A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.
An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A raf kinase subclass found at high levels in neuronal tissue. The B-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Clinically atypical nevi (usually exceeding 5 mm in diameter and having variable pigmentation and ill defined borders) with an increased risk for development of non-familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. Biopsies show melanocytic dysplasia. Nevi are clinically and histologically identical to the precursor lesions for melanoma in the B-K mole syndrome. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.
Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.
A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Coloration of the skin.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A benign compound nevus occurring most often in children before puberty, composed of spindle and epithelioid cells located mainly in the dermis, sometimes in association with large atypical cells and multinucleate cells, and having a close histopathological resemblance to malignant melanoma. The tumor presents as a smooth to slightly scaly, round to oval, raised, firm papule or nodule, ranging in color from pink-tan to purplish red, often with surface telangiectasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Color of hair or fur.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Color of the iris.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
Nitrosourea compounds are a class of alkylating agents used in cancer chemotherapy, which contain a nitro group (NO2) and a urea functional group (R-NH-CO-NH2), known for their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and damage DNA, thereby inhibiting tumor growth.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (1/11316)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (2/11316)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (3/11316)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Frequent nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin without exon 3 mutations in malignant melanoma. (4/11316)

Beta-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation sites near the beta-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render beta-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, beta-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/ lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have beta-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790-1792). To assess the role of beta-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in beta-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser-->Pro). Our findings demonstrate that beta-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of beta-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (5/11316)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (6/11316)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (7/11316)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

Biochemical identification of a mutated human melanoma antigen recognized by CD4(+) T cells. (8/11316)

CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in generating and maintaining immune responses against pathogens and alloantigens, and evidence suggests an important role for them in antitumor immunity as well. Although major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted human CD4(+) T cells with specific antitumor reactivities have been described, no standard method exists for cloning the recognized tumor-associated antigen (Ag). In this study, biochemical protein purification methods were used in conjunction with novel mass spectrometry sequencing techniques and molecular cloning to isolate a unique melanoma Ag recognized by a CD4(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) line. The HLA-DRbeta1*0101-restricted Ag was determined to be a mutated glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). A C to T mutation identified by cDNA sequencing caused a Thr to Ile conversion in TPI, which could be detected in a tryptic digest of tumor-derived TPI by mass spectrometry. The Thr to Ile conversion created a neoepitope whose T cell stimulatory activity was enhanced at least 5 logs compared with the wild-type peptide. Analysis of T cell recognition of serially truncated peptides suggested that the mutated amino acid residue was a T cell receptor contact. Defining human tumor Ag recognized by T helper cells may provide important clues to designing more effective immunotherapies for cancer.  (+info)

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for "Melanoma, Experimental," as it is not a standardized medical term. However, I can give you information about melanoma and experimental treatments related to this disease.

Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes. It usually occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, such as the eyes or internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, forming malignant tumors.

Experimental treatments for melanoma refer to novel therapeutic strategies that are currently being researched and tested in clinical trials. These experimental treatments may include:

1. Targeted therapies: Drugs that target specific genetic mutations or molecular pathways involved in melanoma growth and progression. Examples include BRAF and MEK inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib.
2. Immunotherapies: Treatments designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. These may include checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab), adoptive cell therapies (e.g., CAR T-cell therapy), and therapeutic vaccines.
3. Oncolytic viruses: Genetically modified viruses that can selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an example of an oncolytic virus approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma.
4. Combination therapies: The use of multiple experimental treatments in combination to improve efficacy and reduce the risk of resistance. For instance, combining targeted therapies with immunotherapies or different types of immunotherapies.
5. Personalized medicine approaches: Using genetic testing and biomarker analysis to identify the most effective treatment for an individual patient based on their specific tumor characteristics.

It is essential to consult with healthcare professionals and refer to clinical trial databases, such as ClinicalTrials.gov, for up-to-date information on experimental treatments for melanoma.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Uveal neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the uveal tract, which is the middle layer of the eye. The uveal tract includes the iris (the colored part of the eye), ciliary body (structures behind the iris that help focus light), and choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides nutrients to the retina). Uveal neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant uveal melanoma being the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults. These tumors can cause various symptoms, such as visual disturbances, eye pain, or floaters, and may require treatment to preserve vision and prevent metastasis.

Amelanotic melanoma is a type of melanoma, which is the most serious and deadly form of skin cancer. While most melanomas contain dark pigments called melanin, amelanotic melanomas lack melanin, giving them a pink, red, or white color. This absence of color can make amelanotic melanomas harder to detect and diagnose at an early stage compared to other types of melanoma.

Amelanotic melanomas may arise from existing moles or develop on their own in normal skin. They can occur anywhere on the body, but they are more common in sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, and trunk.

Like other forms of melanoma, amelanotic melanoma can spread quickly to other parts of the body if left untreated. Therefore, it is essential to recognize any changes in the skin and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis. Treatment typically involves surgical excision, with additional therapies such as radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy recommended depending on the stage and specific features of the cancer.

The gp100 melanoma antigen, also known as Pmel17 or gp100, is a protein found on the surface of melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells in the skin. It is overexpressed in melanoma cells and can be recognized by the immune system as a foreign target, making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. The gp100 protein plays a role in the formation and transport of melanosomes, which are organelles involved in the production and distribution of melanin. In melanoma, mutations or abnormal regulation of gp100 can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and survival, leading to the development of cancer. The gp100 protein is used as a target for various immunotherapeutic approaches, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, to stimulate an immune response against melanoma cells.

Choroid neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the choroid, a layer of blood vessels that lies between the retina and the sclera (the white of the eye). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign choroid neoplasms include choroidal hemangiomas and choroidal osteomas. Malignant choroid neoplasms are typically choroidal melanomas, which are the most common primary eye tumors in adults. Other types of malignant choroid neoplasms include metastatic tumors that have spread to the eye from other parts of the body. Symptoms of choroid neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the growth, but may include blurred vision, floaters, or a dark spot in the visual field. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

A nevus pigmentosus, also known as a pigmented mole or melanocytic nevus, is a benign proliferation of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin. These lesions typically appear as well-circumscribed, brown to black macules or papules. They can vary in size and shape and may be flat or raised. Most nevi are harmless and do not require treatment; however, some may undergo malignant transformation into melanoma, a potentially life-threatening skin cancer. Regular self-skin examinations and professional skin checks are recommended to monitor for changes in nevi that may indicate malignancy.

Tyrosinase, also known as monophenol monooxygenase, is an enzyme (EC 1.14.18.1) that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols (like tyrosine) to o-diphenols (like L-DOPA) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. This enzyme plays a crucial role in melanin synthesis, which is responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. Tyrosinase is found in various organisms, including plants, fungi, and animals. In humans, tyrosinase is primarily located in melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. The enzyme's activity is regulated by several factors, such as pH, temperature, and metal ions like copper, which are essential for its catalytic function.

MART-1, also known as Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-Cells 1 or Melan-A, is a protein that is primarily found in melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells located in the skin, eyes, and hair follicles. It is a member of the family of antigens called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs) that are specifically expressed in melanocytes and melanomas. MART-1 is considered a tumor-specific antigen because it is overexpressed in melanoma cells compared to normal cells, making it an attractive target for immunotherapy.

MART-1 is presented on the surface of melanoma cells in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, where it can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This recognition triggers an immune response that can lead to the destruction of melanoma cells. MART-1 has been widely used as a target in various immunotherapy approaches, including cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, with the goal of enhancing the body's own immune system to recognize and eliminate melanoma cells.

PROTEIN B-RAF, also known as serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf, is a crucial enzyme that helps regulate the cell growth signaling pathway in the body. It is a type of proto-oncogene protein, which means it has the potential to contribute to cancer development if mutated or overexpressed.

The B-RAF protein is part of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in controlling cell growth, division, and survival. When activated by upstream signals, B-RAF activates another kinase called MEK, which then activates ERK, leading to the regulation of various genes involved in cell growth and differentiation.

Mutations in the B-RAF gene can lead to constitutive activation of the protein, causing uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can contribute to the development of various types of cancer, including melanoma, colon cancer, and thyroid cancer. The most common mutation in the B-RAF gene is V600E, which affects around 8% of all human cancers.

Therefore, B-RAF inhibitors have been developed as targeted therapies for cancer treatment, particularly for melanoma patients with B-RAF V600E mutations. These drugs work by blocking the activity of the mutated B-RAF protein, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth and division.

Melanoma-specific antigens are proteins or other molecules that are present on melanoma cells but not normally found on healthy cells in the body. These antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and trigger an immune response, making them potential targets for immunotherapy treatments for melanoma.

There are two main types of melanoma-specific antigens: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not found on normal cells, while TAAs are overexpressed or mutated versions of proteins that are also present in normal cells.

Examples of melanoma-specific antigens include Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and tyrosinase. These antigens have been studied extensively as targets for cancer vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and other immunotherapy approaches to treat melanoma.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome, also known as atypical mole syndrome, is a condition characterized by the presence of numerous dysplastic nevi (abnormal moles) that may appear irregular in shape, color, and size. These moles are typically larger than normal moles (greater than 5 mm in diameter) and have an asymmetrical shape, uneven borders, and varied colors.

Individuals with Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome have a higher risk of developing melanoma, a type of skin cancer that can be life-threatening if not detected and treated early. The syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene from an affected parent.

It's important to note that having dysplastic nevi does not necessarily mean that a person will develop melanoma, but it does increase their risk. Regular skin examinations by a dermatologist and self-examinations are recommended for early detection of any changes in moles or the development of new suspicious lesions.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. It is produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells found in the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) and the choroid (the vascular coat of the eye). There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is a black or brown pigment, while pheomelanin is a red or yellow pigment. The amount and type of melanin produced by an individual can affect their skin and hair color, as well as their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as skin cancer.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Dermoscopy, also known as dermatoscopy or epiluminescence microscopy, is a non-invasive diagnostic technique used in dermatology to evaluate skin lesions, such as moles and pigmented skin tumors. This method involves the use of a handheld device called a dermoscope, which consists of a magnifying lens, a light source, and a transparent plate or immersion fluid that allows for better visualization of the skin's surface structures.

Dermoscopy enables dermatologists to examine the pigmented patterns, vascular structures, and other morphological features hidden beneath the skin's surface that are not visible to the naked eye. By observing these details, dermatologists can improve their ability to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, leading to more accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment decisions.

The primary uses of dermoscopy include:

1. Early detection and diagnosis of melanoma and other skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
2. Monitoring the evolution of suspicious moles or lesions over time.
3. Assisting in the identification of various benign skin growths, like seborrheic keratoses, dermatofibromas, and nevi (moles).
4. Improving the diagnostic accuracy for infectious skin conditions, inflammatory processes, and other dermatological disorders.

Overall, dermoscopy is a valuable tool in the field of dermatology that enhances the clinician's ability to diagnose and manage various skin conditions accurately and effectively.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, which means it regulates the expression of specific genes. It belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors and plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

MITF is particularly well-known for its role in the development and function of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells found in the skin, eyes, and inner ear. It regulates the expression of genes involved in melanin synthesis and thus influences hair and skin color. Mutations in the MITF gene have been associated with certain eye disorders, including microphthalmia (small or underdeveloped eyes), iris coloboma (a gap or hole in the iris), and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A (an inherited disorder characterized by hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities).

In addition to its role in melanocytes, MITF also plays a part in the development and function of other cell types, including osteoclasts (cells involved in bone resorption), mast cells (immune cells involved in allergic reactions), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (a type of cell found in the eye).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sunlight" is not a term with a specific medical definition. However, sunlight does have various implications in the field of medicine. It is the light that comes from the sun, which is a star at the center of our solar system. Sunlight is essential for the production of vitamin D in humans, and it can also have effects on mood and sleep patterns due to its influence on circadian rhythms.

In a medical context, sunlight is often discussed in relation to its potential health benefits and risks. For instance, moderate sun exposure can help increase vitamin D levels, which are important for bone health, immune function, and other bodily processes. However, excessive sun exposure can lead to harmful effects, such as sunburn, premature skin aging, and an increased risk of skin cancer.

It's essential to balance the benefits and risks of sunlight exposure by practicing safe sun habits, such as wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, seeking shade during peak sunlight hours, and avoiding intentional tanning.

Eye enucleation is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the entire eyeball, leaving the eye muscles, eyelids, and orbital structures intact. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe eye conditions or injuries, such as uncontrollable pain, blindness, cancer, or trauma. After the eyeball is removed, an implant may be placed in the socket to help maintain its shape and appearance. The optic nerve and other surrounding tissues are cut during the enucleation procedure, which means that vision cannot be restored in the affected eye. However, the remaining eye structures can still function normally, allowing for regular blinking, tear production, and eyelid movement.

A melanocortin receptor (MCR) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is one of five known subtypes of MCRs (MC1R-MC5R).

The MC1R is primarily expressed in melanocytes, which are pigment-producing cells located in the skin, hair follicles, and eyes. This receptor plays a crucial role in determining the type of melanin that is produced in response to environmental stimuli such as UV radiation.

Activation of the MC1R by its endogenous ligands, including α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. This results in the activation of protein kinase A and the phosphorylation of key transcription factors, which ultimately promote the expression of genes involved in melanin synthesis.

Mutations in the MC1R gene have been associated with various pigmentation disorders, including red hair color, fair skin, and an increased risk of developing skin cancer. Additionally, polymorphisms in the MC1R gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing other diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Iris neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign iris neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant iris neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow quickly and may spread to other parts of the eye or nearby structures, such as the ciliary body or choroid.

Iris neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including changes in the appearance of the eye, such as a visible mass or discoloration, pain, redness, light sensitivity, blurred vision, or changes in the size or shape of the pupil. The diagnosis of iris neoplasms typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including a visual acuity test, refraction, slit-lamp examination, and sometimes imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Treatment options for iris neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the tumor. Small, benign iris neoplasms may not require treatment and can be monitored over time. Larger or malignant iris neoplasms may require surgical removal, radiation therapy, or other treatments to prevent complications or spread to other parts of the eye or body. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of iris neoplasms or notice any changes in your vision or the appearance of your eyes.

Hutchinson's melanotic freckle, also known as Hutchinson's melanotic macule or naevus, is a type of pigmented lesion that can be a precursor to malignant melanoma, a serious form of skin cancer. It is typically characterized by the presence of darkly pigmented, irregularly shaped patches on the skin, often found on the face or neck.

The lesions are usually brown or black in color and may have an uneven border or surface. They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Hutchinson's melanotic freckles are typically larger, darker, and more irregularly shaped than common freckles.

These lesions are named after Sir Jonathan Hutchinson, an English surgeon and pathologist who first described them in the late 19th century. It is important to note that while Hutchinson's melanotic freckles can be a sign of increased risk for developing melanoma, not all such lesions will become cancerous. However, any changes in size, shape, or color of these lesions should be evaluated by a healthcare professional as soon as possible.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Cancer vaccines are a type of immunotherapy that stimulate the body's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. They can be prophylactic (preventive) or therapeutic (treatment) in nature. Prophylactic cancer vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, are designed to prevent the initial infection that can lead to certain types of cancer. Therapeutic cancer vaccines, on the other hand, are used to treat existing cancer by boosting the immune system's ability to identify and eliminate cancer cells. These vaccines typically contain specific antigens (proteins or sugars) found on the surface of cancer cells, which help the immune system to recognize and target them.

It is important to note that cancer vaccines are different from vaccines used to prevent infectious diseases, such as measles or influenza. While traditional vaccines introduce a weakened or inactivated form of a virus or bacteria to stimulate an immune response, cancer vaccines focus on training the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells specifically.

There are several types of cancer vaccines under investigation, including:

1. Autologous cancer vaccines: These vaccines use the patient's own tumor cells, which are processed and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
2. Peptide-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines contain specific pieces (peptides) of proteins found on the surface of cancer cells. They are designed to trigger an immune response against cells that express these proteins.
3. Dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines: Dendritic cells are a type of immune cell responsible for presenting antigens to other immune cells, activating them to recognize and destroy infected or cancerous cells. In this approach, dendritic cells are isolated from the patient's blood, exposed to cancer antigens in the lab, and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
4. DNA-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines use pieces of DNA that code for specific cancer antigens. Once inside the body, these DNA fragments are taken up by cells, leading to the production of the corresponding antigen and triggering an immune response.
5. Viral vector-based cancer vaccines: In this approach, a harmless virus is modified to carry genetic material encoding cancer antigens. When introduced into the body, the virus infects cells, causing them to produce the cancer antigen and stimulating an immune response.

While some cancer vaccines have shown promising results in clinical trials, none have yet been approved for widespread use by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Researchers continue to explore and refine various vaccine strategies to improve their efficacy and safety.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Melanosis is a general term that refers to an increased deposit of melanin, the pigment responsible for coloring our skin, in the skin or other organs. It can occur in response to various factors such as sun exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions. There are several types of melanosis, including:

1. Epidermal melanosis: This type of melanosis is characterized by an increase in melanin within the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. It can result from sun exposure, hormonal changes, or inflammation.
2. Dermal melanosis: In this type of melanosis, there is an accumulation of melanin within the dermis, the middle layer of the skin. It can be caused by various conditions such as nevus of Ota, nevus of Ito, or melanoma metastasis.
3. Mucosal melanosis: This type of melanosis involves an increase in melanin within the mucous membranes, such as those lining the mouth, nose, and genitals. It can be a sign of systemic disorders like Addison's disease or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
4. Lentigo simplex: Also known as simple lentigines, these are small, benign spots that appear on sun-exposed skin. They result from an increase in melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin.
5. Labial melanotic macule: This is a pigmented lesion found on the lips, typically the lower lip. It is more common in darker-skinned individuals and is usually benign but should be monitored for changes that may indicate malignancy.
6. Ocular melanosis: An increase in melanin within the eye can lead to various conditions such as ocular melanocytosis, oculodermal melanocytosis, or choroidal melanoma.

It is important to note that while some forms of melanosis are benign and harmless, others may indicate an underlying medical condition or even malignancy. Therefore, any new or changing pigmented lesions should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a type of immune cell that have migrated from the bloodstream into a tumor. They are primarily composed of T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. TILs can be found in various types of solid tumors, and their presence and composition have been shown to correlate with patient prognosis and response to certain therapies.

TILs play a crucial role in the immune response against cancer, as they are able to recognize and kill cancer cells. They can also release cytokines and chemokines that attract other immune cells to the tumor site, enhancing the anti-tumor immune response. However, tumors can develop mechanisms to evade or suppress the immune response, including the suppression of TILs.

TILs have emerged as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, with adoptive cell transfer (ACT) being one of the most widely studied approaches. In ACT, TILs are isolated from a patient's tumor, expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient to enhance their anti-tumor immune response. This approach has shown promising results in clinical trials for several types of cancer, including melanoma and cervical cancer.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Immunotherapy is a type of medical treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight against diseases, such as cancer. It involves the use of substances (like vaccines, medications, or immune cells) that stimulate or suppress the immune system to help it recognize and destroy harmful disease-causing cells or agents, like tumor cells.

Immunotherapy can work in several ways:

1. Activating the immune system: Certain immunotherapies boost the body's natural immune responses, helping them recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
2. Suppressing immune system inhibitors: Some immunotherapies target and block proteins or molecules that can suppress the immune response, allowing the immune system to work more efficiently against diseases.
3. Replacing or enhancing specific immune cells: Immunotherapy can also involve administering immune cells (like T-cells) that have been genetically engineered or modified to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in treating various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. However, they can also cause side effects, as an overactive immune system may attack healthy tissues and organs. Therefore, careful monitoring is necessary during immunotherapy treatment.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A nevus is a general term for a benign growth or mole on the skin. There are many different types of nevi, including epithelioid and spindle cell nevi.

Epithelioid cell: A type of cell that is typically found in certain types of nevi, as well as in some malignant tumors such as melanoma. Epithelioid cells are large, round cells with a pale, clear cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei.

Spindle cell: A type of cell that is often found in certain types of nevi, including Spitz nevi and deep penetrating nevi. Spindle cells are elongated, thin cells with cigar-shaped nuclei. They can also be found in some malignant tumors such as melanoma.

Epithelioid and spindle cell nevus: A type of nevus that contains both epithelioid and spindle cells. These nevi are typically benign, but they can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanoma, especially if they have atypical features. Therefore, it is important for these types of nevi to be evaluated by a dermatopathologist or a specialist in skin pathology.

Alpha-MSH (α-MSH) stands for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. It is a peptide hormone that is produced in the pituitary gland and other tissues in the body. Alpha-MSH plays a role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Melanin production: Alpha-MSH stimulates melanin production in the skin, which leads to skin tanning.
2. Appetite regulation: Alpha-MSH acts as a appetite suppressant by signaling to the brain that the stomach is full.
3. Inflammation and immune response: Alpha-MSH has anti-inflammatory effects and helps regulate the immune response.
4. Energy balance and metabolism: Alpha-MSH helps regulate energy balance and metabolism by signaling to the brain to increase or decrease food intake and energy expenditure.

Alpha-MSH exerts its effects by binding to melanocortin receptors, specifically MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. Dysregulation of alpha-MSH signaling has been implicated in various medical conditions, including obesity, anorexia nervosa, and certain skin disorders.

Conjunctival neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign conjunctival neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may include lesions such as conjunctival cysts, papillomas, or naevi (moles). These growths can usually be removed through simple surgical procedures with a good prognosis.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant conjunctival neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the epithelial cells that line the surface of the conjunctiva. Other less common types include melanoma, lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms typically require more extensive treatment, such as surgical excision, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The prognosis for malignant conjunctival neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to improving outcomes in patients with these conditions.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hair color" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Hair color can be described in various ways, such as being a natural hair color (like blonde, brunette, red, or black) or describing a change in hair color due to factors like aging (gray or white hairs) or hair dye usage.

However, it's worth noting that changes in hair color can sometimes be associated with certain medical conditions. For example, premature graying of the hair before the age of 30 can be a feature of certain genetic disorders or vitamin B12 deficiency. Similarly, some skin conditions like alopecia areata or vitiligo can cause patchy changes in hair color. But these associations don't provide a medical definition for 'hair color'.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

Cyprinodontiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes several families, such as Cyprinodontidae (livebearers), Poeciliidae (including guppies and mollies), Aplocheilidae, Nothobranchiidae, Rivulidae, Valenciidae, Profundulidae, Goodeidae, Anablepidae, and Jenynsiidae. These fish are characterized by their small size, live-bearing reproduction (in most families), and the presence of a urogenital papilla in males. They inhabit a wide range of freshwater and brackish environments, with some species also found in marine habitats. Many cyprinodontiform fishes are popular as aquarium pets due to their vibrant colors and interesting behaviors.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Sunburn is a cutaneous condition characterized by redness, pain, and sometimes swelling of the skin caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources such as tanning beds. The skin may also blister and peel in severe cases. Sunburn is essentially a burn to the skin that can have both immediate and long-term consequences, including increased aging of the skin and an increased risk of skin cancer. It is important to protect the skin from excessive sun exposure by using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade during peak sunlight hours.

CD146, also known as Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM), is a type of transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as an adhesion molecule. It is found on various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some cancer cells.

As an antigen, CD146 can be recognized by the immune system and may play a role in the immune response. In the context of cancer, CD146 has been shown to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, and may be a target for immunotherapy. However, it's important to note that the specific medical definition of 'antigens, CD146' may vary depending on the context and the source. For more detailed information, it is recommended to consult scientific literature or speak with a medical professional.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

S100 proteins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation, intracellular signaling, and inflammation. They are found in high concentrations in certain types of cells, such as nerve cells (neurons), glial cells (supporting cells in the nervous system), and skin cells (keratinocytes).

The S100 protein family consists of more than 20 members, which are divided into several subfamilies based on their structural similarities. Some of the well-known members of this family include S100A1, S100B, S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), and S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9).

Abnormal expression or regulation of S100 proteins has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. For example, increased levels of S100B have been found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, while overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 has been associated with the development and progression of certain types of cancer.

Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of S100 proteins is important for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

HLA-A2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule, which is found on the surface of cells in our body. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from inside the cell to the immune system's T-cells, helping them distinguish between "self" and "non-self" proteins.

HLA-A2 is one of the most common HLA class I antigens in the Caucasian population, with an estimated frequency of around 50%. It presents a variety of peptides to T-cells, including those derived from viruses and tumor cells. The presentation of these peptides can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of infected or malignant cells.

It is important to note that HLA typing is crucial in organ transplantation, as a mismatch between donor and recipient HLA antigens can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. Additionally, HLA-A2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases and cancer types, making it an area of interest for researchers studying these conditions.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a medical term that refers to abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which are cells that have undergone uncontrolled division and form a tumor or malignancy. These antibodies can be produced in large quantities and may have altered structures or functions compared to normal antibodies.

Neoplastic antibodies can arise from various types of malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. In some cases, these abnormal antibodies can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and contribute to the progression of the disease.

In addition, neoplastic antibodies can also be used as tumor markers for diagnostic purposes. For example, certain types of monoclonal gammopathy, such as multiple myeloma, are characterized by the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin, which can be detected in the blood or urine and used to monitor the disease.

Overall, 'Antibodies, Neoplasm' is a term that encompasses a wide range of abnormal antibodies produced by neoplastic cells, which can have significant implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

p16, also known as CDKN2A, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the protein p16INK4a. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6, which are essential for the progression from G1 to S phase.

The p16 gene is located on chromosome 9p21 and is often inactivated or deleted in various types of cancer, including lung, breast, and head and neck cancers. Inactivation of the p16 gene leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can contribute to tumor development and progression.

Therefore, the p16 gene is an important tumor suppressor gene that helps prevent cancer by regulating cell growth and division.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

"Self-examination" is a term used to describe the act of examining one's own body to identify any unusual or changes in bodily functions, appearance, or symptoms that could indicate a potential health issue. It is often recommended as a preventative measure for early detection of certain conditions, such as breast self-examination (BSE) for detecting lumps or abnormalities in the breast tissue that may suggest breast cancer.

However, it's important to note that while self-examinations can be helpful, they are not a substitute for regular medical check-ups and screenings. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional if any concerning symptoms or changes are noticed during a self-examination. They can provide a more thorough evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment plan as needed.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) are a group of peptide hormones that originate from the precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC). They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

There are several types of MSH, but the most well-known ones include α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH. These hormones bind to melanocortin receptors (MCRs), which are found in various tissues throughout the body. The binding of MSH to MCRs triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior.

In the context of skin physiology, α-MSH and β-MSH bind to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) on melanocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing pigment (melanin). This binding stimulates the production and release of eumelanin, a type of melanin that is brown or black in color. As a result, increased levels of MSH can lead to darkening of the skin, also known as hyperpigmentation.

Apart from their role in pigmentation, MSH hormones have been implicated in several other physiological processes. For instance, α-MSH has been shown to suppress appetite and promote weight loss by binding to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates energy balance. Additionally, MSH hormones have been implicated in inflammation, immune response, and sexual function.

Overall, melanocyte-stimulating hormones are a diverse group of peptide hormones that play important roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Cysteinyldopa is a metabolic byproduct that is formed when the amino acid dopa (dihydroxyphenylalanine) is modified in the body. Specifically, it is created when dopa reacts with cysteine, another amino acid, through a process called protein sulfuration. Cysteinyldopa is primarily known for its role as a marker of the neurodegenerative disorder dopamine responsive dystonia (DRD), which is caused by mutations in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

In DRD, there is a deficiency of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, which is responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to dopa. As a result, dopamine levels are reduced, leading to symptoms such as muscle stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement. Cysteinyldopa is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with DRD due to the accumulation of dopa that cannot be converted to dopamine.

Therefore, measuring cysteinyldopa levels in the CSF can be helpful in diagnosing DRD and differentiating it from other movement disorders. However, it is important to note that elevated cysteinyldopa levels are not specific to DRD and can also be found in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, also known as CDKN2A or INK4a, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It functions as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6, which are enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating the progression of the cell cycle.

The p16 protein is produced in response to various signals, including DNA damage and oncogene activation, and its main function is to prevent the phosphorylation and activation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by CDK4/6. When pRb is not phosphorylated, it binds to and inhibits the E2F transcription factor, which results in the suppression of genes required for cell cycle progression.

Therefore, p16 acts as a tumor suppressor protein by preventing the uncontrolled proliferation of cells that can lead to cancer. Mutations or deletions in the CDKN2A gene, which encodes the p16 protein, have been found in many types of human cancers, including lung, breast, and head and neck cancers.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Pigmentation, in a medical context, refers to the coloring of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a pigment called melanin, which determines the color of our skin, hair, and eyes.

There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue. The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes can vary from person to person, leading to differences in skin color and hair color.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors such as genetics, exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. For example, hyperpigmentation refers to an excess production of melanin that results in darkened patches on the skin, while hypopigmentation is a condition where there is a decreased production of melanin leading to lighter or white patches on the skin.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Gangliosides are a type of complex lipid molecule known as sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They are predominantly found in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, particularly in the nervous system. Gangliosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. They are especially abundant in the ganglia (nerve cell clusters) of the peripheral and central nervous systems, hence their name.

Gangliosides consist of a hydrophobic ceramide portion and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that contains one or more sialic acid residues. The composition and structure of these oligosaccharide chains can vary significantly among different gangliosides, leading to the classification of various subtypes, such as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b.

Abnormalities in ganglioside metabolism or expression have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various lysosomal storage diseases like Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's diseases. Additionally, certain bacterial toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, target gangliosides to gain entry into neuronal cells, causing their toxic effects.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Adoptive immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves the removal of immune cells from a patient, followed by their modification and expansion in the laboratory, and then reinfusion back into the patient to help boost their immune system's ability to fight cancer. This approach can be used to enhance the natural ability of T-cells (a type of white blood cell) to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

There are different types of adoptive immunotherapy, including:

1. T-cell transfer therapy: In this approach, T-cells are removed from the patient's tumor or blood, activated and expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient. Some forms of T-cell transfer therapy involve genetically modifying the T-cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells.
2. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy: This type of adoptive immunotherapy involves removing T-cells directly from a patient's tumor, expanding them in the laboratory, and then reinfusing them back into the patient. The expanded T-cells are specifically targeted to recognize and destroy cancer cells.
3. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine: DCs are specialized immune cells that help activate T-cells. In this approach, DCs are removed from the patient, exposed to tumor antigens in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient to stimulate a stronger immune response against cancer cells.

Adoptive immunotherapy has shown promise in treating certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and leukemia, but more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy in other types of cancer.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

A xenograft model antitumor assay is a type of preclinical cancer research study that involves transplanting human tumor cells or tissues into an immunodeficient mouse. This model allows researchers to study the effects of various treatments, such as drugs or immune therapies, on human tumors in a living organism.

In this assay, human tumor cells or tissues are implanted into the mouse, typically under the skin or in another organ, where they grow and form a tumor. Once the tumor has established, the mouse is treated with the experimental therapy, and the tumor's growth is monitored over time. The response of the tumor to the treatment is then assessed by measuring changes in tumor size or weight, as well as other parameters such as survival rate and metastasis.

Xenograft model antitumor assays are useful for evaluating the efficacy and safety of new cancer therapies before they are tested in human clinical trials. They provide valuable information on how the tumors respond to treatment, drug pharmacokinetics, and toxicity, which can help researchers optimize dosing regimens and identify potential side effects. However, it is important to note that xenograft models have limitations, such as differences in tumor biology between mice and humans, and may not always predict how well a therapy will work in human patients.

A lentigo is a small, sharply defined, pigmented macule (flat spot) on the skin. It's usually tan, brown, or black and can appear on various parts of the body, particularly where the skin has been exposed to the sun. Lentigos are typically harmless and don't require treatment unless they're uncomfortable or for cosmetic reasons. However, some types of lentigines, such as lentigo maligna, can progress into melanoma, a type of skin cancer, so regular self-examinations and professional skin checks are important.

It is essential to differentiate between simple lentigos and lentigo maligna, which is a precancerous lesion. Lentigo maligna tends to occur in older individuals, often on the face, and can appear as a large, irregularly shaped, and darkly pigmented patch. A dermatologist should evaluate any suspicious or changing skin spots for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Vitiligo is a medical condition characterized by the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, resulting in irregular white depigmented areas. It's caused by the destruction of melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin, which gives our skin its color. The exact cause of vitiligo is not fully understood, but it's thought to be an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes. It can affect people of any age, gender, or ethnicity, although it may be more noticeable in people with darker skin tones. The progression of vitiligo is unpredictable and can vary from person to person. Treatment options include topical creams, light therapy, oral medications, and surgical procedures, but the effectiveness of these treatments varies depending on the individual case.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a type I interferon, which is a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, parasites, and tumor cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. IFN-α has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative effects.

IFN-α is produced naturally by various cell types, including leukocytes (white blood cells), fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, in response to viral or bacterial stimulation. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response. This results in the production of proteins that inhibit viral replication and promote the presentation of viral antigens to the immune system, enhancing its ability to recognize and eliminate infected cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IFN-α has been used as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including certain types of cancer, chronic hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis. However, its use is often limited by side effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Circulating neoplastic cells (CNCs) are defined as malignant cancer cells that have detached from the primary tumor site and are found circulating in the peripheral blood. These cells have undergone genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division, and can form new tumors at distant sites in the body, a process known as metastasis.

The presence of CNCs has been shown to be a prognostic factor for poor outcomes in various types of cancer, including breast, colon, and prostate cancer. The detection and characterization of CNCs can provide valuable information about the tumor's biology, aggressiveness, and response to therapy, allowing for more personalized treatment approaches.

However, the detection of CNCs is challenging due to their rarity in the bloodstream, with only a few cells present among billions of normal blood cells. Therefore, highly sensitive methods such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and next-generation sequencing are used for their identification and quantification.

Immunologic cytotoxicity refers to the damage or destruction of cells that occurs as a result of an immune response. This process involves the activation of immune cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which release toxic substances, such as perforins and granzymes, that can kill target cells.

In addition, antibodies produced by B cells can also contribute to immunologic cytotoxicity by binding to antigens on the surface of target cells and triggering complement-mediated lysis or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating immune effector cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity plays an important role in the body's defense against viral infections, cancer cells, and other foreign substances. However, it can also contribute to tissue damage and autoimmune diseases if the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells or tissues.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Specifically, IL-2 is a growth factor for T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. It is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells) and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells, including effector T cells and regulatory T cells. IL-2 also has roles in the activation and function of other immune cells, such as B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Dysregulation of IL-2 production or signaling can contribute to various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and cancer.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Active immunotherapy, also known as active immunization or vaccination, is a type of medical treatment that stimulates the immune system to develop an adaptive response against specific antigens, thereby providing protection against future exposures to those antigens. This is typically achieved through the administration of vaccines, which contain either weakened or inactivated pathogens, or components of pathogens (such as proteins or sugars), along with adjuvants that enhance the immune response. The goal of active immunotherapy is to induce long-term immunity by generating memory T and B cells, which can quickly recognize and respond to subsequent infections or reinfections with the targeted pathogen.

In contrast to passive immunotherapy, where preformed antibodies or immune cells are directly administered to a patient for immediate but temporary protection, active immunotherapy relies on the recipient's own immune system to mount a specific and durable response against the antigen of interest. This approach has been instrumental in preventing and controlling various infectious diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis B, and influenza, among others. Additionally, active immunotherapy is being explored as a potential strategy for treating cancer and other chronic diseases by targeting disease-specific antigens or modulating the immune system to enhance its ability to recognize and eliminate abnormal cells.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Drug screening assays for antitumor agents are laboratory tests used to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of potential drugs or compounds that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells or induce their death. These assays are typically performed in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures of various types of cancer cells.

The assays measure different parameters such as cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cytotoxicity to determine the ability of the drug to kill or inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of these assays can help researchers identify promising antitumor agents that can be further developed for clinical use in cancer treatment.

There are different types of drug screening assays for antitumor agents, including high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, which allow for the rapid and automated testing of a large number of compounds against various cancer cell lines. Other types of assays include phenotypic screening assays, target-based screening assays, and functional screening assays, each with its own advantages and limitations.

Overall, drug screening assays for antitumor agents play a critical role in the development of new cancer therapies by providing valuable information on the activity and safety of potential drugs, helping to identify effective treatments and reduce the time and cost associated with bringing new drugs to market.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that while I can provide information based on the data I have up to 2021, I don't have real-time capabilities. Therefore, I can't provide current medical definitions or the latest research findings.

As for your question, sunbathing is not a medical term per se, but it is a practice related to dermatology and health. Sunbathing generally refers to the act of exposing one's skin to sunlight, usually with the intention of darkening the complexion due to tanning or for perceived benefits from ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure.

However, it is essential to note that excessive sunbathing can lead to various health issues, including premature skin aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer due to UV radiation exposure. Therefore, dermatologists generally advise practicing sun safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, seeking shade during peak sunlight hours, and avoiding intentional tanning.

Ras genes are a group of genes that encode for proteins involved in cell signaling pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Mutations in Ras genes have been associated with various types of cancer, as well as other diseases such as developmental disorders and autoimmune diseases. The Ras protein family includes H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras, which are activated by growth factor receptors and other signals to activate downstream effectors involved in cell proliferation and survival. Abnormal activation of Ras signaling due to mutations or dysregulation can contribute to tumor development and progression.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Intramolecular oxidoreductases are a specific class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons within a single molecule, hence the term "intramolecular." These enzymes are involved in oxidoreduction reactions, where one part of the molecule is oxidized (loses electrons) and another part is reduced (gains electrons). This process allows for the rearrangement or modification of functional groups within the molecule.

The term "oxidoreductase" refers to enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which are also known as redox reactions. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

It's important to note that intramolecular oxidoreductases should not be confused with intermolecular oxidoreductases, which catalyze redox reactions between two separate molecules.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Regional perfusion chemotherapy for cancer is a medical treatment in which a specific area or region of the body is infused with high concentrations of cancer-killing (cytotoxic) drugs via a temporary isolation and perfusion of that region. This technique is typically used to treat isolated areas of cancer that are locally advanced, recurrent, or cannot be removed surgically.

The procedure involves isolating the regional blood circulation by cannulating the artery and vein that supply blood to the target area, often the limbs (such as in melanoma or sarcoma) or the liver (for liver tumors). The chemotherapeutic drugs are then introduced into the isolated arterial circulation, allowing for a high concentration of the drug to be delivered directly to the cancerous tissue while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity.

After the infusion, the region is rinsed with a blood-substitute solution to remove any residual chemotherapeutic agents before reconnecting the circulation. This procedure can be repeated multiple times if necessary.

Regional perfusion chemotherapy has been shown to improve local control and potentially increase survival rates in certain types of cancer, while reducing systemic side effects compared to traditional intravenous chemotherapy. However, it is a complex and invasive procedure that requires specialized medical expertise and facilities.

Ruthenium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes of the element ruthenium, which decays or disintegrates spontaneously emitting radiation. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal with the atomic number 44 and has several radioisotopes, including ruthenium-97, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-105, and ruthenium-106. These radioisotopes have medical applications in diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and brachytherapy (a type of internal radiation therapy).

For instance, ruthenium-106 is used as a radiation source in ophthalmic treatments for conditions such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Ruthenium-103 is also used in brachytherapy seeds for the treatment of prostate cancer.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require specialized training, equipment, and safety measures due to their radiation hazards.

Spontaneous neoplasm regression is a rare and somewhat controversial phenomenon in which a tumor or malignancy appears to decrease in size or disappear without any treatment or with treatment that is typically not expected to produce such an effect. This can occur through various mechanisms, including immune-mediated processes, apoptosis (programmed cell death), differentiation of cancer cells into normal cells, and angiogenesis inhibition (preventing the growth of new blood vessels that feed the tumor).

Spontaneous regression of neoplasms is not well understood and is considered unpredictable. It has been reported in various types of cancers, including neuroblastoma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and others. However, it should be noted that spontaneous regression does not imply a cure, as the tumor may still recur or metastasize later on.

In summary, spontaneous neoplasm regression refers to the partial or complete disappearance of a malignancy without any specific treatment or with treatment that is not typically associated with such an effect.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Tumor burden is a term used to describe the total amount of cancer in the body. It can refer to the number of tumors, the size of the tumors, or the amount of cancer cells in the body. In research and clinical trials, tumor burden is often measured to assess the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor disease progression. High tumor burden can cause various symptoms and complications, depending on the type and location of the cancer. It can also affect a person's prognosis and treatment options.

HLA-A antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. They are proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, and transplanted organs.

The HLA-A antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The CTLs then recognize and destroy any cells that display foreign or abnormal peptides on their HLA-A antigens.

Each person has a unique set of HLA-A antigens, which are inherited from their parents. These antigens can vary widely between individuals, making it important to match HLA types in organ transplantation to reduce the risk of rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-A antigens have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Radiation-induced neoplasms are a type of cancer or tumor that develops as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the formation of ions. This type of radiation can damage DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in the development of a neoplasm.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as that received during radiation therapy for cancer treatment or from nuclear accidents. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm depends on several factors, including the dose and duration of radiation exposure, the type of radiation, and the individual's genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced damage.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can take many years to develop after initial exposure to ionizing radiation, and they often occur at the site of previous radiation therapy. Common types of radiation-induced neoplasms include sarcomas, carcinomas, and thyroid cancer. It is important to note that while ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, the overall risk is still relatively low, especially when compared to other well-established cancer risk factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Human chromosome pair 9 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each member of the pair contains thousands of genes and other genetic material, encoded in the form of DNA molecules. The two chromosomes in a pair are identical or very similar to each other in terms of their size, shape, and genetic makeup.

Chromosome 9 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y) and is present in two copies in all cells of the body, regardless of sex. Chromosome 9 is a medium-sized chromosome, and it is estimated to contain around 135 million base pairs of DNA and approximately 1200 genes.

Chromosome 9 contains several important genes that are associated with various human traits and diseases. For example, mutations in the gene that encodes the protein APOE on chromosome 9 have been linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, variations in the gene that encodes the protein EGFR on chromosome 9 have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Overall, human chromosome pair 9 plays a critical role in the development and function of the human body, and variations in its genetic makeup can contribute to a wide range of traits and diseases.

The Uvea, also known as the uveal tract or vascular tunic, is the middle layer of the eye between the sclera (the white, protective outer coat) and the retina (the light-sensitive inner layer). It consists of three main parts: the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (structures that control the lens shape and produce aqueous humor), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nutrients to the retina). Inflammation of the uvea is called uveitis.

Monosomy is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which there is only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the usual pair in a diploid cell. In monosomy, an individual has one less chromosome than the normal diploid number (46 chromosomes) due to the absence of one member of a chromosome pair. This condition arises from the loss of one chromosome in an egg or sperm during gamete formation or at conception.

Examples of monosomy include Turner syndrome, which is characterized by the presence of only one X chromosome (45,X), and Cri du Chat syndrome, which results from a deletion of a portion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (46,del(5)(p15.2)). Monosomy can lead to developmental abnormalities, physical defects, intellectual disabilities, and various health issues depending on the chromosome involved.

HLA-A1 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule that plays an important role in the immune system. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-A1 antigen is one of several different types of HLA-A molecules, and it is determined by a specific set of genes located on chromosome 6. The HLA-A1 antigen is expressed on the surface of some cells in the human body and can be detected through laboratory testing.

The HLA-A1 antigen is associated with certain diseases or conditions, such as an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or autoimmune disorders. It is also used as a marker for tissue typing in organ transplantation to help match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection.

It's important to note that the presence or absence of HLA-A1 antigen alone does not determine whether someone will develop a particular disease or experience a successful organ transplant. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in these outcomes.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Seborrheic Keratosis is a common, benign skin condition that typically presents as rough, scaly, tan-to-darkly pigmented growths on the surface of the skin. These lesions can appear anywhere on the body, but they are most commonly found on the face, chest, back, and extremities. Seborrheic Keratoses are caused by an overproduction of keratin, a protein that makes up the outer layer of the skin.

The exact cause of Seborrheic Keratosis is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic factors and sun exposure. The condition is more common in older adults and is not contagious. While Seborrheic Keratoses are generally harmless, they can be removed for cosmetic reasons or if they become irritated or inflamed. Treatment options include cryotherapy (freezing the lesions with liquid nitrogen), curettage (scraping the lesions off), and laser surgery.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Sunscreening agents, also known as sunscreens or sunblocks, are substances that protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. They work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV radiation, preventing it from reaching the skin and causing damage such as sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.

Sunscreening agents can be chemical or physical. Chemical sunscreens contain organic compounds that absorb UV radiation and convert it into heat, which is then released from the skin. Examples of chemical sunscreens include oxybenzone, avobenzone, octinoxate, and homosalate.

Physical sunscreens, on the other hand, contain inorganic compounds that reflect or scatter UV radiation away from the skin. The most common physical sunscreen agents are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.

Sunscreening agents are usually formulated into creams, lotions, gels, sprays, or sticks and are applied to the skin before sun exposure. They should be reapplied every two hours or after swimming, sweating, or toweling off to ensure continued protection. It is recommended to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of at least 30, which blocks both UVA and UVB radiation.

Gene knockdown techniques are methods used to reduce the expression or function of specific genes in order to study their role in biological processes. These techniques typically involve the use of small RNA molecules, such as siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) or shRNAs (short hairpin RNAs), which bind to and promote the degradation of complementary mRNA transcripts. This results in a decrease in the production of the protein encoded by the targeted gene.

Gene knockdown techniques are often used as an alternative to traditional gene knockout methods, which involve completely removing or disrupting the function of a gene. Knockdown techniques allow for more subtle and reversible manipulation of gene expression, making them useful for studying genes that are essential for cell survival or have redundant functions.

These techniques are widely used in molecular biology research to investigate gene function, genetic interactions, and disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that gene knockdown can have off-target effects and may not completely eliminate the expression of the targeted gene, so results should be interpreted with caution.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Lymphoscintigraphy is a medical imaging technique that uses radioactive tracers to examine the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes and vessels. In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the area of interest, usually an extremity or the site of a surgical incision. The tracer then travels through the lymphatic channels and accumulates in the regional lymph nodes. A specialized camera called a gamma camera detects the radiation emitted by the tracer and creates images that reveal the function and anatomy of the lymphatic system.

Lymphoscintigraphy is often used to diagnose and assess conditions affecting the lymphatic system, such as lymphedema, cancer metastasis to lymph nodes, or unusual lymphatic flow patterns. It can help identify sentinel lymph nodes (the first node(s) to receive drainage from a tumor) in patients with melanoma and breast cancer, which is crucial for surgical planning and staging purposes.

In summary, lymphoscintigraphy is a non-invasive imaging technique that utilizes radioactive tracers to visualize the lymphatic system's structure and function, providing valuable information for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in various clinical scenarios.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The S100 calcium binding protein beta subunit, also known as S100B, is a member of the S100 family of proteins. These proteins are characterized by their ability to bind calcium ions and play a role in intracellular signaling pathways. The S100B protein is made up of two subunits, alpha and beta, which form a homodimer. It is primarily expressed in astrocytes, a type of glial cell found in the central nervous system.

S100B has been shown to have both intracellular and extracellular functions. Inside cells, it regulates various processes such as the dynamics of cytoskeleton, calcium homeostasis and cell proliferation. Extracellularly, S100B acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, released from damaged or stressed cells, where it can interact with receptors on other cells to induce inflammatory responses, neuronal death and contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders.

Elevated levels of S100B in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood are associated with various central nervous system injuries such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and some types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered a biomarker for these conditions.

Nitrosoureas are a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitroso (--NO) and urea (-NH-CO-NH-) functional group. In the field of medicine, nitrosoureas are primarily used as antineoplastic agents, or drugs designed to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

These compounds work by alkylating and crosslinking DNA, which ultimately leads to the disruption of DNA replication and transcription processes in cancer cells, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Nitrosoureas can also inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in DNA repair, further enhancing their cytotoxic effects.

Some common nitrosourea compounds used in clinical settings include:

1. Carmustine (BCNU)
2. Lomustine (CCNU)
3. Semustine (MeCCNU)
4. Fotemustine
5. Streptozocin

These drugs have been used to treat various types of cancer, such as brain tumors, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, their use is often limited by significant side effects, including myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), nausea, vomiting, and liver toxicity.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-kit, also known as CD117 or stem cell factor receptor, are transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. They are encoded by the c-KIT gene located on human chromosome 4q12.

These proteins consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. The binding of their ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), leads to receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation, and activation of several downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and JAK/STAT.

Abnormal activation or mutation of c-kit proto-oncogene proteins has been implicated in the development and progression of various malignancies, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mast cell diseases, and melanoma. Targeted therapies against c-kit, such as imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), have shown promising results in the treatment of these malignancies.

Melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that bind melanocortin peptides, which include α-, β-, and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy homeostasis, sexual function, and inflammation. There are five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCR1-5) that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct functions.

MCR1 is primarily expressed in melanocytes and plays a crucial role in skin and hair pigmentation. Activation of MCR1 by α-MSH leads to the production and distribution of eumelanin, which results in darker skin and hair.

MCR2 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues, including the adrenal gland, testis, and ovary. It is involved in various functions such as sexual function, feeding behavior, and energy homeostasis.

MCR3 is primarily expressed in the adrenal gland and plays a critical role in the regulation of steroid hormone production and release. Activation of MCR3 by ACTH leads to the synthesis and secretion of cortisol and other steroid hormones.

MCR4 is widely expressed in the CNS, peripheral tissues, and immune cells. It is involved in various functions such as energy homeostasis, feeding behavior, sexual function, and inflammation.

MCR5 is primarily expressed in the testis and plays a role in spermatogenesis and fertility.

Overall, melanocortin receptors are important regulators of various physiological processes, and dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, metabolic disorders, and skin disorders.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

Melanosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin, hair, and eyes. They contain the pigment melanin, which is responsible for giving color to these tissues. Melanosomes are produced in the melanocyte and then transferred to surrounding keratinocytes in the epidermis via a process called cytocrinesis. There are four stages of melanosome development: stage I (immature), stage II (developing), stage III (mature), and stage IV (degrading). The amount and type of melanin in the melanosomes determine the color of an individual's skin, hair, and eyes. Mutations in genes involved in melanosome biogenesis or function can lead to various pigmentation disorders, such as albinism.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system is a crucial pathway for the transmission and regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. It plays a significant role in several biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress response. The MAPK cascade consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MEKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K or MEK), and MAP kinase (MAPK).

The signaling system is activated by various extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and stress signals. These stimuli initiate a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of MAPKs. The activated MAPKs then translocate into the nucleus and regulate gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

There are four major MAPK families: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5. Each family has distinct functions, substrates, and upstream activators. Dysregulation of the MAPK signaling system can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Cell growth processes refer to the series of events that occur within a cell leading to an increase in its size, mass, and number of organelles. These processes are essential for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of all living organisms. The main cell growth processes include:

1. Cell Cycle: It is the sequence of events that a eukaryotic cell goes through from one cell division (mitosis) to the next. The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase (growth and preparation for DNA replication), S phase (DNA synthesis), G2 phase (preparation for mitosis), and M phase (mitosis or meiosis).

2. DNA Replication: It is the process by which a cell makes an identical copy of its DNA molecule before cell division. This ensures that each daughter cell receives an exact replica of the parent cell's genetic material.

3. Protein Synthesis: Cells grow by increasing their protein content, which is achieved through the process of protein synthesis. This involves transcribing DNA into mRNA (transcription) and then translating that mRNA into a specific protein sequence (translation).

4. Cellular Metabolism: It refers to the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within a cell to maintain life. These reactions include catabolic processes, which break down nutrients to release energy, and anabolic processes, which use energy to build complex molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

5. Cell Signaling: Cells communicate with each other through intricate signaling pathways that help coordinate growth, differentiation, and survival. These signals can come from within the cell (intracellular) or from outside the cell (extracellular).

6. Cell Division: Also known as mitosis, it is the process by which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This ensures that each new cell contains an exact copy of the parent cell's genetic material and allows for growth and repair of tissues.

7. Apoptosis: It is a programmed cell death process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells. Dysregulation of apoptosis can lead to diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Tissue Microarray (TMA) analysis is a surgical pathology technique that allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple tissue samples (known as "cores") from different patients or even different regions of the same tumor, on a single microscope slide. This technique involves the extraction of small cylindrical samples of tissue, which are then arrayed in a grid-like pattern on a recipient paraffin block. Once the TMA is created, sections can be cut and stained with various histochemical or immunohistochemical stains to evaluate the expression of specific proteins or other molecules of interest.

Tissue Array Analysis has become an important tool in biomedical research, enabling high-throughput analysis of tissue samples for molecular markers, gene expression patterns, and other features that can help inform clinical decision making, drug development, and our understanding of disease processes. It's widely used in cancer research to study the heterogeneity of tumors, identify new therapeutic targets, and evaluate patient prognosis.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

"Tumor escape" is not a widely recognized medical term with a specific definition. However, in the context of cancer biology and immunotherapy, "tumor escape" refers to the ability of cancer cells to evade or suppress the immune system's response, allowing the tumor to continue growing and spreading. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, production of immunosuppressive cytokines, recruitment of regulatory T cells, or induction of apoptosis in immune effector cells. Understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape is crucial for developing more effective cancer treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Nail diseases, also known as onychopathies, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the nail unit, which includes the nail plate, nail bed, lunula, and surrounding skin (nail fold). These diseases can be caused by various factors such as fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections, systemic diseases, trauma, and neoplasms.

Some common examples of nail diseases include:

1. Onychomycosis - a fungal infection that affects the nail plate and bed, causing discoloration, thickening, and crumbling of the nail.
2. Paronychia - an infection or inflammation of the nail fold, caused by bacteria or fungi, resulting in redness, swelling, and pain.
3. Ingrown toenails - a condition where the nail plate grows into the surrounding skin, causing pain, redness, and infection.
4. Onycholysis - a separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, often caused by trauma or underlying medical conditions.
5. Psoriasis - a systemic disease that can affect the nails, causing pitting, ridging, discoloration, and onycholysis.
6. Lichen planus - an inflammatory condition that can affect the skin and nails, causing nail thinning, ridging, and loss.
7. Melanonychia - a darkening of the nail plate due to pigmentation, which can be benign or malignant.
8. Brittle nails - a condition characterized by weak, thin, and fragile nails that easily break or split.
9. Subungual hematoma - a collection of blood under the nail plate, often caused by trauma, resulting in discoloration and pain.
10. Tumors - abnormal growths that can develop in or around the nail unit, ranging from benign to malignant.

Accurate diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases require a thorough examination and sometimes laboratory tests, such as fungal cultures or skin biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral medications, surgical intervention, or lifestyle modifications.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Mucosal melanoma; When melanoma occurs on mucous membranes. Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Melanoma ... with features of a Spitz nevus Uveal melanoma Vaginal melanoma Polypoid melanoma, a subclass of nodular melanoma. A melanoma in ... ocular melanoma and melanoma of soft parts, or mucosal melanoma (e.g., rectal melanoma), although these tend to metastasize ... A dermatoscope Malignant Melanoma, right posterior thigh Melanoma in situ, vertex scalp marked for biopsy Malignant Melanoma in ...
Not all melanoma tumors are the same; there are four different types of melanomas that can be found in horses. This type of ... An equine melanoma is a tumor that results from the abnormal growth of melanocytes in horses. Unlike in humans, melanomas in ... If melanomas become large and ulcerate, they may become infected. Gray horses have a higher susceptibility to melanoma than any ... There are several treatment options when a horse is found to have a melanoma tumor. The surgical removal of a melanoma tumor is ...
696 Polypoid melanoma is a subtype of nodular melanoma, the most aggressive form of melanoma (a skin cancer). Polypoid melanoma ... Polypoid melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition, a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.: ... Polypoid melanoma is most commonly found on the torso but may be found in unexpected places like the nasal mucous membranes and ... Sometimes polypoid melanoma may develop on moles on the skin, but it usually occurs out of nowhere on normal skin. Polypoid ...
... (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma. It tends to grow more rapidly in thickness (vertically penetrate ... Important prognosis factors for nodular melanoma include: Thickness Ulceration Sentinel lymph node (SLN) status Melanoma ... 696 Polypoid melanoma is a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.: 696 The microscopic hallmarks are: Dome-shaped at low power ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Melanoma). ...
... is a moth in the family Cosmopterigidae. It is found in Australia, where it has been recorded from Victoria ...
Melanoma Eye cancer DecisionDx-UM "Uveal melanoma". www.cancer.gov. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2023. Ocular Melanoma, ... choroidal melanoma, ciliary body melanoma, or iris melanoma. Large tumors often encompass multiple parts of the uvea and can be ... such as acral melanomas and mucosal melanomas. BRAF mutations are extremely rare in posterior uveal melanomas; instead, uveal ... in which case they are considered melanomas. Uveal melanoma is distinct from most skin melanomas associated with ultraviolet ...
The study also suggested that amelanotic melanomas might grow faster than pigmented melanomas. Melanoma List of cutaneous ... They can occur anywhere on the body, just as a typical melanoma can. Often, amelanotic melanomas are mistaken for benign ... metastatic amelanotic melanoma has a worse prognosis than other subtypes. Survival after diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was ... Amelanotic melanoma is a type of skin cancer in which the cells do not make any melanin.: 696 They can be pink, red, purple or ...
... is a cutaneous condition that may resemble a Spitz nevus or an acquired or congenital melanocytic nevus. ... Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
... is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and the editor-in- ... "Melanoma Research". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2021. Official website v t e ( ... The journal covers both experimental and clinical research on melanoma. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal ...
... is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma: 696 with an ... Desmoplastic melanomas tend to recur locally, with distant metastasis being less common. Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Melanoma, All stub articles, Cutaneous ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Busam, Klaus J. (2011). "Desmoplastic Melanoma". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 31 (2): 321-30. doi: ...
... is a murine tumor cell line used for research as a model for human skin cancers. B16 cells are useful models for ... Those are just a few examples, but the undergirding idea is that the B16 melanoma model is a powerful research tool, and a ... Today, B16 melanoma remains indispensable for metastasis studies. Current research projects focus on the cells' immunological ... Melanoma development: molecular biology, genetics and clinical application. Wien: Springer. Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Zhang, Ying; ...
... is a rare condition characterized by a melanoma of the mucous membranes. This subtype is associated a worse ... The prognosis of vulvovaginal melanomas is poor, especially for vaginal melanomas and has not improved over the last decades. ... have been tested in mucosal melanomas and have shown promising response rates. Melanoma James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; ... Wohlmuth C, Wohlmuth-Wieser I, May T, Vicus D, Gien LT, Laframboise S (November 2019). "Malignant Melanoma of the Vulva and ...
... is a moth in the family Oecophoridae. It was described by John Frederick Gates Clarke in 1978. It is found in ... "Aniuta melanoma Clarke, 1978". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved August 13, 2019. J. F. Gates Clarke (1978). ...
... accounts 5.5% of all vaginal cancers and only 1% of all melanomas diagnosed in women. Vaginal melanomas are ... It is darkly pigmented and of an irregular T-shape, but amelanotic melanomas have been described in 7% of cases. Melanoma of ... Therefore BRAF-inhibitors play only a minor role in vaginal melanomas (unlike in skin melanomas). However, a recent study has ... Vaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy that originates from melanocytes in the vaginal epithelium. It is also known as a ...
... is a cutaneous condition, and is a vitiligo-like depigmentation that can occur in patients with ... cutaneous or ocular melanoma. Pallister-Killian syndrome List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; ...
Localized melanoma, which has not spread beyond the skin, has a very good prognosis with low recurrence rates. Spread of ... Superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) is a type of skin cancer that typically starts as an irregularly edged dark spot typically ... Melanoma List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: ... As the risk of spread varies with the thickness, early SSM is more frequently cured than late nodular melanoma. The microscopic ...
"Macrophage-derived soluble factor enhances melanoma inhibitory activity expression by uveal melanoma cells in vitro". Melanoma ... "Entrez Gene: MIA melanoma inhibitory activity". Bosserhoff AK, Kaufmann M, Kaluza B, et al. (August 1997). "Melanoma-inhibiting ... 2007). "Melanoma inhibiting activity protein (MIA), beta-2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic melanoma ... Tatzel J, Poser I, Schroeder J, Bosserhoff AK (2005). "Inhibition of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) expression in melanoma ...
The mammalian members of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen) gene family were originally described as completely silent in ...
... is also known to be called equine-type melanoma, pigment synthesizing melanoma, and pigmented epithelioid ... Melanoma staging is the process of finding out if the melanoma has spread and if so, how far. This assists professionals in ... "Stages of Melanoma Skin Cancer". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2023-03-19. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ... Animal-type melanoma can develop anywhere on the body, similar to general malignant melanoma. It will be observed as arising ...
... of melanoma cells and is involved in 40- 87% of gene alterations in melanoma cases (Gonzalgo et al., 1997). This means that 10 ... In melanoma, Ku70 and Ku86 genes involved in DNA repair, were found to be inactivated when a histone deacetylase, or HDAC, was ... Melanoma is a rare but aggressive malignant cancer that originates from melanocytes. These melanocytes are cells found in the ... Despite the fact that melanoma represents only a small number of all skin cancers, it is the cause of more than 50% of cancer- ...
Ocular oncology Uveal melanoma - melanoma of the eye Ciliary Body Melanoma - Springer Long-term survival in choroidal and ... Ciliary body melanoma is a type of cancer arising from the coloured part (uvea) of the eye. About 12% of uveal melanoma arise ... The tumor can erode forward through the iris root and mimic an iris melanoma. Retinal detachment can be rarely caused by ... Enucleation (surgical removal of the eye) is the treatment of choice for large ciliary body melanomas. Small or medium sized ...
... , also known as melanoma with small nevus-like cells, is a cutaneous condition, a tumor that contains ... Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. ( ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Melanoma, All stub articles, Dermatology stubs). ...
... acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of lentiginous skin melanoma. Acral lentiginous melanoma is the most common subtype in ... Acral lentiginous melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer. Melanoma is a group of serious skin cancers that arise from ... However, because rates of other melanomas are low in non-white populations, ALM is the most common form of melanoma diagnosed ... If caught early, acral lentiginous melanoma has a similar cure rate as the other types of superficial spreading melanoma. Acral ...
... is a melanoma that has evolved from a lentigo maligna,: 695 as seen as a lentigo maligna with melanoma ... A few pathologists do not consider lentigo maligna to be a melanoma at all, but a precursor to melanomas. Once a lentigo ... Treatment is essentially identical to other melanomas of the same thickness and stage. Melanoma James, William D.; Berger, ... Lentigo Maligna Melanoma, Left Central Malar Cheek marked for biopsy Treatment depends on the thickness of the invasive ...
Research at the Melanoma Institute Australia aims to increase understanding of the genetic and molecular causes of melanoma. ... In 1983 the clinic moved to Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and was renamed the Sydney Melanoma Unit. In 2007, the Sydney Melanoma ... Australian Melanoma Research Foundation Cancer Council Australia Melanomas: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 ... The Melanoma Institute Australia is a non-profit organization based at the Poche Centre in North Sydney, Australia which ...
The AIM at Melanoma Foundation (AIM) is a nonprofit organization focused on melanoma research. AIM was created as a ... Aim at Melanoma. Retrieved 2011-12-10. "International Melanoma Tissue Bank in the Works". Cure Today. Retrieved 2023-02-24. " ... "Our Industry Partners". AIM at Melanoma Foundation. Archived from the original on 2023-05-10. Retrieved 2023-05-11. Official ... collaboration between the Charlie Guild Foundation and James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation. AIM is a partner of the ...
The Australian Melanoma Research Foundation participates in various activities to raise funds and raise awareness of melanoma ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of dermatology. It is the official journal of the ... Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research is indexed in: Abstracts in Anthropology Academic Search Academic Search Premier Biochemistry ... International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies (IFPCS) and the Society for Melanoma Research (SMR). In 2014, it ranked the ... Index SciSearch SCOPUS Zoological Record International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies website Society for Melanoma ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA8 gene. This gene is a member of the MAGEA gene ... "Entrez Gene: Melanoma antigen family A, 8". Retrieved 2014-08-25. De Plaen E, Arden K, Traversari C, Gaforio JJ, Szikora JP, De ... Rogner UC, Wilke K, Steck E, Korn B, Poustka A (October 1995). "The melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family is clustered in the ...
Rick Kefford of the Sydney Melanoma Unit, the University of Texas Southwestern Melanoma Center, and efforts to develop ... Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation merged with the Charlie Guild Foundation in 2009 to create the AIM at Melanoma Foundation ... The James A. Schlipmann Melanoma Cancer Foundation was a US-based non-profit organization with a mission to fund clinical ... In 2007 the foundation awarded $160,000 in grants to fight melanoma. Grants were awarded to Dr. ...
A Review on Computer-Aided Melanoma Skin Cancer Detection using Image Processing ...
But Professor Scott Menzies, from the University of Sydney at the Sydney Melanoma Diagnostic Centre, argues that melanoma is ... Does too much sun cause melanoma? Is sun exposure a major cause of melanoma? ... Melanoma occurrence decreases with greater sun exposure and can be increased by sunscreens, while sun bed exposure has a small ... In contrast, melanoma is related to ethnicity rather than pigmentation and in 75% of cases occurs on relatively unexposed sites ...
... the MRF hosts a series of events designed to recognize heroes in the melanoma community, and to raise awareness and much needed ... and to raise awareness and funding for melanoma research. ... funding for melanoma research, including: MRF Galas MRF Galas ... Support the Melanoma Community through an Event Each year, ... the various MRF events that recognize heroes in the melanoma ... The Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) is leading the melanoma community to transform melanoma from one of the deadliest ...
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... and guidelines on melanoma skin cancer and metastatic melanoma. Understand how to identify signs of malignant melanomas. ... Melanoma : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ... Jeffrey S. Weber, MD, PhD, discusses updates related to melanoma practice and care from ASCO 2023. ...
Two genes that control the appearance of moles in people have been found to double the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of ... Melanoma Melanoma of the skin is a dangerous type of skin cancer that usually appears as a cancerous mole due to exposure to ... Medindia » News » Research News » Melanoma (Skin Cancer) Risk Doubles With The Mole Gene ... Researchers have found that two genes that control the appearance of moles can double the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form ...
Mucosal melanoma; When melanoma occurs on mucous membranes. Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Melanoma ... with features of a Spitz nevus Uveal melanoma Vaginal melanoma Polypoid melanoma, a subclass of nodular melanoma. A melanoma in ... ocular melanoma and melanoma of soft parts, or mucosal melanoma (e.g., rectal melanoma), although these tend to metastasize ... A dermatoscope Malignant Melanoma, right posterior thigh Melanoma in situ, vertex scalp marked for biopsy Malignant Melanoma in ...
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is also the rarest. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. ... Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is also the rarest. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. ... Skin cancer - melanoma; Malignant melanoma; Lentigo maligna melanoma; Melanoma in situ; Superficial spreading melanoma; Nodular ... Even though melanoma can develop in some moles, doctors feel that there is no advantage to remove moles to prevent melanoma. ...
No mutations were detected in the two melanocytic cell lines and in eight melanoma cell lines. However, a C----T transition at ... Nine metastatic melanoma cell lines and two melanocyte cell lines were analyzed for point mutations in highly conserved regions ... Mutational analysis of the human p53 gene in malignant melanoma Pigment Cell Res. 1991 Feb;4(1):35-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- ... Nine metastatic melanoma cell lines and two melanocyte cell lines were analyzed for point mutations in highly conserved regions ...
... shared at a major cancer conference found that a cancer vaccine made from MRNA significantly improved how long melanoma ... shared at a major cancer conference found that a cancer vaccine made from MRNA significantly improved how long melanoma ...
Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva presents as a raised, pigmented or nonpigmented lesion. This lesion is uncommon but ... Primary malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva is much less common than intraocular or skin melanomas. Malignant melanoma of the ... Go to Ciliary Body Melanoma, Choroidal Melanoma, and Iris Melanoma for complete information on these topics. ... Not all conjunctival melanomas are pigmented; melanomas with little or no pigment can look like squamous and sebaceous gland ...
... from normal and several different types of melanoma cells. ... Melanoma is a tumor affecting melanocytes, skin cells that ... Melanoma cells produced certain compounds not detected in VOCs from normal melanocytes and also more or less of other chemicals ... The nano-sensor was able to distinguish differences in VOCs from normal and several different types of melanoma cells. ... In addition to detecting a unique odor signature associated with melanoma cells, the researchers also demonstrated that a ...
Founded in 2004, AIM at Melanoma is a global foundation dedicated to finding more effective treatments and, ultimately, the ... AIM at Melanoma. 5729 Lebanon Road, Suite 144-305 Frisco, TX 75034 ... Copyright © 2014-2022 - AIM at Melanoma Foundation. All rights reserved. Website by RED ZEPHYR DESIGN ...
Evidence-based recommendations on electrochemotherapy for metastases in the skin from tumours of non-skin origin and melanoma. ... Electrochemotherapy for metastases in the skin from tumours of non-skin origin and melanoma. Interventional procedures guidance ...
Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month April 8, 2024 Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. In addition to the skin, ... "There are a lot of current therapies for [patients with] advanced melanoma who havemetastatic disease. There [also] are ... melanoma may also occur in mucous membranes - thin, moist layers of tissue that cover surfaces… ... FAAD discussed current therapies and future therapies for advanced melanoma. ...
Moreover, melanomas that arose from existing moles were thinner than other melanomas, indicating that patients whose melanoma ... After reviewing 38 published studies comprising 20,126 melanomas, researchers found that less than one-third of melanomas (29 ... A meta-analysis of nevus-associated melanoma: Prevalence and practical implications, Journal of the American Academy of ... Most melanomas dont arise from existing moles, study finds. by American Academy of Dermatology ...
People who have melanoma that has spread to limited parts of the liver may add months to their life through surgery to remove ... Not everyone whose melanoma has spread to the liver is a candidate for surgery, the authors noted. Surgery is typically ... Only about one patient with melanoma in the liver out of 20 is a candidate for surgery, Dr. Faries noted. "What we have seen in ... Melanoma that has reached the liver may be treatable with surgery. .kaltura-player-wrap{ width: 100%; display: inline-block; ...
Mark DNA promoter hypermethylation of melanocyte lineage genes determines melanoma phenotype Sanna, Adriana LU ; Phung, Bengt ... Mark Combined presentation and immunogenicity analysis reveals a recurrent RAS.Q61K neoantigen in melanoma Peri, Aviyah ; ... Mark Clinical performance of a novel hyperspectral imaging device for cutaneous melanoma and pigmented skin lesions in ... T cells affect clinical outcome of adoptive cell therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma Kristensen, Nikolaj ...
Survey of Knowledge of and Awareness About Melanoma -- United States, 1995 ... Risk Factors for Melanoma (6). * Light skin color * Family history of melanoma * Personal history of melanoma * Presence of ... Awareness of melanoma (defined as knowledge that melanoma is a type of cancer or specifically a type of skin cancer) varied ... Respondents were asked, Can you tell me what melanoma is?; 55% knew melanoma is a type of cancer, 34% knew it is a type of ...
Treatment protocols for malignant melanoma are provided below, including recommendations for the following: Treatment by stage ... Uveal melanoma. For HLA-A*02:01-positive patients with uveal melanoma, tebentafusp-tebn is administered weekly by intravenous ... encoded search term (Malignant Melanoma Treatment Protocols) and Malignant Melanoma Treatment Protocols What to Read Next on ... Malignant Melanoma Treatment Protocols Updated: Apr 28, 2022 * Author: Winston W Tan, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD ...
p,Despite the promising targeted and immune-based interventions in melanoma treatment, long-lasting responses are limited. ... Melanoma cells present an aberrant redox state that leads to the production of toxic aldehydes that must be converted into less ... Melanoma treatment with the novel irreversible isoform-specific ALDH1 inhibitor [4-dimethylamino-4-methyl-pent-2-ynthioic acid- ... ALDH1A3 is epigenetically regulated during melanocyte transformation and is a target for melanoma treatment. Pérez-Alea M. et ...
24, Pages 12957: Suicide-Gene-Modified Extracellular Vesicles of Human Primary Uveal Melanoma in Future Therapies ( ... The yCD::UPRT-UM-sEVs inhibited the growth of the human cutaneous melanoma cell line A375 and uveal melanoma cell line MP38, as ... 24, Pages 12957: Suicide-Gene-Modified Extracellular Vesicles of Human Primary Uveal Melanoma in Future Therapies ( ... In this study, we cultivated human primary UM cells and uveal melanoma-associated fibroblasts in vitro to be transduced by ...
Melanoma. Using the Mole Mapper app, people can photograph and track their moles over time to see if and how they are changing ... researchers hope to create an algorithm that can screen for melanomas in their earliest stages. ...
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WHAT IS A MELANOMA?. Melanoma is a malignant tumor derived from melanocytes (hence its denomination), neuro-ectodermal ... Untreated, melanoma is a fatal disease. Melanoma cells can be detected in histology specimens, indicated by egg-shaped clear ... Nonetheless, melanoma is one of the most dangerous cancers in humans known to date, and it may affect individuals at all ages ... So, melanoma matters to everyone. On this website, youll be given a whole bunch of information needed to understand the ...
Friday 16 July 2010. AS I listened to Radio 4 Womans Hour on the way to work, I found myself increasingly incensed & talking to the airwaves. In the studio was a male travel medicine expert, a woman who loved the suntanned look, and another woman who was determined to be "pale & interesting". The ...
cutaneous melanoma3076 caregiver258 mucosal melanoma187 ocular melanoma145 acral107 pediatric melanoma55 Mole3 ... The melanoma treatment was approved in March 2011 and generated $360 million in sales last year. Bristol-Myers in January ... The MRF Patient Forum is the oldest and largest online community of people affected by melanoma. It is designed to provide peer ... Other sections of the Melanoma Research Foundation website include information that has been reviewed by medical professionals ...
Symptoms of skin cancer are judged by their appearance-melanoma appears as moles while carcinoma forms as lesions or sores on ... Melanoma is a type of cancer that begins in the melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. Carcinoma is a type of cancer that ... Melanomas usually form from moles, while carcinomas usually form as lesions or sores on the skin. ...
  • Compared to people with no family history of melanoma, each person with a first-degree relative diagnosed with melanoma has a greater chance of developing the disease. (skincancer.org)
  • There are many different types of melanoma and we are still trying to understand how to best treat each of them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Through NIH-sponsored research, we are able to explore how different types of melanoma respond to treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanomas typically occur in the skin, but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye (uveal melanoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Active surveillance may be an option if a uveal melanoma is very small or slow growing. (cancer.net)
  • This treatment is often recommended for small and medium uveal melanoma tumors. (cancer.net)
  • Melanoma can also rarely occur in the eye (uveal melanoma) or in the linings of the nose, sinuses, or other body parts (mucosal melanoma). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer finds that tanning beds are "carcinogenic to humans" and that people who begin using tanning devices before the age of thirty years are 75% more likely to develop melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you've had squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma , you are also more likely to develop melanoma at some point in your life. (skincancer.org)
  • Approximately 50% to 75% of cases of conjunctival melanoma arise in a setting of primary acquired melanosis. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 50-75% of cases of conjunctival melanoma arise in a setting of primary acquired melanosis. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 25% of cases of conjunctival melanoma come from de novo lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma is caused by changes (mutations) in skin cells called melanocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, which initiates in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. (lu.se)
  • At stage 0 and stage 1, a melanoma is thin and small. (mayoclinic.org)
  • According to QIMR Professor Nick Hayward, the team have discovered two genes that increase melanoma risk by influencing the number of moles a person has. (medindia.net)
  • Frequent severe sunburns in early childhood can especially increase melanoma risk, but sunburns later in life and cumulative exposure also play an important role. (skincancer.org)
  • 5 The impact of this trend on incidence of skin cancer is of concern, mainly because of cutaneous malignant melanoma, a cancer of poor prognosis when diagnosed at an advanced stage. (bmj.com)
  • The researchers then ran an experiment wherein they transferred gut bacteria from the patients into the guts of germ-free mice and then transplanted melanoma tumors into the mice 2 weeks later. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Before the approval of vemurafenib in 2011 for patients whose tumors have BRAF mutations, the sole approved agent for metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine, but response rates have been reported at only 7% to 12% with this agent. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In this study, we correlated the gene-expression profile of tumors with overall survival in a cohort of patients with stage III and IV melanoma to determine whether survival among patients is reflected by specific sets of expressed genes. (springer.com)
  • There is good evidence that the reported increase in melanoma incidence is an artefact caused by the incorrect classification of benign naevi as malignant melanomas, this, he argues, explains why melanoma mortality has changed little despite the great increase in alleged incidence. (eurekalert.org)
  • Assuming an incidence of 11 cases of metastatic melanoma in the MassHealth program over 1 year, conventional treatment with dacarbazine would cost $31,873 per year, whereas a year of treatment with that agent plus vemurafenib would carry a price tag of $314,347, according to Amber King, who is a PharmD student at Northeastern University in Boston. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Although the incidence of melanoma is lower than those of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas, melanoma is associated with the highest case-fatality rate of all skin cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • Although cutaneous melanoma is a relatively rare tumor, its incidence is rising sharply, with minimal progress made in its treatment [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
  • The incidence, prognosis and differential diagnosis of this urothelial melanoma are discussed. (karger.com)
  • As melanoma shows a disconcertingly rapid increase in incidence too, there is an urgent need to improve treatment. (vumc.com)
  • Melanoma is a global health problem and the incidence of this disease is rising. (medscape.com)
  • Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates of melanoma in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary cause of melanoma is ultraviolet light (UV) exposure in those with low levels of the skin pigment melanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is sun exposure a major cause of melanoma? (eurekalert.org)
  • When you examine the geographical, sun exposure and genetic evidence together, sun exposure is clearly a major cause of melanoma, he concludes. (eurekalert.org)
  • People with dysplastic nevus syndrome, also known as familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, are at increased risk for the development of melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic evidence is also supportive, he claims, with the major genes causing melanoma showing ultraviolet light "signature" mutations, while people deficient in repairing ultraviolet light genetic damage have a 1000 times greater risk of developing the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have found that two genes that control the appearance of moles can double the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. (medindia.net)
  • After conducting a follow-up study on a further 4000 people, it was found that the same two genes also increased the risk of moles developing into melanoma. (medindia.net)
  • Therefore we predicted we would find genes linking moles and melanoma. (medindia.net)
  • The longer-survival group of genes included those expressed in immune cells, both innate and acquired, confirming the interplay between immunological mechanisms and the natural history of melanoma. (springer.com)
  • Function-based genome-wide identification of melanoma-susceptibility genes. (vumc.com)
  • In the case of some familial melanomas, researchers have discovered DNA changes in tumor suppressor genes, including CDKN2A (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) and BAP1 (BRCA1 associated protein-1). (skincancer.org)
  • We have identified some genes, but that is more so if people develop melanoma at a young age or have multiple cancers in their families. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Having the right balance between good and bad microbes in the gut may improve the likelihood that immunotherapy successfully treats melanoma, which is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This was the conclusion that researchers from the University of Chicago, IL, came to after they found much higher levels of specific bacteria in the stool samples of people with melanoma who responded to immunotherapy, compared with those who did not respond to the treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For the new study, the scientists tested stool samples from 42 people before they underwent immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the combination of immunotherapy and radiation show promise, there are still some patients unable to start an effective immune response against melanoma. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • We have known for a long time that melanoma is a cancer where the immune system is involved-so immunotherapy treatments [drugs that stimulate your immune system] tend to work. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma is usually curable with surgery if detected early, however, treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and the five-year survival rate for metastatic melanoma had been 15-20% before the advent of immunotherapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Moles that are present at birth may develop into melanomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Larger moles that are present at birth may be at higher risk for developing melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 25% of melanomas develop from moles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early signs of melanoma are changes to the shape or color of existing moles or, in the case of nodular melanoma, the appearance of a new lump anywhere on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having more than 50 moles indicates an increased risk in melanoma might arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • We now have conclusive genetic evidence that having a large number of moles increases an individual's risk of developing melanoma," he added. (medindia.net)
  • Many other factors also play a role in increasing the risk for melanoma, including genetics (family history), skin type or color, hair color, freckling and number of moles on the body. (skincancer.org)
  • The more moles you have on your body, the higher your risk for melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • Also, having large moles (larger than a tip of a pencil eraser), or any atypical moles, increases the risk for melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • Moles, the small brown "beauty marks" that arise on the skin throughout life are not dangerous, but people with many moles are at increased risk for developing melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • About 20-30 percent of melanomas arise from existing moles. (skincancer.org)
  • People with many moles and those with many atypical moles are at very high risk for developing melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • If you have hereditary risk factors as well as many atypical moles, your risk of developing melanoma is even higher. (skincancer.org)
  • This combination of family history and having many unusual moles is often referred to as Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma syndrome (FAMMM). (skincancer.org)
  • Melanoma is much more aggressive than most other skin cancers, and it tends to spread to other tissues, or metastasizes, if not found early. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) is leading the melanoma community to transform melanoma from one of the deadliest cancers to one of the most treatable through research. (melanoma.org)
  • Expanding this process beyond melanoma to other cancers is really my mandate for coming to MD Anderson," Yee says. (mdanderson.org)
  • Editorial Note: During 1973-1992, the death rate for melanoma increased 48% among men, representing the highest sex-specific increase of all cancers (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Skin cancers like melanoma have damaged DNA (mutations) in skin cells that lead to uncontrolled growth of these cells. (skincancer.org)
  • People who have already had melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancers run a greater risk of developing melanoma in the future. (skincancer.org)
  • UV rays from the sun and indoor tanning are a powerful attack on the skin and the primary risk factor for developing melanoma and other skin cancers. (skincancer.org)
  • Like many cancers, melanoma is more difficult to cure when it has spread to advanced stages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be done in some people with melanoma to see if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • See if the melanoma has spread to the lymph nodes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nodular melanoma usually starts as a raised area that is dark blackish-blue or bluish-red. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nodular melanoma: This type accounts for 15 to 30% of melanomas, occurs anywhere on the body, and grows rapidly. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During a sentinel node biopsy, a dye is injected in the area where your melanoma was removed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Optimal treatment for clinically localized melanoma requires surgical control of the primary site and accurate staging of the regional nodal basin with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). (medscape.com)
  • In 1992, the technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced to the field of melanoma care and publications detailing its use continue to grow exponentially. (medscape.com)
  • To diagnose melanoma, doctors do a biopsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Brain metastases are particularly common in patients with metastatic melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 3 ] Gastric metastases are frequently seen in cutaneous melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • LAS VEGAS -- The oral BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (Zelboraf) increased overall and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic melanoma, but the cost may not justify its use in a state Medicaid program, giving rise to many ethical questions, a budget impact analysis suggested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Our results also show that acquired BRAF-inhibitor (BRAFi) resistance leads to increased expression of HuR and WNT5A in malignant melanoma cells, and simultaneous therapeutic inhibition of HuR function and WNT5A signaling could be an efficient treatment strategy to impair the invasive migration of BRAFi-resistant melanomas. (lu.se)
  • Current Advances in the Treatment of BRAF-Mutant Melanoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • This review focuses on the current landscape of how resistance occurs with the chronic use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAF-mutant melanoma and progress made in the fields of immunotherapies and other small molecules when used alone or in combination with BRAF and MEK inhibitors to delay or circumvent the onset of resistance for patients with stage III/IV BRAF mutant melanoma . (bvsalud.org)
  • reported an isolated gastric metastasis from a conjunctival melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, it is of importance to identify the molecular mechansims that drive metastasis of melanoma cells. (lu.se)
  • The risk for developing melanoma increases with age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • UV radiation exposure from tanning beds increases the risk of melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sunlight stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin (the pigment that darkens the skin) and increases the risk of melanoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Exposure to ultra violet radiation (UVR) of the sun and family history increases the risk of developing melanoma. (lu.se)
  • Study selection Observational studies reporting a measure of risk for skin cancer (cutaneous melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma) associated with ever use of sunbeds. (bmj.com)
  • During 2012, more than 75,000 Americans were expected to be diagnosed with melanoma, with 4% developing poor-prognosis metastatic disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Current clinical and histopathological criteria used to define the prognosis of melanoma patients are inadequate for accurate prediction of clinical outcome. (springer.com)
  • While localized melanoma has an excellent prognosis, regional and distant disease is associated with much poorer outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Given the inexorable progression of late-stage melanoma, these findings have important ethical implications, such as what price do you put on one patient's life and how treatment decisions are made," King told MedPage Today during a poster presentation at the midyear clinical symposium of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (medpagetoday.com)
  • At present, key questions are what genetic factors contribute to development and proliferative standstill of nevi, as well as to melanoma development and progression, and which melanoma factors (or pathways) correspond to druggable targets for therapeutic intervention. (vumc.com)
  • A mole, sore, lump, or growth on the skin can be a sign of melanoma or other skin cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Changes in a mole that can indicate melanoma include an increase in size, irregular edges, change in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most melanomas develop in normal skin and it's less common for melanoma to develop in an existing mole, it does happen. (skincancer.org)
  • Because melanoma can develop in a mole or can develop in normal skin, it is important to see your dermatologist if you see a new or changing mole. (skincancer.org)
  • One type of mole, known as a dysplastic nevus, can develop into melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2022, about 99,780 new cases of melanoma are estimated to occur in the United States, causing an estimated 7,650 deaths. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Does the Number of Primary Melanomas Affect Survival? (medscape.com)
  • Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has increased long-term survival outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma to as high as 50% although individual response can vary greatly. (bvsalud.org)
  • We are continuously bombarded with messages about the dangers of too much sun and the increased risk of melanoma (the less common and deadliest form of skin cancer), but are these dangers real, or is staying out of the sun causing us more harm than good? (eurekalert.org)
  • In the case of melanoma, the trigger can be damage to cellular DNA caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • New generation immunotherapies in combination with radiation treatments showed promise against melanoma during a recent trial. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • A key finding that supports the immune system's role in melanoma is the abscopal effect, which is a rare phenomenon that takes place when a localized treatment, such as radiation, shrinks the tumor while also stimulating the immune system to start a systemic attack on cancerous cells. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Study author James S. Welsh, MD, was able to see this effect while treating a melanoma patient with radiation. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • There is a clear correlation between unprotected exposure to UV radiation and melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • Most melanomas occur in the skin, and are caused by exposure to UV radiation from the sun. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Theoretically, conjunctival melanoma may originate from primary acquired melanosis, preexisting nevi, or de novo lesions (without any histologic or clinical evidence of a preexisting lesion). (medscape.com)
  • Malignant melanomas arising from nevi (they may arise from junctional and compound nevi) usually appear as a change (increasing nodularity, variegated pigmentation, bleeding, or inflammation) in known pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • During rare occurrences, patients can spontaneously go into remission, but more common is partial spontaneous regressions of melanoma lesions. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Malignant melanomas arising from nevi (they may arise from junctional and compound nevi) usually appear as a change (increasing nodularity, variegated pigmentation, bleeding, or inflammation) in known pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva, but it may be impossible to establish a clear clinical history of a preexisting history of nevus. (medscape.com)
  • This is an open-label, phase 2 study that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of ceralasertib, when administered as monotherapy and in combination with durvalumab in participants with unresectable or advanced melanoma and primary or secondary resistance to PD-(L)1 inhibition. (sutterhealth.org)
  • citation needed] Melanomas are usually caused by DNA damage resulting from exposure to UV light from the sun. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma can also occur in skin areas with little sun exposure (i.e. mouth, soles of feet, palms of hands, genital areas). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sam Shuster, a consultant dermatologist at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, says that sun exposure is the major cause of the common forms of skin cancer, which are all virtually benign, but not the rarer, truly malignant melanoma. (eurekalert.org)
  • Melanoma occurrence decreases with greater sun exposure and can be increased by sunscreens, while sun bed exposure has a small inconsistent effect. (eurekalert.org)
  • But Professor Scott Menzies, from the University of Sydney at the Sydney Melanoma Diagnostic Centre, argues that melanoma is far more common on body sites receiving more sun exposure and in people of races who tend to burn rather than tan. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to Menzies, there is considerable evidence that intermittent sun exposure and sunburn are strong independent indicators of the risk of developing melanoma in white populations. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is thought that around 65 percent of melanoma cases arise from UV exposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nevi typically show little proliferative activity and are the benign counterparts of malignant melanoma. (vumc.com)
  • Their oncological importance is twofold: melanocytic nevi may give rise to melanoma, and secondly, some nevi are difficult or impossible to distinguish with certainty from melanoma and vice versa. (vumc.com)
  • However, some uncertainty surrounds the role of nevi in the histogenesis of malignant melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Previously, compressed cells at the melanoma base were considered to be nevi, but reports now suggest that these flattened cells are, in fact, compressed melanoma cells and not nevus cells. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence indicates that approximately 20% to 25% of patients with conjunctival melanoma have a history or microscopic evidence of a benign conjunctival nevus. (medscape.com)
  • The vast majority (92 percent) of melanoma patients survive for 5 years or longer after diagnosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Capturing tumor-homing T cells from a patient's blood, expanding and priming them in the lab, and then giving the cells back, along with a drug that keeps them from getting turned off, improved the prospects of patients with metastatic melanoma. (mdanderson.org)
  • Forty-three tumor tissues from 38 patients with stage III and stage IV melanoma were profiled with a 17,500 element cDNA microarray. (springer.com)
  • From 1997 to 2000, we collected 43 fresh metastatic melanoma biopsies from 38 patients with stage III and IV melanoma who underwent surgery as a part of the diagnostic work-up or therapeutic strategy. (springer.com)
  • Melanoma can run in families - one in every 10 patients has a family member who also has had the disease. (skincancer.org)
  • In fact, about one in every 10 patients diagnosed with melanoma has a family member with a history of the disease. (skincancer.org)
  • Evidence indicates that approximately 20-25% of patients with conjunctival melanoma have a history or microscopic evidence of a benign conjunctival nevus. (medscape.com)
  • This finding improves our understanding of the genetics of melanoma and therefore the molecular pathways that lead to its development," he said. (medindia.net)
  • along with malignant melanomas, it is infrequent in the younger population. (medscape.com)
  • Superficial spreading melanoma is the most common type. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Superficial spreading melanoma: This type accounts for 70% of melanomas and occurs most commonly on women's legs and men's torsos. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How much skin is removed depends on how deep the melanoma has grown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The likelihood that melanoma will reoccur or spread depends on its thickness, how fast the cells are dividing, and whether or not the overlying skin has broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment for melanoma depends on several factors. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If your immune system is weakened as the result of medical treatments, including chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy (commonly used after an organ transplant), or if you have a medical condition such as lymphoma or HIV that compromises the immune system, your risk of developing melanoma is higher. (skincancer.org)
  • Until recently, when effective drugs were discovered that target the human body's immune system, we didn't have many effective treatment options for melanoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Jeffrey S. Weber, MD, PhD, discusses updates related to melanoma practice and care from ASCO 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Conjunctival melanomas may be associated with primary acquired melanosis (75%) or may arise from a preexisting nevus or de novo. (medscape.com)
  • When large in size, for example, more than about 8 inches (about 20 centimeters), congenital melanocytic nevus is a risk factor for malignant melanoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Therefore, he concludes, any causative effect of ultraviolet light on melanoma can only be minimal. (eurekalert.org)
  • He argues that there is a clear association between increasing cases of melanoma and increasing environmental ultraviolet light. (eurekalert.org)
  • Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma can appear on normal skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2016, a discovery of cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant novel species within the Protoparvovirus genus was dis- melanoma shows that extraenteric presence of cutaviruses covered in fecal samples from children with diarrhea in is not limited to skin infiltrated by neoplastic T cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite my anxiety, I listened to the doctors and went in for my 3-month skin check last week since my previous melanoma. (eonline.com)
  • That person also will examine your skin to look for signs that could mean melanoma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These imaging tests generally aren't used for smaller melanomas with a lower risk of spreading beyond the skin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • As the melanoma grows deeper into the skin, the stages get higher. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Though melanoma only accounts for 2 percent of all cases, it causes the most deaths from skin cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 55% knew melanoma is a type of cancer, 34% knew it is a type of skin cancer, and 42% did not know about melanoma. (cdc.gov)
  • Awareness of melanoma (defined as knowledge that melanoma is a type of cancer or specifically a type of skin cancer) varied substantially by demographic factors ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Awareness varied substantially by age group: 38% of respondents aged 25-64 years were aware that melanoma is a type of skin cancer, compared with 16% of those aged 18-24 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 50% of respondents who were college graduates were aware that melanoma is a type of skin cancer, compared with 16% of those with less than a high school education. (cdc.gov)
  • Melanoma occurs more frequently in people with fair skin, light eyes and light or red hair. (skincancer.org)
  • Although anyone can get melanoma, people with fairer skin - especially those with red or blond hair, blue or green eyes, or skin that freckles or easily burns - have a higher risk. (skincancer.org)
  • Previous skin cancer diagnoses also increase your risk for developing melanoma. (skincancer.org)
  • Title : Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and Subsequent Cancer Risk Personal Author(s) : Rees, Judy R.;Zens, M. Scot;Gui, Jiang;Celaya, Maria O.;Riddle, Bruce L.;Karagas, Margaret R. (cdc.gov)
  • Melanoma is a skin cancer that begins in the pigment-producing cells of the skin (melanocytes). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Melanoma usually begins on normal skin as a new, small, pigmented growth, most often on sun-exposed areas. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Melanoma is less common among people who have darker skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • More than 1 million people in the U.S. live with melanoma, a type of skin cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • In 1996, an estimated 38,300 cases of melanoma will be diagnosed, and approximately 7300 melanoma-associated deaths will occur (2). (cdc.gov)
  • While differences in interpretation of data occur, current practice guidelines across specialties are consistent in their recommendations regarding the utility of SLNB for the treatment of melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma may also occur around and inside the eyes, in the mouth, on the genitals and rectal areas, in the brain, and in the nail beds. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If you receive a diagnosis of melanoma, the next step is to determine the extent of the cancer, called the stage. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The melanocytic lesion was excised, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • She oversees clinical trials on melanoma research through NCI's Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, part of the division of cancer treatment and diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Further analyses revealed that simultaneously targeting HuR, with MS-444, and WNT5A signaling, with Box5, reduces melanoma cell migration and invasion via two different and partially overlapping signaling pathways, which are PKC and PI3K-AKT. (lu.se)
  • Held across the country, Miles for Melanoma 5k Run/Walks are community fundraising events that support the critical research for viable melanoma treatments so desperately in need. (melanoma.org)
  • You will learn about the different types of treatments doctors use for people with eye melanoma. (cancer.net)
  • This section explains the types of treatments, also known as therapies, that are the standard of care for eye melanoma. (cancer.net)
  • The common types of treatments used for eye melanoma are described below. (cancer.net)
  • Currently, other new melanoma immunotherapies are being used, with one involving a new generation of checkpoint inhibitors. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Primary and secondary prevention strategies can assist in reducing the occurrence of melanoma and deaths associated with this cancer, and information about public awareness of melanoma, including risk factors, can assist in developing intervention strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1 ] In the USA alone, it is estimated that 76,690 new cases of invasive melanoma will be diagnosed in 2013, with 9480 deaths. (medscape.com)
  • Melanoma, also redundantly known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment is more difficult when the melanoma has spread to other organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment is typically removal of the melanoma and potentially affected tissue (border around the melanoma) by surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thickness of a melanoma helps your care team decide on a treatment plan. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If the melanoma is thicker, your healthcare team may recommend more tests to see if the cancer has spread before deciding on your treatment options. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Melanoma treatment often starts with surgery to remove the cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Treatment for melanoma usually includes surgery to remove the melanoma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Optimal treatment for melanoma requires knowledge of a large, continually changing body of literature that contains significant contributions from multiple specialties. (medscape.com)
  • This article reviews the literature that helps frame those guidelines, with specific focus on results from the MSLT-I, as this is currently the only randomized controlled trial comparing wide local excision (WLE) and SLNB with WLE and observation in the treatment of melanoma. (medscape.com)
  • Respondents were asked about their general knowledge and awareness of risk factors for melanoma. (cdc.gov)
  • A budget impact analysis found that the cost of treating a patient with metastatic melanoma with vemurafenib was nearly $10,000 per month compared with dacarbazine. (medpagetoday.com)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, 76,000 people in the United States will be diagnosed with melanoma this year, while 10,000 people are expected to die from the disease. (pharmacytimes.com)

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