MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)ComputersAutomatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Libraries, MedicalHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.United StatesFruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)LatviaSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Famous PersonsPaintingsChromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Academic DissertationsLibraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.HungaryBelgiumPaintPapaver: A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Philosophy, Medical

Searching bibliographic databases effectively. (1/117)

The ability to search bibliographic databases effectively is now an essential skill for anyone undertaking research in health. This article discusses the way in which databases are constructed and some of the important steps in planning and carrying out a search. Consideration is given to some of the advantages and limitations of searching using both thesaurus and natural language (textword) terms. A selected list of databases in health and medicine is included.  (+info)

Efficacy of metformin in the treatment of NIDDM. Meta-analysis. (2/117)

OBJECTIVE: The results differ concerning randomized controlled trials of the effects of metformin on blood glucose regulation and body weight. To get a systematic overview, a meta-analysis of the efficacy of metformin was performed by comparing metformin with placebo and sulfonylurea. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All randomized controlled trials published since 1957 were selected by searching the Current List of Medical Literature, Cumulated Index Medicus, Medline, and Embase, Meta-analysis was performed calculating weighted mean difference (WMD) of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and body weight. RESULTS: Nine randomized controlled trials comparing metformin with placebo and ten comparing metformin with sulfonylurea were identified. The WMD between metformin and placebo after treatment for fasting blood glucose was -2.0 mmol/l (95% CI -2.4 to -1.7) and for glycosylated hemoglobin -0.9% (95% CI -1.1 to -0.7). Body weight WMD was not significant after treatment. Sulfonylurea and metformin lowered blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin equally, while there was a significant WMD of body weight (-2.9 kg [95% CI -4.4 to -1.1]) because of a 1.7-kg mean increase after sulfonylurea and a 1.2-kg mean decrease after metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin lowers blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly, compared with placebo. Metformin and sulfonylurea have an equal effect on fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, but the body weight is significantly lower after metformin compared with sulfonylurea treatment because of an increase in body weight after sulfonylurea treatment.  (+info)

Which literature retrieval method is most effective for GPs? (3/117)

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine requires new skills of physicians, including literature searching. OBJECTIVE: To determine which literature retrieving method is most effective for GPs: the printed Index Medicus; Medline through Grateful Med; or Medline on CD-ROM. METHODS: The design was a randomized comparative study. In a continuing medical education course, three groups of health care professionals (87 GPs and 16 other health care professionals) used one of the literature retrieval methods to retrieve citations on four search topics related to general practice. For the analysis in pairs, we used the search results of the 75 participants who completed all four assignments. As outcome measures, we used precision, recall and an overall search quality score; we also had a post-course questionnaire on personal characteristics, experience with computers, handling medical literature and satisfaction with course instruction and search results. RESULTS: The recall and overall search quality scores in the Index Medicus groups (n = 32) were higher (P = <0.001) than those in the CD-ROM groups (n = 31). In addition, the search quality scores in the Grateful Med groups (n = 12) were higher (P < 0.003) than those in the CD-ROM groups. There were no differences in precision. CONCLUSION: In the period 1994-1997, the printed Index Medicus was the most effective literature retrieval method for GPs. For inexperienced GPs, there is a need for training in electronic literature retrieval methods.  (+info)

The evolution of rural outreach from Package Library to Grateful Med: introduction to the symposium. (4/117)

Outreach is now a prevailing activity in health sciences libraries. As an introduction to a series of papers on current library outreach to rural communities, this paper traces the evolution of such activities by proponents in health sciences libraries from 1924 to 1992. Definitions of rural and outreach are followed by a consideration of the expanding audience groups. The evolution in approaches covers the package library and enhancements in extension service, library development, circuit librarianship, and self-service arrangements made possible by such programs as the Georgia Interactive Network (GaIN) and Grateful Med.  (+info)

The use of information technology in improving medical performance. Part III. Patient-support tools. (5/117)

Despite the proliferation of computer-based resources for patients, usefulness has been limited to date. Already, 17,000 biomedical Internet sites exist, and patients are increasingly finding support and knowledge on the Internet, but the accuracy of the information found is highly variable and difficult for patients to assess. Patients have also found value in electronic communication with physicians, although relatively few physicians routinely use email to communicate with patients on a regular basis. Nonetheless, patient-focused information technologies potentially will have profound effects on medical care. With advancing sophistication of technology, patients will increasingly be able to compare and choose doctors using the Internet and to access information that allows them to monitor and regulate the quality of their own care. Further, technologies will likely be developed to allow patients to increasingly manage their own care -- whether they are patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes or congestive heart failure who use customized software to adjust drug dosages and other treatments or patients with such common illnesses as headache or gastrointestinal infection who access self-management programs that may even write prescriptions for them. Thoughtful analysis and policy development will be critical for ensuring that the benefits are maximized and potential harm minimized. Specific areas include assessing the effects on outcomes and the characteristics of patients and technologies that succeed with self-management, and developing policies regarding liability for Web-based medical transactions and the privacy of information provided to physicians by email and via interactive Web sites.  (+info)

A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services. (6/117)

PURPOSE: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. METHODS: Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. RESULTS: Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. CONCLUSION: While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use.  (+info)

A quantitative ranking of Canada's research output of original human studies for the decade 1989 to 1998. (7/117)

BACKGROUND: Since 1987 research articles have been catalogued with the author's affiliation address in the 40 databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md. The present study was conducted to examine the Canadian entries in MEDLARS to interpret past and future trends and to combine the MEDLARS demographic data with data from other sources to rank Canadian research output of human studies both nationally and internationally. METHODS: The PubMed Web site of the National Library of Medicine was used to count medical articles archived in MEDLARS and published from Jan. 1, 1989, through Dec. 31, 1998. The articles attributed to Canadian authors were compared by country, province, city, medical school, hospital, article type, journal and medical specialty. RESULTS: During the study period Canadian authors contributed on average 3% (standard deviation [SD] 0.2%) of the worldwide MEDLARS content each year, which translated to a mean of 11,067 (SD 1037) articles per year; 49% were human studies, of which 13% were clinical or controlled trials, and 55% involved people aged 18 years or less. In total, 68% of the articles were by authors affiliated with Canadian medical schools; those affiliated with the University of Toronto accounted for the greatest number (8604), whereas authors affiliated with McGill University had the greatest rate of annual increase in the quantity published (8%). Over one-third (38%) of the articles appeared in Canadian journals. When counted by specialty, 17% of the articles were by authors with clinical specialties, 5% by those with surgical specialties and 3% by those with laboratory specialties. INTERPRETATION: The annual rate of increase in research output for Canada was more than 3 times higher than that seen world wide. Canada is now ranked seventh among countries contributing human studies to MEDLARS. The increase indicates that Canada's medical schools are productive, competitive in making contributions to medical science and are supporting Canadian journals.  (+info)

Medical subject headings used to search the biomedical literature. (8/117)

The National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online) database was the first database to be searched nationwide via value-added telecommunication networks. Now available on the World Wide Web free of charge from the National Library of Medicine and from many other sources, it is the world's most heavily used medical database. MEDLINE is unique in that each reference to the medical literature is indexed under a controlled vocabulary called Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). These headings are the keys that unlock the medical literature. MeSH multiplies the usefulness of the MEDLINE database and makes it possible to search the medical literature as we do today. This paper commemorates the 40th anniversary of the introduction of MeSH and salutes some of the farsighted persons who conceived and developed the MEDLINE database.  (+info)

  • A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary Medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract (MLE) on the growth performance, skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as mRNA levels of immune and antioxidant related genes in the skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. (
  • Fructose, glucose, and sucrose as the major soluble sugars, and citric, malic, and ascorbic acids as the major organic acids were determined by HPLC, and palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) as the major fatty acids were determined by GC in medlar (Mespilus germanica 'Dutch') fruit. (
  • The common Medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a slow growing, large deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 26 feet (8 m) tall. (
  • "Effect of Five Different Stages of Ripening on Chemical Compounds in Medlar ( Mespilus germanica L.)" . Molecules . (
  • Considered the best flavoured Medlar, producing a heavy crop of medium sized fruits with a interesting caramel flavour. (
  • Once softening begins, the skin rapidly takes a wrinkled texture and turns dark brown, and the inside reduces to a consistency and flavour reminiscent of apple sauce.Medlars are hard to start froom seed. (
  • This is the perfect time of year to find properly ripe Medlars . (
  • The key feature of eating a ripe Medlar is that it is left on the tree to ripen to such a degree that it goes soft and brown. (
  • I scarce know her, for the beauty of her cheek hath, like the moon, suffered strange eclipses since I beheld it: women are like medlars - no sooner ripe but rotten. (
  • There is also an old saying, used in Don Quixote , that "time and straw make the medlars ripe", referring to the bletting process. (
  • Ripe medlars, for example, are taken from the tree, placed somewhere cool, and allowed to further ripen for several weeks. (
  • The level of palmitic and stearic acids as well as the level of linoleic and linolenic acids were the highest at 1 WAH and then suddenly decreased as the medlar soften and the pulp becomes slightly (2 WAH) and fully (3 WAH) brown through 2 and 4 WAHs. (
  • Wait until the first frosts of November soften the Néfliers, or Medlars. (
  • The fruit is a pome, and is about 1 inch (3 cm) in diameter, with wide-spreading persistent sepals giving a "hollow" appearance to the fruit.Medlars are eaten very much the same way as persimmons. (
  • The medlar-stones made into powder, and drank in wine, wherein some Parsley -roots have lain infused all night, or a little boiled, do break the stone in the kidneys, helping to expel it. (
  • The medlar is a tree and the name of the fruit of this tree . (
  • In the Spring, the Medlar tree has wonderful, large flowers. (
  • Download eBook House By the Medlar Tree by Giovanni Verga across multiple file-formats including EPUB, DOC, and PDF. (
  • This House By the Medlar Tree book is not really ordinary book, you have it then the world is in your hands. (
  • This kind of House By the Medlar Tree without we recognize teach the one who looking at it become critical in imagining and analyzing. (
  • Don't be worry House By the Medlar Tree can bring any time you are and not make your tote space or bookshelves' grow to be full because you can have it inside your lovely laptop even cell phone. (
  • This House By the Medlar Tree having great arrangement in word and layout, so you will not really feel uninterested in reading. (
  • My medlar tree is suffering from leaves with brown spots on them and leaf drop. (
  • I've read that it's a good idea to prune the affected branches in winter but pretty much one half of my tree is now bare from leaf drop and I know that older medlars don't respond well to heavy pruning, so I'm not sure what to do. (
  • Eating a medlar is not usually a question of eating it straight from the tree as it has to be bletted, which means that it has to begin to decay before it is palatable. (
  • If there has been a frost then this bletting can occur naturally and some people let their medlars blet on the tree. (
  • Can't really describe it other than to say it was different but there was apple in there too which meant it wasn't a pure medlar taste. (
  • In the fruit studied, the levels of saturated palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), and unsaturated oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were most abundant fatty acids detected throughout medlar ripening (pulp softening and darkening). (
  • MEDLINE is an abbreviation for MEDLARS Online, but MEDLARS II was not initially designed to be an online search system. (
  • Three separate projects led to this service evolution and the creation of MEDLINE as it was implemented: the initial proposed design for MEDLARS II, the State University of New York (SUNY) Biomedical Communications Network in 1968, and AIM-TWX , an experimental project at NLM that established interactive search of the Abridged Index Medicus (AIM). (
  • However, before this design could be fully realized or implemented, NLM Director Martin M. Cummings , commissioned the Systems Development Corporation (SDC) in Santa Monica, CA to create a MEDLARS II that could provide for online search and, thus, MEDLINE was born. (
  • More than simply improving the efficiency of the MEDLARS I batch-processing system, these projects relied on an entirely new model and helped change what computerized bibliographic search could mean. (
  • Davis McCarn, an NLM staff member who contributed to AIM-TWX, MEDLINE, and eventually Grateful Med, studied the SUNY network and presented it to NLM as a better, more efficient, and more user-friendly option than the decentralized batch processing method employed in MEDLARS I. After demonstrating the strengths of the SUNY project, McCarn began to work on AIM-TWX, the first online search system for NLM. (
  • The medlar needs warm summers and mild (not too cold) winters and likes to grow in sunny , dry places. (
  • Whether you are a computer owners or students, if often feel the eyes dry and astringent, bloodshot, must try the tea, because chrysanthemum on the treatment of eye fatigue, blurred vision, have a good curative effect, medlar, contain rich vitamin A, is a mild eye care ingredients. (
  • If a poultice or plaister be made with dried medlars, beaten and mixed with the juice of red roses, whereunto a few cloves and nutmegs may be added, and a little red coral also, and applied to the stomach that is given to casting or loathing of meat, it effectually helps. (
  • In Notes on a Cellar-Book , the great English oenophile George Saintsbury called bletted medlars the "ideal fruit to accompany wine. (
  • Inside WPG navigate to your desktop and double click on Medlar-Drink-Food-Food-Fruit-Sweet-Mediterranean-F-6325.jpg then click "Auto adjust" in the menu. (
  • Elsewhere in literature, D. H. Lawrence dubbed medlars "wineskins of brown morbidity. (
  • Also, you usually can't even get medlar unless you grow it, and as it is less aggressively bred than most grocery store fruit, it likely retains more nutrition. (
  • MEDLARS I, as described in my previous post , was a great step forward in providing access to bibliographic data and facilitating biomedical research, nationally and internationally. (