Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin D2: A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin D: A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.Cyclin G1: A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.Cyclin G: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.Cyclin C: A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Cyclin B2: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cyclin T: A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cyclin G2: An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.Cyclin H: A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cyclin I: A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Genes, bcl-1: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6: Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 220.127.116.11) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9: A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107: A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. It contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell: A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8: A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3: A cyclin-dependent kinase that forms a complex with CYCLIN C and is active during the G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It plays a role in the transition from G1 to S PHASE and in transcriptional regulation.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).E2F4 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B: A transcriptional elongation factor complex that is comprised of a heterodimer of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9 and one of several CYCLINS including TYPE T CYCLINS and cyclin K. It functions by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA POLYMERASE II.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
... belongs to the cyclin family, whose members regulate cell cycle progression by interacting with CDK kinases. Cyclin ... Cyclin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA2 gene. It is one of the two types of cyclin A: cyclin A1 is ... The cyclin A2-CDK2 complex eventually phosphorylates E2F, turning off cyclin A2 transcription. E2F promotes cyclin A2 ... E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts with cyclins A ...
... 2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. Cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family, a group of proteins that function in regulating progression through the cell cycle. ... Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic ... such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and the Kip/Cip family of CDK-inhibitor proteins. Cyclin-A1 interacts ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
List of A1 genes, proteins or receptors
... beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, alpha 1 Dystrophin- ... member A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family, member A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, member A1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1, ... member A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1 Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 family ... family 1, member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 alpha 1 Serum amyloid A1 Solute carrier family ...
"Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins". ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in ... E2F1 promoter[PAX8] => E2F1 PMID 21602887 E2F1 has been shown to interact with: ARID3A, CUL1, Cyclin A1, Cyclin A2, GTF2H1, ... The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a ...
TGF beta receptor 2
This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and the TGFB receptor subfamily. The encoded protein ... member A1 STRAP, TGF beta receptor 1, and Transforming growth factor, beta 3. TGF beta receptor 2 consists of a C-terminal ... TGF beta receptor 2 has been shown to interact with: AP2B1, Cyclin B2, Endoglin, Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), ... "Functional association of TGF-beta receptor II with cyclin B". Oncogene. 18 (1): 269-75. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202263. PMID ...
"Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the MYB family of transcription factor genes, is a nuclear protein involved in ... MYBL2 has been shown to interact with: CDK9, CREB-binding protein, Cyclin A1, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C EP300, PARP1 ... Zhou W, Takuwa N, Kumada M, Takuwa Y (Feb 1994). "E2F1, B-myb and selective members of cyclin/cdk subunits are targets for ...
Members of the SIX gene family encode proteins that are characterized by a divergent DNA-binding homeodomain and an upstream ... "The Six1 homeoprotein stimulates tumorigenesis by reactivation of cyclin A1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... "Six3 and Six6 activity is modulated by members of the groucho family". Development. 130 (1): 185-95. doi:10.1242/dev.00185. ... Genes in the SIX family have been shown to play roles in vertebrate and insect development or have been implicated in ...
Retinoblastoma-like protein 2
"Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins". ... E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts with cyclins A ... E1A-associated 130-kD protein is encoded by a member of the retinoblastoma gene family and physically interacts with cyclins A ... Ferreira R, Magnaghi-Jaulin L, Robin P, Harel-Bellan A, Trouche D (Sep 1998). "The three members of the pocket proteins family ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. This protein ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds ...
"Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for a member of the human 90-kDa heat-shock protein family". Gene. 53 (2-3): 235-45. doi:10.1016/ ... Yano M, Naito Z, Yokoyama M, Shiraki Y, Ishiwata T, Inokuchi M, Asano G (Mar 1999). "Expression of hsp90 and cyclin D1 in human ... Biaoxue R, Xiling J, Shuanying Y, Wei Z, Xiguang C, Jinsui W, Min Z (Aug 2012). "Upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 ... "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for a member of the human 90-kDa heat-shock protein family". Gene. 53 (2-3): 235-45. doi:10.1016/ ...
The D1 and D5 receptors are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 receptors are ... The resulting dopamine receptor heterodimers include: D1-adenosine A1 D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D1-D3 dopamine receptor ... Sustained D1 receptor activity is kept in check by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Dopamine receptor activation of Ca2+/calmodulin- ... The D1-like family receptors are coupled to the G protein Gsα. D1 is also coupled to Golf. Gsα subsequently activates adenylyl ...
"Identification and characterization of three members of the human SR family of pre-mRNA splicing factors". The EMBO Journal. 14 ... "Characterization of cyclin L2, a novel cyclin with an arginine/serine-rich domain: phosphorylation by DYRK1A and colocalization ... Guil S, Gattoni R, Carrascal M, Abián J, Stévenin J, Bach-Elias M (April 2003). "Roles of hnRNP A1, SR proteins, and p68 ... a conserved family of pre-mRNA splicing factors". Genes & Development. 6 (5): 837-47. doi:10.1101/gad.6.5.837. PMID 1577277. ...
... a member of the amphiphysin/Rvs family, is concentrated in the cortical cytomatrix of axon initial segments and nodes of ... Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ... a brain-specific membrane-associated lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase with properties distinct from endophilin A1". The ... Floyd SR, Porro EB, Slepnev VI, Ochoa GC, Tsai LH, De Camilli P (March 2001). "Amphiphysin 1 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase ...
Flap structure-specific endonuclease 1
The protein is a member of the XPG/RAD2 endonuclease family and is one of ten proteins essential for cell-free DNA replication ... Henneke G, Koundrioukoff S, Hübscher U (Jul 2003). "Phosphorylation of human Fen1 by cyclin-dependent kinase modulates its role ... "Interaction and stimulation of human FEN-1 nuclease activities by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 in alpha-segment ... and shares sequence elements with the PCNA-binding regions of FEN-1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family, member A1, also known as ALDH7A1 or antiquitin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... Antiquitin is known to interact with: Cyclin A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164904 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... As a member of subfamily 7 of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family, antiquitin performs NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of subfamily 7 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. These enzymes are ...
... acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3, ephrin A1, and ras homolog gene family member B were predicted to be downstream ... Xu Y, Sengupta T, Kukreja L, Minella AC (2010). "MicroRNA-223 regulates cyclin E activity by modulating expression of F-box and ... miR-223 also regulates cyclin E activity by modulating expression of the FBXW7 protein. In particular, overexpression of miR- ... Page for mir-223 microRNA precursor family at Rfam. ... reduces FBXW7 mRNA levels while increasing endogenous cyclin E ...
... , a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family secreted by tumor and stromal cells, supports tumorigenesis by ... Liu JH, Wei S, Burnette PK, Gamero AM, Hutton M, Djeu JY (1999). "Functional association of TGF-beta receptor II with cyclin B ... S100A4 has been shown to interact with S100 calcium binding protein A1. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 ...
The encoded protein, a member of the peptidase A1 protein family, is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein and aspartic ... "Neuron-specific phosphorylation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Journal of ... a glycosylated transmembrane protein of the aspartic protease family, maps to the down critical region". FEBS Letters. 468 (1 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which ... Yang L, Li N, Wang C, Yu Y, Yuan L, Zhang M, Cao X (Mar 2004). "Cyclin L2, a novel RNA polymerase II-associated cyclin, is ... and SRp40 on the utilization of the A1 to A5 splicing sites of HIV-1 RNA". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (29): 29963 ... a novel 35 kDa factor of the serine/arginine protein family". The EMBO Journal. 13 (11): 2639-49. PMC 395138 . PMID 8013463. ...
"Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its Interactions with Transcription Factor E2F-1 and the Rb Family of Proteins". ... Chen CF, Chen Y, Dai K, Chen PL, Riley DJ, Lee WH (September 1996). "A new member of the hsp90 family of molecular chaperones ... antagonizing transcription factor ARID4A Aryl hydrocarbon receptor BRCA1 BRF1 C-jun C-Raf CDK9 CUTL1 Cyclin A1 Cyclin D1 Cyclin ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ...
Collapsin response mediator protein family
Among the five members of the CRMP family, CRMP-2 is the most highly expressed in the adult brain, especially in post-mitotic ... Sema3A initiates clustering of the receptor Neuropilin 1 and Plexin A1. While some of the other class of Semaphorins directly ... Studies suggest that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are highly expressed in ... Among the five members of the family, CRMP-2 was first identified in 1995. Group of researchers led by Goshima found out that ...
Tsuruga H, Yabuta N, Hosoya S, Tamura K, Endo Y, Nojima H (1997). "HsMCM6: a new member of the human MCM/P1 family encodes a ... and Replication protein A1. Mini Chromosome Maintenance GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000076003 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... 7 helicase activity by phosphorylation with cyclin A/Cdk2". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21): 16235-41. doi:10.1074/jbc.M909040199. PMID ... Johnson EM, Kinoshita Y, Daniel DC (2003). "A new member of the MCM protein family encoded by the human MCM8 gene, located ...
Fujita M, Kiyono T, Hayashi Y, Ishibashi M (1996). "hCDC47, a human member of the MCM family. Dissociation of the nucleus-bound ... Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with ... Replication protein A1, Retinoblastoma protein, and UBE3A. Mini Chromosome Maintenance GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a new member of the early S-phase family of proteins, maps to chromosome band 3q21". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 65 (4): 276-7. doi: ...
... a new member of the early S-phase family of proteins, maps to chromosome band 3q21". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 65 (4): 276-7. doi: ... and Replication protein A1. Mini Chromosome Maintenance GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000073111 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ... 7 helicase activity by phosphorylation with cyclin A/Cdk2". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21): 16235-41. doi:10.1074/jbc.M909040199. PMID ... "A human nuclear protein with sequence homology to a family of early S phase proteins is required for entry into S phase and for ...
Johnson EM, Kinoshita Y, Daniel DC (2003). "A new member of the MCM protein family encoded by the human MCM8 gene, located ... Ishimi Y, Komamura-Kohno Y (2001). "Phosphorylation of Mcm4 at specific sites by cyclin-dependent kinase leads to loss of Mcm4, ... and Replication protein A1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104738 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Hu B, Burkhart R, Schulte D, Musahl C, Knippers R (1994). "The P1 family: a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to ...
Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998). "Direct binding of CDC20 protein family members activates the anaphase-promoting complex in ... Cyclin A1, FBXO5, HDAC1, HDAC2, and MAD2L1. However, the most important interaction of Cdc20 is with the Anaphase Promoting ... The two main targets of the APC/C are the S/M cyclins and the protein securin. S/M cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... It also targets S and M-phase (S/M) cyclins for destruction, which inactivates S/M cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and allows ...
"Functions of Cyclin A1 in the Cell Cycle and Its Interactions with Transcription Factor E2F-1 and the Rb Family of Proteins". ... Rb belongs to the pocket protein family, whose members have a pocket for the functional binding of other proteins. Should ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ... When E2F is free it activates factors like cyclins (e.g. cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by ...
Family members. Prokaryotes express three Hsp70 proteins: DnaK, HscA (Hsc66), and HscC (Hsc62). ... "CDK-dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation controls G1 cyclin abundance and cell-cycle progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-18. doi ... Members of the Hsp70 family are very strongly upregulated by heat stress and toxic chemicals, particularly heavy metals such as ... The 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s or DnaK) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins. ...
Estrogen receptor beta
ER-β is a member of the family of estrogen receptors and the superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene ... Nakamura Y, Felizola SJ, Kurotaki Y, Fujishima F, McNamara KM, Suzuki T, Arai Y, Sasano H (May 2013). "Cyclin D1 (CCND1) ... ER-β function is related to various cardiovascular targets including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ... Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced ...
c-myb Transactivates the Human Cyclin A1 Promoter and Induces Cyclin A1 Gene Expression | Blood Journal
2 Cyclin A1 interacts with RB family members and E2F in vivo.5 The reason for the prominent expression of cyclin A1 in myeloid ... Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 ... The cyclin A1 gene differs from other human cyclin genes in several ways. Cyclin A1 is not related to cellular proliferation ... c-myb Transactivates the Human Cyclin A1 Promoter and Induces Cyclin A1 Gene Expression. Carsten Müller, Rong Yang, Gregory ...
Cyclin A1 - Wikipedia
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic ... such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and the Kip/Cip family of CDK-inhibitor proteins. Cyclin-A1 interacts ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ... "Cyclin A1 directly interacts with B-myb and cyclin A1/cdk2 phosphorylate B-myb at functionally important serine and threonine ...
CDK2/cyclin A1 Recombinant Human Protein - Thermo Fisher Scientific
CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and ... CDK2 is a member of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase family that is ubiquitously expressed. ... CDK2 is a member of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase family that is ubiquitously expressed. CDK2 is a catalytic subunit of the ... Recombinant full-length human CDK2 and CyclinA1 were co-expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST ...
Cyclin A - Wikipedia
Cyclin A2 is expressed in dividing somatic cells. Cyclin A, along with the other members of the cyclin family, regulates cell ... mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. Cyclin A1 is ... Cyclin A is a member of the cyclin family, a group of proteins that function in regulating progression through the cell cycle. ... Cyclin A remains associated with CDK1 from late S into late G2 phase when it is replaced by cyclin B. Cyclin A/CDK1 is thought ...
HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer in the HIV/AIDS Patient | Springer for Research & Development
Gene that encodes cyclin A1. Coordinates cell division via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases. Interacts with Rb family ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A2. Enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of retinoic acid from precursor retinaldehyde ... Weiss D, Basel T, Sachse F, Braeuninger A, Rudack C (2011) Promoter methylation of cyclin A1 is associated with human ... Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member. Secreted signaling protein involved in developmental processes. Promotes ...
Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902): Novus Biologicals
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Cyclin A1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic ... Blogs on Cyclin A1. There are no specific blogs for Cyclin A1, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Diseases for Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). Discover more about diseases related to Cyclin A1 Antibody (NBP1-02902). ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | The Complex Relationship between Liver Cancer and the Cell Cycle: A Story of Multiple Regulations |...
The three members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/Waf1/Cdkn1a, p27Kip1/Cdkn1b, p57Kip2/Cdkn1c) bind all Cdk/cyclin complexes and ... Some types of cyclins comprise different orthologs such as cyclins A1/2, B1/2/3, D1/2/3, or E1/2. Cdk activity is tightly ... Like cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1 integrate deregulations of the pRb pathway but are also under the control of other ... B-Myb in turn enhances expression of cyclin A while FoxM1 increases cyclin B1 expression. Expression of all three cyclins is ...
Gene Set - BRD-K10882151 BO2 (inhibits RAD51) EFO27 6.0 h 40.0 um
caspase recruitment domain family, member 10 CCNA1 cyclin A1 CCND1 cyclin D1 ... solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 1 SLC7A5 solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L ... solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1 ... solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporter), member 1 ...
PI3K-Akt Signaling | www.antibodies-online.com
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic ... CCND1 - Cyclin D1: CCND1 antibodies CCND1 ELISA Kits CCND1 Proteins CDK2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2): CDK2 antibodies CDK2 ... Akt3/PKB gamma is the least characterized member of the Akt family but it is mainly expressed in the brain where it is thought ... This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR ...
Recombinant human CDK2 + CCNA1 protein (ab105205) | Abcam
Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in ... Cyclin A1 was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the ... CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S ... Cyclin A1 is expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in ...
... including members of the Bcl-2 family (BCL2, BCLXL, and A1/Bfl-1), the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family (c-IAP1, c-IAP2, and ... The NF-κB pathway also influences proliferation, which may involve NF-κB target genes such as cyclin D2, c-myc, and IL-6 (18-20 ... NF-κB activity plays a crucial role in B-cell development and is regulated mainly by members of the IκB family (8). Upon ... We found that certain antiapoptotic genes (e.g., A1, A20, c-IAP2, and GADD45β) are regulated by p65/RelA (Fig. 5B). Whether one ...
anti-Cyclin A2 antibody | GeneTex
... cyclin A2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-Cyclin A2 pAb (GTX103042) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... cyclin A2. Background. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are ... In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all tissues tested. This cyclin ... CCN1 antibody, CCNA antibody, CCNA2 antibody, cyclin-A antibody, cyclin-A2 antibody, cyclin A2 antibody. ...
The S100A6 calcium-binding protein regulates endothelial cell-cycle progression and senescence. | Sigma-Aldrich
S100A6 depletion also decreased expression of CDK1, cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and cyclin B (CCNB1) genes with effects on cell-cycle ... Herein, we investigated the expression and function of S100-related family members in endothelial cells. Analysis of total ... We then examined the expression and functional properties of the major S100 family member, S100A6, in vascular endothelial ... The S100 family of calcium-binding proteins regulates many aspects of cell function but their roles in vascular physiology are ...
Identification of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as a Putative Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Target Gene in Prostate Cancer Cells | Cancer...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1)] have not been implicated previously as downstream targets of the wnt ... D, c-Myc and cyclin-D1 gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR using the same mRNA/cDNA preparations used in C. E, RT-PCR ... 3C) ⇓ , they did not in turn up-regulate c-myc or cyclin D1 to any real extent. This general result conforms with data provided ... Shtutman M, Zhurinsky J, Simcha I, et al The cyclin D1 gene is a target of the β-catenin/LEF-1 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
Pathology atlas - The Human Protein Atlas
ccna2 Protein, cyclin A2 - Creative BioMart
In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all;tissues tested. This cyclin ... whose members are characterized by a;dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as ... regulators of CDK kinases.Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, ...
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Hipposideros armiger (great roundleaf bat)
AF4/FMR2 family member 1 109379833 CDK9; cyclin dependent kinase 9 109393248 CCNT1; cyclin T1 109374687 CCNT2; cyclin T2 ... 109396675 CCNA2; cyclin A2 109388453 CCNA1; cyclin A1 109393628 CEBPE; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon 109381387 bcl-2- ... serpin family A member 1 109382731 SERPINA5; serpin family A member 5 109392838 SERPINA7; serpin family A member 7 109395080 ... serpin family A member 9 109382740 SERPINA12; serpin family A member 12 109382763 SERPINA6; serpin family A member 6 109382764 ...
S4E, respectively). In contrast, the mRNA level of cyclin A2, another member in the cyclin A family, remained unchanged in H2A. ... Cyclin A1 promotes G1-S cell-cycle progression in somatic cells and overexpressed cyclin A1 enhances S-phase entry to provide ... 5B) decreased the expression of cyclin A1. Moreover, expression of H2A.ZWT or SMYD3WT activated cyclin A1 protein level (Fig. ... To investigate the role of cyclin A1 in SMYD3- and H2A.ZK101me2-promoted cell proliferation, cyclin A1 was knocked down in ...
Pyrroline‑5‑carboxylate reductase 1 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in non‑small cell lung cancer
A previous study also confirmed the results of the present study: Silencing of aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family member A1 (P5CS ... The cyclin D family are a group of closely related G1 cyclins, and of these cyclin D1 exhibits a more widespread function in ... Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the G1/S checkpoints and forms a complex with cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 (28). Cyclin D1 ... The results revealed a significant decrease of cyclin D1 expression in siRNA-PYCR1-transfected SPC-A1 and H1703 cells (Fig. 4A ...
CCNA1 (cyclin A1)
... cyclin A1), Authors: Immacolata Vocca, Gianmarco Muzi, Francesca Pentimalli, Antonio Giordano. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Cyclin A1 is a member of the highly conserved cyclin family whose members are able to control the progression of cells through ... Cyclin A2, also known as cyclin A, is the major A-type cyclin in mammals. Cyclin A1 primarily functions in the meiotic cell ... Cyclin A1 belongs to the A-type cyclin family of proteins originally identified as 60 kDa polypeptides associated to CDK2 and ...
IMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction
kinesin family member 13B. 0.020. CCNA1. cyclin A1. 0.020. Fly CDCA4. cell division cycle associated 4. 0.020. ... solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2. 0.058. ... pleckstrin homology domain containing, family G (with RhoGef domain) member 2. 0.010. ... Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 7. 0.017. ...
IMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction
cyclin A1. 0.014. Slc7a11. solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 11. 0.014. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4. 0.130. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1. 0.034. ... SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1. 0.031. ...
CCNA1 Gene - GeneCards | CCNA1 Protein | CCNA1 Antibody
Cyclin A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. ( ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic ... Domains & Families for CCNA1 Gene Gene Families for CCNA1 Gene. HGNC:. *473 : Cyclins ...
CDC25A Gene - GeneCards | MPIP1 Protein | MPIP1 Antibody
CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell ... Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple roles of mitotic cyclins. (PMID: ... CDC25 Isoform A1-CAG 3 * CDC25A2-CAG Isoform 3 * CDC25A2 3 * CDC25A 5 ... CDC25A is a member of the CDC25 family of phosphatases. CDC25A is required for progression from G1 to the S phase of the cell ...
Each member of the REL family contains an NH2 terminal REL homology domain that mediates dimerization and domains mediating ... cREL modulates expression of BCL-XL and A1 in B lymphocytes (38) and p52 has been shown to comediate expression of cyclin D1 ... Aberrant activation of the NF-κB/REL family members has been reported in a variety of types of cancer, including HNSCC (7, 29- ... Nuclear localization of these NF-κB/REL family members, and binding to consensus κB oligonucleotide of NF-κB1, RELA and NF-κB2 ...
Antibodies to Cyclin Family - Product Review 16 | acris-antibodies.com
IntroductionOscillations in the activity of the Cdk family of protein kinases drive the eukaryotic cell cycle. These enzymes ... Anti- Cyclin A (CCNA), Cyclin A1 (CCNA1), Cyclin B1 (CCNB), Cyclin B2 (CCNB2), Cyclin B3 (CCNB3), Cyclin C (CCNC), Cyclin D1 ( ... a broad panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the immunological detection of members of the Cyclin protein family. ... Cyclin E (CCNE), Cyclin E1 (CCNE1), Cyclin E2 (CCNE2), Cyclin G (CCNG), Cyclin G1 (CCNG1), Cyclin G2 (CCNG2), Cyclin H (CCNH), ...
GO RESPONSE TO TOXIC SUBSTANCE
cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [Sour.... 10327. 10327. AKR1A1. aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1 [So.... ... Gene families Categorize these 250 genes by gene family Show members. (show 250 members mapped to 250 genes) Original. Member. ... solute carrier family 6 member 1 [Source:H.... 6532. 6532. SLC6A4. solute carrier family 6 member 4 [Source:H.... ... solute carrier family 15 member 2 [Source:.... 6571. 6571. SLC18A2. solute carrier family 18 member A2 [Source.... ...
Antagonistic role of GSK3 isoforms in glioma survival
We identified alternative splicing events modified by hnRNP A1, among them Mcl-1 an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family, ... Expression of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, cyclin E2. D) Transient over expression of hnRNPA1 (100ng & 200ng) activates ... hnRNPA1, a member of the hnRNPA/B family, is aberrantly over expressed in various cancers. hnRNP family of proteins interact ... Mcl-1S, a splicing variant of the antiapoptotic bcl-2 family member mcl-1, encodes a proapoptotic protein possessing only the ...
Mechanisms of FUS1/TUSC2 deficiency in mesothelioma and its tumorigenic transcriptional effects | Molecular Cancer | Full Text
aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 family, member A1. ALDH6A1. 34. 2.44. -1.50. cyclin G2 ... The arginine residue (R) conserved throughout the IRF protein family is marked with asterisk. B. Different mechanisms of TUSC2 ... Histogram shows positions conserved in the IRF protein family. ... Multiple alignment performed within the IRF family using ...
Histone Deacetylase 10 Regulates the Cell Cycle G2/M Phase Transition via a Novel Let-7-HMGA2-Cyclin A2 Pathway | Molecular and...
Because HDAC10 suppressed let-7f and miR-98 transcription, if let-7 family members were involved in HDAC10-mediated cyclin A2 ... Mammals express two A-type cyclins, embryonic-specific cyclin A1 and somatic cyclin A2. Because cyclin A1 expression is ... 10C and D). This finding indicated that let-7 family members might indirectly regulate cyclin A2 expression through HMGA2. ... HMGA2 is the downstream target of the let-7 family (37, 46, 47, 60). The human let-7 family contains 13 members, including let- ...
CCNA1 cyclin A1GeneCCND1Expression of cyclinSubunitAntibodyInteractsHuman cyclinInhibitorsOverexpressionOncogeneGerm cellsSomatic cellsEndogenous cyclinSubfamilyComplexesPromoterProliferationPhosphorylationMyeloid leukemia cell linesAldo-keto reductase familyEncodesTranscriptionalSoluteNuclearProtein familyTumorInhibitionMammalianIsoformCell cyclePhosphorylate
- In addition, transfection of primary human embryonic fibroblasts with a c-myb expression vector led to induction of the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
- E XPRESSION OF THE human cyclin A1 gene is restricted to very few tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
- The myb family of transcription factors regulates tissue-specific gene expression in the hematopoietic system, as well as in the testis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Recently, we cloned the promoter of the cyclin A1 gene to elucidate the mechanisms of expression of this gene. (bloodjournal.org)
- In addition, forced expression of c-myb in human embryonic fibroblasts induces the endogenous cyclin A1 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cyclin-A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- A single cyclin A gene has been identified in Drosophila while Xenopus, mice and humans contain two distinct types of cyclin A: A1, the embryonic-specific form, and A2, the somatic form. (wikipedia.org)
- Gene that encodes cyclin A1. (springer.com)
- This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. (antibodies-online.com)
- Analysis of total endothelial mRNAs using a human gene chip array revealed significant gene expression of the S100 calcium-binding protein family members S100A6, S100A10, S100A11 and S100A13. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (proteinatlas.org)
- mcl-1 , a bcl-2 family member, was originally identified as an early gene induced during differentiation of ML-1 myeloid leukemia cells. (asm.org)
- FAM90A1 belongs to subfamily I of the primate-specific FAM90A gene family, which originated from multiple duplications and rearrangements (Bosch et al. (antikoerper-online.de)
- This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and the TGFB receptor subfamily. (wikidoc.org)
- This motif also is present in the tobacco kinesin-like protein gene NACK1 , which is expressed with timing similar to that of B-type cyclin genes. (plantcell.org)
Expression of cyclin4
- Taken together, c-myb can directly transactivate the promoter of cyclin A1, and c-myb might be involved in the high-level expression of cyclin A1 observed in acute myeloid leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
- Enforced expression of cyclin A1 in cells containing mutant H2A.Z.1 rescued tumor formation in a mouse model. (aacrjournals.org)
- In a number of cell lines (including HeLa cells, U-2 OS osteosarcoma cells and Hs 578Bst breast epithelial cells), ectopic expression of cyclin A increases hormone-dependent and hormone-independent transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor. (sdbonline.org)
- Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in silico assay were used to determine the expression of cyclin G2 in gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Western Blot: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-- Cyclin A1 western with U2OS cells. (novusbio.com)
- Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Cyclin A1 Antibody [NBP1-- Human testis after heat-induced antigen retrieval. (novusbio.com)
- Cyclin A2 antibody immunoprecipitates cyclin A2 protein in IP experiments. (genetex.com)
- IP Sample: 1000 μg 293T whole cell lysate/extract A. 30 μg 293T whole cell lysate/extract B. Control with 2.5 μg of preimmune rabbit IgG C. Immunoprecipitation of Cyclin A2 protein by 2.5 μg of Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) 10% SDS-PAGE The immunoprecipitated Cyclin A2 protein was detected by Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
- Untreated (-) and treated (+) HeLa whole cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Cyclin A2 antibody (GTX103042) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
- Cyclin A2 antibody detects Cyclin A2 protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
- Staining of human tonsil using DM175 clone 6E6 antibody to Cyclin A1. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Cyclin A1 antibody can be used in ELISA, and immunohistochemistry starting at 10 μg/mL. (vwr.com)
- The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family. (cellsignal.com)
- Loss of HDAC1 and -2 induces expression of these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, leading to a cell cycle block in G 1 . (asm.org)
- We also demonstrate that activation-induced mast cell success is certainly suffered when the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-W are targeted using inhibitors, suggesting a minimal function for the targeted anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members associates. (conferencedequebec.org)
- The kinase activities of CDKs are modulated by interacting with the regulatory subunits of cyclins and CDK inhibitors. (prolekare.cz)
- Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibitors were utilized to explore the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the suppression effect of cyclin G2 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibitors abolished the cyclin G2-induced suppression of cell proliferation and migration. (biomedcentral.com)
- A) Knockdown of c-Abl1 (lanes 1 to 3) or c-Abl2 (lanes four to six 6) using nontargeting siRNA control or siRNA focusing on c-Abl1 or c-Abl2 verified by Traditional western … GSK2126458 GSK2126458 Launch of Ebola VLPs can be reduced by c-Abl1 TK inhibitors We following determined the result of particular Abl-family TK inhibitors on VLP creation. (colinsbraincancer.com)
- Discovery of a novel family of CDK inhibitors with the program LIDAEUS: structural basisfor ligand-induced disordering of the activation loop. (rcsb.org)
- Here, we report that HDAC10 regulates the cell cycle via modulation of cyclin A2 expression, and cyclin A2 overexpression rescues HDAC10 knockdown-induced G 2 /M transition arrest. (asm.org)
- Overexpression tests possess exposed that every of pRb family members protein can induce G1 cell routine arrest [20- (techieindex.net)
- High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural chromatin protein whose overexpression is a feature of malignant neoplasias with a causal role in cancer initiation and progression. (nature.com)
- Cyclin A1 overexpression enhances S phase entry consistent with an oncogenic function. (termsreign.gq)
- Moreover, overexpression of cyclin G2 attenuated tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
- We previously showed that overexpression of cyclin G2 inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in liquid cultures and in soft agar [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all tissues tested. (genetex.com)
- activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. (bioon.com.cn)
- Comparison of cyclin A1 and cyclin A promoter activity in adherent and myeloid leukemia cell lines showed that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
- This preferential activity was present in a small, 335-bp cyclin A1 promoter fragment that contained several potential c-myb binding sites. (bloodjournal.org)
- Coexpression of a c-myb expression vector with the cyclin A1 promoter constructs significantly increased the reporter activity in adherent CV-1 as well as in myeloid U937 cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- 15 We show here that the cyclin A1 promoter is preferentially active in myeloid leukemia cell lines and is transactivated by c-myb. (bloodjournal.org)
- 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
- Following knockdown of PYCR1 by small interfering RNA, cell proliferation was revealed to be significantly inhibited and the cell cycle was arrested, while apoptosis was increased in SPC‑A1 and H1703 NSCLC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cytokines belong to a family of growth factors that play an important role in regulating the viability, differentiation, proliferation, and function of various hematopoietic cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
Myeloid leukemia cell lines1
Aldo-keto reductase family2
- One of these transcriptional factors is AP-2α of AP-2 (activator protein 2) family. (hepatmon.com)
- While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles. (cellsignal.com)
- In mammals, the NF-κB protein family consists of five distinct subunits (p50/p105, p65/RelA, c-rel, RelB, and p52/p100) that exhibit a conserved central region called the Rel homology domain important for DNA binding and dimerization (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
- Acris Antibodies offers a broad panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the immunological detection of members of the Cyclin protein family. (acris-antibodies.com)
- We determined recently that dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a member of the SIBLING (Small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) family of phosphoglycoproteins, is highly upregulated in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) where upregulation is associated with tumor aggressiveness. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Moreover, a xenograft model and a metastasis model of nude mice was used to determine the influence of cyclin G2 on gastric tumor growth and migration in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
- We found that cyclin G2 levels were decreased in gastric cancer tissues and were associated with tumor size, migration and poor differentiation status. (biomedcentral.com)
- One such regulatory component is cyclin A which plays a role in the regulation of two different cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
- Cyclin A1 is expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of the germline meiotic cell cycle. (abcam.com)
- Male knockout mice lacking cyclin A1 are infertile owing to a cell cycle arrest before the first meiotic division (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- PI3Ks are an enzyme family that phosphorylate PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). (antibodies-online.com)
- Mechanically, cyclin G2 impacted the activity of CKI to phosphorylate Dpr1, which has been proved to be a protein that acts as a suppressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling when unphosphorylated. (biomedcentral.com)