1) at least one proton acceptor group and (2) at least one proton donor group, said grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences. (patentgenius.com)
- 7. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the proton donor group is an --OH or --SH group, an acid group --CO.sub.2H, --SO.sub.3H or --PO.sub.3H.sub.2, or a salt of amine group. (patentgenius.com)
- 9. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, wherein the grafts correspond to amino acid residues. (patentgenius.com)
- 10. The fuel cell device according to claim 9, wherein the amino acid residues are obtained from natural .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
- 13. The fuel cell device according to claim 1, further comprising grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences, each of which (1) does not comprise at least one proton acceptor group and/or (2) does not comprise at least oneproton donor group. (patentgenius.com)
- A hydrogen fuel cell has been constructed and approximations of the performance can be analysed by a linear approximation of an IV curve. (scribd.com)
- Single cell performance of the copolymer membrane was tested in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell test station. (hindawi.com)
- For transportation applications, the performance and cost of a fuel cell vehicle must be comparable or superior to today's gasoline vehicles to achieve widespread penetration into the market and achieve the desired reduction in petroleum consumption. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- By translating vehicle performance requirements into fuel cell system needs, DOE has defined technical targets for 2010 and 2015. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Initial tests have successfully demonstrated performance of the membrane far exceeded the energy output of current fuel cells. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
- Due to the fact that as many channels as possible are needed to reach high performance, as a general rule the more efficient the membrane, the faster its lifespan decreases. (fz-juelich.de)
- The main goal of presenting this system in this paper is to study and investigate the fuel cell performance in grid-connected operation under steady-state and transient condition. (actapress.com)
- The best performance achieved with the H2/propiophenone powered fuel cell was 6.23 μW/cm2. (queensu.ca)
- It is shown that both the reinforced and self-humidifying membrane have attained an enhanced performance. (scientific.net)
- The experimental results indicate that a clamping pressure of 1MPa improves the fuel cell performance in this paper. (scientific.net)
- In this study, the model was used to investigate the isothermal performance of the fuel cell and to assess how steady-state overpotentials depend on operating conditions. (umd.edu)
- The effect of gas cross-over through the membrane is studied on cell performance. (magiran.com)
- Professor Yushan Yan, in the Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering at UC Riverside, will focus on the development of a new generation of high-performance hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs). (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- A SLFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides-NSGDC composite exhibits an OCV of 1.05 V and maximum power density of 800 mW cm-2, which is comparable to the cell performance of conventional LTSOFCs and much higher than that of SLFC reported before. (diva-portal.org)
- These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved. (scielo.br)
- Higher temperatures dry out the membrane, increase cell resistance and reduce performance, said Fujimoto. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Part of the issues with the current PEMs is that you need to hydrate the hydrogen fuel stream for high performance, and the fuel cell can't run effectively at temperatures higher than the boiling point of water," he said. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- Heating the fuel cell and adding humidity doesn't reduce performance. (solarthermalmagazine.com)
- In addition, compression set behaviour of the elastomeric seal materials was investigated in order to evaluate their potential sealing performance in PEM fuel cells. (lboro.ac.uk)
- The cell performance loss caused by CO poisoning can be alleviated by the presence of water vapor. (aau.dk)
- Meanwhile, the CO poisoning can deteriorate with the presence of CO2, although the CO2 alone does not affect the cell performance. (aau.dk)
- In this study a two-phases, single-domain and non-isothermal model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been studied to investigate thermal management effects on fuel cell performance. (thescipub.com)
- The cell with the G-MPL has a better performance than the cell with the V-MPL under both fully (100% RH) and partially (40% RH) humidified conditions, with the peak power densities of 0.98 W cm−2 and 0.60 W cm−2, respectively - these peak power densities are about 7% and 43% higher than those obtained for the cell with the V-MPL at 100% and 40% RH, respectively. (uwaterloo.ca)
- The researchers achieved the breakthrough by switching the operating environment from acidic to basic, which is enabled by the membranes like the one funded by this IONICS project. (udel.edu)
- Currently, noble metal based systems alone exhibit both the stability required in the strongly acidic humidified environment of the fuel cell, and the sufficiently large current densities required. (europa.eu)
- His newly developed membrane is alkaline, not acidic, and makes it possible to use nickel instead of platinum. (greenoptimistic.com)
- Still, there are some issues with modifying the acidic conditions inside a fuel cell. (greenoptimistic.com)
- 2. The aforementioned 2nd region has the basic basis as the aforementioned functional group, the aforementioned proton discharge binding site has the acidic basis as the aforementioned functional group, In claim 1 non humidification type proton conduction membrane of statement. (go.jp)