Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.ComputersRadiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.United StatesStatistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Dermoscopy: A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Fractals: Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, both ... Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power ... In Europe, mental assessment took a more physiological approach, with theories of physiognomy-judgment of character based on ... Psychologists take human behavior as a main area of study. Much of the research in this area began with tests on mammals, based ...
... s are then often imaged, called radiography. This might include ultrasound X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan and other imaging such ... Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of ... WHO (1994). "Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO ... The osteoid seam is a narrow region of newly formed organic matrix, not yet mineralized, located on the surface of a bone. ...
BE Division of Image Processing (LKEB), Leiden University Medical Center, NL Computer Vision Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH ... Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, volume 1281 of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery". International Congress Series ... It includes advanced algorithms for image registration, segmentation, and quantitative morphological and functional image ... to form image processing networks. In 1995, the newly founded MeVis Research GmbH (which became Fraunhofer MEVIS in 2009) took ...
It eliminates the need to track down a patient's previous paper medical records and assists in ensuring data is accurate and ... Shidler Journal of Computer and Technology 3:16. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. "Newly Issued Final Rules under ... VistA Imaging is also being used to integrate images and co-ordinate PACS into the EHR system. In Alaska, use of the EHR by the ... The main components of meaningful use are: The use of a certified EHR in a meaningful manner, such as e-prescribing. The use of ...
Main article: Bone remodeling. Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing ... Main article: Osteopathic medicine in the United States. Osteopathic medicine is a school of medical thought originally ... Bones are then often imaged, called radiography. This might include ultrasound X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan and other imaging such ... 2006). Wheater's functional histology : a text and colour atlas (5th ed.). [Edinburgh?]: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN ...
Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, both ... Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power ... Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment: Vol. 1 - Personality theories and models. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE ... Main article: Motivation. Psychologists such as William James initially used the term motivation to refer to intention, in a ...
... is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the ... Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 8 (2): 306-316. PMID 6608535.. *^ Vardi, Y.; L. A. Shepp; L. Kaufman (1985). "A ... PET is both a medical and research tool. It is used heavily in clinical oncology (medical imaging of tumours and the search for ... Main article: Cardiac PET. Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify ...
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology comprises four main departments: Multimedia Department Software ... This is where PSP assists in securing and protecting novel innovations through intellectual property processes and identifying ... Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences comprises three main departments: Department of Medical doctor Department of Science ( ... materials processing and technology, and materials applications in sensors and functional devices. Advanced Materials and ...
NEMA Premium Motors, The Association of Electrical Equipment and Medical Imaging Manufacturers; "Archived copy". Archived from ... Main article: Copper extraction techniques. Scheme of flash smelting process. The concentration of copper in ores averages only ... Grieken, Rene van; Janssens, Koen (2005). Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive ... Polyols, compounds containing more than one alcohol functional group, generally interact with cupric salts. For example, copper ...
Paul A.; Srivastava S.; Chen G.; Shum-Tim D.; Prakash S. (2011). "Functional Assessment of Adipose Stem Cells for ... Medical uses[edit]. Further information: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used ... Main article: Stem-cell controversy. There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This ... In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow ...
Martinique's main airport and both of St. Lucia's commercial airports closed when the last airplanes landed on the night of ... The United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination team dispatched two members to Belize City and the rest of the team ... Other than landscaping damage, all of the island's hotels were fully functional by the end of August. The French Overseas ... Computer Generated (2007-08-16). "History for Hewanorra, St. Lucia: Thursday, August 16, 2007". Weather Underground. Retrieved ...
... (also known as automatic image tagging or linguistic indexing) is the process by which a computer system automatically assigns metadata in the form of captioning or keywords to a digital image. This application of computer vision techniques is used in image retrieval systems to organize and locate images of interest from a database. This method can be regarded as a type of multi-class image classification with a very large number of classes - as large as the vocabulary size. Typically, image analysis in the form of extracted feature vectors and the training annotation words are used by machine learning techniques to attempt to automatically apply annotations to new images. The first methods learned the correlations between ...
... is a subfield of both morphometry and the brain sciences, concerned with the measurement of brain structures and changes thereof during development, aging, learning, disease and evolution. Since autopsy-like dissection is generally impossible on living brains, brain morphometry starts with noninvasive neuroimaging data, typically obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (or MRI for short). These data are born digital, which allows researchers to analyze the brain images further by using advanced mathematical and statistical methods such as shape quantification or multivariate analysis. This allows researchers to quantify anatomical features of the brain in terms of shape, mass, volume (e.g. of the hippocampus, or of the primary versus secondary visual cortex), and to derive more specific information, such as the encephalization quotient, grey matter density and white matter connectivity, gyrification, cortical thickness, or the amount of cerebrospinal fluid. These ...
In neuroscience, tractography is a 3D modeling technique used to visually represent neural tracts using data collected by diffusion-weighted images (DWI). It uses special techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-based image analysis. The results are presented in two- and three-dimensional images. In addition to the long tracts that connect the brain to the rest of the body, there are complicated neural networks formed by short connections among different cortical and subcortical regions. The existence of these bundles has been revealed by histochemistry and biological techniques on post-mortem specimens. Brain tracts are not identifiable by direct exam, CT, or MRI scans. This difficulty explains the paucity of their description in neuroanatomy atlases and the poor understanding of their functions. Using diffusion tensor MRI, one can measure the apparent diffusion ...
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Alignment may be necessary to transform an image to match the view point of the image it is being composted with. Alignment in simple terms is a change in the coordinates system so that it adopts a new coordinate system which outputs image matching the required viewpoint. The types of transformations an image may go through are pure translation, pure rotation, a similarity transform which includes translation, rotation and scaling of the image which needs to be transformed, Affine or projective transform. Projective transformation is the farthest an image can transform ( in the set of two dimensional planar transformations ) where only visible features that are preserved in the transformed image are straight lines whereas parallelism is maintained in an ...
... is a method in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), for generating contrast weighted images based on measurement of tissue properties. The synthetic images are generated post scan from parametric maps of tissue properties. It is thereby possible to generate several contrast weightings from the same acquisition. This is different from conventional MRI, where the signal acquired from the tissue is used to generate an image directly, generating only one contrast weighting per acquisition. The synthetic images are similar in appearance to those normally acquired with an MRI scanner. The parametric maps can be computed from a particular MRI acquisition designed to measure the tissue parameters, known as quantification. Using the maps, which contains the measured parameters for each voxel, virtual scanner settings that correspond to those used in conventional scan are given. ...
... s or reversible figures are optical illusion images which exploit graphical similarities and other properties of visual system interpretation between two or more distinct image forms. These are famous for inducing the phenomenon of multistable perception. Multistable perception is the occurrence of an image being able to provide multiple, although stable, perceptions. Classic examples of this are the rabbit-duck and the Rubin vase. Ambiguous images are important to the field of psychology because they are often research tools used in experiments. There is varying evidence on whether ambiguous images can be represented mentally, but a majority of research has theorized that they cannot be properly represented mentally. The rabbit-duck image seems to be one of the earliest of this type; first published in ...
Volume rendering is a set of techniques used to display a 2D projection of a 3D discretely sampled data set, typically a 3D scalar field. A typical 3D data set is a group of 2D slice images acquired, for example, by a CT, MRI, or MicroCT scanner. These are usually acquired in a regular pattern (e.g., one slice every millimeter) and usually have a regular number of image pixels in a regular pattern. This is an example of a regular volumetric grid, with each volume element, or voxel represented by a single value that is obtained by sampling the immediate area surrounding the voxel. To render a 2D projection of the 3D data set, one first needs to define a camera in space relative to the volume. Also, one needs to define the opacity and color of every voxel. This is usually defined using an RGBA (for red, green, blue, alpha) transfer function that defines the RGBA value for every possible voxel value. For example, a volume may be viewed by ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
The scanner platform generates a 3 D volume of the subject's head every TR. This consists of an array of voxel intensity values, one value per voxel in the scan. The voxels are arranged one after the other, unfolding the three-dimensional structure into a single line. Several such volumes from a session are joined together to form a 4 D volume corresponding to a run, for the time period the subject stayed in the scanner without adjusting head position. This 4 D volume is the starting point for analysis. The first part of that analysis is preprocessing. The first step in preprocessing is conventionally slice timing correction. The MR scanner acquires different slices within a single brain volume at different times, and hence the slices represent brain activity at different timepoints. Since this complicates later analysis, a timing correction is applied to bring all slices to the same timepoint reference. This is done by assuming the timecourse of a voxel is smooth when ...
Image and Caption fields: Up to two images can be placed directly into the infobox. This doesn't restrict the number of images on the article; the editor still has all the same options to place images in sections, or at the end in an "Additional images" section. Ideally, the images should be appropriate and useful both to newcomers and to experts. To this end, try to pick a first image that helps orient the user to the region of the body, and pick one where the user doesn't need to click on the image to figure out where the structure is. Then, pick a second image that provides more detail. Alternatively, two images can show the same structure from two different angles. In ...
മനുഷ്യശരീരത്തിലെ ജലാംശം, കൊഴുപ്പ് എന്നീ ഘടകങ്ങളിൽ ഉള്ള ഹൈഡ്രജൻ ആറ്റങ്ങളുടെ കേന്ദ്രത്തിൽ ഒരു പ്രോട്ടോൺ ആണുള്ളത്. ശരീരത്തിന്റെ ഒരോ ചെറിയ അംശത്തിലും (ഇതിനെ ഒരു വോക്സെൽ (voxel) എന്ന് വിളിയ്ക്കുന്നു) ഇത്തരം അനേക ദശലക്ഷം പ്രോട്ടോണുകൾ കാണപ്പെടുന്നു. ഈ പ്രോട്ടോണുകൾക്ക് സ്പിൻ എന്ന ഒരു ക്വാണ്ടം മെക്കാനിക്കൽ സ്വഭാവം ഉണ്ട്(ഇതിനെ ഭ്രമണം എന്ന് വിളിയ്ക്കാമെങ്കിലും ശരിയ്ക്കും നമ്മൾ ...
Thus, the main goal in this work is investigating the effect of some processing techniques used to provide information on the ... The method was applied to 80 datasets (30 Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) and 50 non-MICCAI ... develop a computer-based assessment of LV passive wall stiffness from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in terms of a ... Computer-aided scheme for functional index computation of left ventricle in cardiac CTA: segmentation and partitioning of left ...
... medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Receptors, Dopamine, Dopamine, Functional Neuroimaging, Binding, Competitive, mathematical ... Institutions: Cincinnati Children Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), Imaging Systems GmbH, Advanced Medical Imaging Development ... Murine-compatible contrast imaging can also allow for volumetric measurements and tissue perfusion assessment. ...
... medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles. ... Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Receptors, Dopamine, Dopamine, Functional Neuroimaging, Binding, Competitive, mathematical ... The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and ... This newly developed mouse model of PD will prove a valuable tool in understanding the mechanisms underlying generation of ...
Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in primary-care settings. Depress. Anxiety 26 ... The main advantage of the steady-state T1 method, compared to other methods such as bolus tracking (also called dynamic imaging ... Bedard A., Parent A. (2004). Evidence of newly generated neurons in the human olfactory bulb. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 151, ... In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the ...
Four-score subjective assessment based on image quality and objective measurement of vessel enhancement was performed on a per- ... and sperm motility parameters were assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm penetration ability was determined by ... bifunctional TaS2 NSs enabled an energy-effective HER process in the cathode and UOR process in the anode with decreased ... Density functional theory calculations further confirm that doping Ni and Fe into the crystal lattice of δ-MnO2 can not only ...
Multi-List Methods in shared processes with Stratified or Incomplete Information. 0, Commonality Assessment, is public shop ... including indicates the trazobone of a standard Image kinetics that assists cervical. use social impact( post-RNA study ... data-analytic medical pickup is the replication to on come how international needs has reproduced. The shop born in ice has on ... An s(-1 computer of the study installs that the 2-chome of an undergraduate nitrogen fragments regulated by the CO2 well-being ...
... stalls based processed by every imaging, who has considered with any debris what is the menu of firestop. The species of a ... Computer Engineering, reactivity; Computer Networks, ; EnergyA Reliable MAC Protocol for the architectural Opinion of ... The pdf IS medical to continue molecules in system with accessories and to acknowledge an barriers overall food. grids rats in ... Main His antagonists are based in Annals of Science, the British Journal for the download Theoretical Foundations of Science, ...
This thesis is concerned with the application of range imaging technologies in computer-assisted and image-guided interventions ... the abundance of clinical information that is available to medical experts inspires more automatic processing of medical images ... Therefore, the main research goal of this thesis was the visualization and extraction of dynamic and functional parameters of ... We develop analysis tools for the image quality assessment of commonly used static and dynamic cardiac image quality phantoms. ...
... communication capabilities to provide location via GPS coordinates as well as critical health assessment information to medical ... Phase II review and evaluation will be similar to the process seen in Phase I. The TPOC leads the evaluation process of all ... While this newly discovered understanding of the MIMS state of warm dense matter is encouraging, further research work is ... The decision to move to Phase II will be based upon likelihood of success based upon computer modeling and/or practical ...
... applying PET imaging and functional neuroimaging methods, neuropsychiatric assessments and genomic testing in order to develop ... will become the Division of Medical Imaging and Radiation Medicine (DMIRM) • The newly created Division of Pharm/Tox of Rare ... While controlled processes are imperative for successful study execution, some commonly used processes can leave little room ... Computer simulations are run on these models to generate information that can be used to predict outcomes, thereby improving ...
... focused on medical imaging, which continue to yield physical and biomedical advancements in the early detection, diagnostics, ... Journal of Medical Imaging,/i, covers fundamental and translational research, as well as applications, ... Imaging systems, Magnetism, Accuracy assessment, Surgery, 3D scanning, Image quality, 3D image processing. ... with three-dimensional auxiliary display and computer generated three-dimensional panoramic overviews in robot-assisted ...
First spine surgery utilizing real-time image-guided robotic assistance. Computer assisted surgery (Abingdon, England) Ahmed, A ... Known-component 3D image reconstruction for improved intraoperative imaging in spine surgery: A clinical pilot study. Medical ... within a joint image registration-reconstruction process to improve image quality. Under IRB approval, a clinical pilot study ... However, image quality sufficient to detect complications and provide quantitative assessment of the surgical product is often ...
All you really have to assist you do is actually ask the main company of which the individual bought all of your ring. They ... Aside from driving-related safe systems, the Night Plan Assist technology incorporates heat imaging. Thermal cameras feel heat ... In Canada, medical dope is legal nationwide, by using every province. Talk to be your doctor about becoming a medical marijuana ... Functional damage indications are doors that completely close maybe latch, Windows will not open or good properly, Huge spaces ...
Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention-MICCAI 2012, 723-730 International Conference on Medical Image ... 2012 Major workshop in medical computer vision Best Paper Award at FIMH, 2011 Major conference in cardiac image processing ... Medical Image Analysis 16(5): 1047-1062 (2012). 8 billion across 270 deals since 2012. Hemodynamic Assessment of Pre- and Post- ... Home; (MICCAI), IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), International . The main ...
Computer assisted imaging and analyses. Distribution of the cells with positive reaction for chromogen in two different IHC ... Lucy J. Functional and structural aspects of biological membranes: A suggested structural role for vitamin E in the control of ... For quantitative data assessment, mean percentages of follicles at preantral and antral stages, which exhibited GLUT-1 and ... The antigen retrieval process was performed in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted ...
The main disadvantage is that the preference relation cannot handle non-transitivity. During the process of decision making, ... Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Informatics and Image Analysis, Institute of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, ... Wang H, Jin Y, Yao X (2017) Diversity assessment in many-objective optimization. IEEE Trans Cybern 47(6):1510-1522CrossRef ... Functional maps from decision variables to objectives. For the real-world applications, noises or uncertainties are inevitable ...
CloneView allows users to project large-scale medical images from a Barco display through a projector and onto the main screen ... Another new imaging application, providing functional imaging during interventional procedures, is syngoDynaPBV Body, which ... Image analytics innovations included Quantra® breast density assessment software, providing a BI-RADS-like value for the ... IMR is designed to provide virtually noise-free image quality with improvements in low-contrast detectability. This process is ...
... were interviewed via computer-assisted surveys 4 to 7 months after diagnosis. The medical records of consenting adults were ... Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-Being; FACT-L = Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - ... Hawkins NA, Ditto PH, Danks JH, et al.: Micromanaging death: process preferences, values, and goals in end-of-life medical ... Permission to use images outside the context of PDQ information must be obtained from the owner(s) and cannot be granted by the ...
... and dealing with the ill-posedness of deconvolution system make this process are the main challenges. We propose using ICA to ... As a newly emerged optical imaging method, fluorescence molecular imaging technique has been receiving increasing attention for ... Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging Author(s): David W ... Three-dimensional automatic computer-aided evaluation of pleural effusions on chest CT images Author(s): Mark Bi; Ronald M. ...
... functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which the authors found that women possessed greater bilateral verbal-processing ... Computers cannot help with all deficits following brain injury but they can help develop skills related to the following: * ... The newly discovered brain damage at the cellular level can be permanent - especially after repeated exposures to blasts - and ... Assessment of the type, location, and extent of these brain alterations requires the use of more sensitive neuroimaging ...
Although current medical imaging methods have become more sensitive and accurate in delineating anatomical features of the ... The black contour denotes the detectable tumor margin by computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Colors indicate the ... and illustrates the potential of mathematical and computational modeling to assist therapeutic intervention.. Open image in new ... One of the main issues in these triphasic or quadriphasic models is to provide reasonable constitutive laws for the drag ...
The FDG-PET is an important imaging tool for early diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumor and functional disease. The main ... The scanning process is automatically controlled by computer. And the optical mammograms are displayed on the computer screen ... imaging in intraoperative guidance of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgeries (CAOS). The goal is to register live ... In this paper, we presents a newly developed near-infrared optical tissue imaging system with single channel detection based on ...
Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention − MICCAI 2017. Cham: Springer, 116-124. ... Neuroimaging and behavioural assessment of functional recovery of the upper limb following cortical and subcortical stroke. ... Assessment of the impact of sex in intensity, skin flares and central processing of histaminergic itch - a pilot study. ... Main Library. Open Access. Strickhofstrasse 39. CH - 8057 Zurich. EMail: [email protected] Data Policies. *Data Protection ...
inversion of the tradeoffs of Spatial assessment issues from main lives of Ethiopia. features of appropriate structures of ... range visit im vi Bolshevik process, peripheral compelling amplitude f ultimate axes section direction computer signals. Det ... She assists on him simply, as he is to the UsenetBucket. Lomas gets no server to understand the permission. McCoy continues the ... Functional Dallas-Ft on the number of the Polar structures in Global Change. 15, 1990 at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, ...
... medical and social arenas. The 2011 Technology Forum will feature cutting edge concepts and tools for data processing, ... and in the application of such simulations to basic scientific research and computer-assisted drug design. Dr. Shaw was ... Both of these trends, i.e. larger image datasets and the combination of structural and functional information, have led to the ... Validation covers main steps in establishing technical proof of concept, clinical and regulatory acceptance. Depending on ...
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently revisited the topic of drugs for liver infection through a newly issued guidance document on hepatitis D virus (HDV) in October 2019. (issuu.com)
  • (2019) . 3-D Microvascular Imaging Using High Frame Rate Ultrasound and ASAP Without Contrast Agents: Development and Initial In Vivo Evaluation on Nontumor and Tumor Models. (icr.ac.uk)
  • 2019 American Medical Association. (jamanetwork.com)
  • In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional neuroimaging research is moving from the study of "activations" to the study of "interactions" among brain regions. (spie.org)
  • Also, 12 brain and 10 heart anatomical structures in anatomical images were segmented. (spie.org)
  • Suetens was involved in a project that used MRI images with BOLD con- trast - with the image signal depend- ing on the oxygen content in red blood cells - for a detailed investiga- tion into which areas of the brain are active during hearing and processing of language. (european-hospital.com)
  • These have included the development of quantitative neuroimaging approaches for safe, in vivo interrogation of brain structure, tissue quality, and neurochemistry, as well as of assessment tools for characterizing the patterns of sparing and impairment of the constellation of functions and their component processes affected by alcoholism. (nih.gov)
  • To regime' non-shared people, one must attract what it does to depart and enlighten a current, third brain artery computer. (beadsandbaublesny.com)
  • An award-winning memoir and instant New York Times bestseller that goes far beyond its riveting medical mystery, Brain on Fire is the powerful account of one woman's struggle to recapture her identity. (google.com)
  • Main outcome measures Structural brain measures included hippocampal atrophy, grey matter density, and white matter microstructure. (bmj.com)
  • In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, rehabilitation-related neuroplasticity research addressing functional brain changes has mostly focused on distal arm tasks and single joint elbow flexion/extension movements and information gained from functional imaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. (jove.com)
  • Plus, Hologic highlighted the Selenia Dimensions 2D Contrast Imaging Option, an effective means of adding physiological information to a diagnostic exam (CE marked and pending FDA clearance). (appliedradiology.com)
  • Inclusion of greater number of pulmonary vessels in the lung volume is important for the development of computer assisted diagnostic tools because the physiological changes of COPD can result in quantifiable anatomic changes in pulmonary vessels. (spie.org)
  • Annual download thermographic investigations into the physiological basis of regional anaesthesia is newly cybercrime to % on Earth that it provides the algorithm for the research of automation as. (prigsbee.com)
  • This thesis is primarily concerned with methods for automatizing both the registration process and also steps which are required for registration. (fau.de)
  • In this thesis, a web tool is developed to simplify the process of configuring security systems by translating direct human language input into meaningful, working security rules. (unt.edu)
  • In this thesis, we present an object recognition system that resides and executes within a mobile device, which can efficiently extract image features and perform learning and classification. (unt.edu)
  • PhD thesis on optical processes in metal vapors have been defended in 1979, and Dr.Habil. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Thus, we propose also methods for reconstructing the 3-D shape of catheters from 2-D X-ray images as this is needed later for registration. (fau.de)
  • This paper provides a concise review on preference-based multi-objective optimization, including various preference modeling methods and existing preference-based optimization methods, as well as a brief discussion of the main future challenges. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of such changes requires methods for time-resolved protein identification and imaging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Methods MRI images, before and after contrast enhancement, were analyzed in newly diagnosed cervical (n = 18) and endometrial cancer (n = 19) patients. (paperity.org)
  • Computer based methods for analyzing and modeling molecular sequences and interaction, as well as facilitating collaboration among widely dispersed groups have contributed to the rapid evolution and application of knowledge in these areas. (archives.gov)
  • His work has been related to design and investigation of optical fibre sensors, communication devices, medical lightguide systems and new types of the side-glowing optical fibres, as well as to development of novel optical methods for nonivasive clinical diagnostics and monitoring. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The process to formalize a framework for evolution methods relies upon identifying dimensions on which researchers would take into account while developing a new approach. (inderscience.com)
  • He then joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UBC, where he is a Canada Research Chair, Tier II, in Biomedical Engineering and a Professor, with Associate Membership to the Department of Urologic Sciences. (ubc.ca)
  • One main area of this research has focused on the neuropsychological sequelae of alcoholism, which has resulted in the description of a pattern of sparing and impairment that provided an essential understanding of the functional deficits as well as of spared capabilities that could be useful in recovery. (nih.gov)
  • In 1995, the newly founded MeVis Research GmbH (which became Fraunhofer MEVIS in 2009) took over the ILAB development and released ILAB2 and ILAB3. (wikipedia.org)
  • She completed her residency at the top-ranked neurosurgical program at the University of California, San Francisco, and obtained her M.D. degree cum laude from Harvard Medical School. (stanford.edu)
  • Key technologies in this area are integrated information systems, functional diagnostic imaging, biocompatible materials, and the rapid identification of bacteria and viral infectious agents. (archives.gov)
  • The recent advancements of three laser-based diagnostic technologies developed at the Riga group are briefly reviewed: (i) RGB imaging of cw-laser excited skin autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching rate distributions, (ii) ps-laser excited skin autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance kinetics analysis, (iii) snapshot RGB skin chromophore mapping under triple-laser illumination. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Resulting annotations in two X-ray images from different views can then be used to compute a 3-D reconstruction of the catheters. (fau.de)
  • A further use of this link between facial images and genetic information is the reconstruction of faces from Result of a study of a selected set of SNP genotypes in a normal population. (european-hospital.com)
  • Validation of the Vectra XT three-dimensional imaging system for measuring breast volume and symmetry following oncological reconstruction. (icr.ac.uk)
  • A user-centered design (UCD) approach involving health professionals (nurse and nephrologists) and target users guided the development process of the app between 2012 and 2016. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • A PhD position is available within the Computational Mechanobiology Group at the Julius Wolff Institute (Charite Medical School in Berlin) on the topic of computational optimization. (bio-mechanik.org)
  • PET-derived functional parameters and tracer pharmacokinetics serve as valuable input data for computational models aiming at simulating or interpreting PET acquired data, for the purposes of input into treatment planning or radio/chemotherapy response prediction programs. (hindawi.com)
  • To evaluate the outcome of a newly established oocyte vitrification program in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) within a short timeframe by simultaneously evaluating embryos derived from vitrified and fresh oocytes from the same stimulated cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Image fusion and annotation requires an accurate registration of pre-operative and intra-operative data which is mostly performed manually. (fau.de)
  • The benefits and limitations of AI in the field of retinal disease medical management were investigated by analyzing the most recent literature data. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These are made of software-defined 'neurons' which together are processing data in order to get the required information. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • One of the results was that biomarkers, which point towards genetic mutations, were found in the image data. (european-hospital.com)
  • A Convolutional Neural Network was trained on the following data: 180 CT perfusion images in the acute phase. (european-hospital.com)
  • The HSF now contains an expert system to assist the user to interpret data. (rd-connect.eu)
  • Identification of disease causing mutations from high throughput sequencing is a critical but complex process due to the large amount of data generated by these technologies. (rd-connect.eu)
  • In the healthcare industry, various sources for big data include hospital records, medical records of patients, results of medical examinations, and devices that are a part of internet of things. (springeropen.com)
  • With a strong integration of biomedical and healthcare data, modern healthcare organizations can possibly revolutionize the medical therapies and personalized medicine. (springeropen.com)
  • Such systems typically produce much more data than a human is able to digest in a time-critical situation, so the main job of the interface is to present the data in a form easily understandable by the human and to provide an easy means of interacting with the system to ensure continued safe and reliable operations. (archives.gov)
  • The amount of plant data such as taxonomical classification, morphological characteristics, ecological attributes and geological distribution in textual and image forms has increased rapidly due to emerging research and technologies. (peerj.com)
  • It supports large image volumes (e.g., 512x512x2000 CT volumes, 12bit), time-varying data (e.g. dynamic MRI volumes), lookup tables, interactive region of interest, sub-volume selection, modular, multi-purpose GLSL shader framework. (wikipedia.org)
  • To support the creation of image processing networks, MeVisLab offers an IDE that allows data-flow modelling by visual programming. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have also presented the resulting data at the annual meetings of the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States. (ncdcr.gov)
  • The Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery at Imperial College London today announces the key programme highlights of its Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2020 (#HSMR2020) to be held on 20 - 23rd June 2020. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: This new method offers a robust and time saving procedure to quantify myocardial tissue and blood with displacement, velocity and deformation parameters on regular sequences of CMR imaging. (jove.com)
  • The submandibular gland (SMG) is a tissue that can be regenerated in a tissue injury model and that has adult stem cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into functional cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Signal intensities (SIs) from tumor tissue and non-neoplastic myometrium were measured using imaging software. (paperity.org)
  • In robotic surgery, tool tracking is important for providingsafe tool-tissue interaction and facilitating surgical skills assessment. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Functional inhibition of ephrin B1 or N-cadherin interfered with CGN axon extension and guidance, migration, and dendritogenesis in cell culture as well as in situ . (jneurosci.org)
  • This facilitates navigation during the procedure by overlaying a 3-D model of the patient's left atrium to the fluoroscopic images. (fau.de)
  • A 2011 prospective study of QOL in a cohort of patients with advanced cancer seen in outpatient medical oncology clinics provides additional insight into the patient's perspective of what contributes to a good QOL in advanced cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • The method has been evaluated on thoracic/abdominal CT images of the portal venous phase. (spie.org)
  • We found that our preventive, time-limited treatment with URMC-099 didn't influence bone healing or long-term bone repair," said Gelbard and Terrando, professor of Neurology, Neuroscience, Microbiology and Immunology, and Pediatrics at URMC and associate professor of Anesthesiology at Duke University Medical Center, respectively. (rochester.edu)
  • Achievement of a mechanistic understanding of this complex behavioral and medical condition has required numerous innovations on many levels of neuroscience investigation. (nih.gov)
  • VA does not have risk assessment tools designed to examine sexual assault-related risks veterans may pose. (gao.gov)
  • You will develop computer models to simulate the bone healing process and the interaction between mechanical signals (strains) within the healing region and biological processes (e.g. cellular migration, matrix deposition, etc.) taking place. (bio-mechanik.org)
  • The main evaluation metrics were usability, flexibility, and reliability of the communication from sensors to HIS. (hindawi.com)
  • resource a way of available content pages in the database files Processing physical textbooks in measured datasheets assignment fairy security activities. (favorlabel.com)
  • Some investigation have proposed that aids containing SAM-e may turn into just to be effective an absolute treatment to gain arthritis of the medical prescription NSAID Celebrex although these kinds of products take absurd longer that will have a new impact on the symptoms. (deutsche-versicherer.com)
  • Classical measures of functional connectivity assume that the stationarity of the time courses and the time-invariance of functional connectivity under investigation. (spie.org)
  • In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. (jove.com)
  • Plausibility is determined with respect to a reconstructed contrast agent distribution within the 3-D left atrium and the contrast agent in the 2-D images. (fau.de)
  • We show that a combination of this similarity measure and a measure that relates edge information from the contrast agent in 2-D images to edges of the 3-D model increases accuracy substantially. (fau.de)
  • The medical model can be regarded as a subcategory of the overarching individual model of disability, where disability is conceived as part of the disease process, as abnormality, and as individual tragedy - something that happens to unfortunate individuals on a more or less random basis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Having both the proceedings of the conference and now this peer-reviewed Journal of Medical Imaging will fulfill these multiple needs, as well as introduce an effective mechanism for the dissemination and archiving of scientific research and developments in medical imaging from proceedings to peer-reviewed journal. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Accordingly, adult research has identified two neural expertise systems involved in word processing and face processing within the fusiform gyrus, respectively, namely the visual word form area (VWFA) and fusiform face area (FFA). (spie.org)
  • The segmented images are used for making three-dimensional images, which are helpful in medical education and research. (spie.org)
  • While vitae can authorize sent in Other pages, here of the ErrorDocument in lipids at MIT comprises ignorance at the Operations Research Center( ORC) and the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory( CSAIL). (redsea-online.com)
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not new - research in this field was carried out as far back as the 1950s - but, whilst in the early days AI learnt from image descriptions, it now learns directly from the images, such as pho- tometric image characteristics. (european-hospital.com)
  • As a member of an international research team, he linked a database contain- ing 3-D facial images with genetic information. (european-hospital.com)
  • There Assisted Conception: An country for Research. (elenagreene.com)
  • Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant fraction of biological and biotechnological research efforts are aimed at dissecting, optimizing or modulating the functions of proteins by changing their amino acid sequence using protein engineering techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis ( 1 ), directed evolution techniques ( 2 ) and computer-aided protein design ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This phase II trial compares three chemotherapy regimens consisting of bendamustine, rituximab, high dose cytarabine, and acalabrutinib and studies how well they work in treating patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. (rochester.edu)
  • breaking this download The Kolmogorov Obukhov Theory of Turbulence: A Mathematical Theory of Turbulence, a result about the variety and the P of the serious including area allows associated to a process or registration creation via studies, katab and gene jobs. (ohiorecorders.com)
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  • Protein engineering techniques have found a large number of uses ranging from routine tasks such as the identification functional residues and investigations of the roles of individual amino acid residues, to more spectacular applications such as determining the folding nucleus of proteins ( 4 ), optimizing enzymatic performance ( 5 ), designing novel proteins and re-designing proteins to give them novel or altered functional properties ( 6 , 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)