A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.
An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Clinically atypical nevi (usually exceeding 5 mm in diameter and having variable pigmentation and ill defined borders) with an increased risk for development of non-familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. Biopsies show melanocytic dysplasia. Nevi are clinically and histologically identical to the precursor lesions for melanoma in the B-K mole syndrome. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.
Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.
A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Coloration of the skin.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A benign compound nevus occurring most often in children before puberty, composed of spindle and epithelioid cells located mainly in the dermis, sometimes in association with large atypical cells and multinucleate cells, and having a close histopathological resemblance to malignant melanoma. The tumor presents as a smooth to slightly scaly, round to oval, raised, firm papule or nodule, ranging in color from pink-tan to purplish red, often with surface telangiectasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Color of hair or fur.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Color of the iris.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (1/11316)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (2/11316)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (3/11316)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Frequent nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin without exon 3 mutations in malignant melanoma. (4/11316)

Beta-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation sites near the beta-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render beta-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, beta-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/ lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have beta-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790-1792). To assess the role of beta-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in beta-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser-->Pro). Our findings demonstrate that beta-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of beta-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (5/11316)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (6/11316)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (7/11316)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

Biochemical identification of a mutated human melanoma antigen recognized by CD4(+) T cells. (8/11316)

CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in generating and maintaining immune responses against pathogens and alloantigens, and evidence suggests an important role for them in antitumor immunity as well. Although major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted human CD4(+) T cells with specific antitumor reactivities have been described, no standard method exists for cloning the recognized tumor-associated antigen (Ag). In this study, biochemical protein purification methods were used in conjunction with novel mass spectrometry sequencing techniques and molecular cloning to isolate a unique melanoma Ag recognized by a CD4(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) line. The HLA-DRbeta1*0101-restricted Ag was determined to be a mutated glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). A C to T mutation identified by cDNA sequencing caused a Thr to Ile conversion in TPI, which could be detected in a tryptic digest of tumor-derived TPI by mass spectrometry. The Thr to Ile conversion created a neoepitope whose T cell stimulatory activity was enhanced at least 5 logs compared with the wild-type peptide. Analysis of T cell recognition of serially truncated peptides suggested that the mutated amino acid residue was a T cell receptor contact. Defining human tumor Ag recognized by T helper cells may provide important clues to designing more effective immunotherapies for cancer.  (+info)

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OBJECTIVES To evaluate melanoma biopsy specimens for human papilloma virus (HPV) and determine the relation between the presence of HPV, in vitro growth, and clinical progression of melanoma in the patients from whom the biopsy specimens were derived. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure appears to be the primary causal agent in the development of cutaneous melanoma. However, other agents, including HPV, as observed in different epithelial carcinomas, may also play a role in melanoma development and progression. METHODS Twelve melanoma biopsy specimens obtained from 12 patients with AJCC stage III and IV melanoma were stained with antibodies against gp-100 (HMB-45) and S-100 protein to confirm melanoma diagnosis and with a polyclonal HPV antibody. After mechanical dissociation, the melanoma specimen cells ability to grow in vitro was assessed. Patients were evaluated for melanoma progression with physical examination, complete blood count, and liver function tests every 3
In this article, we report the derivation of highly metastatic human melanoma cell lines from poorly metastatic parental lines using an animal metastasis model. We subsequently identified a metastasis aggressiveness gene signature by comparing the gene expression patterns of tumor samples from the highly metastatic derivatives with those from their parental lines. By comparisons with gene expression data from human clinical samples, we found that expression of this metastasis gene signature in human melanoma metastases correlates with poor survival of the corresponding patients. The signature is able to segregate melanoma-bearing patients into three groups, one of which has a significantly lower survival probability. This suggests that the signature provides an indication of aggressiveness of the melanoma metastases rather than of metastasis per se, similar to the lung metastasis signature reported by Minn et al. (10). This result has been confirmed by alternative methods such as GSEA and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary malignant melanoma of the lung. AU - Bagwell, S. P.. AU - Flynn, S. D.. AU - Cox, P. M.. AU - Davison, J. A.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Primary malignant melanoma of the lung is a rare neoplasm; to date, there have been approximately 20 cases reported in the literature. Extensive clinical and postmortem examinations are necessary to exclude the possibility that the lung tumor does not represent a metastasis from an occult cutaneous or extracutaneous melanoma. We present a case of a 62-yr-old man who appears to have had a primary melanoma of the left upper lobe of the lung. The literature on primary pulmonary melanoma is also reviewed.. AB - Primary malignant melanoma of the lung is a rare neoplasm; to date, there have been approximately 20 cases reported in the literature. Extensive clinical and postmortem examinations are necessary to exclude the possibility that the lung tumor does not represent a metastasis from an occult cutaneous or extracutaneous melanoma. ...
Discussion. Mucosal melanomas are a rare entity and oral cavity melanomas are even rarer, representing 1-2% of all oral malignancies.1 Melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for about 0.2-8% of all malignant melanomas.2 Oral melanomas most frequently involve the maxillary gingiva and palate with the lip being the third most common site.2 Melanoma of the tongue represents less than 2% of all oro-nasal malignant melanomas.2 A review of literature revealed less than 30 cases of primary malignant melanoma of the tongue, with the earliest reference appearing in a survey article by Baxter3 in 1941.. With an equal sex incidence, oral melanomas commonly occur after the 5th decade of life.1 They present as flat, painless, dark brown or black, discolored macules or nodules, sometimes with erythema or ulceration. Less than 10% of oral melanomas are amelanotic. Histologically, oral melanomas are characterized by the presence of atypical melanocytes that are larger than the usual melanocytes with nuclear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adoptive immunotherapy of advanced melanoma patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes selected in vitro with low doses of IL-2. AU - Arienti, Flavio. AU - Belli, Filiberto. AU - Rivoltini, Licia. AU - Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo. AU - Furlan, Luigi. AU - Mascheroni, Luigi. AU - Prada, Augusto. AU - Rizzi, Maurilia. AU - Marchesi, Edoardo. AU - Vaglini, Maurizio. AU - Parmiani, Giorgio. AU - Cascinelli, Natale. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. N2 - Freshly isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from stage IV melanoma patients were cultured for 2 weeks with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2; 120 IU/ml), to select potentially for tumor-specific lymphocytes present in the neoplastic lesion, followed by high doses (6000 IU/ml) to achieve lymphocyte expansion. TIL were serially analyzed for their expansion, phenotype and cytotoxic activity against autologous and allogeneic tumor cells. A preferential lysis of autologous melanoma cells was obtained in ...
Certain aggressive melanoma cell lines exhibit a dedifferentiated phenotype, expressing genes that are characteristic of various cell types including endothelial, neural, and stem cells. Moreover, we have shown that aggressive melanoma cells can participate in neovascularization in vivo and vasculogenic mimicry in vitro, demonstrating that these cells respond to microenvironmental cues and manifest developmental plasticity. To explore this plasticity further, we transplanted human metastatic melanoma cells into zebrafish blastula-stage embryos and monitored their behavior post-transplantation. The data show that human metastatic melanoma cells placed in the zebrafish embryo survive, exhibit motility, and divide. The melanoma cells do not form tumors nor integrate into host organs, but instead become scattered throughout the embryo in interstitial spaces, reflecting the dedifferentiated state of the cancer cells. In contrast to the fate of melanoma cells, human melanocytes transplanted into ...
Endogenously produced interferons can regulate the growth of melanoma cells and are administered exogenously as therapeutic agents to patients with advanced cancer. We investigated the role of negative regulators of interferon signaling known as suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in mediating interferon-resistance in human melanoma cells. Basal and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was evaluated by immunoblot analysis in a panel of n = 10 metastatic human melanoma cell lines, in human embryonic melanocytes (HEM), and radial or vertical growth phase melanoma cells. Over-expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins in melanoma cells was achieved using the PINCO retroviral vector, while siRNA were used to inhibit SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression. Tyr701-phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) was measured by intracellular flow cytometry and IFN-stimulated gene expression was measured by Real Time PCR. SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins were expressed at basal
Standard chemotherapy drugs have failed in large-scale clinical trials for melanoma. To date, the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for melanoma is the alkylating agent dacarbazine (DTIC), which when given as a single agent has a response rate of 5% to 10% (16). Novel approaches to melanoma therapy are therefore urgently needed. Recent work has focused on targeting signaling pathways which are known to be active in melanoma (7). Although many signaling cascades are known to be active in melanoma, most interest has centered on the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway (2). Questions still remain over whether this pathway would represent a suitable therapeutic target in melanoma and there is still controversy on whether BRAF is a strong enough oncogene to drive melanocytic transformation (17). The finding that there are V600E BRAF mutations in nontumorigenic melanocytic nevi (18) then lacking in early-stage radial growth phase melanomas, only to appear at the later vertical growth phase melanomas ...
Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients using repeated therapies: successive immunomodulation improving the odds? Brendon J Coventry, Dominique Baume, Carrie Lilly Discipline of Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Patients with advanced metastatic melanoma are often confronted with little prospect of medium- to longer-term survival by any currently available therapeutic means. However, most clinicians are aware of exceptional cases where survival defies the notion of futility. Prolonged survival from immunotherapies, including interleukin-2, vaccines and antibodies to cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4, and programmed death-1 receptor inhibitory monoclonal antibody, implies a role for immune system modulation. We aimed to identify cases where exceptional survival from advanced melanoma occurred prior to recent novel therapies to facilitate better understanding of this phenomenon. Methods: Cases of long-term survival of ≥3 years'
Melanoma patients carry a high risk of developing brain metastases, and improvements in survival are still measured in weeks or months. Durable disease control within the brain is impeded by poor drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier, as well as intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Augmented mitochondrial respiration is a key resistance mechanism in BRAF-mutant melanomas but, as we show in this study, this dependence on mitochondrial respiration may also be exploited therapeutically. We first used high-throughput pharmacogenomic profiling to identify potentially repurposable compounds against BRAF-mutant melanoma brain metastases. One of the compounds identified was β-sitosterol, a well-tolerated and brain-penetrable phytosterol. Here we show that β-sitosterol attenuates melanoma cell growth in vitro and also inhibits brain metastasis formation in vivo. Functional analyses indicated that the therapeutic potential of β-sitosterol was linked to mitochondrial interference. Mechanistically,
23 March 2018. Australian researchers have greater clarity on the best course of treatment for patients with advanced melanoma which has spread to the brain.. Results from a clinical trial, developed and run by investigators at Melanoma Institute Australia and published today in the Lancet Oncology, demonstrate that a combination of immunotherapies are most active in patients with asymptomatic brain metastases who have not previously been treated.. The Phase II trial known as the Anti-PD1 Brain Collaboration (ABC) trial involved advanced melanoma patients being given either a combination of two immunotherapy drugs (nivolumab [Opdivo®] and ipilimumab [Yervoy®]) or single therapy (nivolumab alone).. The results from the trial suggest that patients with asymptomatic brain metastases who have not received any prior targeted therapy (e.g. MEK or BRAF inhibitors) have a high chance of long-term response to treatment. Response rates were less effective in patients who had already been treated with ...
Despite stricter criteria and important changes for stage III melanoma criteria, the new American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th Edition Melanoma Staging System compares well overall to the older 7th Edition in terms of prognostic and discriminatory ability for predicting patients melanoma-specific survival, according to findings from a prospective database analysis of AJCC stage III melanoma patients (abstract 9500) presented at the 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, held June 1-5 in Chicago.. However, there are new complexities to bear in mind, cautioned lead study coauthor Max F. Madu, MD, of the Netherlands Cancer Institute.. The 8th Edition holds up during external validation, Madu reported. There is similar prognostic accuracy in the 7th and 8th editions, and survival differentiation is comparable-though slightly worse in the 8th edition for stage IIIA vs IIIB.. The AJCC is the most widely used and validated melanoma staging system.. The ...
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors have changed overall survival for patients with advanced melanoma. However, there is a lack of data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of long-term advanced melanoma survivors, years after treatment. Therefore, we evaluated HRQoL in long-term advanced melanoma survivors and compared the study outcomes with matched controls without cancer.. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ipilimumab-treated advanced melanoma survivors without evidence of disease and without subsequent systemic therapy for a minimum of two years following last administration of ipilimumab were eligible for this study. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Melanoma questionnaire (FACT-M) were administered. Controls were individually matched for age, gender, and educational status. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-year follow-up of advanced melanoma patients who received ipilimumab plus fotemustine in the Italian network for tumor biotherapy (NIBIT)-M1 phase II study. AU - Di Giacomo, A. M.. AU - Ascierto, P. A.. AU - Queirolo, P.. AU - Pilla, L.. AU - Ridolfi, R.. AU - Santinami, M.. AU - Testori, A.. AU - Simeone, E.. AU - Guidoboni, M.. AU - Maurichi, A.. AU - Orgiano, L.. AU - Spadola, G.. AU - Del Vecchio, M.. AU - Danielli, R.. AU - Calabrò, L.. AU - Annesi, D.. AU - Giannarelli, D.. AU - Maccalli, Cristina. AU - Fonsatti, E.. AU - Parmiani, G.. AU - Maio, Michele. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Background: In the NIBIT-M1 study, we reported a promising activity of ipilimumab combined with fotemustine in metastatic melanoma (MM) patients with or without brain metastases. To corroborate these initial findings, we now investigated the long-term efficacy of this combination. Patients and methods: This analysis captured the 3-year outcome of MM patients who received ipilimumab ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IDH1R132 mutation identified in one human melanoma metastasis, but not correlated with metastases to the brain. AU - Lopez, Giselle Y.. AU - Reitman, Zachary J.. AU - Solomon, David. AU - Waldman, Todd. AU - Bigner, Darell D.. AU - McLendon, Roger E.. AU - Rosenberg, Steven A.. AU - Samuels, Yardena. AU - Yan, Hai. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) are enzymes which convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP. +. to NADPH). IDH1/2 were recently identified as mutated in a large percentage of progressive gliomas. These mutations occur at IDH1R132 or the homologous IDH2R172. Melanomas share some genetic features with IDH1/2-mutated gliomas, such as frequent TP53 mutation. We sought to test whether melanoma is associated with IDH1/2 mutations. Seventy-eight human melanoma samples were analyzed for IDH1R132 and IDH2R172 mutation status. A somatic, ...
Clinical trial for Pathologic Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Mucosal Melanoma | Acral Lentiginous Melanoma | Pathologic Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Pathologic Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Pathologic Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Pathologic Stage IIID Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Pathologic Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Clinical Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 | Clinical Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8 , Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV High-Risk Melanoma Before and After Surgery
Conditions: Clinical Stage 0 Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage I Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage II Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Colitis; Diarrhea; Malignant Genitourinary System Neoplasm; Pathologic Stage 0 Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage I Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage II Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Pathologic Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma ...
Pets get melanoma too! But unlike people, it is not usually a result of too many hours lying on the beach. Canine melanoma on the skin presents as a pigmented or non-pigmented skin mass most commonly on the face, trunk, feet or scrotum. Feline melanoma on the skin presents on the head or ears. Oral melanoma grows inside the mouth.. Up to half of skin melanomas and most oral melanomas are malignant. Diagnosis can often be made with a fine needle aspirate biopsy, but sometimes a surgical biopsy is required. Surgery is the first step for treatment of pet melanoma. Skin melanomas require removal with surrounding margins of healthy tissue. Oral melanomas also require excision with margins, and this often entails removal of a part of the jaw to ensure that adequate margins are removed. Malignant melanomas can spread, and the first sites of spread are the local lymph nodes and the lungs. The vet will probably stage the disease by checking local lymph nodes and taking chest X-rays prior to any major ...
Recent progress in the structural identification of human melanoma antigens recognized by autologous cytotoxic T cells has led to the recognition of a new melanocyte differentiation antigen, Melan-A(MART-1). To determine the properties of the Melan-A gene product, Melan-A recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and used to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two prototype mAbs, A103 and A355, were selected for detailed study. Immunoblotting results with A103 showed a 20-22-kDa doublet In Melan-A mRNA positive melanoma cell lines and no reactivity with Melan-A mRNA-negative cell lines. A355, in addition to the 20-22-kDa doublet, recognized several other protein species in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunocytochemical assays on cultured melanoma cells showed specific and uniform cytoplasmic staining in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human tissues with both mAbs showed staining of adult melanocytes and no reactivity with the ...
Clinical trial for Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 | Unresectable Cutaneous Melanoma | Mucosal Melanoma | Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7 | Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 | Advanced Melanoma | Melanoma of Unknown Primary | Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 | Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 | Unresectable Melanoma | Refractory Melanoma , Testing Treatment With Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Compared to Treatment With Ipilimumab Alone in Advanced Melanoma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in canine oral malignant melanomas. AU - Shelly, Suzanne. AU - Chien, May B.. AU - Yip, Becky. AU - Kent, Michael S. AU - Theon, Alain P. AU - McCallan, Jennifer L.. AU - London, Cheryl A.. PY - 2005/3. Y1 - 2005/3. N2 - An activating mutation in codon 599 of BRAF has been identified in approximately 60% of human cutaneous nevi and melanomas, but not melanomas of mucosal origin. The purpose of this study was to determine if BRAF mutations occur in canine oral malignant melanomas. The canine BRAF gene was first cloned from normal canine testicular cDNA, and a novel previously unreported splice variant involving exon 5 was identified during this process. To screen canine melanoma samples for BRAF mutation in codon 599, cDNA and genomic DNA were isolated from canine malignant melanoma cell lines and primary tumor samples respectively, all from cases seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. Polymerase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluorescence image-guided surgery and repetitive Photodynamic Therapy in brain metastatic malignant melanoma. AU - Zilidis, G.. AU - Aziz, F.. AU - Telara, S.. AU - Eljamel, M. Sam. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - Metastatic brain melanoma occurs in about 3.5% of patients suffering from malignant melanoma. It has disabling effects on cognition, memory, language and mobility. We studied the use of fluorescence image-guided resection and repetitive Photodynamic Therapy in six consecutive metastatic brain melanomas. Three were males and the mean age of the group was 52.8 years. Results: All six patients (100%) remained free of brain disease till death, 50% died of malignant melanoma elsewhere, and 50% died of unrelated causes. Conclusion: Adjuvant fluorescence image-guided resection and repetitive Photodynamic Therapy offers an excellent local control of metastatic brain melanoma. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. AB - Metastatic brain melanoma occurs in about 3.5% of ...
1059 Certain aggressive melanoma cell lines exhibit a dedifferentiated phenotype, expressing multiple molecular markers that are specific for various cell types including endothelial, neural, and even stem cells. These cells are able to participate in vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and respond to ischemic microenvironmental cues by participating in neovascularization in vivo. We examined the potential plasticity of human metastatic melanoma cells by exposing them to a developmental microenvironment in zebrafish embryos. The data reveal that the zebrafish embryos make a powerful model system in which to investigate tumor-microenvironment interactions and tumor cell plasticity. We show here that fluorescently labeled human metastatic melanoma cells transplanted into zebrafish embryos survive for up to two weeks, exhibit motility, seem to proliferate and most importantly, are no longer tumorigenic. The data also show that normal human melanocytes and fibroblasts transplanted into the zebrafish ...
Melanoma skin cancer (as opposed to non-melanoma skin cancer) is less common, but more serious than other types of skin cancer. Early detection is key to successfully treating melanoma skin cancers. Turley Hansen represents a number of 9/11 responders and survivors with melanoma skin cancer.. Melanoma cancer is sometimes called malignant melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. Most melanoma tumors are brown or black, but some melanomas can appear pink, tan, or even white. Melanomas can develop anywhere on the skin, but they are more likely to start on the chest and back in men and on the legs in women. The neck and face are other common sites. Melanoma cancer can also appear in the eye.. Based on the stage of the cancer, treatment options may include:. ...
A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine defines the succession of genetic alterations during melanoma progression, showing distinct evolutionary trajectories for different melanoma subtypes. It identified an intermediate category of melanocytic neoplasia, characterised by the presen
We used the chick embryo transplant model to study the reprogramming of human metastatic melanoma cells towards a benign cell type. We had previously reported that human patient-derived C8161 metastatic melanoma cells upregulated a marker of melanin synthesis, Mart-1, after exposure to unknown signals in the embryonic neural crest microenvironment (Kulesa et al., 2006). The goal of this study was to identify and examine the function of the microenvironmental signal(s) underlying the reprogramming process. To enable the dynamic readout of one of the changes in metastatic melanoma cell state, we generated a lentiviral Mart-1:GFP reporter and methodically determined the age, tissue type and ultimately the factor that induced re-expression of Mart-1. We learned that the neurotrophin NGF induced Mart-1 re-expression and changes in cell behavior and gene expression of human C8161 metastatic melanoma cells. We confirmed Mart-1:GFP re-expression in C8161 cells after NGF exposure using Mart-1 antibody ...
Fig. 1. Cytokine-ELISA of culture supernatants from malignant melanoma cell lines and melanocyte cultures. The melanoma cell lines MV3, BLM (highly metastatic, marked by **) and IF6, 530 (low metastatic potential, marked by ∗) were kept for 24 h under hypoxia, followed by an additional 24 h of reoxygenation. Parallel cultures kept under normoxia for 24 and 48 h were used as control. A, ANG; B, VEGF; and C, Gro-α, cytokine production was determined by solid phase ELISA; bars, SD. D, ANG, VEGF, and Gro-α production in two melanocyte cultures, which were kept under the same conditions. Values (pg/106 cells) are given as means of three independent experiments for each cytokine; bars, SD. Differences concerning ANG induction levels between highly aggressive and low aggressive cell lines were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05), whereas differences between baseline levels were not statistically significant.. ...
Plasma cells within the infiltrate of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma have been reported as a valuable criterion for the prediction of lymph node metastases. In order to evaluate plasma cells, their prognostic significance and their relationship
Clinical management of primary cutaneous melanomas is based on histopathological staging of the tumour. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a non-selected population in clinical practice, the agreement rate between general pathologists and pathologists experienced in melanoma in terms of the evaluation of histopathological prognostic parameters in cutaneous malignant melanomas, and to what extent the putative variability affected clinical management. A total of 234 cases of invasive cutaneous malignant melanoma were included in the study from the Stockholm-Gotland Healthcare Region in Sweden. Overall interobserver variability between a general pathologist and an expert review was 68.8-84.8%. Approximately 15.5% of melanomas ,= 1 mm were re-classified either as melanoma in situ or melanomas ,1 mm after review. In conclusion, review by a pathologist experienced in melanoma resulted in a change in recommendations about surgical excision margins and/or sentinel node biopsy in subgroups of ...
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The analysis of the protein complement expressed by a cell in a given moment or condition gathers information on the real potential expressed by the genome. In fact, gene expression analysis, although offering the advantage of a wider coverage, is biased by the vast plethora of variables that come into play after gene transcription, such as the different half lives of transcripts, their transcriptional efficiency, as well as the different half lives of proteins within the cell. By directly measuring protein abundances, differential proteomics has the advantage of providing a more realistic picture of the cell response to a given stimulus, although the number of proteins that can be evaluated is often lower than the one obtained in a transcriptomic study. In a recent paper, we described the changes induced by D6 treatments in the gene expression profile of LB24Dagi MM cells [10]. In order to integrate and validate those findings, a differential proteomics study was carried out, and it is ...
Incidence rates for cutaneous malignant melanoma are increasing worldwide. Estimates of the future number of melanoma cases are important for strategic planning of the care pathway. The aim of this study was to use system dynamics modelling to evaluate the long;term effects of changes in incidence, population growth and preventive interventions. Historical data on invasive melanoma cases in Western Sweden from 1990 to 2006 were obtained. Using computer simulation software, a model estimating the accumulated number of melanoma cases for 2014 to 2023 was developed. Five future scena; rios were designed: stable incidence, business;as;usual, 25% reduced patients delay, 50% reduced doctors de; lay, and a combination of the last two, called improved overall secondary prevention. After 10 years, improved overall secondary prevention would have resulted in a 42% decrease in melanomas | 4 mm and a 10% increase in melanomas
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Kate Davenport.. Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive skin cancer and one of the most challenging cancers in its therapeutic management. Emerging studies demonstrate that cancer is a result of a concerted action of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Our understanding of the epigenetic landscape of melanoma remains poorly understood. We have shown a critical role for histone variants of the H2A family in regulating melanoma pathogenesis. For example, macroH2A acts as a barrier to melanoma growth and metastasis (Kapoor et al., Nature 2010), and H2A .Z.2 promotes melanoma growth by positively regulating transcription of E2F target genes (Vardabasso et al., Molecular Cell 2015). Studies will be presented of our ongoing efforts to identify key epigenetic players in melanoma progression and drug resistance, and to decipher the melanoma epigenome by comparing normal melanocytes with malignant melanoma cells.. This talk is part of the Cancer ...
Genetic alterations in the INK4a/ARF (or CDKN2A) locus have been reported in many cancer types, including melanoma; head and neck squamous cell carcinomas; lung, breast, and pancreatic cancers. In melanoma, loss of function CDKN2A alterations have been identified in approximately 50% of primary melanomas, in over 75% of metastatic melanomas, and in the germline of 40% of families with a predisposition to cutaneous melanoma. The CDKN2A locus encodes two critical tumor suppressor proteins, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and the p53 regulator p14ARF. The majority of CDKN2A alterations in melanoma selectively target p16INK4a or affect the coding sequence of both p16INK4a and p14ARF. There is also a subset of less common somatic and germline INK4a/ARF alterations that affect p14ARF, while not altering the syntenic p16INK4a coding regions. In this review, we describe the frequency and types of somatic alterations affecting the CDKN2A locus in melanoma and germline CDKN2A alterations in
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm refractory to traditional therapies, especially at the metastatic stage. Furthermore, its incidence is continuously increasing during the last decade (1). Melanomas develop through a multistep process that from normal melanocytes proceeds to nevi and to radial and vertical growth phase tumors (2). During this process, melanomas are characterized by certain well-defined genetic alterations as well as frequent chromosomal aberrations associated with tumor progression (3). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of melanoma are complex and not entirely clear (4). Because of the intractability of metastatic melanomas with only 14% of the patients survive for 5 years and no effective treatments (2), understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma and identifying molecular markers may lead to improvements in therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanomas.. Mal de Meleda (MDM; OMIM 248300) is a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) regulates melanoma proliferation and cell migration. AU - Umemura, Masanari. AU - Baljinnyam, Erdene. AU - Feske, Stefan. AU - De Lorenzo, Mariana S.. AU - Xie, Lai Hua. AU - Feng, Xianfeng. AU - Oda, Kayoko. AU - Makino, Ayako. AU - Fujita, Takayuki. AU - Yokoyama, Utako. AU - Iwatsubo, Mizuka. AU - Chen, Suzie. AU - Goydos, James S.. AU - Ishikawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Iwatsubo, Kousaku. PY - 2014/2/21. Y1 - 2014/2/21. N2 - Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major mechanism of Ca 2+ import from extracellular to intracellular space, involving detection of Ca2+ store depletion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins, which then translocate to plasma membrane and activate Orai Ca2+ channels there. We found that STIM1 and Orai1 isoforms were abundantly expressed in human melanoma tissues and multiple melanoma/melanocyte cell lines. We confirmed that these cell lines exhibited SOCE, which was inhibited by knockdown ...
Target-specific inhibition of the BRAFV600E mutant protein has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. However, the success of therapies is significantly overshadowed by the development of resistance. Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with acquired resistance is an important step to increase the effectiveness of melanoma treatment. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular differences underlying the development of drug resistance using a mutant BRAF protein inhibitor (vemurafenib analogue: PLX4720) in BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines. We developed four BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines and examined the effect of BRAF inhibitor withdrawal on cell division. ArrayCGH was used to define genetic, and Affymetrix HumanGene 1.0 microarray to monitor gene expression alterations between the sensitive and resistant cell lines. Protein expression was determined using Proteome Profiler Human XL Oncology Array. We found that withdrawal of the inhibitor ...
Malignant melanoma arises from melanocytic cells in the skin and mucosal membranes. Malignant melanomas predominantly develop in areas that are exposed to sunlight including the face, back, or extremities. Because melanoma predominantly occurs in the skin and mucous membranes, malignant melanoma of the breast is particularly rare. The incidence of primary melanoma of the breast is | 5% of all melanomas[1]. Furthermore, secondary tumors of the breast from metastatic malignancies are quite uncommon. Of metastatic malignancies to the breast, melanoma is, however, among the most common[2]. Therefore, metastasis to the breast must be considered in any patient with a known primary malignant tumor history who presents with a breast mass. A full diagnostic work up with observation of the clinical pathological features, immunohistochemical staining methods and tissue origin are required to distinguish primary malignant melanoma of the breast from possible metastatic melanoma.
Click here for Mucosal Melanoma guidelines.. Introduction. Mucosal melanomas are rare, representing only about 1-2% of all melanomas. 55% of all primary mucosal melanomas occur in the head and neck region, with the nose and paranasal sinuses being the most common sites. Surgery at all stages frequently involves complex decisions about risk and benefit, and the value of adjuvant treatment - drug therapy or radiotherapy - is unclear. Medical treatment of advanced melanoma is evolving rapidly and its relevance to this group of patients requires clarification. There is no agreement about diagnostic imaging techniques or follow-up protocols. There is therefore a need for clinical guidance in this area.. As the principal UK melanoma charity, Melanoma Focus leads in the development of clinical guidelines for rare forms of melanoma. The initiative to produce the head & neck mucosal melanoma and ano-uro-genital mucosal guidelines follows the charitys development of the Uveal Melanoma Guideline.. The AUG ...
Cell lines and culture conditions. The human fibroblast cells FF2441 and metastatic melanoma cell lines UACC 903 and 1205 Lu were maintained in Dulbeccos modified eagles medium (DMEM; Invitrogen), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hyclone) at 37°C with 5% CO2 atmosphere in a humidified incubator. Vertical growth phase melanoma cell line WM115 was maintained in Tu2% medium as described previously (6).. Western blot analysis. For Western blot analysis, floating and adherent cells treated with compounds or control vehicle (DMSO) were harvested by addition of lyses buffer containing 50 mmol/L HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mmol/L NaCl, 10 mmol/L EDTA, 10% glycerol, 1% Triton X-100, 1 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate, 0.1 mmol/L sodium molybdate, 1 mmol/L phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 20 μg/mL aprotinin, and 5 μg/mL leupeptin. Whole cell lysates were centrifuged (≥10,000 × g) for 10 min at 4°C to remove cell debris. Protein concentrations were quantitated using the BCA assay from Pierce, and ...
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Amgen has been working on an experimental vaccine used for treating melanoma. This vaccine from Amgen proved effective, and gave hope, in a late-stage study for melanoma cancer.. When someone who has not been impacted by melanoma before hears of melanoma, he or she might think it is a simple skin cancer. It is not. One person will die from melanoma every hour of every day. Once melanoma has metastasized, meaning once it has spread to other areas of the body, it becomes extremely difficult to treat. In later stages of metastatic melanoma, cancer typically spreads to the liver, bones, lungs, and brain. The five-year survival rate for stage IV melanoma is roughly 15 to 20 percent, with the 10-year survival rate dropping to 10 to 15 percent.. The most common form of cancer for young adults who are ages 25 to 29 is melanoma. Someone in the U.S. receives a diagnosis of melanoma every eight minutes. Roughly 63,000 people in America were diagnosed with ...
Margins of excision for cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid skin: the Collaborative Eyelid Skin Melanoma Group Report. Journal Articles ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Superficial spreading melanoma. AU - Longo, Caterina. AU - Casari, Alice. AU - Pellacani, Giovanni. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) is the most common type of melanoma in Caucasian, accounting for about 70% of all diagnosed melanoma cases [1]. This type of melanoma can strike at any age and occurs slightly more often in females than males. SSM has two growth phases: the radial growth phase and the vertical ones [2]. The radial phase involves expansion of the lesion through the epidermis (upper skin layer). In the early radial phase, the lesion is thin, and it can remain in this phase for months or years. This is the less life threatening of the two phases because once the melanoma enters into the vertical growth stage, the prognosis worsens.. AB - Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) is the most common type of melanoma in Caucasian, accounting for about 70% of all diagnosed melanoma cases [1]. This type of melanoma can strike at any age and ...
Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is rare but aggressive. Various treatment options include surgery and adjuvant therapy has been advocated but the outcome remained unpredictable. Standard treatment protocol is yet to be established. We report a case of 54-year-old, Para 4+1, with malignant melanoma of the vagina. She underwent wide local excision but the surgical margin was not clear of malignant cells, hence adjuvant radiotherapy was given. Combination chemotherapy was initiated subsequently as her disease disseminated. She succumbed later due to septicaemic shock. The treatment options for vaginal melanoma were reviewed. ...
Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies using both human and murine cancer cell lines have demonstrated that XPO1 is a relevant target for therapeutic intervention. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-335, against canine melanoma cell lines as a prelude to future clinical trials in dogs with melanoma. We evaluated the effects of KPT-335 on 4 canine malignant melanoma cell lines and found that KPT-335 inhibited proliferation, blocked colony formation, and induced apoptosis of treated cells at biologically relevant concentrations of drug. Additionally, KPT-335 downregulated XPO1 protein while inducing a concomitant increase in XPO1
Study information from Be Involved at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center for: A study comparing the outcome of advanced skin Melanoma cancer treated with a test drug given locally into the affected area versus standard of care treatments.
One of the major challenges in cancer therapy is to overcome drug resistance. Melanoma cells are an illustrative example for this notion, as metastasized melanoma is almost universally resistant against chemotherapy. The NF-κB signaling pathway is constitutively active and plays a crucial role for drug resistance in melanoma cells. This work starts from the observation that doxorubicin leads to profound activation of NF-κB in two different melanoma cell lines, while several other chemotherapeutics with different modes of action did not activate this pathway. Likewise, NF-κB dependent transcription of mediators, which are thought to be involved in tumor progression, was increased by doxorubicin. Notably, the strongest NF-κB activation was detected at a concentration of 1 ...
21 January 2020. Australian researchers have played a critical role in the discovery of a potential new test to predict which early stage melanoma patients are at high risk of their disease recurring and progressing.. A joint study led by researchers from Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, Harvard Medical School, Sydney Local Health District and Adaptive Biotechnology analysed immune cells (known as T-cells) in primary melanoma samples taken from 209 patients, 164 of whom came from MIA.. The study, published today in Nature Cancer, found that patients with a T-cell fraction (TCFr) of less than 20% in their primary melanoma were two-and-a-half times more likely to have disease progression than those with more than 20% TCFr.. The study was jointly led by Dr James Wilmott and Co-Medical Director Professor Richard Scolyer from Melanoma Institute Australia and researchers from Harvard Medical School.. These findings suggest analysing TCFr in primary melanomas is a valuable tool ...
Looking for online definition of radial growth phase melanoma in the Medical Dictionary? radial growth phase melanoma explanation free. What is radial growth phase melanoma? Meaning of radial growth phase melanoma medical term. What does radial growth phase melanoma mean?
Even though the ideal method of diagnosis of melanoma should be complete excisional biopsy,[14] the location of the melanoma may require alternatives. Dermatoscopy of acral pigmented lesions is very difficult but can be accomplished with diligent attention. Initial confirmation of the suspicion can be done with a small wedge biopsy or small punch biopsy.[4] Thin deep wedge biopsies can heal very well on acral skin, and small punch biopsies can give enough clue to the malignant nature of the lesion. Once this confirmatory biopsy is done, a second complete excisional skin biopsy can be performed with a narrow surgical margin (1 mm). This second biopsy will determine the depth and invasiveness of the melanoma,[15] and will help to define what the final treatment will be. If the melanoma involves the nail fold and the nail bed, complete excision of the nail unit might be required. Final treatment might require wider excision (margins of 0.5 cm or more), digital amputation, lymphangiogram with lymph ...
Purpose : The effects of zeaxanthin on uveal melanoma in experimental animal models remain unknown. We found that zeaxanthin inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of human uveal melanoma cells in vitro. We hypothesize that zeaxanthin may also have effects on uveal melanoma in vivo. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of zeaxanthin on human uveal melanoma in a nude mouse model. Methods : Cultured human uveal melanoma cells from an immortal cell line were inoculated into the choroid of nude mice. Mice were randomly divided into control group (without treatment of zeaxanthin), zeaxanthin low group and zeaxanthin high group (treated with intra-choroidal injection of zeaxanthin at 0.171 mg and 0.684 mg, respectively). After 21 days, mice were sacrificed and the eyes enucleated. Gross appearances and tumor mass was determined. Histopathological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections. Melanoma developed rapidly in the control group. Results : ...
PurposeUveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults with no effective systemic treatment option in the metastatic setting. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is an oral, potent, and selective MEK1/2 inhibitor with a short half-life, which demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma in a randomized phase II trial.Methods: The Selumetinib (AZD6244: ARRY-142886) (Hyd-Sulfate) in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma (SUMIT) study was a phase III, double-blind trial (ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT01974752) in which patients with metastatic uveal melanoma and no prior systemic therapy were randomly assigned (3:1) to selumetinib (75 mg twice daily) plus dacarbazine (1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 of every 21-day cycle) or placebo plus dacarbazine. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent central radiologic review. Secondary end points included overall survival and objective response rate.Results: A ...
Central nervous system imaging is needed during programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy to monitor incidence, patterns of progression, and outcomes of melanoma brain metastases, according to research presented at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting (June 2-6, 2017; Chicago, IL).. -----. Related Content. Ipilimumab Combination Significantly Improves Melanoma Outcomes. Skip whole-brain radiation in patients with limited brain metastases. -----. Metastases in the brain is a common occurrence for patients with metastatic melanoma. Currently available therapies are often unable to treat metastatic melanoma tumors in the brain. Limited data exists concerning the incidence, patterns of progression, and outcomes of patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with PD-1 inhibitors, particularly in conjunction with central nervous system-focused therapy.. Gustavo Schvartsman, MD, MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX), and colleagues retrospectively reviewed the survival outcomes of patients with ...
Histologically, the tumour has a radial growth phase and is characterized by lentiginous and some nesting proliferation of large atypical melanocytes. Focally, pagetoid spread is present, however this is not as prominent as in superficial spreading melanoma. The melanocytes may be surrounded by a halo giving a lacunar appearance.. Some of the melanocytes may have dendritic processes. The invasive dermal component may be composed of spindle or epithelioid cells or nevus like cells. Diagnosis of Acral lentiginous melanoma during the radial growth phase is often difficult, and it may not be recognized initially, but treatment in this phase offers an excellent prognosis. There is a high incidence of regressive changes and desmoplasia in Acral lentiginous melanoma.. These changes, together with the anatomic peculiarities of nail beds, palms, and soles as compared with other skin areas, make it difficult to determine the Clarks level and to measure the depth of invasion. ...
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yazan Daaboul, M.D.; Serge Korjian M.D. Synonyms and Keywords: Malignant melanoma; Acral lentiginous melanoma; Lentiginous melanoma; Lentigo maligna melanoma; Nodular melanoma; Amelanotic melanoma; Familial melanoma; Non-pigmented melanoma; MM; Metastatic melanoma; Metastatic malignant melanoma; Cutaneous melanoma; Actinic melanosis; Solar melanoma; Melanose; Malignant nevus; Melanocyte malignancy; Melanotic cancer ...
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Yazan Daaboul, M.D.; Serge Korjian M.D.Sabawoon Mirwais, M.B.B.S, M.D.[2] Synonyms and Keywords: Malignant melanoma; Acral lentiginous melanoma; Lentiginous melanoma; Lentigo maligna melanoma; Nodular melanoma; Amelanotic melanoma; Familial melanoma; Non-pigmented melanoma; MM; Metastatic melanoma; Metastatic malignant melanoma; Cutaneous melanoma; Actinic melanosis; Solar melanoma; Melanose; Malignant nevus; Melanocyte malignancy; Melanotic cancer ...
Previous reports showed that the Steroidal Glycoalkaloid Solamargine inhibited proliferation of non-melanoma skin cancer cells. However, Solamargine was not tested systematically on different types of melanoma cells and was not simultaneously tested on normal cells either. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of Solamargine and the mechanism involved in inhibiting the growth of different types of melanoma cells. Solamargine effect was tested on normal cells and on another three melanoma cell lines. Vertical growth phase metastatic and primary melanoma cell lines WM239 and WM115, respectively and the radial growth phase benign melanoma cells WM35 were used. The half inhibitory concentration IC50 of Solamargine was determined using Alamarblue assay. The cellular and subcellular changes were assessed using light and Transmission Electron Microscope, respectively. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis and necrosis were measured using Flow cytometry. The different protein expression was
Primary pigmented tumors of the CNS are unusual; they include melanotic schwannoma, meningeal melanocytoma, blue nevus of the CNS, and primary melanoma (3-6). Among these lesions, primary malignant melanoma of CNS is rare and accounts for about 1% of all melanomas. Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord is a very rare entity, occuring most often in the middle or lower thoracic cord (1-8). Among the 27 cases of CNS malignant melanoma that Hayward (1) reported, only four lesions were in the spinal cord. Hirschberg (9) first reported primary spinal cord melanoma in 1906. Since then, a few cases have been reported in the literature; these involve intra- or extramedullary, leptomeningeal, and extradural lesions (1-3, 5, 7, 8).. A malignant melanoma can occur in any organ in which melanin-containing cells are present. Two theories have been proposed for the origin of the rare cases of CNS melanoma. Primary melanoma in the CNS may originate from melanoblasts accompanying the pial sheaths of ...
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignancy in adults with an incidence of 0.6 - 0.7 per 100,000 per year.. Prognosis of metastatic uveal melanoma is poor. In retrospective analyses a median survival time after detection of metastases of 5 months (Flaherty et al, 1998) and 7 months (Kath et al, 1993) was reported. For patients receiving no treatment reported median survival was 2.0 months compared with 5.2 months for those receiving treatment for metastases (Gragoudas et al, 1991).. Up to now there is no established treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma. Some therapeutic approaches with locoregional treatment or systemic chemotherapy have been undertaken:. In case of metastatic disease which is confined to the liver in about 85% of patients with uveal melanoma surgical resection led to a median survival of 14 months (Mariani et al, 2009) or 19 months and a 5-year survival rate of 22% in a selected patient population (Adam et al, 2006).. As locoregional treatment option ...
Here, we identified a correlation between sensitivity to MAPK inhibition and suppression of TORC1 in BRAF-mutant melanoma. Several additional factors have previously been suggested to predict resistance to MAPK pathway inhibition in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, including loss of PTEN, increased basal levels of P-AKT, or induction of P-AKT levels after MAPK inhibition (16, 17). Although a tendency toward resistance was observed for some melanoma cell lines bearing these markers, we failed to detect a significant correlation for most markers across our BRAF-mutant melanoma cell line panel after treatment with either vemurafenib or selumetinib. Although each of these mechanisms may play a role in resistance to MAPK inhibition, the interaction of these mechanisms and others that influence sensitivity may be sufficiently complex that evaluation of any of these alone may be inadequate to predict responsiveness. Indeed, a multitude of resistance mechanisms to RAF and MEK inhibitors has been identified ...
Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea). Tumors arise from the pigment cells (melanocytes) that reside within the uvea giving color to the eye. These melanocytes are distinct from the retinal pigment epithelium cells underlying the retina that do not form melanomas. Uveal melanoma was first described in the literature in 1809-1812 by two Scottish surgeons, Allan Burns and James Wardrop. Uveal melanomas are the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. The incidence has remained stable for several years. The cause of uveal melanoma is unclear. Uveal nevi are common (5% of Caucasians), but rarely progress to melanoma. Uveal melanomas, often referred to by the media and in the general population as ocular melanomas, may arise from any of the three parts of the uvea, and are sometimes referred to by their location, as choroidal melanoma, ciliary body melanoma, or iris melanoma. Large tumors often ...
Purpose: : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which senses cellular energy change, and helps regulate cellular metabolism. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is taken up by cells, converted to ZMP (an analog of AMP) and is used as a pharmacologic activator of AMPK. It has recently been shown that AICAR can cause growth arrest in various cancer cell lines. We chose to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of AICAR on the growth of primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines. Methods: : Growth Inhibition Assay: Primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines were cultured in the presence of 1, 2 and 4mM AICAR for 3-5 days. In separate experiments, cells were pretreated with 0.1 uM Iodotubericin (inhibits conversion of AICAR to ZMP) or 2 uM dipyridamole (inhibits the entry of AICAR into the cells). At the end of the incubation, cell growth was assessed with the MTT assay. Flow cytometry for cell cyle analysis: Uveal melanoma cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An independent validation of a gene expression signature to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic nevi. AU - Clarke, Loren E.. AU - Flake, Darl D.. AU - Busam, Klaus. AU - Cockerell, Clay. AU - Helm, Klaus. AU - Mcniff, Jennifer. AU - Reed, Jon. AU - Tschen, Jaime. AU - Kim, Jinah. AU - Barnhill, Raymond. AU - Elenitsas, Rosalie. AU - Prieto, Victor G.. AU - Nelson, Jonathan. AU - Kimbrell, Hillary. AU - Kolquist, Kathryn A.. AU - Brown, Krystal L.. AU - Warf, M. Bryan. AU - Roa, Benjamin B.. AU - Wenstrup, Richard J.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - BACKGROUND: Recently, a 23-gene signature was developed to produce a melanoma diagnostic score capable of differentiating malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. The primary objective of this study was to independently assess the ability of the gene signature to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi in clinically relevant lesions. METHODS: A set of 1400 melanocytic lesions was selected from samples prospectively ...
Human melanoma cells (M21) actively attach and spread on a fibronectin substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence assays with specific monoclonal antibodies directed to the disialoganglioside GD2, the major ganglioside expressed on M21 melanoma cells, indicate that during the cell attachment process this molecule redistributes into microprocesses that make direct contact with the fibronectin substrate. Scanning and transmission immunoelectron microscopic studies with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and immuno-gold staining demonstrate that GD2 preferentially localizes into substrate-associated microprocesses that emanate from the plasma membrane of the M21 cells. Staining with monoclonal antibodies directed to other melanoma surface antigens fails to demonstrate a similar distribution pattern on these cells. Direct evidence is provided that GD2 is involved in M21 cell attachment to fibronectin, since treatment of these cells with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies causes cell rounding and detachment from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pembrolizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma. AU - Rindi, Guido. AU - Zollino, Marcella. AU - Blasi, Maria Antonietta. AU - Cassano, Alessandra. AU - Bria, Emilio. AU - Tortora, Giampaolo. AU - Rossi, Ernesto. AU - Pagliara, Monica Maria. AU - Caputo, Carmela Grazia. AU - Petrone, Gianluigi. AU - Schinzari, Giovanni. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Background: No standard treatment has been defined for metastatic uveal melanoma (mUM). Although clinical trials testing Nivolumab/Pembrolizumab for cutaneous melanoma did not include mUM, anti PD-1 agents are commonly used for this disease. Patients and methods: In this prospective observational cohort single arm study, we investigated efficacy and safety of Pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for mUM. The efficacy was evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and overall survival (OS). Toxicity was also assessed. Results: Seventeen patients were enrolled. A median of 8 cycles were ...
In normal human epidermis, expression of HLA-DR antigen is restricted to Langerhans cells (LC) and acrosyringial epithelium. However, in diseases such as lichen planus and graft-vs.-host, HLA-DR antigen appears to be expressed by keratinocytes, although the exact source of the HLA-DR is unclear. Two possibilities are that (1) the HLA-DR is shed by neighboring immunocompetent cells, or (2) that the keratinocytes are synthesizing the antigen themselves. Recently, gamma interferon has been shown to induce HLA-DR biosynthesis and expression on human malignant melanoma cells lines and on normal vascular endothelium. We report here that pure recombinant human gamma interferon (100 units/ml) induces HLA-DR expression on 60-70% of cultured human adult keratinocytes depleted of LC within 2-4 days of culture as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis using monoclonal antibodies. No residual LC or lymphocytes could be detected in these cultures. This is the first demonstration of HLA-DR
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (doxifluridine) in advanced malignant melanoma. AU - Alberto, P.. AU - Rozencweig, M.. AU - Clavel, M.. AU - Siegenthaler, P.. AU - Cavalli, F.. AU - Gundersen, S.. AU - Bruntsch, U.. AU - Renard, J.. AU - Pinedo, H.. PY - 1986/1. Y1 - 1986/1. N2 - Forty-two patients with malignant melanoma were treated with doxifluridine, 4000 mg/m2 daily ×5, repeated every 3 weeks. The daily dose was reduced to 3000 mg/m2 in patients who had experienced severe myelosuppression with prior chemotherapy. A total of 35 patients were evaluable for response, and 25 of these received two or more courses. Two responses were observed. Toxicity mainly took the form of nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, dizziness, ataxia, and fatigue. Mild leukopenia was frequent (43%). Nadir counts 9/l leukocytes or 50×109/l platelets were seen in 7% and 2% of the courses respectively. Doxifluridine has no useful activity against malignant melanoma.. AB - Forty-two patients with ...
To manage acral lentiginous melanoma daily, its important to follow treatment advice from your doctors. Usually, treatment will involve the immediate
We report a case of metastatic malignant melanoma that presented with macroscopic hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. Effective palliation of urinary tract symptoms was achieved with transurethral resection of metastatic lesions in the bladder, However, the patient was lost due to widespread disease despite systemic therapy. Solitary or multiple dark blue-black nodular or vegetating lesions encountered during cystoscopy should raise the suspicion of metastasis of malignant melanoma and be investigated accordingly. Copyright (C) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel. ...
More than one-third of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma had objective tumor regression when treated with adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Between September 2012 and December 2017, 112 consecutive patients ≥18 years old receiving combined SRS and ipilimumab or nivolumab for one to ten melanoma brain metastases were retrospectively evaluated. In general, patients with lesions up to 2.5 cm in size were treated with single-fraction SRS, while larger lesions located near or in eloquent areas (i.e., motor, somatosensory, speech, visual cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and the brainstem) received multi-fraction SRS to minimize potential increased risk of late radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN).. All radiographic, surgical, and pathological information were drawn from a prospectively maintained database of patients with brain tumors treated at Sant Andrea Hospital and UPMC Hillman Cancer Center San Pietro Hospital. Thirty-two patients were excluded due to insufficient clinical information, previous use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1, brain surgery or radiation. Previous adjuvant therapies, including ipilimumab or BRAF/MEK inhibitors, were ...
Primary malignant melanoma of the lung (PMML) is an uncommon tumor with very few cases reported in the literature that satisfy the required criteria to establish a primary bronchial origin. We report a case of a 44-year-old man with acute abdominal distress and a right pulmonary roentgenographic opacity. A cranial-thoracic-abdominal CT scan confirmed the presence of a pulmonary nodule with bilateral cerebral metastases and marked dilatation of intestinal loops. At laparotomy an ileal intussusception was noted and an ileal resection was done. The resected intestinal segment contained three endoluminal polypoidal formations. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed the presence of multiple sites of melanoma. These lesions as well as the brain lesions clearly appeared metastatic. The patient underwent further evaluation to identify a primary site of melanoma; bronchoscopy was performed with biopsy of the pulmonary nodule. Pathology revealed a neoplastic process of fusiform cells, with ...
There are many options available, but the melanoma treatment you receive depends on the type of melanoma you have and the stage of the disease. Surgery to remove the melanoma is the most common treatment for early stages of the disease. Mohs surgery, in which skin cancer is removed layer by layer, may also be a treatment option for some patients with melanoma.. Surgery is also an option for advanced stages of the disease. Deeper excisions of the tumor or removal of the lymph nodes may be needed for advanced melanoma. If melanoma has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body, immunotherapy can be a treatment option. Immunotherapy triggers the immune systems ability to attack cancer cells.. Chemotherapy is another treatment option used to destroy melanoma cancer cells. Radiation therapy kills cancer cells with high-energy X-ray beams, and its also used to reduce the chance of recurrence after melanoma has been removed. With targeted therapy, drugs and other medications target the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A perfusion system developed for 31p NMR study of melanoma cells at tissue‐like density. AU - Minichiello, Margaret M.. AU - Albert, Daniel M.. AU - Kolodny, Nancy H.. AU - Lee, Moon‐Soo ‐S. AU - Craft, Joseph L.. PY - 1989/4. Y1 - 1989/4. N2 - A perfusion culture system has been developed for 31P NMR study of human uveal melanoma metabolism by adapting the Vitafiber I cartridge system (Amicon). 31P NMR spectra collected weekly during periods of up to 10 weeks demonstrated increasing levels of phosphorus metabolites as the anchorage‐dependent cells grew to tissue‐like density. © 1989 Academic Press, Inc.. AB - A perfusion culture system has been developed for 31P NMR study of human uveal melanoma metabolism by adapting the Vitafiber I cartridge system (Amicon). 31P NMR spectra collected weekly during periods of up to 10 weeks demonstrated increasing levels of phosphorus metabolites as the anchorage‐dependent cells grew to tissue‐like density. © 1989 Academic ...
A wide variety of high-throughput microarray platforms have been used to identify molecular targets associated with biological and clinical tumor phenotypes by comparing samples representing distinct pathological states. The gene expression profiles of human cutaneous melanomas were determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Next, a robust analysis to determine functional classifications and make predictions based on data-oriented hypotheses was performed. Relevant networks that may be implicated in melanoma progression were also considered. In this study we aimed to analyze coordinated gene expression changes to find molecular pathways involved in melanoma progression. To achieve this goal, ontologically-linked modules with coordinated expression changes in melanoma samples were identified. With this approach, we detected several gene networks related to different modules that were induced or repressed during melanoma progression. Among them we observed high coordinated expression levels of genes involved
The sentinel node biopsy (SNB) procedure is a multidisciplinary technique, invented to gain prognostic information in different malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to study the cohort of patients with malignant melanoma, operated with SNB, from the introduction of the technique in Sweden, concerning the prognostic information retrieved and the outcome of the procedures. In Sweden all patients with malignant melanoma are registered at regional Oncological Centers. From these databases ten centers were identified, treating malignant melanoma and performing sentinel node biopsy. Consecutive data concerning tumor characteristics, outcome of the procedure and disease related events during the follow-up time were collected from these ten centers. All cases from the very first in each centre were included. The SNB procedure was performed in 422 patients with a sentinel node (SN) detection rate of 97%, the mean Breslow thickness of the primary tumors was 3.2 mm (median 2.4 mm) and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multi-Modality Analysis Improves Survival Prediction in Enucleated Uveal Melanoma Patients. AU - Drabarek, Wojtek. AU - Yavuzyigitoglu, Serdar. AU - Obulkasim, Askar. AU - van Riet, Job. AU - Smit, Kyra N. AU - van Poppelen, Natasha M. AU - Vaarwater, Jolanda. AU - Brands, Tom. AU - Eussen, Bert. AU - Verdijk, Robert M. AU - Naus, Nicole C. AU - Mensink, Hanneke W. AU - Paridaens, Dion. AU - Boersma, Eric. AU - van de Werken, Harmen J G. AU - Kilic, Emine. AU - de Klein, Annelies. AU - Rotterdam Ocular Melanoma Study Group. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is characterized by multiple chromosomal rearrangements and recurrent mutated genes. The aim of this study was to investigate if copy number variations (CNV) alone and in combination with other genetic and clinico-histopathological variables can be used to stratify for disease-free survival (DFS) in enucleated patients with UM.Methods: We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) array data ...
Background Melanoma incidence and mortality rates are increasing worldwide within the white population. Clinical and histological factors have been usually used for the prognosis and assessment of the risk for melanoma.. Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous melanoma (CM) in the Latvian population, to test the association between melanoma features and patient survival, and to assess the time trends for melanoma incidence.. Methods We undertook a descriptive, retrospective analysis of archive data of 984 melanoma patients treated at the largest oncological hospital of Latvia, Riga East University Hospital Latvian Oncology Centre (LOC), between 1998 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse patient survival and autoregressive models were applied to detect trends in melanoma incidence over time for various categories of melanoma.. Results The study showed a significant ascending trend in melanoma incidence in ...
The effects of irradiation with gamma rays and protons on HTB140 human melanoma cell morphology and viability were analyzed. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated close to the Bragg peak maximum of the 62-MeV proton beam, as well as with (60)Co gamma rays, with doses ranging from 8 to 24 Gy. The overall cell morphology was unchanged 6 and 48 h after gamma irradiation, also showing a relatively weak cell-inactivation level. After exposure to proton beam, considerable changes in cell morphology followed by stronger cell inactivation were achieved. Proliferation capacity of irradiated cells significantly decreased in both experimental set-ups. Higher ionization level of protons with respect to gamma rays, representing the main physical difference between these two types of radiation, was also revealed on the cell membrane level through larger pro-apoptotic capacity of protons ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome with the subunit Cdh1 (APC/CCdh1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the control of the cell cycle. Here, we identified sporadic mutations occurring in the genes encoding APC components, including Cdh1, in human melanoma samples and found that loss of APC/CCdh1 may promote melanoma development and progression, but not by affecting cell cycle regulatory targets of APC/C. Most of the mutations we found in CDH1 were those associated with ultraviolet light (UV)-induced melanomagenesis. Compared with normal human skin tissue and human or mouse melanocytes, the abundance of Cdh1 was decreased and that of the transcription factor PAX3 was increased in human melanoma tissue and human or mouse melanoma cell lines, respectively; Cdh1 abundance was further decreased with advanced stages of human melanoma. PAX3 was a substrate of APC/CCdh1 in melanocytes, and APC/CCdh1-mediated ubiquitylation marked PAX3 for proteolytic degradation in a manner dependent on the ...
Case: The authors describe a patient with a primary malignant melanoma of the urethra 5.4 cm in diameter presenting as postmenopausal vaginal bleeding and treated with anterior pelvic exenteration. No adjuvant therapy was administered. The patient died of pneumonia shortly after discharge ...
Background: Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy. Early diagnosis might pave the way to cure but its aggressive nature leads to rapid dissemination and colonization of distant organs. Dietary herbs may play a significant role in prevention of cancer. In this study, we tested anti-tumor efficacy of the Crocus sativus derived active constituent crocin, it is well established to have anti-cancer properties in different cancer models by our group and other groups. Notably, crocin is reported to exert anti-proliferative effect on melanoma cells (B16F10) in vitro. However, roles of crocin on in vivo melanoma tumor remission have not yet been reported to our knowledge. Materials and Methods: Melanoma tumor model was established by transplanting B16F10 (5 X 105) cells into C57BL/6 mice, which were then observed for tumor development and once the tumor volume reached 6 mm, mice were divided into (Group I: tumor-bearing animals treated with normal saline and Group II: counterparts treated with crocin at 2 mg
Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma Academic Article ...
Nuclear RNA-binding protein p54nrb and its murine homolog NonO are known to be involved in a variety of nuclear processes including transcription and RNA processing. Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has been shown to play an essential role in the progression of malignant melanoma and to influence melanoma-associated molecules and pathways in the early tumor formation steps. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that MIA is a regulator of p54nrb. Here, we show that p54nrb is strongly expressed and localized in the nucleus of both melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue samples compared with normal human melanocytes or normal skin, respectively. Furthermore, all tested melanoma cell lines revealed strong p54nrb promoter activity. Treatment with MIA-specific small interfering RNAs showed an influence of MIA on p54nrb expression on both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. Knockdown of p54nrb protein in melanoma cell lines led to reduced proliferation rates and to a strong decrease in their ...
Aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 as ubiquitously expressed membrane peptidase exerts important functions in diverse cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Previously, a role of APN in the invasiveness of melanoma cells has been demonstrated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling APN expression are not understood. The present study demonstrates that lack of APN expression in primary and established melanoma cells was directly associated with a high-grade DNA methylation status of the myeloid APN promoter. Demethylation by 5-aza-2-desoxycytidine not only induced constitutive and cytokine-regulated APN protein expression but also resulted in an increased APN-dependent migration of melanoma cells. Furthermore, its heterogeneous expression was inversely correlated to the expression of melanocytic marker proteins in established as well as in short-term cultured human melanoma cells. Staining of tissue microarrays generated from a large series of melanoma ...
Dive into the research topics of Modulation by Interferons of HLA Antigen, High-Molecular-Weight Melanoma-associated Antigen, and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression by Cultured Melanoma Cells with Different Metastatic Potential. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Once established in the liver organ, uveal melanomas respond extremely to therapy choices available badly, including targeted therapies, chemotherapies and immunotherapies [8]. Theres been some recommendation that the fairly low mutational burden of uveal melanoma weighed against cutaneous melanoma C producing a lower appearance of tumor neoantigens C may underlie having less efficacy observed in immunotherapy. To time, most function in the targeted therapy area has focused upon the inhibition of kinases downstream of GNAQ/GNA11. The major focus so far has been upon MEK, for which several US FDA-approved small molecule MEK inhibitors exist. There is preclinical evidence that targeting MEK has some efficacy against uveal melanoma cells and in uveal melanoma xenograft models [18]. Multiple isoforms of HDACs exist, and it is not yet obvious which HDAC or combination of HDACs regulate the BAP1 loss phenotype. Some recent evidence from both and human uveal melanoma cell collection models have ...
Background: Uveal Melanoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of melanoma, with singular characteristics that separate it from the most famous, the cutaneous melanoma. This uncommon condition becomes even rarer if we look to young population. Traditional chemotherapy doesn´t work with this aggressive disease in its metastatic scenario, and the new armament like targeted and immunotherapies are still looking for more robust evidence. Case Presentation: We report a rare case of uveal melanoma in a patient below 20 years of age, with abdominal pain as his initial complaint. He couldn´t present with the traditional visual symptoms of the primary site because of an auto-accident suffered 4 months before the presentation, letting him blind of the eye affected by the tumor development.Conclusion: There is always a possibility of the diagnosis of uveal melanoma in cases with associated isolated hepatic metastases, even in a young population, where this hypothesis is often rejected by the epidemiological
Background/Purpose Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Methods Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Results A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P
Although a deadly form of skin cancer, melanoma is treatable if detected early. Existing approaches in melanoma detection training employ a rule-based method where lesions are assessed by their Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolvement in appearance (i.e., the ABCDE rule). However, the rule-based training practices in melanoma detection were not effective. In the current study, we assessed an innovative way to train melanoma detection using the principles of perceptual expertise training. All participants first reviewed the ABCDE rules pamphlet, and were then given the Melanoma Detection Test (MDT) as the pre-test where they categorized a set of skin lesion images as either melanoma or benign. Participants in the perceptual expertise training group received four training sessions where they were taught to categorize melanoma and benign lesions to 95% accuracy. Participants in the control group received no training. After training, all participants were retested with the same items on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The impact of biopsy technique on upstaging, residual disease, and outcome in cutaneous melanoma. AU - Egnatios, Genevive L.. AU - Dueck, Amylou C.. AU - MacDonald, James B.. AU - Laman, Susan D.. AU - Warschaw, Karen E.. AU - Dicaudo, David J.. AU - Nemeth, Shari A.. AU - Sekulic, Aleksandar. AU - Gray, Richard J.. AU - Wasif, Nabil. AU - Pockaj, Barbara A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - Background: After skin biopsy of malignant melanoma, the findings in the subsequent wide local excision (WLE) sometimes result in upgrading of the T-category. Herein, we examine the influence of biopsy technique on residual disease in melanoma WLE specimens and on upstaging. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of data from malignant melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy between 1997 and 2010. Results: A total of 609 patients were biopsied by shave (51%), punch (19%), and excision (30%). Residual ...
Mucosal melanoma; When melanoma occurs on mucous membranes. Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Melanoma ... with features of a Spitz nevus Uveal melanoma Vaginal melanoma Polypoid melanoma, a subclass of nodular melanoma. A melanoma in ... ocular melanoma and melanoma of soft parts, or mucosal melanoma (e.g., rectal melanoma), although these tend to metastasize ... Look up melanoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Melanoma. Melanoma at Curlie (CS1 ...
Not all melanoma tumors are the same; there are four different types of melanomas that can be found in horses. This type of ... An equine melanoma is a tumor that results from the abnormal growth of melanocytes in horses. Unlike in humans, melanomas in ... If melanomas become large and ulcerate, they may become infected. Gray horses have a higher susceptibility to melanoma than any ... There are several treatment options when a horse is found to have a melanoma tumor. The surgical removal of a melanoma tumor is ...
696 Polypoid melanoma is a subtype of nodular melanoma, the most aggressive form of melanoma (a skin cancer). Polypoid melanoma ... Polypoid melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition, a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.: ... Polypoid melanoma is most commonly found on the torso but may be found in unexpected places like the nasal mucous membranes and ... Sometimes polypoid melanoma may develop on moles on your skin, but it usually occurs out of nowhere on normal skin. Polypoid ...
... (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma. It tends to grow more rapidly in thickness (vertically penetrate ... Important prognosis factors for nodular melanoma include: Thickness Ulceration Sentinel lymph node (SLN) status Melanoma ... 696 Polypoid melanoma is a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.: 696 The microscopic hallmarks are: Dome-shaped at low power ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Melanoma). ...
... is a moth in the family Cosmopterigidae. It is found in Australia, where it has been recorded from Victoria ...
... choroidal melanoma, ciliary body melanoma, or iris melanoma. Large tumors often encompass multiple parts of the uvea and can be ... such as acral melanomas and mucosal melanomas. BRAF mutations are extremely rare in posterior uveal melanomas; instead, uveal ... in which case they are considered melanomas. Uveal melanoma is distinct from most skin melanomas associated with ultraviolet ... Iris melanomas are much less likely to metastasize than other uveal melanomas, and less likely to impair vision if detected and ...
The study also suggested that amelanotic melanomas might grow faster than pigmented melanomas. Melanoma List of cutaneous ... They can occur anywhere on the body, just as a typical melanoma can. Often, amelanotic melanomas are mistaken for benign ... metastatic amelanotic melanoma has a worse prognosis than other subtypes. Survival after diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was ... Amelanotic melanoma is a type of skin cancer in which the cells do not make any melanin.: 696 They can be pink, red, purple or ...
... is a cutaneous condition that may resemble a Spitz nevus or an acquired or congenital melanocytic nevus. ... Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
... is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and the editor-in- ... "Melanoma Research". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2021. Official website v t e ( ... The journal covers both experimental and clinical research on melanoma. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal ...
... is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma: 696 with an ... Desmoplastic melanomas tend to recur locally, with distant metastasis being less common. Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Melanoma, All stub articles, Cutaneous ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Busam, Klaus J. (2011). "Desmoplastic Melanoma". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 31 (2): 321-30. doi: ...
... is a murine tumor cell line used for research as a model for human skin cancers. B16 cells are useful models for ... Those are just a few examples, but the undergirding idea is that the B16 melanoma model is a powerful research tool, and a ... Today, B16 melanoma remains indispensable for metastasis studies. Current research projects focus on the cells' immunological ... Melanoma development: molecular biology, genetics and clinical application. Wien: Springer. Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Zhang, Ying; ...
... is a rare condition characterized by a melanoma of the mucous membranes. This subtype is associated a worse ... The prognosis of vulvovaginal melanomas is poor, especially for vaginal melanomas and has not improved over the last decades. ... Melanoma James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders ... Wohlmuth C, Wohlmuth-Wieser I, May T, Vicus D, Gien LT, Laframboise S (November 2019). "Malignant Melanoma of the Vulva and ...
... is a moth in the family Oecophoridae. It was described by John Frederick Gates Clarke in 1978. It is found in ... "Aniuta melanoma Clarke, 1978". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved August 13, 2019. J. F. Gates Clarke (1978). ...
... accounts 5.5% of all vaginal cancers and only 1% of all melanomas diagnosed in women. Vaginal melanomas are ... It is darkly pigmented and of an irregular T-shape, but amelanotic melanomas have been described in 7% of cases. Melanoma of ... Therefore BRAF-inhibitors play only a minor role in vaginal melanomas (unlike in skin melanomas). However, a recent study has ... Vaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy that originates from melanocytes in the vaginal epithelium. It is also known as a ...
... is a cutaneous condition, and is a vitiligo-like depigmentation that can occur in patients with ... cutaneous or ocular melanoma. Pallister-Killian syndrome List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; ...
... (SSM) is usually characterized as the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians. The ... June 2008). "Is superficial spreading melanoma still the most common form of malignant melanoma?". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58 (6 ... Localized melanoma, which has not spread beyond the skin, has a very good prognosis with low recurrence rates. Spread of ... Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: ...
"Macrophage-derived soluble factor enhances melanoma inhibitory activity expression by uveal melanoma cells in vitro". Melanoma ... "Entrez Gene: MIA melanoma inhibitory activity". Bosserhoff AK, Kaufmann M, Kaluza B, et al. (August 1997). "Melanoma-inhibiting ... 2007). "Melanoma inhibiting activity protein (MIA), beta-2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic melanoma ... Tatzel J, Poser I, Schroeder J, Bosserhoff AK (2005). "Inhibition of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) expression in melanoma ...
The mammalian members of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen) gene family were originally described as completely silent in ...
... is a cutaneous condition and is characterized by nodules and fascicles of epithelioid melanocytes with ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
... of melanoma cells and is involved in 40- 87% of gene alterations in melanoma cases (Gonzalgo et al., 1997). This means that 10 ... In melanoma, Ku70 and Ku86 genes involved in DNA repair, were found to be inactivated when a histone deacetylase, or HDAC, was ... Melanoma is a rare but aggressive malignant cancer that originates from melanocytes. These melanocytes are cells found in the ... Despite the fact that melanoma represents only a small number of all skin cancers, it is the cause of more than 50% of cancer- ...
Ocular oncology Uveal melanoma - melanoma of the eye Ciliary Body Melanoma - Springer Long-term survival in choroidal and ... Ciliary body melanoma is a type of cancer arising from the coloured part (uvea) of the eye. About 12% of uveal melanoma arise ... The tumor can erode forward through the iris root and mimic an iris melanoma. Retinal detachment can be rarely caused by ... Enucleation (surgical removal of the eye) is the treatment of choice for large ciliary body melanomas. Small or medium sized ...
... , also known as melanoma with small nevus-like cells, is a cutaneous condition, a tumor that contains ... Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. ( ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
... acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of lentiginous skin melanoma. Acral lentiginous melanoma is the most common subtype in ... Acral lentiginous melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer that is not caused by sunlight. Melanoma is a group of serious ... However, because rates of other melanomas are low in non-white populations, ALM is the most common form of melanoma diagnosed ... If caught early, acral lentiginous melanoma has a similar cure rate as the other types of superficial spreading melanoma. Acral ...
... is a melanoma that has evolved from a lentigo maligna,: 695 as seen as a lentigo maligna with melanoma ... A few pathologists do not consider lentigo maligna to be a melanoma at all, but a precursor to melanomas. Once a lentigo ... Treatment is essentially identical to other melanomas of the same thickness and stage. Melanoma James, William D.; Berger, ... Lentigo Maligna Melanoma, Left Central Malar Cheek marked for biopsy Treatment depends on the thickness of the invasive ...
Research at the Melanoma Institute Australia aims to increase understanding of the genetic and molecular causes of melanoma. ... In 1983 the clinic moved to Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and was renamed the Sydney Melanoma Unit. In 2007, the Sydney Melanoma ... Australian Melanoma Research Foundation Cancer Council Australia Melanomas: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 ... The Melanoma Institute Australia is a non-profit organization based at the Poche Centre in North Sydney, Australia which ...
"About". Aim at Melanoma. Retrieved 2011-12-10. "James A Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation - committed to finding a cure". ... The AIM at Melanoma Foundation (AIM) is the largest non-profit international organization focused on increasing support for ... Each year, fundraisers are held around the country-AIM for a CURE Melanoma Walks, The Schlip Golf Classic, and other regional ... Charlie Guild, a recent Brown University graduate, was diagnosed with Stage IV melanoma at the age of 25. Just nine months ...
The Australian Melanoma Research Foundation participates in various activities to raise funds and raise awareness of melanoma ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of dermatology. It is the official journal of the ... Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research is indexed in: Abstracts in Anthropology Academic Search Academic Search Premier Biochemistry ... International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies (IFPCS) and the Society for Melanoma Research (SMR). In 2014, it ranked the ... Index SciSearch SCOPUS Zoological Record International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies website Society for Melanoma ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA8 gene. This gene is a member of the MAGEA gene ... "Entrez Gene: Melanoma antigen family A, 8". Retrieved 2014-08-25. De Plaen E, Arden K, Traversari C, Gaforio JJ, Szikora JP, De ... Rogner UC, Wilke K, Steck E, Korn B, Poustka A (October 1995). "The melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family is clustered in the ...
Rick Kefford of the Sydney Melanoma Unit, the University of Texas Southwestern Melanoma Center, and efforts to develop ... Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation merged with the Charlie Guild Foundation in 2009 to create the AIM at Melanoma Foundation ... The James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation was a US-based non-profit organization with a mission to fund clinical ... In 2007 the foundation awarded $160,000 in grants to fight melanoma. Grants were awarded to Dr. ...
The latest federal data on melanoma cases and deaths. ... See how the rates of melanomas of the skin or melanoma of the ... The Melanoma Dashboard provides state and local data to help communities address their unique melanoma prevention needs. ... See rates or numbers of melanomas of the skin or melanoma of the skin deaths for the entire United States and individual states ... See rates or numbers of melanomas of the skin or melanoma of the skin deaths by race/ethnicity, sex, and age group. ...
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in pigment-producing cells called melanocytes . Explore symptoms, inheritance, ... Melanoma usually occurs on the skin (cutaneous melanoma), but in about 5 percent of cases it develops in melanocytes in other ... Most melanomas affect only the outermost layer of skin (the epidermis. ). If a melanoma becomes thicker and involves multiple ... When melanoma occurs as part of a genetic syndrome, the risk of melanoma follows the inheritance pattern of the syndrome. ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Melanoma News. ... Experts Urge Stopping Melanoma Trial Because of Failure and Harm New results from a phase 3 trial may shut the door on the ... ASCO 2022 Melanoma Incidence Up, but Death Rates Down The data are very encouraging and represent the real-world ... A Fish Tale? More on That Seafood, Melanoma Study Experts advised not making a whale out of recent findings linking fish intake ...
Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva presents as a raised, pigmented or nonpigmented lesion. This lesion is uncommon but ... Primary malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva is much less common than intraocular or skin melanomas. Malignant melanoma of the ... Go to Ciliary Body Melanoma, Choroidal Melanoma, and Iris Melanoma for complete information on these topics. ... Not all conjunctival melanomas are pigmented; melanomas with little or no pigment can look like squamous and sebaceous gland ...
Vitiligo is a cutaneous autoimmune disease, especially devastating to patients with darker skin tones because of the contrast between unaffected and lesional skin. We studied immune cells infiltrating vitiligo skin and found very few regulatory T cells (Tregs). Vitiligo was not associated with a reduced frequency or function of circulating Tregs. To manipulate Treg function, we used mouse models expressing melanocyte-reactive TCRs, following changes in pelage color. We also isolated splenocytes to measure Treg function and evaluated cutaneous Treg abundance ...
The Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) is leading the melanoma community to transform melanoma from one of the deadliest ... Melanoma is the deadliest form of the skin cancer with the majority occurring on the skin. ... The Melanoma Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. ... a suitable alternative would put Floridians and visitors to the state at significantly greater risk of developing melanoma and ...
... melanoma - Perspectives on a variety of cancer-related topics, hosted by CDC ... Tags melanoma, sun safety, tanning A Tan Is Not a Sign of Health: Sharon McKenna, Melanoma Survivor, Shares Her Story. " ...
The effect of occupational exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation on malignant skin melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer: a ... Clinical diagnosis of melanoma / Marie Françoise Avril ... [‎et al.]‎ for and on behalf of the World Health Organization ... Pathological reporting of cutaneous malignant melanoma / Arnold Levene and Rona M. Mackie for and on behalf of the World Health ... Organization Melanoma Programme  Levene, Arnold; Mackie, Rona M; World Health Organization. Melanoma Programme (‎WHO Melanoma ...
Useful resources for the War on Melanoma in the Department of Dermatology at OHSU ... We have developed a set of tools and resources to communicate critical information about melanoma, help track moles, and ...
Learn more about melanomas causes, risk factors, and prevention. ... Melanoma starts in skin cells called melanocytes and can spread ... Melanoma starts in skin cells called melanocytes and can spread throughout the body. Learn more about melanomas causes, risk ...
Read about the treatment options for melanoma. Surgery is the main treatment, but it often depends on your individual ... Treating stage 3 melanoma. If the melanoma has spread to nearby lymph nodes (stage 3 melanoma), further surgery may be needed ... Melanoma vaccines. Research is under way to produce vaccines for melanoma, either to treat advanced melanoma or to be used ... Treating stage 4 melanoma. If melanoma comes back or spreads to other organs its called stage 4 melanoma. ...
Find out how to lower your familys risk of getting melanoma and how doctors treat it. ... Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. ... What Is Melanoma?. Melanoma (mel-eh-NOE-muh) is a type of ... What Causes Melanoma?. In adults, ultraviolet (UV) light can cause melanoma on any area of skin and can make a mole more likely ... Who Gets Melanoma?. Risk factors that can increase a persons chances of melanoma include:. *a fair complexion (light skin that ...
... *Medical Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD ... Read medical definition of Acral-lentiginous melanoma ... Acral-lentiginous melanoma: See: Melanoma, acral-lentiginous.. ...
Foot melanoma refers to cancer of the cells in the top layer of the skin on the foot. Learn more. ... Acral lentiginous melanoma. Around half of all cases of melanoma that appear on the feet are acral lentiginous melanoma. This ... Superficial spreading melanoma. Superficial spreading melanoma is the most common type of melanoma. It grows outward across the ... Foot melanoma, a type of acral melanoma, is a variant of skin cancer that develops on the feet. It can appear anywhere on the ...
Melanoma accounts for only 4% of all skin cancers; however, it causes the greatest number of skin cancer-related deaths ... Melanoma is a malignancy of pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) located predominantly in the skin, but also found in the eyes ... New NCCN Guidelines for Uveal Melanoma and Treatment of Recurrent or Progressive Distant Metastatic Melanoma. J Natl Compr Canc ... Lentigo maligna melanoma, right lower cheek. Centrally located erythematous papule represents invasive melanoma with ...
Although melanoma is not the most common skin cancer it does cause the most deaths. The Melanoma Awareness Ribbon Magnet is a ... Melanoma is a form of skin cancer and often resembles moles, while some develop from moles. ... great way to show your support and raise awareness for Melanoma research. ... Melanoma is a form of skin cancer and often resembles moles, while some develop from moles. Although melanoma is not the most ...
Spouses may be apt to notice suspicious moles on their partners that could signal melanoma, the most dangerous type of skin ... Melanoma is more likely than other skin cancers to spread beyond the initial tumor site to other organs, but all the patients ... Researchers analyzed 52,000 melanoma patients in a U.S. government cancer database who were diagnosed from 2010 to 2014. ... Spouses Can Boost Early Detection for Melanoma Patients. A study indicates that nagging prompts those with skin cancer to get ...
Learn how immunotherapy can treat squamous cell skin cancer by stimulating a persons immune system to destroy non-melanoma ...
Melanoma Clinical Research Trial Listings in Dermatology Oncology Family Medicine on CenterWatch ... Melanoma Clinical Trials. A listing of Melanoma medical research trials actively recruiting patient volunteers. Search for ... PET/CT Whole-body Dynamic Acquisition at FDG to Metastatic Melanoma Under Immunotherapy (IMMUNOPET2) The value of 4D body-to- ... Leveraging ctDNA Analysis to Improve Early Detection of Cancer Recurrence in the High-Risk Adjuvant Melanoma Setting To ...
Survey of Knowledge of and Awareness About Melanoma -- United States, 1995 ... Risk Factors for Melanoma (6). * Light skin color * Family history of melanoma * Personal history of melanoma * Presence of ... Awareness of melanoma (defined as knowledge that melanoma is a type of cancer or specifically a type of skin cancer) varied ... Respondents were asked, Can you tell me what melanoma is?; 55% knew melanoma is a type of cancer, 34% knew it is a type of ...
Also avail free - Melanoma News Widget from Medindia ... Find latest news and research updates on Melanoma. ... What are the Symptoms of Melanoma? , How do you Diagnose Melanoma? , How do you Treat Melanoma? , How do you Prevent Melanoma? ... What is Melanoma? , What are the Types of Melanoma? , What are the Risk Factors for Melanoma? , ... Acral melanoma (or acral lentiginous melanoma) is a rare type of skin melanoma that develops on the palms, feet soles, or under ...
Get quick facts and information or use maps to view state-level data on melanoma and ultraviolet radiation. ... Melanoma Dashboard provides a wide range of relevant state and local data to help communities address their unique melanoma ( ... The CDC Melanoma Dashboard and embedded visuals are currently down for planned maintenance. Please check back later. ...
One of the melanomas analyzed was cutaneous melanoma, which has one subtype associated with solar radiation and another with no ... All acral melanoma samples came from the Barretos hospital.. Analysis of methylated DNA showed cutaneous melanomas not ... Moreover, 28.6% of the acral melanoma patients were Black, whereas only 5.6% of the cutaneous melanoma samples from Hospital de ... The researchers analyzed 112 cutaneous melanoma samples and 21 acral melanoma samples. The former were collected from Hospital ...
Care of Patients with Malignant Melanoma of Skin in Northern Ireland. 2006. ...
Find the best volunteer opportunities from Melanoma Education Foundation at VolunteerMatch. ... The Melanoma Education Foundation provides education about melanoma and self-examination of the skin to detect this common and ... The Melanoma Education Foundation is a non-profit organization that provides melanoma videos and related resources to high ... We also provide melanoma education to the general public through another website https://www.skincheck.org. ...
Melanoma, acral-lentiginous: One of the four clinical types of malignant melanoma, uncommon in whites but the most common type ... Read medical definition of Melanoma, acral-lentiginous ... Definition of Melanoma, acral-lentiginous. *Medical Editor: Jay ...
After doctors at Emory University removed a melanoma tumor from his liver on August 3, they discovered four small melanoma ... Carters Cancer Is Melanoma. - Former President Jimmy Carter will undergo treatment with pembrolizumab. by Tom Watkins, ... â They had a very high suspicion â then and now â that the melanoma started somewhere else in my body and it spread to the ... "It used to be that melanoma was just a death sentence; in recent years, they have been able to save peoples lives to an ...
... making melanoma cells continuously grow and divide. In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, Johns Hopkins Melanoma/Skin ... including acral and mucosal melanoma. NRAS is another cancer-promoting gene that is mutated in about 20% of cutaneous melanomas ... Patients with melanoma or other skin cancers seeking care at Johns Hopkins receive the highest standards of care with the ... Melanoma/skin cancer research experts at Johns Hopkins are at the forefront of developing the next wave of therapies and ...
Learn more about Melanoma Clinical Trials at moffitt.org ... in Metastatic Melanoma. Disease Site: Eye and Orbit, Melanoma, ... With regard to clinical trials for melanoma, our team will explain:. *What the study will entail and how it might affect the ... If you would like to learn about the melanoma clinical trials currently underway at Moffitt Cancer Center, you do not need a ... The melanoma clinical trials being conducted at Moffitt Cancer Center provide patients with novel opportunities to try exciting ...
  • See the PDQ summary on Childhood Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment for more information about intraocular melanoma). (cancer.gov)
  • Liver enzyme levels are indicated in any patient with uveal melanoma, because the liver is the most common site of choroidal melanoma metastasis. (medscape.com)
  • Ciliary body melanoma is a subtype of uveal melanoma, the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma can also rarely occur in the eye (uveal melanoma) or in the linings of the nose, sinuses, or other body parts (mucosal melanoma). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A large number of moles or other pigmented skin growths on the body, generally more than 25, is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kids who are born with melanocytic nevi (large black spots) and specific kinds of moles have a risk of melanoma. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, identifying changes in moles is crucial to catching melanoma early. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Melanoma risk factors and atypical moles. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma is a form of skin cancer and often resembles moles, while some develop from moles. (magnetamerica.com)
  • Spouses may be apt to notice suspicious moles on their partners that could signal melanoma, the most dangerous type of skin cancer. (aarp.org)
  • Unusual moles, exposure to sunlight, and health history can affect the risk of melanoma. (cancer.gov)
  • You're at higher risk for melanoma if you have a lot of skin moles or if you have larger moles that are an abnormal shape or color. (today.com)
  • The SCF reports that only 20 to 30% of melanomas start at existing moles. (today.com)
  • Only 20-30% of melanomas are found in existing moles. (skincancer.org)
  • UC San Francisco researchers have identified the sequence of genetic changes that transform benign moles into malignant skin cancer and have used CRISPR gene editing to re-create the steps of melanoma evolution one by one in normal human skin cells in the lab. (ucsf.edu)
  • While most moles never turn cancerous, some can transform into malignant melanoma and rapidly spread to other parts of the body. (ucsf.edu)
  • The new research, published July 9 in two companion papers in Cancer Cell , for the first time systematically traced the how new mutations and changes in gene activity break down cellular protective mechanisms, allowing moles to transform into melanoma and begin to spread. (ucsf.edu)
  • In the first study , led by Bastian and UCSF cancer geneticist Hunter Shain , PhD, the researchers studied a unique dataset surgically removed melanoma tissue samples from 82 patients in which malignant tumors and the benign moles from which they had developed were preserved side-by-side. (ucsf.edu)
  • This is the first study to profile both DNA and RNA from matching melanoma samples and precursor moles from the same patients," Shain said. (ucsf.edu)
  • In fact, the new research also showed that the melanomas that developed from existing moles tended to be thinner, giving them a better prognosis. (ketv.com)
  • These results could indicate that patients who monitor their existing moles for suspicious changes could detect melanoma in its early stages, when it's most treatable," study author Caterina Longo, M.D., Ph.D., a dermatologist at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy, said in a statement.But what exactly should you be looking for in your mole? (ketv.com)
  • In fact, nearly one in three melanomas - the deadliest form of skin cancer -arise from pre-existing moles on your skin , according to a new meta-analysis from the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (ketv.com)
  • These techniques are successful in detecting melanoma and in avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention (e.g., the removal of benign moles). (karger.com)
  • In the past, cure from stage 4 melanoma was very rare but new treatments, such as immunotherapy and targeted treatments, show encouraging results. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Immunotherapy is used to treat advanced (stage 4) melanoma, and it's sometimes offered to people with stage 3 melanoma as part of a clinical trial. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Immunotherapy uses medicine to help the body's immune system find and kill melanoma cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Studies involving melanoma have led the way in testing this new immunotherapy treatment combination against other types of cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • How Does Immunotherapy Work to Treat Melanoma? (healthline.com)
  • Read on to learn about the different types of immunotherapy that may be used to treat melanoma skin cancer. (healthline.com)
  • Richard W. Joseph, MD, highlights clinical trial results showing that melanoma patients with NRAS mutations tend to have better response rates to immunotherapy compared with patients with wild-type NRAS. (ajmc.com)
  • Currently immunotherapy (anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) are selectively used in the treatment and management of melanoma and some other complex skin cancers (i.e., basal cell cancer). (uhn.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate overall survival post- treatment discontinuation survival (OS PTD ) in advanced melanoma patients started on immunotherapy. (lww.com)
  • We have known for a long time that melanoma is a cancer where the immune system is involved-so immunotherapy treatments [drugs that stimulate your immune system] tend to work. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rescuing Cancer Immunity by Plasma Exchange in Metastatic Melanoma (ReCIPE-M1): protocol for a single-institution, open-label safety trial of plasma exchange to clear sPD-L1 for immunotherapy. (mayo.edu)
  • After doctors at Emory University removed a melanoma tumor from his liver on August 3, they discovered four small melanoma tumors in his brain, he told reporters at the Carter Center in Atlanta. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sometimes, this drug is also used when melanoma has returned after treatment and there are too many tumors on the skin to remove them surgically. (healthline.com)
  • Treatment with Proleukin may help shrink and limit the growth of melanoma tumors. (healthline.com)
  • Since the abnormal cells in melanoma create pigment, most of these tumors are black or brown. (today.com)
  • Trametinib (Mekinist) is the only FDA-approved MEK inhibitor used for patients with advanced melanoma whose tumors have BRAF mutations. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In a subset of patients, the researchers also obtained matched samples of metastatic tumors and the primary melanomas in the skin from which the metastatic colonies had derived. (ucsf.edu)
  • Because cutaneous melanomas often carry activating mutations in the BRAF gene (V600E), we performed a BRAF mutational analysis using direct sequencing for both of these tumors arising from the lung. (elsevier.com)
  • However, women who reported previously having non-melanoma skin cancer - which would mean they were at higher risk for getting melanoma later - were less likely to get melanoma if they were taking the extra calcium and vitamin D. (news24.com)
  • Most childhood types of melanoma can't be prevented because they are due to a mutation (change in a gene ). (kidshealth.org)
  • Various types of melanoma can appear on the foot and under the toenails. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Different types of melanoma can have similar characteristics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are the four main types of melanoma of the skin? (skincancer.org)
  • There are many different types of melanoma and we are still trying to understand how to best treat each of them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Through NIH-sponsored research, we are able to explore how different types of melanoma respond to treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ASCO 2022 Pembrolizumab for Melanoma Bittersweet, Doctor Says Discussing adjuvant pembrolizumab in KEYNOTE-716, one expert said, 'This is a bitter pill to swallow because you're treating people longer and you're not sure if you're really helping them. (medscape.com)
  • SPD 2022 Study Explores Gender Differences in Pediatric Melanoma The study is 'the first to explore gender differences in detail in pediatric and adolescent patients with melanoma,' according to one of the investigators. (medscape.com)
  • ASCO 2022 Melanoma Incidence Up, but Death Rates Down The data are 'very encouraging' and represent the real-world effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • In March 2022, the FDA approved a combination treatment including anti-PD-1 plus anti-LAG-3 (nivolumab + relatlimab, Opdualag) as the first systemic treatment that a patient with advanced melanoma might receive. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • An estimated 7,650 people (5,080 men and 2,570 women) will die of melanoma in the U.S. in 2022. (skincancer.org)
  • An estimated 197,700 cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in the U.S. in 2022. (skincancer.org)
  • MRA's Melanoma Exchange Patient Forum, held in-person in Washington DC and virtually on March 9, 2022, brought together hundreds of melanoma patients, survivors, advocates, and their loved ones to provide lay-friendly, state-of-the-science education, promote collaboration, and provided networking opportunities across the melanoma community. (cancerhealth.com)
  • This post was originally published March 16, 2022, by the Melanoma Research Alliance . (cancerhealth.com)
  • The greatest environmental risk factor for developing melanoma is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In adults, ultraviolet (UV) light can cause melanoma on any area of skin and can make a mole more likely to turn into melanoma. (kidshealth.org)
  • Gilchrest BA, Eller MS, Geller AC, Yaar M. The pathogenesis of melanoma induced by ultraviolet radiation. (medscape.com)
  • An article about the study published in Nature Communications also offers a novel understanding of other melanomas not caused by the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ultraviolet light exposure from the sun or from tanning beds causes most melanomas. (today.com)
  • Melanoma is most commonly triggered by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays in sunlight, which damages DNA, creating genetic mutations that cause skin cells to multiply and spread. (ucsf.edu)
  • Melanoma is mostly caused by ultraviolet radiation exposure from tanning beds or directly from the sun. (medusamagazine.com)
  • Melanoma can be caused by too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sun or sources such as indoor tanning. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the greatest risk of melanoma is related to the damage from ultraviolet radiation, it can develop on any part of the skin, including those that don't get much sun. (karger.com)
  • Additionally, individuals who have previously had melanoma are nearly nine times more likely than the general population to develop melanoma again. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 1 in 43 individuals in the United States will develop melanoma in their lifetime. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It usually takes many years to develop melanoma from sun exposure. (kidshealth.org)
  • You're a lot less likely to develop melanoma than other types of skin cancers. (today.com)
  • We have identified some genes, but that is more so if people develop melanoma at a young age or have multiple cancers in their families. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in pigment-producing cells called melanocytes . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in men, affecting 30 in 100,000 men per year, and the sixth most common cancer in women, affecting 18 in 100,000 women per year. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other somatic gene mutations have large effects on melanoma risk and a mutation in one gene is enough to significantly increase the risk of developing cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unlike sporadic melanoma, these familial cases are typically caused by inherited genetic changes that increase the risk of developing this type of cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amazon Involved With New Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial The trial is aimed at finding 'personalized vaccines' to treat breast cancer and melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma is the deadliest form of the skin cancer with the majority occurring on the skin. (melanoma.org)
  • According to the PASS Coalition, banning these ingredients without a suitable alternative would put Floridians and visitors to the state at significantly greater risk of developing melanoma and other forms of skin cancer. (melanoma.org)
  • If you have melanoma skin cancer you'll be cared for by a team of specialists that should include a skin specialist (dermatologist), a plastic surgeon, a specialist in radiotherapy and chemotherapy (oncologist), an expert in tissue diseases (pathologist) and a specialist nurse. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Melanoma (mel-eh-NOE-muh) is a type of cancer that begins in a melanocyte (meh-LAN-uh-site), a cell in the top layer of skin (the epidermis). (kidshealth.org)
  • Though less likely, people can still get melanoma even if they're young, have no family history of cancer, or have dark skin. (kidshealth.org)
  • Foot melanoma, a type of acral melanoma, is a variant of skin cancer that develops on the feet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Melanoma is not the only type of skin cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although melanoma is not the most common skin cancer it does cause the most deaths. (magnetamerica.com)
  • Researchers analyzed 52,000 melanoma patients in a U.S. government cancer database who were diagnosed from 2010 to 2014. (aarp.org)
  • Melanoma is a dangerous form of skin cancer caused largely due to exposure to the sun s damaging UV rays. (medindia.net)
  • Primary and secondary prevention strategies can assist in reducing the occurrence of melanoma and deaths associated with this cancer, and information about public awareness of melanoma, including risk factors, can assist in developing intervention strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • 55% knew melanoma is a type of cancer, 34% knew it is a type of skin cancer, and 42% did not know about melanoma. (cdc.gov)
  • Awareness of melanoma (defined as knowledge that melanoma is a type of cancer or specifically a type of skin cancer) varied substantially by demographic factors ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Awareness varied substantially by age group: 38% of respondents aged 25-64 years were aware that melanoma is a type of skin cancer, compared with 16% of those aged 18-24 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 50% of respondents who were college graduates were aware that melanoma is a type of skin cancer, compared with 16% of those with less than a high school education. (cdc.gov)
  • The Melanoma Education Foundation provides education about melanoma and self-examination of the skin to detect this common and deadly skin cancer at an early stage while it is curable. (volunteermatch.org)
  • Patients with melanoma or other skin cancers seeking care at Johns Hopkins receive the highest standards of care with the latest technologies, mastered by skilled experts in the Johns Hopkins Melanoma/Skin Cancer Program. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Melanoma/skin cancer research experts at Johns Hopkins are at the forefront of developing the next wave of therapies and diagnostic tools. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our scientists have performed first-of-its-kind research on inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 expressed by immune cells, which bind to molecules such as PD-L1 on melanoma or other kinds of cancer cells and shield them from the immune system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In collaboration with industrial partners, Johns Hopkins scientific and clinical researchers developed effective monoclonal antibody therapies to block these interactions in patients with advanced melanoma (nivolumab, Opdivo), Merkel cell carcinoma (pembrolizumab, Keytruda), and other cancer types, leading the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve such therapies as new standards of care. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Since then, clinical researchers in the Hopkins Melanoma/Skin Cancer Program have been working with industrial partners to develop LAG-3-blocking antibodies to treat patients with melanoma and other advanced cancers. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The melanoma clinical trials being conducted at Moffitt Cancer Center provide patients with novel opportunities to try exciting new treatments and be among the first to benefit from them. (moffitt.org)
  • If you would like to learn about the melanoma clinical trials currently underway at Moffitt Cancer Center, you do not need a referral to consult with our cancer experts. (moffitt.org)
  • Patients with completely resected stage III melanoma were randomly assigned (with stratification according to cancer stage and geographic region) to receive 200 mg of pembrolizumab (514 patients) or placebo (505 patients) intravenously every 3 weeks for a total of 18 doses (approximately 1 year) or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxic effects occurred. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in the shape, color or size of a mole can be signs of melanoma , the deadliest type of skin cancer that is most treatable when discovered early. (livescience.com)
  • Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). (cancer.gov)
  • Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. (cancer.gov)
  • Melanoma is more likely to invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body than other types of skin cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Sometimes melanoma skin cancer cells use checkpoint proteins to prevent T cells from killing them. (healthline.com)
  • Three types of man-made cytokines have been approved to treat melanoma skin cancer: interferon alfa-2b (Intron A), pegylated interferon alfa-2b (Sylatron), and interleukin-2 (aldesleukin, Proleukin). (healthline.com)
  • Intron A is used to treat early stage melanoma skin cancer. (healthline.com)
  • It's also used to treat some advanced cases of melanoma, when the cancer has only spread to nearby areas. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor may prescribe Proleukin if you have stage 3 or stage 4 melanoma skin cancer that has spread to other parts of your body. (healthline.com)
  • Chemotherapy for melanoma skin cancer. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/melanoma-skin-cancer/treating/chemotherapy.html. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/skin-cancer/melanoma#treatment. (epnet.com)
  • Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/skin/patient/melanoma-treatment-pdq#_135. (epnet.com)
  • This week, Real World Health Care continues our series on melanoma by interviewing two colleagues from the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • For this week's post in our series on melanoma melanoma, Real World Health Care interviewed Kelly M. McMasters, MD, PhD. Dr. McMasters serves as the director of the Multidisciplinary Melanoma Clinic at the University of Louisville's James Graham Brown Cancer Center. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • Real World Health Care continues our series on melanoma with a discussion with Howard Kaufman, MD, FACS, surgical oncologist at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • May is Melanoma awareness month, and our series on melanoma continues with a discussion with Dr. Douglas B. Johnson of the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • This week, Real World Health Care continues our recognition of May's Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month by highlighting the work of the American Academy of Dermatology. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • Rates of the deadly skin cancer known as melanoma have dropped among Americans aged 15 to 44, a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows. (upi.com)
  • Melanoma is the third most common type of skin cancer, said the study's lead researcher, Dawn Holman, a behavioral scientist in the CDC's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. (upi.com)
  • For more on melanoma, visit the American Cancer Society . (upi.com)
  • But researchers caution that the results need to be confirmed with further studies, given that the number of women in their study who got melanoma - the most dangerous type of skin cancer - was low to begin with. (news24.com)
  • However, she added, 'I feel good about saying if you've already had a non-melanoma skin cancer, you're already at risk for developing melanoma in the future, (and) taking a little bit of calcium and vitamin D, while other studies need to be done, seems reasonable and not harmful. (news24.com)
  • In all, about 1,700 women in each group were diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer, while 82 women taking calcium and vitamin D and 94 in the placebo group got melanoma. (news24.com)
  • The overall numbers were small - 10 women out of about 1,100 with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer got melanoma in the supplement group, compared to 24 out of a similarly-sized placebo group. (news24.com)
  • The Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF) predicts that 196,060 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with melanoma in 2020 - and 6,850 people will die from it. (today.com)
  • If it turns out to be melanoma, your doctor may run blood tests and imaging scans to see how advanced the cancer is - and to grade it. (today.com)
  • Malignant melanoma is a serious form of skin cancer that begins in cells known as melanocytes . (skincancer.org)
  • When this cancer becomes invasive or spreads beyond the original site, the disease is known as lentigo maligna melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • Lastly, c-KIT is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase and a type of tumor marker that may be found in higher amounts with certain types of cancer, such as melanoma. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The monthlong event is a brand bonanza, with promotions that range from Sephora's partnership with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, offering a 12-product Sun Safety kit to raise money for research, to MoleSafeUSA's clever digital spot-the-melanoma challenge . (mediapost.com)
  • Melanoma is increasing worldwide and every year more than 16,000 people in the UK and 96,000 people in the US are diagnosed with the cancer. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Melanomas can almost always be successfully treated if they are caught early, but fewer than 30 percent of patients with metastatic melanoma survive more than five years, making melanoma the deadliest form of skin cancer. (ucsf.edu)
  • If the lesion turns out to be a melanoma, pathologists measure its thickness to determine how far it has progressed and whether surgery alone will be enough to eliminate the cancer: The thicker the melanoma, the greater the risk that it has already begun spreading to other parts of the body. (ucsf.edu)
  • Melanoma is a type of skin cancer . (uky.edu)
  • Melanoma skin cancer begins in skin cells called melanocytes, which are the cells that produce the pigment in your skin. (uky.edu)
  • While melanoma cancer typically begins in the skin itself, it can also develop in the mucous membranes, which are thin layers of tissue covering surfaces like the lips. (uky.edu)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that 207,390 cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in 2021, in varying stages. (uky.edu)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, the survival rate for melanoma that has not spread beyond the area where it started is 99 percent. (uky.edu)
  • Melanoma is a cancer of the skin cells that produce pigment, called "melanin," that produces color in our skin. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, melanoma is the most dreaded type of skin cancer because of its potential to be aggressive and metastasize (spread) to other organs, and hence be life threatening. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Melanoma might begin as some normal age spots, but deep down it is a special type of skin cancer that should worry you. (medusamagazine.com)
  • If you are yet to undergo a melanoma diagnosis, your doctor will carry out a skin examination if he/she thinks that you might be having skin cancer. (medusamagazine.com)
  • In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Melanoma skin cancer is common and costly. (cdc.gov)
  • Using proven community skin cancer prevention programs could prevent an estimated 21,000 melanomas and save $250 million per year by 2030. (cdc.gov)
  • As scientists tried to re-vaccine the mice, it doesn't support to the vaccine because already vaccinated against the melanoma cancer. (areflect.com)
  • Malignant melanoma is the third most common cutaneous cancer after basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Although most malignant melanomas are diagnosed at an early stage , this cancer also has the inherent ability to spread aggressively. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that develops in the melanocytes, which are the cells that produce the skin pigment melanin. (karger.com)
  • Melanoma is the second most common cancer in adults aged 25 to 49 and its incidence in people under 40 is increasing. (karger.com)
  • Watch six videos from the in-person Melanoma Exchange Patient Forum, including voices from cancer survivors, advocates and educators. (cancerhealth.com)
  • More than 1 million people in the U.S. live with melanoma, a type of skin cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She oversees clinical trials on melanoma research through NCI's Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, part of the division of cancer treatment and diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • New data from Cancer Survival Victoria 2012 reveals how much difference a few millimetres in thickness can make to your chances of surviving melanoma. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Cancer Council Victoria today released new statistics revealing melanoma incidence rates among Victorian men continues to rise increasing by 2.5% per year during the last three decades but over the last two years, a decline across all age groups could indicate the beginning of a downward trend. (cancervic.org.au)
  • We develop SuperCRF by training a state-of-art deep learning spatially constrained- convolution neural network (SC-CNN) to detect and classify cells from 105 high-resolution (20×) H&E-stained slides of The Cancer Genome Atlas melanoma dataset and subsequently, a conditional random field (CRF) by combining cellular neighborhood with tumor regional classification from lower resolution images (5, 1.25×) given by a superpixel-based machine learning framework. (icr.ac.uk)
  • An excess in cases of melanoma and pancreatic cancer was identified. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that it is unlikely that the melanoma and pancreatic cancer cases could be attributed to the work environment. (cdc.gov)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les données sur l'incidence du cancer de la peau en République islamique d'Iran font défaut. (who.int)
  • Pendant la période de l'étude, 30 701 cas de cancer ont été identifiés, passant de 2353 en 2000 à 8484 en 2005. (who.int)
  • L'incidence croissante du cancer de la peau en République islamique d'Iran est similaire aux incidences notifiées dans d'autres pays. (who.int)
  • Excess deaths due to melanoma skin cancer (PMR=123) are consistent with other findings of PCB-exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
  • This guideline covers the assessment and management of melanoma (a type of skin cancer) in children, young people and adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • Led by Professor Penny Lovat at Newcastle University, UK, in association with the University spin out company AMLo Biosciences, the test offers reassurance for patients diagnosed with an early stage melanoma. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The test identifies a patient's true risk of disease progression and provides anyone diagnosed with a non-ulcerated early stage melanoma - accounting for around 75% of all new diagnoses - more accurate information about the risk of the disease spreading. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This test will aid clinicians to identify genuinely low risk patients diagnosed with an early stage melanoma and to reduce the number of follow up appointments for those identified as low risk, saving NHS time and money. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Surgery is the definitive treatment for early-stage melanoma, with medical management generally reserved for adjuvant treatment of high locally advanced melanoma and metastatic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery (eg, wide local excision with SLNB and regional lymph node dissection if indicated) is the definitive treatment for early-stage melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • This retrospective study included all unresectable advanced or metastatic melanoma patients who had permanent treatment discontinuation after receiving at least one cycle of palliative-intent programmed death-1 ± cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 inhibitor treatment from 2014 to 2019. (lww.com)
  • Among metastatic melanoma patients, the presence of an NRAS-mutation is a predictor of poor prognosis, and for this subgroup of patients, there are currently no approved targeted therapies," said Carla van Herpen, MD, PhD, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Often, melanoma begins as a mole or a bump on the skin. (kidshealth.org)
  • Signs of melanoma include a change in the way a mole or pigmented area looks. (cancer.gov)
  • He explained: "When you sit down with a dermatologist after the initial excision, you hear that it wasn't a mole, it was a melanoma. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Seventy-one percent of the melanoma cases were in new lesions.So while most melanomas did develop as a new skin growth, a sizable chunk came from a previously harmless mole. (ketv.com)
  • Here are 6 mole changes that may signal melanoma. (ketv.com)
  • But if you imagined drawing a line through the middle of the mole, and the halves not matching up, that can mean the mole is asymmetrical, a sign of melanoma.2. (ketv.com)
  • The FTC details in exhibits attached to the February 2015 complaint how MelApp was allegedly advertised to potential consumers as an "image-based risk assessment mobile app that assists in the early detection of melanoma" that could tell users whether melanoma risk for a specific mole is low, medium, or high. (mddionline.com)
  • One type of mole, known as a dysplastic nevus, can develop into melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Influence of estrogen administration on tumor characteristics and survival in women with cutaneous melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma is more likely than other skin cancers to spread beyond the initial tumor site to other organs, but all the patients had localized disease. (aarp.org)
  • Treatment for melanoma depends on how advanced it is and where the tumor is located. (today.com)
  • Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor and the second most common type of primary malignant melanoma in the body. (medscape.com)
  • Ciliary body melanoma is a rare tumor. (medscape.com)
  • They can be classified as anterior uveal melanomas when the tumor arises in the iris and as posterior uveal melanomas when it arises in either the choroid or the ciliary body. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients undergoing DC vaccination is similar to ipilimumab-treated patients and occurs upon induction of tumor-specific T cells, blood eosinophilia, and strong vaccine injection site reactions occurring after the initial vaccinations. (jci.org)
  • Metastatic tumor compromise of melanoma to the genitourinary tract is frequent, but metastasis to the bladder is rare, representing less than 2% of cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • O comprometimento do tumor metastático do melanoma no trato geniturinário é comum, mas a metástase na bexiga é rara, constituindo menos de 2% dos casos . (bvsalud.org)
  • We investigated the predictive capabilities of high frequency, high resolution ultrasound (US) in the preoperative assessment of tumor thickness in cutaneous malignant melanomas. (elsevier.com)
  • The Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) is leading the melanoma community to transform melanoma from one of the deadliest cancers to one of the most treatable through research. (melanoma.org)
  • Although the incidence of melanoma is lower than those of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas, melanoma is associated with the highest case-fatality rate of all skin cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: During 1973-1992, the death rate for melanoma increased 48% among men, representing the highest sex-specific increase of all cancers (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Our clinical research program offers studies for patients with both early- and late-stage skin cancers, including melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and Merkel cell carcinoma. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A main culprit in the development of melanoma and other skin cancers is the ability of cancerous cells to evade the body's natural defenses against foreign and diseased cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/cancers-of-the-skin/melanoma. (epnet.com)
  • Taking vitamin D may help protect women who have already had non- melanoma skin cancers against a much deadlier form of the disease, suggests a new study. (news24.com)
  • They found no difference in how frequently women in either group were diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers or with melanoma, according to the findings published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology . (news24.com)
  • Melanoma is one of those cancers where we are really starting to look at the genetics," she said. (today.com)
  • Combining the expertise of our team with state-of the-art advanced technologies, we treat common, rare and complex skin and melanoma cancers. (uhn.ca)
  • With the incidence of melanoma on the rise compared with other cancers, the various treatment options available are becoming increasingly more important. (cancernetwork.com)
  • ISO/CIE 28077:2016 specifies the action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers. (iso.org)
  • There are other types of skin cancers that are less concerning, mainly squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, which tend to be (thankfully) much more common than melanoma. (scientificamerican.com)
  • More than 65,000 melanoma skin cancers were diagnosed in the US in 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • The annual cost for treating melanoma has grown faster than the annual treatment costs for all cancers combined. (cdc.gov)
  • CD152)-ipilimumab and tremelimumab-have been investigated in metastatic melanoma and other cancers and have shown promising results. (ilmelanoma.com)
  • Like many cancers, melanoma is more difficult to cure when it has spread to advanced stages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Codes for common skin cancers basalioma, and melanoma subtypes. (who.int)
  • High-risk stage III-IV melanoma patients who received pembrolizumab after their surgery had a better quality of life compared to patients who received standard treatment with ipilimumab or high-dose interferon. (medindia.net)
  • The programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab has been found to prolong progression-free and overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a phase 3 double-blind trial to evaluate pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • As adjuvant therapy for high-risk stage III melanoma, 200 mg of pembrolizumab administered every 3 weeks for up to 1 year resulted in significantly longer recurrence-free survival than placebo, with no new toxic effects identified. (nih.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three types of checkpoint inhibitors to treat melanoma: ipilimumab (Yervoy), pembrolizumab (Keytruda), and nivolumab (Opdivo). (healthline.com)
  • The diagnosis of melanoma is usually confirmed using a needle biopsy (fine needle aspiration) . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Theoretically, conjunctival melanoma may originate from primary acquired melanosis, preexisting nevi, or de novo lesions (without any histologic or clinical evidence of a preexisting lesion). (medscape.com)
  • One of the four clinical types of malignant melanoma , uncommon in whites but the most common type in nonwhites. (rxlist.com)
  • A multicenter clinical trial involving several hundred patients confirmed that this combination therapy was significantly more effective in delaying the time to melanoma progression, compared to anti-PD-1 alone (nivolumab, Opdivo). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A patient's eligibility for participating in melanoma clinical trials is carefully determined by considering several factors for each particular study. (moffitt.org)
  • Our multispecialty team of melanoma experts works collaboratively to ensure that each patient receives highly individualized, supportive care, whether that includes a clinical trial or other advanced treatment option. (moffitt.org)
  • Dr. Johnson leads Vanderbilt's melanoma clinical and research program, overseeing clinical trials, patient care and translational research. (healthwellfoundation.org)
  • The Melanoma and Skin Oncology Site Group at Princess Margaret is internationally renowned for its excellence in research, education and clinical care. (uhn.ca)
  • Currently, there are clinical trials taking place that utilize the drug imatinib mesylate for those patients with melanoma harboring the c-KIT mutation. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Therapy with binimetinib and ribociclib shows significant clinical activity in NRAS-mutant melanoma patients. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • For disseminated melanoma , systemic therapy, local therapy, clinical trial, or best supportive care may be considered, depending on the location and extent of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, in 2002, we initiated a phase I/II trial in cutaneous melanoma patients to further explore the immunogenicity of our DC vaccine and to establish its long-term toxicity and clinical benefit after a planned 10-year followup. (jci.org)
  • reported an isolated gastric metastasis from a conjunctival melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who die from ciliary body melanoma die because of distant metastasis rather than local spread. (medscape.com)
  • The most common sites of melanoma metastasis are skin and subcutaneous tissue, followed by lungs, liver, bones, and brain. (medscape.com)
  • In 1996, an estimated 38,300 cases of melanoma will be diagnosed, and approximately 7300 melanoma-associated deaths will occur (2). (cdc.gov)
  • [ 3 ] Gastric metastases are frequently seen in cutaneous melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • However, autopsies performed on patients with melanoma have found metastases in the bladder in 18-37% of cases, making it the second incidence after gastric adenocarcinoma . (bvsalud.org)
  • Melanoma metastases to the genitourinary tract are common, but isolated bladder metastases are rare. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment of BRAF ( V600E ) mutant melanoma by small molecule drugs that target the BRAF or MEK kinases can be effective, but resistance develops invariably 1 , 2 . (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Acquired EGFR expression in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma after vemurafenib resistance. (nature.com)
  • Preliminary data was shared from a phase 2 combination trial of binimetinib and encorafenib in BRAF-mutant melanoma patients, as well as a Phase 1b/2 combination trial of binimetinib and ribociclib, a CDK4/6 inhibitor in NRAS-mutant melanoma patients. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The ongoing combination trial enrolled 140 patients designed to explore the safety and activity of novel triplet combinations in BRAF-mutant melanoma. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • MEK and BRAF combination therapy is now established as the optimal molecularly targeted approach for BRAF mutant melanoma patients," said Reinhard Dummer, MD, investigator, University Hospital Zurich. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The phase 1b/2 study of the combination of binimetinib with ribociclib showed promising results in antitumor activity in NRAS-mutant melanoma patients. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Go to Ciliary Body Melanoma , Choroidal Melanoma , and Iris Melanoma for complete information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • Color photograph of a dome-shaped choroidal melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • It is encountered approximately one tenth as often as is choroidal melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • See Choroidal Melanoma for complete information on this topic. (medscape.com)
  • To assess public knowledge and awareness about melanoma, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) conducted a nationwide telephone survey in 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • Light-skinned people have a 20 times greater risk of developing melanoma than dark-skinned people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does pregnancy influence the prognosis of malignant melanoma? (medscape.com)
  • Around half of all cases of melanoma that appear on the feet are acral lentiginous melanoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Yan BY, Barilla S, Strunk A, Garg A. Survival differences in acral lentiginous melanoma according to socioeconomic status and race. (medscape.com)
  • Musician Bob Marley was diagnosed with acral lentiginous melanoma, which ultimately claimed his life at age 36. (skincancer.org)
  • along with malignant melanomas, it is infrequent in the younger population. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant melanomas arising from nevi (they may arise from junctional and compound nevi) usually appear as a change (increasing nodularity, variegated pigmentation, bleeding, or inflammation) in known pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • By analyzing these 230 tissue samples, the researchers to compare molecular differences between benign growths, malignant melanomas and metastatic colonies within the same patients. (ucsf.edu)
  • Further molecular analyses may uncover the characteristics of primary pulmonary malignant melanomas. (elsevier.com)
  • Sixty-six of 78 lesions were histologically defined as cutaneous malignant melanomas with superficial spread and the other 12 as melanocytic nevi. (elsevier.com)
  • US is the correct tool for the preoperative assessment of the thickness of cutaneous malignant melanomas because it provides high agreement with histologic data even in lesions thinner than 1 mm. (elsevier.com)
  • Somatic mutations in the BRAF and CDKN2A genes are some of the most common in sporadic melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Determinants of BRAF mutations in primary melanomas. (medscape.com)
  • Frequencies of BRAF and NRAS mutations are different in histologic types and sites of origin of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Another finding that drew the researchers' attention was that mutations in the genes BRAF , NRAS and NF1 were not observed in most of the acral melanomas although they are frequent in cutaneous melanomas. (eurekalert.org)
  • Approximately 50 percent of melanomas contain a specific mutation in the BRAF gene, which involves a substitution of one of the chemical bases or nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine) that make up DNA. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Here we show that 6 out of 16 melanoma tumours analysed acquired EGFR expression after the development of resistance to BRAF or MEK inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • Using a chromatin-regulator-focused short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library, we find that suppression of sex determining region Y-box 10 ( SOX10 ) in melanoma causes activation of TGF-β signalling, thus leading to upregulation of EGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β ( PDGFRB ), which confer resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • Our findings provide a rationale for why some BRAF or MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma patients may regain sensitivity to these drugs after a 'drug holiday' and identify patients with EGFR-positive melanoma as a group that may benefit from re-treatment after a drug holiday. (nature.com)
  • Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. (nature.com)
  • Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. (nature.com)
  • BRAF inhibitor drugs are indicated for those patients found to have a BRAF mutation, which is found in approximately 50% of melanoma cases. (cancernetwork.com)
  • BRAF testing should be performed in all melanoma patients. (cancernetwork.com)
  • or mucous membranes that line the body's cavities, such as the moist lining of the mouth (mucosal melanoma). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma can present in cutaneous, mucosal, and ocular forms. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Respondents were asked about their general knowledge and awareness of risk factors for melanoma. (cdc.gov)
  • This post also gives the risk factors for melanoma and discusses why timely diagnosis is essential but can be challenging. (karger.com)
  • Most cases of melanoma are sporadic, which means that the genetic changes are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in the melanocytes that give rise to the melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma starts in skin cells called melanocytes and can spread throughout the body. (webmd.com)
  • Melanoma happens when melanocytes stop working normally. (kidshealth.org)
  • Melanoma occurs when DNA damage from sunburns or tanning due to UV radiation triggers changes (mutations) in the melanocytes, resulting in uncontrolled cellular growth. (skincancer.org)
  • Primary ciliary body melanoma arises from melanocytes in the uveal tract. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant melanoma (see the image below) is a neoplasm of melanocytes or a neoplasm of the cells that develop from melanocytes. (medscape.com)
  • If you decide to have the procedure and the results show no spread to nearby lymph nodes, it's unlikely you'll have further problems with this melanoma. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If the melanoma has spread to nearby lymph nodes (stage 3 melanoma), further surgery may be needed to remove them. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Stage 3 melanoma may be diagnosed by a sentinel node biopsy, or you or a member of your treatment team may have felt a lump in your lymph nodes. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Foot melanoma most often initially spreads to the lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The SCF reports a 99% survival rate for people in the U.S. when melanoma is discovered early, before it spreads to the lymph nodes and other organs. (today.com)
  • Usually, melanoma will spread to lymph nodes and tissues underneath your skin. (medusamagazine.com)
  • If a patient is diagnosed with a melanoma, examine all lymph node groups. (medscape.com)
  • Checkpoint inhibitors may be prescribed to treat stage 3 or stage 4 melanomas that can't be removed with surgery. (healthline.com)
  • Learn more about available adjuvant therapies for melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Medical management is reserved for adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • A form of melanoma occurring most often on the plantar, palmar, subungual, and periungual skin. (fpnotebook.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Subungual malignant melanoma. (who.int)
  • Krishna K, Sharma P. Subungual malignant melanoma. (who.int)
  • A rare case of subungual malignant melanoma in a 43-year-old male, with black dystrophic left middle finger nail plate with positive Hutchison sign is presented. (who.int)
  • Transpupillary photograph of ciliary body melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Fundus photograph of a large ciliary body melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Less frequently, ciliary body melanoma can grow transsclerally, through emissary channels, and can spread locally into the orbit and conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • Local growth of ciliary body melanoma produces signs and symptoms as it pathologically involves adjacent structures. (medscape.com)
  • At first researchers implemented vaccine on mice with form of melanoma. (areflect.com)
  • If melanoma comes back or spreads to other organs it's called stage 4 melanoma. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Treatment for stage 4 melanoma is given in the hope that it can slow the cancer's growth, reduce symptoms, and extend life expectancy. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Volunteer to provide free skin checks at MRF events near you, such as our Miles for Melanoma 5k run/walks or educational symposia . (melanoma.org)
  • Create a team and participate in a Miles for Melanoma 5k run/walk near you! (melanoma.org)
  • A landscape of driver mutations in melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • He is hopeful that additional studies will provide additional insight into the role of NRAS mutations in melanoma. (ajmc.com)
  • Researchers have created a genetically modified herpes virus that shows great promise in the treatment of melanoma cells. (fbresearch.org)
  • Here are the causes and treatment of melanoma. (medusamagazine.com)
  • Whether you are attending the MRF's annual Advocacy Summit and Hill Day , meeting with your local lawmakers or providing feedback on regulatory issues, YOUR voice is critical in the fight against melanoma! (melanoma.org)
  • This is a fun way to get involved in a local community event while having a big impact on the fight against melanoma! (melanoma.org)
  • The primary genes involved in familial melanoma are CDKN2A and MC1R . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conjunctival melanomas may be associated with primary acquired melanosis (75%) or may arise from a preexisting nevus or de novo. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 50% to 75% of cases of conjunctival melanoma arise in a setting of primary acquired melanosis. (medscape.com)
  • By applying the test - called AMBLor® - to the standard biopsy of the primary melanoma on its removal, patients who are at low risk of the disease reoccurring or spreading can be identified. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • It generally arises from the skin in most cases, and cases of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma are rare and often behave aggressively. (elsevier.com)
  • We have treated two cases of localized primary pulmonary malignant melanoma using surgical resection. (elsevier.com)
  • The molecular pathology of melanoma: an integrated taxonomy of melanocytic neoplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Melanocytic nevi, solar keratoses, and divergent pathways to cutaneous melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Although uveal melanomas may grow de novo, most develop from a preexisting melanocytic nevus. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: from the records of the histopathological diagnoses, were selected cases of amalgam tattoo, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you have advanced melanoma, you may decide not to have treatment if it's unlikely to significantly extend your life expectancy, or if you do not have symptoms that cause pain or discomfort. (www.nhs.uk)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Melanoma? (kidshealth.org)
  • In this article, we discuss the different types of foot melanoma, how to recognize the early symptoms, and ways to prevent and treat the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by melanoma or by other conditions. (cancer.gov)
  • Metastatic bladder compromise is rare and underdiagnosed, it may be present in patients with melanoma , non-specific urinary irritative symptoms, and hematuria . (bvsalud.org)
  • I don't see any downside in providing the dermatology team with more information about your melanoma. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Surgery remains an important aspect in treating melanoma, as does chemotherapy, biotherapy (interleukin-2), immune modulating agents, and molecular targeted therapies. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The 5-year data have shown significant superiority over chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced or unresectable stage III melanoma, as well as stage IV metastatic melanoma. (cancernetwork.com)
  • On the basis of this trial and the greater ease of administration of temozolomide versus dacarbazine (oral versus intravenous), most oncologists prefer temozolomide as a first-line chemotherapy drug for melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • New Systematic Therapies and Trends in Cutaneous Melanoma Deaths Among US Whites, 1986-2016. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately, treatment options for melanoma continue to develop, especially in the areas of immune and molecular targeted therapies. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Other biotherapy drugs that are making their mark in melanoma are molecular targeted therapies. (cancernetwork.com)
  • However, when broken down by age groups, melanoma rates decreased among whites aged 15 to 44, Holman said. (upi.com)
  • Ciliary body melanomas are mostly found in Whites, particularly in those with light-colored irides. (medscape.com)