Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Myeloablative Agonists: Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Misonidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Thalidomide: A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Methionine SulfoximineThiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)PyrazinesAlkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Rats, Nude: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Flunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.NitroimidazolesSarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (1/1170)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

In vivo isolated kidney perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tumour-bearing rats. (2/1170)

Isolated perfusion of the extremities with high-dose tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plus melphalan leads to dramatic tumour response in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcoma or multiple melanoma in transit metastases. We developed in vivo isolated organ perfusion models to determine whether similar tumour responses in solid organ tumours can be obtained with this regimen. Here, we describe the technique of isolated kidney perfusion. We studied the feasibility of a perfusion with TNF-alpha and assessed its anti-tumour effects in tumour models differing in tumour vasculature. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) proved to be only 1 microg TNF-alpha. Higher doses appeared to induce renal failure and a secondary cytokine release with fatal respiratory and septic shock-like symptoms. In vitro, the combination of TNF-alpha and melphalan did not result in a synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on CC 531 colon adenocarcinoma cells, whereas an additive effect was observed on osteosarcoma ROS-1 cells. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion, with TNF-alpha alone or in combination with melphalan, did not result in a significant anti-tumour response in either tumour model in a subrenal capsule assay. We conclude that, because of the susceptibility of the kidney to perfusion with TNF-alpha, the minimal threshold concentration of TNF-alpha to exert its anti-tumour effects was not reached. The applicability of TNF-alpha in isolated kidney perfusion for human tumours seems, therefore, questionable.  (+info)

Cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR): role of integrins and resistance to apoptosis in human myeloma cell lines. (3/1170)

Integrin-mediated adhesion influences cell survival and may prevent programmed cell death. Little is known about how drug-sensitive tumor cell lines survive initial exposures to cytotoxic drugs and eventually select for drug-resistant populations. Factors that allow for cell survival following acute cytotoxic drug exposure may differ from drug resistance mechanisms selected for by chronic drug exposure. We show here that drug-sensitive 8226 human myeloma cells, demonstrated to express both VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and VLA-5 (alpha5beta1) integrin fibronectin (FN) receptors, are relatively resistant to the apoptotic effects of doxorubicin and melphalan when pre-adhered to FN and compared with cells grown in suspension. This cell adhesion mediated drug resistance, or CAM-DR, was not due to reduced drug accumulation or upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. As determined by flow cytometry, myeloma cell lines selected for drug resistance, with either doxorubicin or melphalan, overexpress VLA-4. Functional assays revealed a significant increase in alpha4-mediated cell adhesion in both drug-resistant variants compared with the drug-sensitive parent line. When removed from selection pressure, drug-resistant cell lines reverted to a drug sensitive and alpha4-low phenotype. Whether VLA-4-mediated FN adhesion offers a survival advantage over VLA-5-mediated adhesion remains to be determined. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that FN-mediated adhesion confers a survival advantage for myeloma cells acutely exposed to cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting drug-induced apoptosis. This finding may explain how some cells survive initial drug exposure and eventually express classical mechanisms of drug resistance such as MDR1 overexpression.  (+info)

The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients. (4/1170)

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (5/1170)

Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs.  (+info)

Early harvest and late transplantation as an effective therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma. (6/1170)

Transplantation after high-dose chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma compared with standard therapy. It is unclear whether the optimal timing of transplantation is immediately after induction chemotherapy or whether stem cells may be cryopreserved for transplantation at subsequent progression or relapse. In this study, stem cells were collected within 6 months of diagnosis, followed by transplantation only at progression of myeloma. One hundred and eighteen patients with multiple myeloma had stem cells collected and cryopreserved. Eleven had transplants early in the disease after they demonstrated failure to respond to primary therapy. The remaining 107 were eligible for transplants when there was evidence of progressive disease. Of the 118 patients, 67 had transplants, nine died of progressive disease before transplantation, and 42 remain alive in plateau phase. The median survival of the group is 58.5 months; 67 are alive. Serum beta2-microglobulin, bone marrow labeling index (S phase), and hemoglobin level predicted overall survival (P < 0.006, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that early cryopreservation of blood stem cells followed by transplantation at progression is a feasible approach to therapy in patients with myeloma. The underlying biology of the disease has a greater impact on survival than the timing of transplantation. A prospective randomized trial is required to answer definitively the question of the optimal timing of blood cell transplantation.  (+info)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy. (7/1170)

A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.  (+info)

Idiotype vaccination using dendritic cells after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma--a feasibility study. (8/1170)

The idiotype (Id) determinant on the multiple myeloma (MM) protein can be regarded as a tumor-specific marker. Immunotherapy directed at the MM Id may stem the progression of this disease. We report here on the first 12 MM patients treated at our institution with high-dose therapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) followed by Id immunizations. MM patients received PBSCT to eradicate the majority of the disease. PBSCT produced a complete response in 2 patients, a partial response in 9 patients and stable disease in 1 patient. Three to 7 months after high-dose therapy, patients received a series of monthly immunizations that consisted of two intravenous infusions of Id-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC) followed by five subcutaneous boosts of Id/keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) administered with adjuvant. Between 1 and 11 x 10(6) DC were obtained by leukapheresis in all patients even after PBSCT. The administration of Id-pulsed DC and Id/KLH vaccines were well tolerated with patients experiencing only minor and transient side effects. Two of 12 patients developed an Id-specific, cellular proliferative immune response and one of three patients studied developed a transient but Id-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. Eleven of the 12 patients generated strong KLH-specific cellular proliferative immune responses showing the patients' immunocompetence at the time of vaccination. The two patients who developed a cellular Id-specific immune response remain in complete remission. Of the 12 treated patients, 9 are currently alive after autologous transplantation with a minimum follow-up of 16 months, 2 patients died because of recurrent MM and 1 patient succumbed to acute leukemia. These studies show that patients make strong anti-KLH responses despite recent high-dose therapy and that DC-based Id vaccination is feasible after PBSCT and can induce Id-specific T-cell responses. Further vaccine development is necessary to increase the proportion of patients that make Id-specific immune responses. The clinical benefits of Id vaccination in MM remain to be determined.  (+info)

  • In an attempt to decrease toxicity in high-risk patients undergoing unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (URD HSCT), we tested a combination of cyclosporine (CSP) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen fludarabine/melphalan (Flu/Mel). (nebraska.edu)
  • Melphalan is currently being used to treat ocular retinoblastoma , a pediatric solid tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • MME and melphalan exhibited higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction than TDDS in the tumor cells. (umaryland.edu)
  • Exposure of A2780 human ovarian tumor cells to a low concentration of melphalan in vitro for 7 d results in the development of melphalan resistance, which is dependent on elevated cellular levels of glutathione and glutathione S-transferase. (researchwithnj.com)
  • TDDS contain a quinone-based carrier coupled to the model drug, melphalan methyl ester (MME). (umaryland.edu)
  • You should not use melphalan if you are allergic to it, or if you received this medicine in the past and it did not work. (uncrockingham.org)
  • The inclusion of selenite (at concentrations as low as 0.2 μM) during the exposure to melphalan completely prevented the development of resistance. (researchwithnj.com)
  • It also prevented the increase in the expression of the glutathione S-transferase gene, suggesting that this may be the mechanism by which it prevents the development of melphalan resistance. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Heating in acid with oxirane, followed by treatment with phosphorus oxychloride provided the bischloride, and removal of the protecting groups by heating in hydrochloric acid gave melphalan (3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term treatment with melphalan may increase the risk of developing leukaemia (cancer of the white blood cells) after many years. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Melphalan works by stopping the cancer cells from multiplying. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Unfortunately, melphalan can also affect normal, healthy cells, particularly those that multiply quickly, such as blood cells and hair cells. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Melphalan can decrease the production of blood cells, leaving people susceptible to infection. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Selenite did not prevent the melphalan-induced increase in glutathione, but it did prevent the increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase. (researchwithnj.com)
  • In rat, melphalan in isolated lung perfusion (ILP) functions as a potent therapeutics for sarcomatous pulmonary metastases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Boschmans J, De Bruijn E, Van Schil P, Lemiere F (2013) Analysis of novel melphalan hydrolysis products formed under isolated lung perfusion conditions using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • On March 15, 2016 it was approved by the U.S. FDA under the trade name Evomela for: use as a high-dose conditioning treatment prior to hematopoietic progenitor (stem) cell transplantation in multiple myeloma (MM) patients the palliative treatment of MM patients for whom oral therapy is not appropriate Melphalan is currently being used to treat ocular retinoblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • To find out the safety and tolerability of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) consisting of Propyhlene Glycol-Free Melphalan HCI (EVOMELA) in combination with Fludarabine and Total Body Irradiation (TBI) for subjects undergoing Haplo Identical (which involves matching your tissue type with a related or unrelated donor) Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (Haplo-HCT). (froedtert.com)
  • This phase I trial studies the side effects and the best dose of intensity modulated total marrow irradiation (IMTMI) when given together with fludarabine phosphate and melphalan in treating patients with cancers of the blood (hematologic) that have returned after a period of improvement (relapsed) undergoing a second donor stem cell transplant. (aamds.org)
  • Giving fludarabine phosphate, melphalan, and IMTMI before a donor stem cell transplant may help stop the growth of cells in the bone marrow, including normal blood-forming cells ( stem cells ) and cancer cells. (aamds.org)
  • Otherwise known as L-phenylalanine mustard, or L-PAM, melphalan is a phenylalanine derivative of mechlorethamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melphalan also known as L-phenylalanine mustard is an alkylating agent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Melphalan is a nitrogen mustard derivative and belongs to the group of alkylating anticancer agents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ligand is also eligible to receive royalties on future net sales of Captisol-enabled melphalan. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Spectrum's highly experienced, oncology-focused R&D team is committed to the efficient development of Captisol-enabled melphalan, and has established relationships with key investigators. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Melphalan chemically alters through alkylation of the DNA nucleotide guanine, and causes linkages between strands of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melphalan is a highly effective alkylating agent which causes many types of DNA lesions, including DNA base alkylation damage that is repaired by base excision repair (BER). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study evaluated the alteration of melphalan activity in TE-671 (melphalan-sensitive) and TE-671 MR (melphalan-resistant) subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice after DNA polymerase-α was inhibited using aphidicolin glycinate (AG) and DNA polymerase-β was inhibited using dideoxycytidine (DDC). (springer.com)
  • The major cause of failure in the management of retinoblastoma is the persistence/recurrence of vitreous seeds (VS). This study reports the efficacy and complications of standard lower-dose (20 µg) intravitreal melphalan for VS. (healio.com)
  • To determine whether a novel NF-κB inhibitor, KZ-41, can inhibit melphalan's actions on retinal endothelial cells (REC) inflammation and apoptosis, without eliminating the chemotherapeutic efficacy of melphalan on cell death of retinoblastoma cells (Y79). (arvojournals.org)
  • The metastatic tissues of 27 stage III melanoma patients with locoregional metastases located in the pelvis subjected to melphalan hypoxic pelvic perfusion were examined. (ovid.com)
  • Human melanoma targeting with alpha-MSH-melphalan conjugate. (ac.be)
  • No significant relationship existed between the severity of toxic reactions in the limb or peak plasma creatine phosphokinase levels and peak melphalan microdialysate or plasma concentrations. (edu.au)
  • The current intravenous melphalan market is approximately $130 million annually, with predominant use in stem cell transplants. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Additional analyses will be conducted to characterize the systemic exposure of melphalan administered by Melphalan/HDS, as well as to assess patient-reported clinical outcomes, or quality-of-life. (news-medical.net)
  • In conclusion, the melphalan prodrug J1 is highly active in models of neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo , encouraging further clinical development in this patient group. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast to its analogue melphalan, m-L-sarcolysin never reached clinical use. (diva-portal.org)
  • Injectable melphalan is injected into a vein through an IV. (rexhealth.com)
  • The launch of Melphalan represents Bioniche's introduction to the generic injectable oncology market and underscores our commitment to rapid and aggressive product line growth," said George Zorich, President, US Operations for Bioniche Pharma. (bio-medicine.org)
Alkeran (melphalan)
Alkeran (melphalan) (netdoctor.co.uk)
Melphalan With BBBD in Treating Patients With Brain Malignancies - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Melphalan With BBBD in Treating Patients With Brain Malignancies - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov)
MELPHALAN HYDROCHLORIDE (injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution) | Healthgrades.com
MELPHALAN HYDROCHLORIDE (injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution) | Healthgrades.com (healthgrades.com)
Melphalan | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Melphalan | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (mskcc.org)
Melphalan oral Reviews and User Ratings: Effectiveness, Ease of Use, and Satisfaction
Melphalan oral Reviews and User Ratings: Effectiveness, Ease of Use, and Satisfaction (webmd.com)
DailyMed - MELPHALAN HYDROCHLORIDE kit
DailyMed - MELPHALAN HYDROCHLORIDE kit (dailymed.nlm.nih.gov)
Fresenius Kabi Melphalan Hydrochloride for Injection Now Available | Business Wire
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Melphalan: MedlinePlus Drug Information (medlineplus.gov)
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ONCOLOGY Vol 24 No 11 | Oncology | Cancer Network (cancernetwork.com)
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Alkeran Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com (drugs.com)
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Sandimmune (Cyclosporine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning (rxlist.com)
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Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion for the Treatment of Unresectable Liver Malignancies | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)