Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Melilotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Aphanomyces: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It causes root rot in plants and is also a pathogen of FISHES.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Leghemoglobin: A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Pulvinus: A group of cells at the base of a leaf in certain plants that, by rapidly losing water, brings about changes in the position of the leaves. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Entomophthora: A genus of fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae, order Entomorphthorales. They are primarily parasites of insects and spiders, but have been found to cause mycotic infections of the nose in man and horses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Thioredoxin h: A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Orobanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Glutamate Synthase (NADH): A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme for AMMONIA assimilation in BACTERIA, microorganisms and PLANTS. It catalyzes the oxidation of 2 molecules of L-GLUTAMATE to generate L-GLUTAMINE and 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of NAD+.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

On the species of origin: diagnosing the source of symbiotic transcripts. (1/168)

BACKGROUND: Most organisms have developed ways to recognize and interact with other species. Symbiotic interactions range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Some molecular mechanisms of interspecific interaction are well understood, but many remain to be discovered. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cultures of interacting symbionts can help identify transcripts that regulate symbiosis, but present a unique challenge for functional analysis. Given a sequence expressed in an interaction between two symbionts, the challenge is to determine from which organism the transcript originated. For high-throughput sequencing from interaction cultures, a reliable computational approach is needed. Previous investigations into GC nucleotide content and comparative similarity searching provide provisional solutions, but a comparative lexical analysis, which uses a likelihood-ratio test of hexamer counts, is more powerful. RESULTS: Validation with genes whose origin and function are known yielded 94% accuracy. Microbial (non-plant) transcripts comprised 75% of a Phytophthora sojae-infected soybean (Glycine max cv Harasoy) library, contrasted with 15% or less in root tissue libraries of Medicago truncatula from axenic, Phytophthora medicaginis-infected, mycorrhizal, and rhizobacterial treatments. Mycorrhizal libraries contained about 23% microbial transcripts; an axenic plant library contained a similar proportion of putative microbial transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative lexical analysis offers numerous advantages over alternative approaches. Many of the transcripts isolated from mixed cultures were of unknown function, suggesting specificity to symbiotic metabolism and therefore candidates likely to be interesting for further functional investigation. Future investigations will determine whether the abundance of non-plant transcripts in a pure plant library indicates procedural artifacts, horizontally transferred genes, or other phenomena.  (+info)

A phosphate transporter gene from the extra-radical mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices is regulated in response to phosphate in the environment. (2/168)

The majority of vascular flowering plants are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These symbioses, termed arbuscular mycorrhizas, are mutually beneficial, and the fungus delivers phosphate to the plant while receiving carbon. In these symbioses, phosphate uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is the first step in the process of phosphate transport to the plant. Previously, we cloned a phosphate transporter gene involved in this process. Here, we analyze the expression and regulation of a phosphate transporter gene (GiPT) in the extra-radical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices during mycorrhizal association with carrot or Medicago truncatula roots. These analyses reveal that GiPT expression is regulated in response to phosphate concentrations in the environment surrounding the extra-radical hyphae and modulated by the overall phosphate status of the mycorrhiza. Phosphate concentrations, typical of those found in the soil solution, result in expression of GiPT. These data imply that G. intraradices can perceive phosphate levels in the external environment but also suggest the presence of an internal phosphate sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Overlapping plant signal transduction pathways induced by a parasitic nematode and a rhizobial endosymbiont. (3/168)

Root-knot nematodes and rhizobia establish interactions with roots characterized by the de novo induction of host structures, termed giant cells and nodules, respectively. Two transcription regulators, PHAN and KNOX, required for the establishment of meristems were previously shown to be expressed in tomato giant cells. We isolated the orthologues of PHAN and KNOX (Mt-phan and Mt-knox-1) from the model legume Medicago truncatula, and established the spatial distribution of their expression in situ. We confirmed that Mt-phan and Mt-knox-1 are expressed in lateral root initials and in nematode-induced giant cells and showed that they are expressed in nodules induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti. Expression of both genes becomes spatially restricted as the nodules develop. We further examined nematode feeding sites for the expression of two genes involved in nodule formation, ccs52 (encodes a mitotic inhibitor) and ENOD40 (encodes an early, nodulation mitogen), and found transcripts of both genes to be present in and around giant cells induced in Medicago. Collectively, these results reveal common elements of host responses to mutualistic and parasitic plant endosymbionts and imply that overlapping regulatory pathways lead to giant cells and nodules. We discuss these pathways in the context of phytohormones and parallels between beneficial symbiosis and disease.  (+info)

Salmonella Typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine-pretreated clover sprout seeds. (4/168)

Raw seed sprouts have caused numerous outbreaks of enteric infections. Presoaking seeds in a 20,000 mg/liter (ppm) calcium hypochlorite solution before sprouting is recommended to reduce bacterial contamination and infection risk. In 1999, the authors investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections in Colorado. In a case-control study, they matched 20 cases with 58 controls by age, sex, and telephone prefix; 10 (52%) of 19 cases and no controls recalled eating raw alfalfa-style sprouts in the 5 days before the patient's illness (p < 0.00001). Traceback implicated clover sprouts grown from seeds shared by two sprouters. The time period and region over which these sprouts were sold matched the occurrences of 112 culture-confirmed illnesses. Only one of the sprouters presoaked seeds as recommended, and fewer infections were attributable to this sprouter (0.29 vs. 1.13 culture-confirmed infections/50-pound (110.1-kg) bag of seed). After recall of the implicated sprouts and seed, S. Typhimurium illnesses declined. Contaminated raw clover sprouts can cause outbreaks of enteric illness. Presoaking contaminated seeds in a 20,000 mg/liter calcium hypochlorite solution reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of infection. Until safer production methods are developed, persons eating raw sprouts continue to risk developing potentially serious gastrointestinal illness.  (+info)

Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing the early nodulin gene enod40 exhibit accelerated mycorrhizal colonization and enhanced formation of arbuscules. (5/168)

The mutualistic symbiosis between flowering plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is extremely abundant in terrestrial ecosystems. In this symbiosis, obligately biotrophic fungi colonize the root of the host plants, which can benefit from these fungi by enhanced access to mineral nutrients in the soil, especially phosphorus. One of the main goals of research on this symbiosis is to find plant genes that control fungal development in the host plant. In this work, we show that mycorrhizal colonization is regulated by enod40, an early nodulin gene known to be involved in the nodule symbiosis of legumes with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing enod40 exhibited stimulated mycorrhizal colonization in comparison with control plants. Overexpression of enod40 promoted fungal growth in the root cortex and increased the frequency of arbuscule formation. Transgenic lines with suppressed levels of enod40 transcripts, likely via a cosuppression phenomenon induced by the transgene, exhibited reduced mycorrhizal colonization. Hence, enod40 might be a plant regulatory gene involved in the control of the mycorrhizal symbiosis.  (+info)

Immunodominant membrane proteins from two phytoplasmas in the aster yellows clade (chlorante aster yellows and clover phyllody) are highly divergent in the major hydrophilic region. (6/168)

The mechanisms by which phytoplasmas interact with their hosts are not understood. Mollicute membrane proteins may play a role in such interactions and therefore the amp genes encoding immunodominant proteins from two phytoplasmas, aster yellows and clover phyllody, which fall within the largest taxonomic subclade of the phytoplasmas, have been cloned and characterized. The putative translation products, antigenic membrane proteins (Amps), of these genes have properties which are typical for bacterial membrane proteins, and which suggest that each has a single large extracellular hydrophilic domain held by a transmembrane region near the C-terminus, with only a short C-terminal intracellular sequence. Both of the Amps characterized here have bacterial leader sequences which are cleaved during maturation. Whilst the signal peptide and transmembrane regions of the two proteins are very similar, the major hydrophilic domains are highly divergent in both size and sequence. The Amps from the two phytoplasmas are also different in structure and sequence from the immunodominant membrane proteins of three other phytoplasmas whose genes have been cloned previously.  (+info)

The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes. (7/168)

BACKGROUND: The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. RESULTS: An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.  (+info)

Pharmacological analysis of nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago truncatula. Evidence for the requirement of type IIA calcium pumps and phosphoinositide signaling. (8/168)

Bacterial Nod factors trigger a number of cellular responses in root hairs of compatible legume hosts, which include periodic, transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking. We screened 13 pharmaceutical modulators of eukaryotic signal transduction for effects on Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. The purpose of this screening was 2-fold: to implicate enzymes required for Nod factor-induced calcium spiking in Medicago sp., and to identify inhibitors of calcium spiking suitable for correlating calcium spiking to other Nod factor responses to begin to understand the function of calcium spiking in Nod factor signal transduction. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate, caffeine, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 are inhibitors of plant type IIA calcium pumps and phospholipase C, respectively, and implicate the requirement for these enzymes in Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. CPA and U-73122 inhibit Nod factor-induced calcium spiking robustly at concentrations with no apparent toxicity to root hairs, making CPA and U-73122 suitable for testing whether calcium spiking is causal to subsequent Nod factor responses.  (+info)

  • Effects of replacing lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hay with fresh citrus pulp on ruminal fermentation and ewe performance. (
  • 2009) the energy and protein values of lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) hay in South Africa could vary considerably and should be determined beforehand in order to accurately compose a balanced diet. (
  • Six hundred lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) hay samples were collected from several commercial irrigation farms in the main lucerne producing areas in South Africa, which varied in location, soil characteristics (texture, organic matter, N content, pH) and farm management. (
  • Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) has a considerable amount of genetic diversity for many agronomic and physiological traits. (
  • The establishment and growth of 'Stamina 5' lucerne (Medicago sativa) seed sown with three inoculant carriers (ALOSCA®, coated, and peat slurry treated) or as bare seed (control) on five dates (21 October 2010, 9 November 2010, 8 December 2010, 13 January 2011 and 3 February 2011) was investigated on a Lismore stony silt loam soil at Ashley Dene dryland research farm in Canterbury. (
  • 2005) constructed a molecular phylogeny of 23 Sinorhizobium strains and tested the symbiotic ability of six strains with 35 Medicago species. (
  • Furthermore, they propose that the geographical distribution of strains limits the distribution of particular Medicago species. (
  • Medicago species synthesize a variety of bioactive natural products that are used to engage into symbiotic interactions but also serve to deter pathogens and herbivores. (
  • In this review, we focus on the two most interesting and well characterized secondary metabolite classes found in Medicago species, the triterpene saponins and the flavonoids, with a detailed overview of their biosynthesis, regulation, and profiling methods. (
  • It is intended to provide background information on the biology of Medicago sativa L. , its centre of origin, its related species and the potential for gene introgression from M. sativa L. into relatives, and details of the life forms with which it may interact. (
  • For more information on this plant species, see Hank's page on Medicago polymorpha (opens in a new tab). (
  • Blondon F, Marie D, Brown S, Kondorosi A (1994) Genome size and base composition in Medicago sativa and M. truncatula species. (
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis of Medicago versus Arabidopsis revealed significant divergence in developmental expression profiles of orthologous genes, which indicates that phylogenetic analysis alone is insufficient to predict the function of orthologs in different species. (
  • Background: Saponins from Medicago species display several biological activities, among them apoptotic effects against plant cells have been evidenced. (
  • Objective: To explore the cytotoxic properties of saponin from Medicago species against animal cells and their effect in combination with the antitumoral drug cisplatin. (
  • Moreover saponins from Medicago species have evidenced interesting properties to mediate cisplatin effects in tumor cell lines. (
  • This is an excellent result and a major milestone for Medicago," said Andy Sheldon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Medicago. (
  • It is very gratifying to see that our technology is again being recognized as innovative in our industry", said Bruce Clark , President & Chief Executive Officer of Medicago. (
  • It was found that inside Medicago truncatula nodules, NFP and LYK3 localize at the cell periphery in a narrow zone of about two cell layers at the nodule apex. (
  • Green forage of Medicago sativa is reported to contain per 100 g, 80.0% moisture, 5.2 g protein, 0.9 g fat, 3.5 g fiber, and 2.4 g ash. (
  • About Medicago Medicago is a biotechnology company focused on the development, production and commercialization of vaccines and therapeutic protein-based biopharmaceuticals using a proprietary manufacturing system developed from its expertise in the genetic engineering of plants. (
  • In another related agreement, Medicago licensed a portfolio of plant-based protein development technologies from Philip Morris. (
  • Fig. S3 HyPer protein production in composite plants of Medicago truncatula . (
  • This rapid time frame is critical as it could allow the vaccination of a population before the first wave of the pandemic strikes," said Andy Sheldon, President and CEO of Medicago. (
  • This trial was the first ever clinical evaluation of a plant-based Influenza VLP vaccine and shows that Medicago's vaccine is safe in humans," said Andy Sheldon, President and CEO of Medicago. (
  • These additional data expand upon the results we announced in June and support our belief that our influenza vaccines are also capable of providing protection against different circulating viral strains," said Andy Sheldon, President and CEO of Medicago. (
  • Andy Sheldon, the president and CEO of Medicago, told that the company plans to tap into the $7 billion pandemic and seasonal flu vaccine markets. (
  • Our transient expression system which produces recombinant vaccine antigens in the cells of non-transgenic plants has demonstrated its efficiency and medical potential by successfully producing the H5N1 Avian Influenza vaccine candidate in VLPs," said Dr. Louis Vezina, Chief Scientific Officer of Medicago. (
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. , April 25, 2019 /PRNewswire/ - Medicago , a Canadian biotech company and global leader in the development and production of plant-derived vaccines, announced today that its proprietary plant-based production platform, Proficia® was named "Best New Vaccine Technology/platform" at the World Vaccine Congress in Washington, D.C. , attended by 1,500 participants including key opinion leaders from the vaccine industry. (
  • QUEBEC CITY, July 15 /CNW/ - Medicago Inc. (TSX-V: MDG) today announced that it will conduct a feasibility study in collaboration with Genopole biopark, in Evry, for the establishment of a vaccine production facility in France. (
  • Medicago is developing VLP vaccines to protect against H5N1 pandemic influenza, using a transient expression system which produces recombinant vaccine antigens in non-transgenic plants. (
  • Results at these lower dosage levels have not been reported for an H5N1 vaccine manufactured with a novel vaccine manufacturing technology," said Nathalie Landry, VP Product Development of Medicago. (
  • Biopharmaceutical firm Medicago has produced a Virus-Like Particle (VLP) of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, marking the first step in COVID-19 vaccine development. (
  • Medicago CEO Dr Bruce Clark said: "The pace of our initial progress in Covid-19 is attributable to the capability of our plant-based platform, which is able to produce vaccine and antibody solutions to counteract this global public health threat. (
  • Medicago, a biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Quebec City, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) are pleased to announce the start of Phase 3 clinical testing of Medicago's plant-derived COVID-19 vaccine candidate in combination with GSK's pandemic adjuvant, as part of the ongoing Phase 2/3 study. (
  • The FDA's decision to grant Fast Track designation for Medicago's vaccine candidate will help us expedite our efforts to bring the first plant-derived COVID-19 vaccine to market, subject to regulatory approval," said Carolyn Finkle, Chief Operating Officer of Medicago. (
  • QUEBEC CITY July 30 / Medicago Inc. (TSX-V: MD...Medicago's H1N1 VLP vaccine was formulated to protect against the infl. (
  • QUEBEC CITY, July 30 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ - Medicago Inc. (TSX-V: MDG) a biotechnology company focused on developing highly effective and affordable vaccines based on proprietary manufacturing technologies and Virus-Like Particles (VLPs), today announced that it has achieved additional positive results with its vaccine candidate for the Influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as Swine flu. (
  • In a continuation of this study, Medicago tested the immune response of its H1N1 vaccine against the California/07 virus, a more current and mutated strain and showed positive immune response after a single dose of 5 micrograms. (
  • In this study, the cytology and genetics of resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot caused by Phoma medicaginis , an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of Medicago spp. (
  • In 2018, Medicago broke ground on the new $245 million manufacturing complex in Quebec City that will include the company's headquarters, research and development as well as production facilities. (
  • The biotech firm Medicago USA Inc., based in Quebec City, Canada, recently broke ground on a planned 90,000-square-foot facility in Durham, North Carolina, that will make influenza vaccines using tobacco leaves. (
  • Medicago diverged from Glycine (soybean) about 53-55 million years ago (in the early Eocene), from Lotus (deervetch) 49-51 million years ago (also in the Eocene), and from Trigonella 10-22 million years ago (in the Miocene). (
  • Extensive macrosynteny between Lotus and bean was uncovered on 8 of the 11 bean chromosomes and large blocks of macrosynteny were also found between bean and Medicago. (
  • Lotus and Medicago are equally closely related to the bean and equally distantly related to Arachis ( D oyle and L uckow 2003 ). (
  • The Arachis genetic map was substantially aligned with Lotus and Medicago with most synteny blocks presenting a single main affinity to each genome. (
  • We found that in Medicago and possibly also in Lotus , retrotransposons tend to be more frequent in the variable regions. (
  • About Medicago Medicago is committed to provide highly effective and affordable vaccines based on proprietary Virus-Like Particle (VLP) and manufacturing technologies. (
  • Throughout, we critically analyze the current bottlenecks and speculate on future directions and opportunities for research and exploitation of Medicago metabolism. (
  • Medicago arborea L. Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter Medicago strasseri Greuter, Matthas & Risse Medicago hypogaea E. Small Medicago heyniana Greuter Medicago radiata L. Medicago biflora (Griseb. (
  • The next step for Medicago is to demonstrate how its new-product development, based on the same platform, can expand into other areas beyond vaccines, such as those now reserved for antibodies and peptides. (
  • Medicago also will receive royalty payments on future sales of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines in China that use the company's technology. (
  • In addition to flu vaccines, in 2015, Medicago successfully completed a contract with the U.S. government (BARDA) to produce anti-Ebola antibodies. (