Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Splenic RuptureAortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction: Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Stomach Rupture: Bursting of the STOMACH.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Hemoperitoneum: Accumulations of blood in the PERITONEAL CAVITY due to internal HEMORRHAGE.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic: The type of DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA caused by TRAUMA or injury, usually to the ABDOMEN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Splenic DiseasesTensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Posterior Capsular Rupture, Ocular: A breach in the continuity of the posterior chamber of the eyeball.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Uterine Myomectomy: Surgical removal of a LEIOMYOMA of the UTERUS.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Capillary Fragility: The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Iliac Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Endoleak: Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
... must be treated surgically. With a tourniquet applied, the tendon is exposed through a midline longitudinal incision extending from the upper patellar pole to the tibial tuberosity. The tendon is either avulsed (detached) from the lower patellar pole or lacerated. Even so, the continuity and tone of the tendon should be restored, taking into consideration the patellar height. A cast or brace is then put over where the operation took place. The cast or brace remains for at least 6 weeks followed by an unidentified time of rehabilitation of the knee. The usual risks of surgery are involved, including: infection, stiffness, death, suture reaction, failure of satisfactory healing, risks of anesthesia, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, and persistent pain or weakness after the injury and repair. If the tendon rupture is a partial tear (without the two parts of the tendon being separated), then non-surgical methods of treatment may suffice. The future of non-surgical care for ...
The proximal tendons of the biceps brachii are commonly involved in pathological processes and are a frequent cause of anterior shoulder pain.[14] Disorders of the distal biceps brachii tendon include insertional tendonitis and partial or complete tears of the tendon. Partial tears are usually characterized by pain and enlargement and abnormal contour of the tendon.[15] Complete tears occur as avulsion of the tendinous portion of the biceps away from its insertion on the tuberosity of the radius, and is often accompanied by a palpable, audible "pop" and immediate pain and soft tissue swelling.[16] A soft-tissue mass is sometimes encountered in the anterior aspect of the arm, the so-called Reverse Popeye deformity, which paradoxically leads to a decreased strength during flexion of the elbow and supination of the forearm.[17] Tears of the biceps brachii may occur during athletic activities, however avulsion injuries of the distal biceps tendon are frequently occupational in nature and sustained ...
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee. The two ligaments are also called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint (analogous to the knee), based on its anatomical position, it is also referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament. The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur. Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. There are two bundles of the ACL: the anteromedial and the posterolateral, named according to where the bundles insert into the tibial plateau. (The tibia plateau is a critical weight-bearing region on the upper extremity of the tibia). The ACL attaches in front of the ...
Rehabilitation after surgery consists of three stages. First, the arm is immobilized so that the muscle can heal. Second, when appropriate, a therapist assists with passive exercises to regain range of motion. Third, the arm is gradually exercised actively, with a goal of regaining and enhancing strength.[54] Yoshitsugu Takeda and his team have recently studied rotator cuff injuries and rehab exercises that target the supraspinatus. As mentioned earlier, the supraspinatus muscle is the muscle and tendon within the rotator cuff that is most often injured. In order to rehab the supraspinatus and combat future injuries in the rotator cuff, Takeda's team has concluded that the empty can and full can exercises are most effective at isolating and strengthening the supraspinatus.[55]. Following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair surgery, patients undergo rehabilitation to regain shoulder function. Orthopaedic surgeons stress that physical therapy is crucial to healing.[56] Exercises decrease shoulder ...
The function of the PCL is to prevent the femur from sliding off the anterior edge of the tibia and to prevent the tibia from displacing posterior to the femur. Common causes of PCL injuries are direct blows to the flexed knee, such as the knee hitting the dashboard in a car accident or falling hard on the knee, both instances displacing the tibia posterior to the femur. The posterior drawer test is one of the tests used by doctors and physiotherapists to detect injury to the PCL. Surgery to repair the posterior cruciate ligament is controversial due to its placement and technical difficulty. An additional test of posterior cruciate ligament injury is the posterior sag test, where, in contrast to the drawer test, no active force is applied. Rather, the person lies supine with the leg held by another person so that the hip is flexed to 90 degrees and the knee 90 degrees. The main parameter in this test is step-off, which is the shortest distance from the femur to a hypothetical line that tangents ...
The Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is formed by the triangular fibrocartilage discus (TFC), the radioulnar ligaments (RUL's) and the ulnocarpal ligaments (UCL's). The TFC is an articular discus that lies on the pole of the distal ulna. It has a triangular shape and a biconcave body; the periphery is thicker than its center. The central portion of the TFC is thin and consists of chondroid fibrocartilage; this type of tissue is often seen in structures that can bear compressive loads. This central area is often so thin that it is translucent and in some cases it is even absent. The peripheral portion of the TFC is well vascularised, while the central portion has no blood supply. This discus is attached by thick tissue to the base of the ulnar styloid and by thinner tissue to the edge of the radius just proximal to the radiocarpal articular surface. The RUL's are the principal stabilizers of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). There are two RUL's, the palmar and dorsal radioulnar ...
Although the subscapularis is the major and most powerful muscle of the rotator cuff and has an enormous meaning in the gleno-humeral stability and dynamic it is neglected in the clinical literature. Despite its importance and impact on conservative or surgical treatment, operative planning and approach or post-surgical prognosis. Lo and Burkhart even tagged the subscapularis tendon hypercritically as the "forgotten tendon". That arises by the gap of the described tear prevalence in cadavers between 29 and 37% and in clinical studies around 27%. This is likely related to the difficulties in radiological, arthroscopic and even open surgical assessment of this particular muscle and its tendon, especially for inferior tears. For example, even full-thickness tears can be mimicked by intact tendon fibers or overlying scars attached to the greater tuberosity. Since the strong stabilizing effect of the coraco-humeral ligament a possible muscle retraction can be expeditiously underestimated. Scar tissue ...
A compression lock, muscle lock, muscle slicer or muscle crusher, is a grappling hold which causes severe pain by pressing a muscle into a bone. A compression lock can cause a joint lock in a nearby joint when it is applied by squeezing a limb over a fulcrum. A forceful compression lock may damage muscles and tendons, and if accompanied by a joint lock, may also result in torn ligaments, dislocation or bone fractures. Compression locks can be used as pain compliance holds, and are sometimes featured in combat sports as submission holds. An Achilles lock (also called an Achilles hold or Achilles squeeze or Ashi-Hishigi in judo) is a compression lock that involves pressing the Achilles tendon into the back of the ankle or lower leg. It is typically performed by wedging a forearm, especially a bony part of it, into the Achilles tendon, while leveraging the foot and the leg over the forearm serving as a fulcrum. This causes severe pressure on the Achilles tendon, and often also results in an ankle ...
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Kafelnikov, em russo Евгений Александрович Кафельников, (Sochi, 18 de fevereiro de 1974) é um ex-tenista russo que foi número 1 mundial na classificação da ATP em 3 de maio de 1999. Em duplas sua melhor posição no ranking foi quarto em 30 de março de 1998.. Foi também um dos principais adversários do brasileiro Guga, tendo sido eliminado pelo brasileiro nas três vezes em que Guga foi campeão do Torneio de Roland-Garros. Vale lembrar a grande partida de Roland Garros no ano de 2000, em que esteve muito próximo de eliminar Guga do torneio, quando tinha 40 a 15 a seu favor, e naquela altura ganhava a partida por 2 sets a 1.. Kafelnikov sempre foi bem nas duplas, tendo sido campeão de diversos torneios, quase todos em parceria com o sul-africano Wayne Ferreira.Em 1997 perdeu a final do Tennis Masters Cup (torneio que em cada fim de ano reúne os oito melhores tenistas do mundo) para Pete Sampras. Foi campeão dos Jogos Olímpicos de ...
The Achilles tang has a poor survival rate when kept in captivity. They are not for the inexperienced aquarist. However, a more experienced saltwater aquarist might think about keeping an Achilles. They are peaceful aquarium inhabitants and will rarely bother their tank-mates. Just about the only exception is when kept with other tangs or surgeonfish, particularly of their own species. Then they will become aggressive towards the other Tang. They are reef-safe, and can be kept with any invertebrates. Possible tankmates include clownfish, blennies, gobies, Chromis, butterflyfish, and small lionfish.. Turbulent water flow and surface movement (either in the display aquarium or attached sump) is essential for Achilles health. Heavy surface movement brings water oxygen levels near saturation. Keeping an adult Achilles well fed can be a chore, with one adult easily consuming one 5"×5" sheet of pressed seaweed daily. Selcon-type products can be utilized several times a week to supplement their diet. ...
The condition is difficult to detect and may go unnoticed, because many patients have no specific symptoms. Diagnosis is further complicated by the fact that many patients with the injury experienced multiple other serious injuries as well,[10] so the attention of hospital staff may be distracted from the possibility of aortic rupture. In fact most cases occur along with other injuries.[4] A common symptom is unusually high blood pressure in the upper body and very low blood pressure in lower limbs. Another symptom is renal failure where the creatinine level shoots very high and urine output becomes negligible. In most cases, however, the doctors would misinterpret renal failure as due to issues with the kidney itself and may recommend dialysis. Though not completely reliable, chest X-rays are the first-line treatment,[4] initially used to diagnose this condition when the patient is unstable and cannot be sent to the CT bay. The preferred method of diagnosis used to be CT angiogram until it ...
As 24 Hours of Le Mans de 1933 foi o 11º grande prêmio automobilístico das 24 Horas de Le Mans, tendo acontecido nos dias 17 e 18 de junho 1933 em Le Mans, França no autódromo francês, Circuit de la Sarthe. ...
O concurso Miss Flórida USA é a etapa da Flórida para o concurso Miss USA. Apesar de o Estado ter um dos melhores desempenhos, jamais venceu o concurso nacional mesmo Cheryl Patton tendo assumido a coroa devido à eleição de Sylvia Hitchcock como Miss Universo 1967. Os melhores resultados da Flórida no Miss USA se verificaram entre meados dos anos 60 e meados dos anos 70. A mais recente classificação ocorreu com Génesis Dávila, que ficou no Top 5 em 2018. Duas ex-misses Flórida Teen USA venceram a disputa adulta e três vencedoras também participaram do Miss America. ...

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