A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
The use of art as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Material prepared from plants.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.
Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)
A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The educational process of instructing.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The interactions between physician and patient.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.
A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Women licensed to practice medicine.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
The use of mind to cure disease, particularly physical illness.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.

Dopey's seizure. (1/52)

Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure.  (+info)

Michelangelo: art, anatomy, and the kidney. (2/52)

Michelangelo (1475-1564) had a life-long interest in anatomy that began with his participation in public dissections in his early teens, when he joined the court of Lorenzo de' Medici and was exposed to its physician-philosopher members. By the age of 18, he began to perform his own dissections. His early anatomic interests were revived later in life when he aspired to publish a book on anatomy for artists and to collaborate in the illustration of a medical anatomy text that was being prepared by the Paduan anatomist Realdo Colombo (1516-1559). His relationship with Colombo likely began when Colombo diagnosed and treated him for nephrolithiasis in 1549. He seems to have developed gouty arthritis in 1555, making the possibility of uric acid stones a distinct probability. Recurrent urinary stones until the end of his life are well documented in his correspondence, and available documents imply that he may have suffered from nephrolithiasis earlier in life. His terminal illness with symptoms of fluid overload suggests that he may have sustained obstructive nephropathy. That this may account for his interest in kidney function is evident in his poetry and drawings. Most impressive in this regard is the mantle of the Creator in his painting of the Separation of Land and Water in the Sistine Ceiling, which is in the shape of a bisected right kidney. His use of the renal outline in a scene representing the separation of solids (Land) from liquid (Water) suggests that Michelangelo was likely familiar with the anatomy and function of the kidney as it was understood at the time.  (+info)

The marriage of art and science in health care. (3/52)

This paper invites the reader to consider the marriage of art and science as antidote to much epidemic disease, for our greater personal and societal health. The history of arts medicine is reviewed, identifying its persisting although often tenuous link with health care from pre-history to the present. The author describes his personal encounter with art at the bedside, and how it led to his establishing a comprehensive artist-in-residence program at his university hospital. The scientific evidence underscoring the efficacy of art-making for physical and psychological health are outlined, together with the physiological and biochemical data. The author describes his own program, and offers examples of healing art in action.  (+info)

Gin Lane: did Hogarth know about fetal alcohol syndrome? (4/52)

Medical historians have searched for evidence that the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) were recognized long before its modern description in 1973. This search has often focused on the 'gin epidemic' in 18th century London, and especially William Hogarth's Gin Lane, which some authors allege reflects an awareness of the facial characteristics of the syndrome. While the 'gin epidemic' undoubtedly resulted in the increased birth of weak and sickly children, claims about Hogarth's awareness of the stigmata of the FAS are unfounded. The birth of weak and sickly children, and the high infant mortality rates associated with this period, long preceded the 'gin epidemic' and were primarily due to disease, starvation, exposure, and deliberate infanticide.  (+info)

Benign familial hypermobility syndrome and Trendelenburg sign in a painting "The Three Graces" by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). (5/52)

Clinical features suggestive of hypermobility syndrome and a positive Trendelenburg sign are described in a painting "The Three Graces" (1638-1640) by Peter Paul Rubens, Prado, Madrid. The most obvious findings are scoliosis, positive Trendelenburg sign, and hyperextension of the metacarpal joints, hyperlordosis, and flat feet. The sitters, presumably Helene Fourment (second wife of Rubens) and her sisters, support the hereditary familial aspect of hypermobility. Manifest hypermobility of the hand has also been found in two other ancient paintings: "Saint Cyriaque" in the Heller Retable by Mathias Grunewald (1450-1528), Frankfurt, and "The wounded man" by Gaspare Traversi, Venice (1732-1769). The finding of signs of hypermobility in ancient paintings shows that artists who are keen observers of nature could describe, or at least record, this condition long before doctors did. The art of the past can be a useful tool in the field of paleopathology.  (+info)

Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516): paleopathology of the medieval disabled and its relation to the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. (6/52)

BACKGROUND: At the start of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, a paleopathologic study of the physically disabled may yield information and insight on the prevalence of crippling disorders and attitudes towards the afflicted in the past compared to today. OBJECTIVE: To analyze "The procession of the Cripples," a representative drawing of 31 disabled individuals by Hieronymus Bosch in 1500. METHODS: Three specialists--a rheumatologist, an orthopedic surgeon and a neurologist--analyzed each case by problem-solving means and clinical reasoning in order to formulate a consensus on the most likely diagnosis. RESULTS: This iconographic study of cripples in the sixteenth century reveals that the most common crippling disorder was not a neural form of leprosy, but rather that other disorders were also prevalent, such as congenital malformation, dry gangrene due to ergotism, post-traumatic amputations, infectious diseases (Pott's, syphilis), and even simulators. The drawings show characteristic coping patterns and different kinds of crutches and aids. CONCLUSION: A correct clinical diagnosis can be reached through the collaboration of a rheumatologist, an orthopedist and a neurologist. The Bone and Joint Decade Project, calling for attention and education with respect to musculoskeletal disorders, should reduce the impact and burden of crippling diseases worldwide through early clinical diagnosis and appropriate treatment.  (+info)

Osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastasis. (7/52)

A patient with osteogenic sarcoma presenting with lung metastases is discussed with attention to appropriate diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Multimodality treatment options using chemotherapy, orthopedic surgery and thoracic surgery are presented. Physical medicine and rehabilitation evaluation and treatment are included. Current research options are discussed.  (+info)

Radioimmunotherapy for acute leukemia. (8/52)

BACKGROUND: The use of monoclonal antibodies to deliver radioactive isotopes directly to tumor cells has become a promising strategy to enhance the antitumor effects of native monoclonal antibodies. In this article, we summarize the role of radioimmunotherapy in the treatment of leukemia. METHODS: The authors reviewed the published clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy in acute leukemia. RESULTS: Radioimmunoconjugates that emit beta-particles, such as 131I-anti-CD33, 90Y-anti-CD33, 131I-anti-CD45, and 188Re-anti-CD66c, deliver significant doses of radiation to the bone marrow and may be particularly effective when used as part of a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Radioimmunoconjugates that emit short-ranged alpha-particles, such as 213Bi-anti-CD33, are better suited for the treatment of low-volume or residual disease. CONCLUSIONS: Radiolabeled antibodies can be administered safely to patients with advanced leukemias and have significant antileukemic activity. Radiolabeled antibodies can potentially intensify the antileukemic effects of conditioning regimens when used in conjunction with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Whether or not radiolabeled antibodies improve the outcome of patients with leukemia remains to be demonstrated by randomized studies.  (+info)

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.

HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.

HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.

HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.

The condition is characterized by an exaggerated immune response, which can cause inflammation in various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. IRIS can manifest as a range of symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, pain, and swelling in the affected areas.

The exact cause of IRIS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the restoration of immune function after being suppressed by HIV. When ART is initiated, the immune system begins to recover, and the body mounts an immune response against previously latent viral reservoirs. This can lead to inflammation and tissue damage in some individuals.

The diagnosis of IRIS is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention strategies for IRIS include careful monitoring of patients on ART, early detection and treatment of opportunistic infections, and the use of corticosteroids to prevent or treat inflammation. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk of IRIS and to monitor patients closely, particularly during the early stages of ART. With appropriate management, most cases of IRIS resolve without long-term complications.

Coinfection can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Exposure to multiple pathogens: When an individual is exposed to multiple sources of infection, such as contaminated food or water, they may contract multiple pathogens simultaneously.
2. Weakened immune system: A compromised immune system can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infections, making it more susceptible to coinfection.
3. Increased opportunities for transmission: In some situations, such as in healthcare settings or during travel to areas with high infection rates, individuals may be more likely to come into contact with multiple pathogens.

Examples of common coinfections include:

1. HIV and tuberculosis (TB): TB is a common opportunistic infection that affects individuals with HIV/AIDS.
2. Malaria and bacterial infections: In areas where malaria is prevalent, individuals may also be at risk for bacterial infections such as pneumonia or diarrhea.
3. Influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae: During flu season, individuals may be more susceptible to both influenza and bacterial infections such as pneumonia.

Coinfection can have significant consequences for an individual's health, including increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment of coinfections often requires a combination of antimicrobial therapies targeting each pathogen, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Preventing coinfection is important for maintaining good health, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems. This can include:

1. Practicing good hygiene: Washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick can help reduce the risk of infection.
2. Getting vaccinated: Vaccines can protect against certain infections, such as influenza and pneumococcal disease.
3. Taking antimicrobial prophylaxis: In some cases, taking antibiotics or other antimicrobial drugs may be recommended to prevent infection in individuals who are at high risk of coinfection.
4. Managing underlying conditions: Effectively managing conditions such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and heart disease can help reduce the risk of infection and coinfection.
5. Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding risky behaviors such as sharing needles or engaging in unprotected sex can help reduce the risk of infection and coinfection.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

Examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): a type of pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.
2. Tuberculosis (TB): a bacterial infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or other organs.
3. Toxoplasmosis: an infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii that can affect the brain, eyes, and other organs.
4. Cryptococcosis: a fungal infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or skin.
5. Histoplasmosis: a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum that can affect the lungs, skin, and other organs.
6. Aspergillosis: a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species that can affect the lungs, sinuses, and other organs.
7. Candidiasis: a fungal infection caused by Candida species that can affect the mouth, throat, vagina, or skin.
8. Kaposi's sarcoma: a type of cancer that is caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and can affect the skin and lymph nodes.
9. Wasting syndrome: a condition characterized by weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea.
10. Opportunistic infections that can affect the gastrointestinal tract, such as cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis.

AROIs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with HIV/AIDS, and they can be prevented or treated with antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and other interventions.

In TCM, yin deficiency is believed to be caused by a variety of factors, including poor diet, stress, and excessive heat or dryness in the body. This can lead to a range of symptoms, such as:

* Dry mouth and throat
* Dry skin and hair
* Fatigue and weakness
* Insomnia and anxiety
* Poor memory and concentration
* Muscle spasms and cramps
* Headaches and dizziness
* Constipation and abdominal pain

To diagnose yin deficiency, a TCM practitioner may use a variety of techniques, including pulse diagnosis, tongue analysis, and patient history. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying causes of the deficiency, such as improving diet and reducing stress, and using herbal remedies or acupuncture to restore balance to the body's yin energy.

Some common herbs used in TCM to treat yin deficiency include:

* Rehmannia (Shu Di Huang): A plant that is believed to nourish and moisten the body's tissues, and to help balance the body's yin and yang energies.
* Astragalus (Huang Qi): A root that is believed to strengthen the body's qi and immune system, and to help prevent illness.
* Ginseng (Ren Shen): A plant that is believed to stimulate the body's qi and yin energy, and to improve mental and physical vitality.
* Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra): A herb that is believed to soothe and moisten the body's tissues, and to help balance the body's yin and yang energies.

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

1. Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
2. Premature ejaculation (PE): Ejaculation that occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary frequency, hesitancy, and retention.
4. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, pelvic pain, and fever.
5. Testicular torsion: A condition in which the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle.
6. Varicocele: A swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect fertility.
7. Hypogonadism: A condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone, leading to symptoms such as low libido, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis.
8. Peyronie's disease: A condition that causes scar tissue to form inside the penis, leading to curvature and pain during erection.
9. Priapism: A persistent and painful erection that can cause damage to the penis if left untreated.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as age, genetics, infection, injury, and lifestyle choices. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound or biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be prevented or treated with timely medical care. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or discomfort in your testicles or penis. Early detection and treatment can help to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and prevent long-term complications.

There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.

Some common examples of diseases include:

1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.

The main features of BWS include:

1. Macroglossia (enlarged tongue): This is the most common feature of BWS, and it can cause difficulty with speaking and breathing.
2. Protruding ears: Children with BWS often have large ears that stick out from their head.
3. Omphalocele: This is a birth defect in which the intestines or other organs protrude through the navel.
4. Hydrocephalus: This is a build-up of fluid in the brain, which can cause increased pressure and enlargement of the head.
5. Polyhydramnios: This is a condition in which there is too much amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus during pregnancy.
6. Imperforate anus: This is a birth defect in which the anus is not properly formed, leading to difficulty with bowel movements.
7. Developmental delays: Children with BWS may experience delays in reaching developmental milestones, such as sitting, standing, and walking.
8. Intellectual disability: Some individuals with BWS may have mild to moderate intellectual disability.
9. Increased risk of cancer: Individuals with BWS have an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, particularly Wilms tumor (a type of kidney cancer) and hepatoblastoma (a type of liver cancer).

There is no cure for Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome, but various treatments can be used to manage the associated symptoms and prevent complications. These may include surgery, physical therapy, speech therapy, and medication. With appropriate medical care and support, individuals with BWS can lead fulfilling lives.

1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.

It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.

Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.

Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:

Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.

Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).

Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).

Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).

Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

In a healthy individual, there should be a balance between yin and yang energies. However, when yang energy is deficient or out of balance, it can lead to a range of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, cold hands and feet, poor appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

There are several factors that can contribute to yang deficiency, including:

1. Poor diet: Consuming foods that are too cooling or too yin in nature can lead to a deficiency of yang energy.
2. Overwork: Working long hours or engaging in excessive physical activity can deplete yang energy.
3. Stress: Chronic stress can deplete yang energy and disrupt the balance of yin and yang energies.
4. Sleep problems: Poor sleep quality or quantity can lead to a deficiency of yang energy.
5. Aging: As people age, their yang energy may become weaker due to natural hormonal changes.

To treat yang deficiency, traditional Chinese medicine practitioners may recommend a variety of therapies such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, qi gong exercises, and dietary changes. These therapies are designed to restore balance to the body's energy and improve overall health and well-being.

In summary, yang deficiency is a condition in traditional Chinese medicine where there is an imbalance or deficiency of yang energy in the body. It can lead to a range of symptoms and can be caused by several factors. Treatment typically involves restoring balance to the body's energy through various therapies.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the bladder, kidneys, or urethra, and can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This condition is characterized by sudden, intense urges to urinate, often with urgency and frequency.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): This chronic condition causes pain and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area, and can lead to increased urination and frequency.
4. Vaginal Infections: These are infections that occur in the vagina and can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
5. Vulvodynia: This chronic condition is characterized by pain and discomfort in the vulva, and can be caused by a range of factors including infection, inflammation, or nerve damage.
6. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing symptoms such as pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and infertility.
7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that can cause symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.
8. Vaginal Prolapse: This occurs when the muscles and tissues in the vagina weaken, causing the vagina to protrude into the vulva or rectum.
9. Menorrhagia: This is a condition characterized by heavy, prolonged menstrual periods that can cause anemia and other complications.
10. Dyspareunia: This is pain during sexual activity, which can be caused by a range of factors including vaginal dryness, cervical narrowing, or nerve damage.

These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the vulva and vagina. It's important to note that many of these conditions can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Male infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Low sperm count or poor sperm quality: This is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Sperm count is typically considered low if less than 15 million sperm are present in a sample of semen. Additionally, sperm must be of good quality to fertilize an egg successfully.
2. Varicocele: This is a swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect sperm production and quality.
3. Erectile dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can make it difficult to conceive.
4. Premature ejaculation: This can make it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg during sexual intercourse.
5. Blockages or obstructions: Blockages in the reproductive tract, such as a blockage of the epididymis or vas deferens, can prevent sperm from leaving the body during ejaculation.
6. Retrograde ejaculation: This is a condition in which semen is released into the bladder instead of being expelled through the penis during ejaculation.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as testosterone and inhibin can affect sperm production and quality.
8. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypogonadism, and hyperthyroidism, can affect fertility.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and stress can all impact fertility.
10. Age: Male fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 40.

There are several treatment options for male infertility, including:

1. Medications to improve sperm count and quality
2. Surgery to repair blockages or obstructions in the reproductive tract
3. Artificial insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
4. Donor sperm
5. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
6. Hormone therapy to improve fertility
7. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and alcohol, losing weight, and reducing stress.

It's important to note that male infertility is a common condition and there are many treatment options available. If you're experiencing difficulty conceiving, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

1. Tooth decay (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth enamel to break down, leading to holes in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease: An infection of the gums and bone that support the teeth, caused by bacteria.
3. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, usually caused by poor oral hygiene or smoking.
4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection of the mouth, typically affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: Viral infections that cause sores on the lips, tongue, or gums.
6. Cold sores: Caused by the herpes simplex virus, these are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth.
7. Canker sores: Small, shallow ulcers that develop on the inside of the mouth, tongue, lips, or gums.
8. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the insides of the mouth, usually due to excessive tobacco use or other irritants.
9. Oral cancer: Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, or throat.
10. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A condition where the mouth does not produce enough saliva, which can increase the risk of tooth decay and other problems.

These are just a few examples of mouth diseases. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to help prevent these conditions and ensure early detection and treatment if they do occur.

Viremia is a condition where the virus is present in the bloodstream, outside of infected cells or tissues. This can occur during the acute phase of an infection, when the virus is actively replicating and spreading throughout the body. Viremia can also be seen in chronic infections, where the virus may persist in the blood for longer periods of time.

In some cases, viremia can lead to the development of antibodies against the virus, which can help to neutralize it and prevent its spread. However, if the viremia is not controlled, it can cause serious complications, such as sepsis or organ damage.

Diagnosis of viremia typically involves laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of virus in the blood. Treatment of viremia depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of any related complications.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.

Symptoms may include sensitivity, discomfort, visible holes or stains on teeth, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or biting. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to more serious complications such as abscesses, infections, and even tooth loss.

To prevent dental caries, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and using mouthwash regularly. Limiting sugary foods and drinks and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups can also help prevent the disease.

Dental caries is treatable through various methods such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, and preventive measures like fissure sealants and fluoride applications. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

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Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 467. pp. 507-16. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4709-9_63. ISBN 978-1-4613-7133-5. ... doi:10.1002/art.24460. PMC 2761987. PMID 19790128. Milburn DS, Myers CW (November 1991). "Tryptophan toxicity: a ... 63 (11): 3633-9. doi:10.1002/art.30514. PMC 3848710. PMID 21702023. Barešić M, Bosnić D, Bakula M, Žarković K (1 January 2014 ... 63 (11): 3633-9. doi:10.1002/art.30514. PMC 3848710. PMID 21702023. "L-tryptophan: Uses and Risks". WebMD. 2017-05-12. ...
"Music could be the best medicine for dementia patients". Virgin. Virgin. Retrieved 10 June 2015. "Music, Art and Alzheimer's". ... "Mark Mothersbaugh and Beatie Wolfe want your postcards for democracy". The Art Newspaper - International art news and events. ... "V&A · The Art of Music in the Digital Age: a series of world-first designs". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 13 March ... Musical Performance and Art Piece "Green to Red" with Beatie Wolfe and Robert W. Wilson, retrieved 10 July 2022 "Musician ...
Retrieved 2011-07-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Interactive Art Map - the Medicine Man - Fairmount ... "John Witherspoon". Art Inventories Catalog. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved May 25, 2017. "Joseph Haydn". Art ... Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved March 22, 2012. "Night (Stauch)". Art Inventories Catalog. Smithsonian American Art ... Other kinds of art, i.e., sound installations, are marked as such next to their titles. Including Philadelphia Museum of Art, ...
"Vital Signs: Touched by Medicine". Dartmouth Medicine. Fall 2004. "Art in Medicine Recognized" (Press release). Dartmouth ... Rousseau, GS (1986). "Literature and Medicine: Towards a Simultaneity of Theory and Practice". Literature and Medicine. 5: 152- ... Li envisioned the journal as a canvas for literature and art that would "enhance the atmosphere of the health-care community by ... The prose, poetry, and art featured in the journal aim to represent the multitude of human experiences in life, illness, and ...
Academic Medicine. 82 (12): 1200-1210. doi:10.1097/acm.0b013e318159e052. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 18046129. Joshi, ART; Salami, A; ... Joshi, ART; Klingensmith, ME; Malangoni, MA; Delman, KA; Korndorffer, JR; Smink, DS; Barrett, KB; Hickey, M (November 2018). " ...
doi:10.1002/art.37985. PMC 3727975. PMID 23658122. Meyer A, Sandler DP, Beane Freeman LE, Hofmann JN, Parks CG (July 2017). " ... Autoimmune disorders at Curlie Portals: Biology Medicine (CS1 errors: missing title, CS1 errors: bare URL, CS1: long volume ... doi:10.1002/art.41214. ISSN 2326-5191. PMC 7255943. PMID 32266792. Mukundan L, Odegaard JI, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mwangi JW, ... U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2016-01-12. Archived from the original on 2016-01-12. Retrieved 2020-04-14. National ...
The John Curtin Gallery (JCG) is located on the Bentley campus, in building 200A. It has a focus on contemporary art, learning ... "Long may kids' health study Raine , Health+Medicine". health.thewest.com.au. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. ... "About JCG - John Curtin Gallery". John Curtin Gallery. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2020.[permanent dead link] "Mission ... John Curtin Gallery". John Curtin Gallery. 1 December 2017. Archived from the original on 21 August 2022. Retrieved 3 April ...
At the behest of the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities the European Medicines Agency (EMA) was charged to review data in ... Peter C. Gøtzsche; Jerome P. Kassirer; Karen L. Woolley; Elizabeth Wager; Adam Jacobs; Art Gertel; Cindy Hamilton (2009). "What ... BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 2018; 23, S. 165-168, DOI:10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111012 Arbyn M, Xu L, Simoens C, Martin-Hirsch PPL: ... While at Astra-Syntex he started to study medicine and graduated as a physician in 1984. Gøtzsche worked at hospitals in ...
Art, Faculty. "Faculty of Art".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Home". Faculty of Commerce, Mansoura University, ... The faculty of medicine was founded in 1962 as a branch of Cairo University. In 1972, a presidential decree announced the ... "dental medicine".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Home - Faculty of Law, Mansoura University". lawfac.mans.edu.eg. ... "Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt - Home". medfac.mans.edu.eg. Retrieved 2021-05-17. "Faculty of Pharmacy, ...
Thanassi, Wendy; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Newell, Jeffery; Terpeluk, Paul; Marder, David; Yesavage, Jerome A. (2012). " ... Pulmonary Medicine. 2012: 291294. doi:10.1155/2012/291294. PMC 3544373. PMID 23326660. Behrman, Amy; Buchta, William G.; ... American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 177 (10): 1164-1170. doi:10.1164/rccm.200711-1613OC. PMID 18276940 ... Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 55 (8): 985-988. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182a0d7cd. PMID 23887706. " ...
"The Art of Edward Hopper." The New York Times, 4 Oct. 1964 Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist. New York, Norton ... "Edward Hopper, New York Movie 1939." Occupational Medicine. Volume 67, Issue 3, 1 April 2017. 174-175. https://doi.org/10.1093/ ... Galleries in the Museum of Modern Art. New York Movie has been influential in both the fields of poetry and film. Concerning ... New York Movie has been hung in both the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art as part of several large ...
Bortolot, Alexander Ives (October 2003). "The Transatlantic Slave Trade". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 13 January 2010 ... Pinto, A. D. (2010). "Denaturalizing "natural" disasters: Haiti's earthquake and the humanitarian impulse". Open Medicine. 4 (4 ... New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (9): e25. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1001820. PMID 20164477. Zhang, Sheldon. Smuggling and ...
"Discover Artworks Dame Margaret Elizabeth Harvey Turner-Warwick". Art UK. Retrieved 9 April 2016. RCP Presidents BBC profile of ... Turner-Warwick decided to specialise in thoracic medicine, in which field it was a time of great change. She helped increase ... Turner-Warwick gained admission to study medicine at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford matriculating in 1943. She continued her ... In 1972 she was appointed Professor of Thoracic Medicine at the Cardiothoracic Institute (University of London), later Emeritus ...
Bonset, Charles A. (September 1988). "Medical Museum Notes". Indiana Medicine. 81. Burnett, Mary (1921). Art and Artists of ... "The Art of Healing: The Wishard Art Collection," curated by Cinnamon Catlin-Legutko, displayed 25 of the historic murals at the ... The Eskenazi Health Art Collection consists of a wide variety of artworks composed of fragments from the 1914 City Hospital ... "Eskenazi Health: Art history , HCD Magazine". HCD Magazine. 2014-11-15. Retrieved 2017-08-20. "Public Art for the New Wishard: ...
Master of Art in Teaching (M.A.T.) major in Mathematics •Master of Public Administration (MPA) •Master of Business ... and Management Bachelor of Science in Fish Medicine Bachelor of Science in Green Technology Bachelor of Science in Microbiology ...
"Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress." Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception ... The Art Theatre commissioned more plays from Chekhov and the following year staged Uncle Vanya, which Chekhov had completed in ... Chekhov and the Art Theatre, in Stanislavski's words, were united in a common desire "to achieve artistic simplicity and truth ... This philosophy of approaching the art of acting has stood not only steadfast, but as the cornerstone of acting for much of the ...
Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Art Gallery, Gallery of Modern Art. ISBN 9781921503795.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names ... It is said that they have "a medicine man who calls the dolphins and 'speaks' to them telepathically. By these communications ... The manager of the art centre as of 2022[update] is John Armstrong, while the gallery manager is Bereline Loogatha. The art ... The art centre incorporates the MIArt studio and a gallery. The artists, both men and women, work in many different mediums and ...
51 March 2012 issue Seiyu Grand Prix March 2012 issue - About Behind-the-scenes with shooting of CD cover art of Kakihara's ... Amnesia of the Dead Bad Medicine -Infectious Teachers- (Kashu Remu) Code:Realize ~Sousei no Himegimi~ as Victor Frankenstein ...
... art director, designer and author June 28 Junior Johnson, NASCAR driver of the 1950s and 1960s (d. 2019) Tom Stolhandske, ... recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978 August 25 Cecil Andrus, American politician Hal Fishman, Los ... January 4 Art Acord, actor (born 1890) Roger Connor, baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (born 1857) January 12 - Anna ... a pioneer of computer art & animation Ex-Major League Baseball player and longtime Springfield resident Bill Virdon dies at 90 ...
Also on board were two experiments prepared by Ashford School of Art & Design in Kent, United Kingdom, which, at the time, was ... Israel Aerospace Medicine Institute. Archived from the original on December 3, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2022. Evans, Ben (2014 ...
... art historian, author and journalist Ian Hislop, editor Private Eye magazine and TV series Have I Got News for You team captain ... Medicine) Sir John Bretland Farmer, botanist; Professor of Botany at Imperial College London James Fisher, author, editor, ... art historian, President of Magdalen College (1947-1968) and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1958-1960) Derek Brewer, ... Medicine) Desmond Morris, zoologist, ethologist and surrealist painter Gareth A. Morris, chemist Sheffield Airey Neave, ...
... the Art Institute of Chicago and other institutions. Photography exhibit captures life on Hutterite colonies Here's What One Of ... New England Journal of Medicine. 375 (5): 411-421. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1508749. PMC 5137793. PMID 27518660. Esau, Alvin (2004). ...
ISBN 0-271-01899-2. Craig Ashley Hanson (15 May 2009). The English Virtuoso: Art, Medicine, and Antiquarianism in the Age of ... ISBN 978-90-04-20703-5. Craig Ashley Hanson (15 May 2009). The English Virtuoso: Art, Medicine, and Antiquarianism in the Age ... Art, Medicine, and Antiquarianism in the Age of Empiricism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 94-6. ISBN 978-0-226-31587-4. Sir ... Art of Chymistry: As it is now Practiced (1668), translation from Cours de Chymie by Pierre Thibaut The History of the Pope's ...
The American cockroach has been used as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, with references to its usage in the ... American Cockroach at Earthling Nature Gallery of cockroaches Order Blattodea, Exploring California Insects University of ...
The one-story Art Deco-style building features a yellow brick façade with contrasting red brick details. A semi-circular entry ... the corridor served as the community's health and medicine center. By 1940, all but one of Lynchburg's black physicians as well ... the Art Deco style Pyramid Motors Company building at 407 Federal Street (118-5237), and the modern style showrooms at 403 and ... served for more than four decades before being supplanted by a new Art Deco style facility designed by Clark and Crowe at the ...
The construction of a state-of-the-art yeast fermentation facility in Brazil has been the group's largest investment thus far; ... In 1988, Biomin GmbH concluded a research agreement with the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. Its goal was to continue ...
Grafstein introduced numerous resolutions and a private member's bill to establish a national portrait gallery in Ottawa, co- ... part of the Faculty of Medicine of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Later in 2011, the CFHU named him "Man of the Year" in ...
George Pocock in the book A TREATISE on The Aeropleustic Art, or Navigation in the Air, by means of Kites, or Buoyant Sails ... "IN THE BEGINNING - The Story of the Creation of the Nation's First Hospital". Penn Medicine. Archived from the original on ... Pocock, George (1851). A TREATISE on The Aeropleustic Art, or Navigation in the Air, by means of Kites, or Buoyant Sails. ... Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis, which now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery ...
"He was born in the Art Museum area, and his mother died when he was 7. His father decided the best situation for his son was to ... and an MD from Howard University College of Medicine in 1946. Pierce completed an internship at Harlem Hospital in New York ... the Philadelphia General Hospital and Fellowship in dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Medicine ...
... memorial park that serves primarily as a cultural center and contains art galleries, a theater, and an amphitheatre. A museum ... The Woody L. Hunt School of Dental Medicine is expected to open in 2021 in the MCA area as well. El Paso is served by El Paso ... The El Paso Museum of Art is located next to the Plaza Theater adjacent to San Jacinto Plaza, the public square downtown. It ... El Paso is also home to Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...
Medicine portal Viruses portal Norovirus cis-acting replication element Norovirus GII.4 Sydney "Norovirus (vomiting bug)". nhs. ... Baehner, F.; Bogaerts, H.; Goodwin, R. (2016-12-01). "Vaccines against norovirus: state of the art trials in children and ... There is no specific medicine to treat people with norovirus illness. Norovirus infection cannot be treated with antibiotics ... Medicine. 96 (40): e8139. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000008139. PMC 5738000. PMID 28984764. Conly J, Johnston B (January 2003). " ...
Training of students is conducted in the following specialties: music art and choreography. In the future, faculty plans to ... special psychology and medicine. The institute has two scientific-methodical centres: rehabilitation of the disabled and ... artwork. Dean - PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, professor Hanna Turchinova. Natural sciences were studied at the university since ...
W. Williams, Peter (2016). Religion, Art, and Money: Episcopalians and American Culture from the Civil War to the Great ... in Medicine and 58.6% in Physics between 1901 and 1972. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes (2005), a review of Nobel prizes ... in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in Peace and Literature each. The numbers are especially startling in light ...
She earned her M.D. degree in 1966 from Boston University School of Medicine. She completed her residency at Cornell Medical ... state-of-the-art technologies, and important biological models of human disease. With her guidance, NCRR helped to expand ... At Boston University, Vaitukaitis served as professor of medicine, and at Boston City Hospital, she headed the section on ... Distinguished Alumna Award, Boston University (1983). Elected to the Institute of Medicine (1996). Watanabe, Myrna (September ...
... a Filipino martial art. The three were able to fight off Saref and bound her to the Jaro Belfry. Saref told them that they were ... the Ekek Medicine Man Kyle Warren Pueblos as Craston, the Sarangay Captain of the guards John Rodnell Vinzon as Kaeg, the ...
His art won numerous awards and has been seen on exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Staten Island ... awarded the Alumni Service Award for providing exceptional service and leadership to the Alumni Association-College of Medicine ...
He won a contest after entering at the urging of a friend, and left medicine behind for a modeling career. He is signed with ... "Vogue Italia gallery". colin-egglesfield.net. June 5, 2010. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved November ... "L'Uomo Vogue gallery". colin-egglesfield.net. June 5, 2010. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved November ...
Love Medicine series Love Medicine (1984) ISBN 9780062206312, OCLC 883426444 The Beet Queen (1986) ISBN 9780060835279, OCLC ... Allan Chavkin and Nancy Feyl Chavkin (Mississippi UP, 1994) Louise Erdrich, The Art of Fiction No. 208 Interview with Louise ...
He studied medicine at Edinburgh University graduating MB ChM in 1883. He received his doctorate (MD) in 1886 and beginning ... Jelena Jovanović Simić (December 2015). "Typhus in 1915". Museum of Science and Technology - Belgrade, Gallery. {{cite journal ... The mission was described by Dr Hunter himself in a paper presented to the Royal Society of Medicine. The paper was positively ... ISBN 0-902-198-84-X. Scull, Andrew (2007). Madhouse : a tragic tale of megalomania and modern medicine (Paperback ed.). New ...
Pesch, M. (Author), Weisbeck, M. (Editor), Techno Style: The Album Cover Art, Edition Olms; 5Rev Ed edition, 1998 (ISBN 978- ... alternative medicine, and entertainment...In the mid-eighties, as squatting became a less viable option and the government ... an exhibition held at Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Denmark, between 15 May and 8 September 1996); Director: Franz A. Pandal ...
A new art museum, the Stadsmuseum 't Schippershof, opened in 1999, holds many works by Menen-born sculptor Yvonne Serruys. ... sleep medicine, writer Maurits Withouck [nl] (born 1928), sculptor "Bevolking per gemeente op 1 januari 2022". Statbel. " ...
... from the Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy also in Cluj-Napoca, with a licence in general medicine (1995). In ... She realized the presentation of the art reproduction on the cover of JAMA (Romanian painting) in four consecutive issues, and ... Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, European Journal of Internal Medicine, Acta Diabetologica, Medical Ultrasonography, ... She is peer reviewer for European Journal of Internal Medicine and Dove Press journals. She wrote in collective volumes, ...
... who thou art- The one eternal God and true; And let the sight affect, subdue, And break my stubborn heart... The unbelieving ... medicine, and stay' of the believing soul. Methodism makes a distinction between the ceremonial law and the moral law that is ...
In 1932 and 1933 Allen was a student at the Stone City Art Colony and studied under Grant Wood. Iowa artist Grant Wood became ... In 1937, while looking for full-time employment, Allen accepted an appointment at the College of Medicine at the University of ... Wood also served as the Iowa director for the Public Works of Art Project, in connection with which he called on Allen to ... He studied briefly with Iowa artist Charles Atherton Cumming at the Cumming School of Art, housed then on the upper floor of ...
The Healerss Art: Inspiration Continues. The Healers Art, originally developed and offered by Dr. Rachel Naomi Remen at UCSF ... and medicine as a calling to service. My own path on Healers Art started years ago when I was a first year medical student at ... The Healerss Art: Inspiration Continues. Posted 8 years ago on Monday, May 25th, 2015. ... DFM Newsletter Elliot Sternthal faculty Fellowship Global Health Collaboration Go to Gabby Healers Art integrative medicine ...
Indigenous art depicting bush medicine draws acclaim from critics and collectors. By. Chris Kimball and Libbi Gorr. Posted. Fri ... My Country and Bush Medicine was highly commended by the judges of the Hadleys Art Prize.. (Supplied). The circumstances are ... Supplied: Hadleys Art Prize). Curator and gallerist Susan McCulloch was one of the judges at the Hadleys Art Prize and has ... The circumstances in which a lot of this artwork is produced is challenging, so the work that comes through the art centre can ...
forgive, forgiveness, forgiving, medicine, faithful, unrighteousness, faithfulness, confess, confession, forgivenal, pill, ...
Gallery Location and Hours. ZENITH SALON/UPPER NORTHWEST GALLERY:. 1429 Iris Street, NW, Washington DC 20012 Gallery ... LAUGHTER IS THE BEST MEDICINE. Whimsical Paper Maché by Stephen Hansen. Showing with Zenith Gallery for 35 years. Show Dates: ... Laughter is the Best Medicine - Stephen Hansen. ... Art For Sale *Paintings & Collages. *Sculpture & Art Furniture ...
American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, Medicine AOAoS. PPE ... 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. *. 3Department of Sports Medicine, Aspetar ... 1Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. ... Correspondence to Dr Kimberly G Harmon, Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of ...
Art Collection Selections. A lively sampling of artworks showcased at our hospital and its many offsite clinics, art collection ... Donations to the art program support the acquisition, maintenance and display of art, fostering innovation and education. ... Art and Garden Tours. As a part of our commitment to ensuring a safe environment for our patients, families and staff, we have ... Using developmentally-appropriate education, support and therapeutic play, our Child Life and Creative Art specialists help ...
Copyright 2023 University of Illinois College of Medicine , Privacy Statement College of Medicine , Chicago , Peoria , Rockford ...
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"Medicine is magical, and magical is art…". After hes wandered the French Quarter for the thousandth time and snapped a ... 40 Years of Art and Community, a 2014 book published by the Torpedo Factory Artists Association in Alexandria, Virginia. ...
The Robert Larner, M.D. College of Medicine , University of Vermont , University of Vermont Medical Center ...
The Gallery Store. Offering a curated selection of Canadian merchandise with a focus on extending the Kamloops Art Gallerys ... All purchases made in the Gallery Store support the Gallerys exhibitions and education programs. ... A novel about love, friendship, courage, and the idea that the land has within it powers of healing, Medicine Walk reveals the ... At this time, The Gallery Store only ships to locations within Canada. All orders are shipped using Canada Post. ...
Art UK is the online home for every public collection in the UK. Featuring over 300,000 artworks by over 50,000 artists. ... Sign up to the Art UK newsletter, a weekly edit of insightful art stories ... Art UK has updated its cookies policy. By using this website you are agreeing to the use of cookies. To find out more read our ... Art UK is the operating name of the Public Catalogue Foundation, a charity registered in England and Wales (1096185) and ...
Posts about Art and Medicine written by Trisha ... Art and Medicine, "a multi media investigation of medicine as ... Tagged as Alzheimer, Alzheimers disease, Art and Medicine, artwork, Disease, health, Human papillomavirus, Medicine, multi- ... Tag Archives: Art and Medicine July 18, 2013 · 9:00 am Jessica Beels Design: The Dimensions of Disease. Disease exists in three ... The multiplicity of medium, incorporating ordinary tools of art alongside the extraordinary. Understanding how medicine, the ...
Training of the Center for Sports Medicine and Exercise Therapy members within the campaign "Life is in your hands". IMG_2544 ... Training of members of the Center for Sports Medicine and Exercise Therapy within the campaign "Life is in your hands". IMG_ ... Department of Sports Medicine receives "reinforcement" from Aspetar Clinic, Doha, Qatar - Dr. Omar Al Seyrafi is the first ... Medical students on exchange - a new reinforcement of the team of the Center for Sports Medicine and Exercise Therapy. 1 ...
Buddha of Medicine Bhaishajyaguru (Yaoshi fo) ca. 1319. Buddha Shakyamuni 12th century ... Greek and Roman Art Islamic Art Robert Lehman Collection The Libraries Medieval Art Musical Instruments Photographs Antonio ... Asian Art at The Met The Mets collection of Asian art-more than 35,000 objects, ranging in date from the third millennium B.C ... The American Wing Ancient Near Eastern Art Arms and Armor The Michael C. Rockefeller Wing Asian Art The Cloisters The Costume ...
Lucy Lewis is a certified massage therapist based in Los Angeles with over 15 years of experience in her field.
Make this Mothers Day memorable for mom with a gift card for custom framing at Framing & Art Centre! She can choos… https://t. ... Put the finishing touch on your achievements with a beautiful custom framed diploma from Framing & Art Centre! Show… https://t. ...
Different Names Of Blood Pressure Medicine. how can you lower your it without medication that can reduce it so, it can take a ... Natural] Can Atorvastatin Lower Blood Pressure Different Names Of Blood Pressure Medicine. November 9, 2022 ... deviance to lower blood pressure can i take ibuprofen while on it medication can your body get used to blood pressure medicine ... variety of sleeping to Different Names Of Blood Pressure Medicine the skin. using positive ...
Unified Dimensions of Ayurvedic Medicine,Ayurveda Dr. J.S. Tripathi ... Performing Arts Language And Literature History Buddhist Astrology Art And Architecture Philosophy Yoga ... Modern Art Puja Temples Antique Indian Doors Furniture Floor Rugs And Carpets Musical Instruments Bedding Hardware Kitchen & ... Most Popular Home Decor Metal Tree Wall Art Wall Decor Urlis Table Decor Handles, Locks & Knockers Candle Stands Vases Planters ...
І. К. Churpiy, N. R. Golod, О. V. Yaniv, V. G. Tudosy, Yu. S. Kuravska, L. P. Fedorivska, D. I. Kvasniuk ...
... and research concerning academic medicine, including strengthening the quality of medical education and training, enhancing the ... Academic Medicine serves as an international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about policy, issues, ... Cover Art Artists Statement: Reaching In. Stahl, Darian Goldin Stahl, Darian Goldin Less ... August 2019 - Volume 94 - Issue 8 : Academic Medicine. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the ...
Revelation: Exhibition of Art Exploring Bioengineering and Regenerative Medicine From Technology Enhanced Learning ... has created an exhibition of vibrant mixed media artwork inspired by cutting edge Bioengineering and Regenerative Medicine ...
... about how regenerative medicine may soon cure diseases like type 1 diabetes and Parkinson disease. ... Thats how hard it was to practice the art, and then even among those of us who started to truly practice that art, it still ... The Art of Making Pluripotent Stem Cells. Dr Topol: This area has evolved so much, and you have been a principal part of the ... Im a big believer that you can do only so much in an academic lab, and the only way you are going to get a medicine into ...
Art of Wellness Acupuncture & Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). 11704 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 295, Los Angeles, CA, 90025. ... Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) incorporate thousands of years of experience in treating depression. Not ...
... July 22, 2022. ... Join artist Leonore Alaniz in the Great Hall for a reception in celebration of the exhibit, Let Food Be Your Medicine, ...
Here are two more art works from Becoming Medicine: Pathways of Initiation into a Living Spirituality by David R. Kopacz, MD & ... This entry was posted in Artwork, Becoming Medicine and tagged Beautiful Painted Arrow, Becoming Medicine: Pathways of ... The Art of Becoming Medicine.7. Posted on July 6, 2020. by davidrkopacz ... Here are two more art works from Becoming Medicine: Pathways of Initiation into a Living Spirituality by David R. Kopacz, MD & ...
Loop B in Two Medicine Campground at Glacier National Park with Recreation.gov. ... Photo Gallery. *. Camp, RV, and Explore Outdoors. Login. Sign Up. Recreation.gov is your gateway to explore Americas outdoor ...
Quality-assured, safe and effective medicines, vaccines and medical devices are fundamental to a functioning health system. ... incidence of substandard or falsified medicines is growing. Working to increase access to essential pharmaceuticals while ... limiting the spread of falsified products is at the heart of WHOs global strategy on medicines. ... Essential medicines. Access to appropriate medications is shown to have substantial impacts on community health and the related ...
Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate ... Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. They are selected with due regard ... Essential Medicines. Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. They are ... Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate ...
  • What is antiretroviral therapy (ART)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The treatment of HIV with medicines is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Few (26%-37%) persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnosed in community settings in sub-Saharan Africa enroll early in care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) when provided standard referral services, particularly men and young adults. (cdc.gov)
  • To achieve epidemic control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sub-Saharan African countries are striving to diagnose 90% of HIV infections, initiate and retain 90% of HIV-diagnosed persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral load suppression* for 90% of ART recipients (90-90-90) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. (who.int)
  • Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at a price the individual and the community can afford. (who.int)
  • La información más reciente sobre el nuevo Coronavirus de 2019, incluidas las clínicas de vacunación para niños de 6 meses en adelante. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine;75(3): 2433-2440, 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2211-419X/ 2019 African Federation for Emergency Medicine. (who.int)
  • African Journal of Emergency Medicine 9 (2019) 70-76 healthcare systems. (who.int)
  • Quality-assured, safe and effective medicines, vaccines and medical devices are fundamental to a functioning health system. (who.int)
  • Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding how medicine, the springy resilience of blood cells or the withering effects of Alzheimer's on neurons, are influence these creations. (illnessnarratives.com)
  • The community's art centre manager, Caroline Hunter, said rather than representing Dreamtime stories, paintings from the artists of Ampilatwatja depict bush medicine. (abc.net.au)
  • The circumstances in which a lot of this artwork is produced is challenging, so the work that comes through the art centre can be mind-blowing,' she said. (abc.net.au)
  • Ms Hunter has spent almost a decade in Ampilatwatja and has helped the community-owned art centre grow to become an important place for local people, both creatively and socially. (abc.net.au)
  • While fall colors may fade, your memories can be preserved for decades with quality custom framing from Framing & Art Centre. (framingartcentre.ca)
  • Put the finishing touch on your achievements with a beautiful custom framed diploma from Framing & Art Centre! (framingartcentre.ca)
  • Make this Mother's Day memorable for mom with a gift card for custom framing at Framing & Art Centre! (framingartcentre.ca)
  • Less is known about the barriers to evidence-based medicine faced evidence-based medicine practice in Africa. (who.int)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Medicine in art. (who.int)
  • After completing his residency, Levis moved to New York City and began working as a physician in emergency medicine. (theartofmedicinepodcast.com)
  • Peer review under responsibility of African Federation for Emergency Medicine. (who.int)
  • Medical Education is the training aimed at ensuring that physicians acquire the knowledge and skills needed to practice medicine professionally. (theartofmedicinepodcast.com)
  • Precision medicine using patient-specific modelling: state of the art and perspectives in dental practice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Havers completed the epidemic intelligence service training in the influenza division at CDC and is board certified to practice internal medicine and infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Desert plants used in bush medicine and ceremonies provide inspiration for the artists. (abc.net.au)
  • These works were designed specifically for an exhibit called Pulse: Art and Medicine , "a multi media investigation of medicine as an inspiration for art, and the inherent artistry involved in the medical sciences. (illnessnarratives.com)
  • Children to Immortals: Figural Representations in Chinese Art," August 9, 2018-January 3, 2021. (metmuseum.org)
  • The clinical curriculum includes the specialized fields of internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and psychiatry. (theartofmedicinepodcast.com)
  • http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.html In addition, the downloadable PDF [PDF - 1.1 MB] version of this educational series and other environmental medicine materials provides content in an electronic, printable format. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence-based medicine in residency program. (who.int)
  • Evidence-based medicine teaching in residency training improves ferences [1] . (who.int)
  • The medicines do not cure HIV infection, but help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among 651 persons diagnosed with HIV infection in community settings in Eswatini, 98% enrolled in care, and 83% initiated ART within a few days of receiving peer-delivered linkage case management services recommended by CDC and the World Health Organization. (cdc.gov)
  • After expansion of ART eligibility for all persons with HIV infection, 96% initiated ART. (cdc.gov)
  • In Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), the country with the world's highest estimated HIV prevalence (27.2%), achieving 90-90-90 depends upon improving access to early ART for men and young adults with HIV infection, two groups with low ART coverage ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • After expanding ART eligibility to all persons with HIV infection on October 1, 2016, 96% of 225 CommLink clients initiated ART, including 87% at their first clinic visit. (cdc.gov)
  • Levis Holmes is the host and producer of The Art of Medicine Podcast, one of the leading medical podcasts in the world. (theartofmedicinepodcast.com)
  • As a part of our commitment to ensuring a safe environment for our patients, families and staff, we have made the decision to cancel our monthly Art and Garden Tours until COVID-19 restrictions have been lifted. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • My own path on Healer's Art started years ago when I was a first year medical student at Yale. (bu.edu)
  • A number of paintings were inherited by our Society in 1907 when we merged with 14 specialist medical societies to form the Royal Society of Medicine. (artuk.org)
  • To do so, it is essential to integrate socio-humanism and population health sciences into the basic science teaching of medicine, as well as introduce medical students to the realities that are associated with a profession that is uncertain in nature (the doctor cannot directly control the outcomes of his or her work). (theartofmedicinepodcast.com)
  • Please interpret the environmental medicine and the health education resources in light of specific information regarding the patient and in conjunction with other medical authorities. (cdc.gov)
  • Medicine : a treasury of art and literature / edited by Ann G. Carmichael and Richard M. Ratzan. (who.int)
  • Dramatic tension captured in literature and art prevents us from forgetting the dead and the grave pandemics of history. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the present narrative review aimed to present and discuss the current literature investigating patient -specific modelling in dentistry , its state -of-the- art applications, and research perspectives. (bvsalud.org)
  • A lively sampling of artworks showcased at our hospital and its many offsite clinics, art collection selections include paintings, sculptures, mosaics, mixed media, and interactive, kinetic sculptures. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Most of the oil paintings displayed in the Royal Society of Medicine buildings are portraits of our past presidents and prominent members. (artuk.org)
  • 90% early enrollment in care and ART initiation after HIV diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Each team included two or three HIV-test counselors, three HIV-positive, ART-adherent expert client (peer) counselors, and a nurse. (cdc.gov)
  • Our legendary basketball coach and member of FIBA Hall of Fame Dusan Ivkovic in the visit of Laboratory for sports medicine and exercise therapy. (ac.rs)
  • Using developmentally-appropriate education, support and therapeutic play, our Child Life and Creative Art specialists help children and their families with their health care experience. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Donations to the art program support the acquisition, maintenance and display of art, fostering innovation and education. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • All purchases made in the Gallery Store support the Gallery's exhibitions and education programs. (thegallerystore.ca)
  • ATSDR, however, makes no claim that the environmental medicine and health education resources discussed in these products comprehensively address all possible situations related to various substances. (cdc.gov)
  • Working to increase access to essential pharmaceuticals while limiting the spread of falsified products is at the heart of WHO's global strategy on medicines. (who.int)
  • Sheffield-based artist Kate Sully has created an exhibition of vibrant mixed media artwork inspired by cutting edge Bioengineering and Regenerative Medicine research at the University of Sheffield. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • 40 Years of Art and Community, a 2014 book published by the Torpedo Factory Artists' Association in Alexandria, Virginia. (quidplura.com)
  • Compared with women and adult clients aged ≥30 years, similar high proportions of men and persons aged 15-29 years enrolled in HIV care and received same-day ART. (cdc.gov)
  • Likewise in public health, where an endless supply of unseen creatures, as monstrous and horrific as any found in science fiction, the art of Hieronymus Bosch, or Jim Barsness' imagination, await the opportunity to wreak havoc. (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic enhancers increase the effectiveness of the other medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He completed Doctor of Medicine (Ay. (exoticindia.com)
  • Dr. Haver's earned a Bachelor's of Art Degree from Yale University and a Doctor of Medicine from the University of Washington. (cdc.gov)
  • Aim of the work This study aims to assess the prevalence of abnormal hysteroscopic findings among infertile women undergoing ART at Ain Shams Maternity University Hospital over the period from January 2007 to January 2017. (bvsalud.org)
  • This descriptive retrospective study was carried out on infertile couples planned for ART who were sent to ECDU for hysteroscopy in Early Cancer Detection Unit (ECDU), Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Healer's Art, originally developed and offered by Dr. Rachel Naomi Remen at UCSF in 1993, is a curriculum designed to address the human dimension of medicine. (bu.edu)
  • And, at the same time, how this art reflects the natural and unnatural of the human body. (illnessnarratives.com)
  • The bare basics of desert community life are a far cry from the opulence of Australia's richest landscape art awards, which Ms Morton attended recently at Hobart's historic Hadley's Orient Hotel. (abc.net.au)
  • But you can paint the landscape where the stories belong, the landscape where their grandparents were born, and you can paint the bush medicine that we still traditionally use for healing and medication today. (abc.net.au)
  • how can you lower your it without medication that can reduce it so, it can take a variety of sleeping to Different Names Of Blood Pressure Medicine the skin. (oneartevents.com)
  • The science remains speculative, but Ms Hunter said the artists from Ampilatwatja were already taking their form of desert bush medicine to the world. (abc.net.au)
  • She clearly respected this feat of stepping into the world of science and drawing upon art to explore. (illnessnarratives.com)
  • My Country and Bush Medicine was highly commended by the judges of the Hadley's Art Prize. (abc.net.au)
  • The Met's collection of Asian art-more than 35,000 objects, ranging in date from the third millennium B.C. to the twenty-first century-is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world. (metmuseum.org)
  • She completed training in Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University. (cdc.gov)