Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.NaphthyridinesTopoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.CarbanilidesSilver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.4-Quinolones: QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Mice, Inbred ICRStreptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Cefmenoxime: A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.NitrofuransBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Enoxacin: A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Oxolinic Acid: Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Aza CompoundsDrug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.QuinolinesCell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.PicratesOxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Bacteria, AnaerobicSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Framycetin: A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Actinomyces viscosus: A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Tropolone: A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.CephalosporinaseHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteria, AerobicMouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Annona: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. It has edible fruit and seeds which contain acetogenins and benzoquinazoline and other alkaloids.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.DioxolanesFosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
"PAAR-Rhs proteins harbor various C-terminal toxins to diversify the antibacterial pathways of type VI secretion systems". ... "Rhs proteins from diverse bacteria mediate intercellular competition". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (17 ... for the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii and for the human pathogen Escherichia coli When a polymorphic toxin with anti-bacterial ...
A biosynthetic pathway has been hypothesized based on proposed gene functions (see figure). btmM, with homology to Zn+2 ... Although bottromycin exhibits antibacterial activity in vitro, it has not yet been developed as a clinical antibiotic, ... To obtain the amidine linkage, a tripeptide intermediate was coupled to a phthaloyl-protected thioamide via mercury-mediated ... No further antibacterial studies of synthetic or biosynthetic bottromycin derivatives have been reported in the literature as ...
Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB (2001). "Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and ... Schuier M, Sies H, Illek B, Fischer H (2005). "Cocoa-related flavonoids inhibit CFTR-mediated chloride transport across T84 ... Flavonoids have been shown to have (a) direct antibacterial activity, (b) synergistic activity with antibiotics, and (c) the ... Chang CF, Cho S, Wang J (Apr 2014). "(-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways". Ann Clin Transl ...
"A type VI secretion-related pathway in Bacteroidetes mediates interbacterial antagonism". Cell Host Microbe. 16: 227-36. doi: ... These systems exert antibacterial activity via the function of their secreted substrates. All characterized bacterial-targeting ... Upon the GacS/Rsm pathway stimulation, an increase in Rsm molecules leads to inhibition of mRNA-binding protein RsmA. RsmA is a ... Unlike substrates of other secretion systems (such as the general secretory pathway or secretion systems III and VI), those of ...
The sponge itself neutralizes the toxin through a pathway that is not fully understood, but involves retinal, a β-carotene ... Marine Biology 144, 19 (2004). W. E. G. Müller et al., Matrix-mediated canal formation in primmorphs from the sponge Suberites ... It additionally has hemolytic properties, which do not originate from activity upon Phospholipase A It has some antibacterial ... The network of silica found in sponges mediates much of the sponges' neural communications. Suberites show the cytokine-like ...
The cannabinoid mediated antidepressant activity of rutin shown in mice models employing weight-loaded forced swim test. Rutin ... It is an enzyme in the rutin catabolic pathway. Merck Index, 12th Edition, 8456 Krewson CF, Naghski J (Nov 1952). "Some ... van der Watt E, Pretorius JC (2001). "Purification and identification of active antibacterial components in Carpobrotusedulis L ... quercitrinase on www.brenda-enzymes.org Tranchimand S, Brouant P, Iacazio G (Nov 2010). "The rutin catabolic pathway with ...
"Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity". Science. 265 (5171): 528-30. doi:10.1126/ ... Mallo, GV; Kurz, CL; Couillault, C; Pujol, N; Granjeaud, S; Kohara, Y; Ewbank, JJ (2002). "Inducible antibacterial defense ... Rouvier, E; Luciani, MF; Golstein, P (1993). "Fas involvement in Ca(2+)-independent T cell-mediated cytotoxicity". Journal of ... and the demonstration of their playing a role in the perforin-granzyme-based mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and to ...
"Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis". ... Appendino G, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A, Grassi G, Stavri M, Smith E, Rahman MM (2008). "Antibacterial Cannabinoids from ... Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC (2005). "Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease ... Bacci A, Huguenard JR, Prince DA (2004). "Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids ...
In addition, members of the Toll family play a key role in innate antibacterial and antifungal immunity in insects as well as ... Anderson KV (2000). "Toll signaling pathways in the innate immune response". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 12 (1): 13-19. doi:10.1016/ ... It contains three highly conserved regions, and mediates protein-protein interactions between the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ... and IL-1R is not restricted to sequence homology since these proteins also share a similar signaling pathway. They both induce ...
An alternative pathway for the generation of nitric oxide is the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in which dietary ... either by spitting or interrupting the bioconversion of dietary nitrate to nitrite in the mouth with anti-bacterial mouthwash, ... increasing cerebral blood flow and flow-mediated dilation, and decreasing oxygen cost during exercise. A principal source of ... A necessary and obligatory step in the generation of nitric oxide by the non-nitric oxide synthase or alternative pathway ...
The DD mediates self-association of these receptors, thus giving the signal to downstream events that lead to apoptosis. Other ... Notably, two-point mutation that occur at the A1009G, E256G sites, can cause a defect in apoptotic pathways with people who ... 2001). "Drosophila Immune Deficiency (IMD) Is a Death Domain Protein that Activates Antibacterial Defense and Can Promote ... Bhardwaj A, Aggarwal BB (September 2003). "Receptor-mediated choreography of life and death". J. Clin. Immunol. 23 (5): 317-32 ...
Reg3γ is an antibacterial lectin secreted by Paneth cells that serves to prevent microorganisms from coming into contact with ... Crucial for forming an effective barrier is the precise control of the paracellular pathway (a route for translocation of ... Intestinal barrier dysfunction may be a critical factor for antigen sensitisations and the IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylactic ... "the facility with which intestinal epithelium allows molecules to pass through by non-mediated passive diffusion." Permeability ...
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway. • opsonization. • defense response to Gram-negative bacterium. • positive ... 2001). "Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the ... LPS binding properties and effects on LPS-mediated cell activation". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (26): 17411-6. PMID 7517398.. ... toll-like receptor signaling pathway. • macromolecule localization. • positive regulation of cytolysis. • transport. ...
Two units of malonyl CoA are then added to through the acetate pathway 3. Compound 3 is then reduced to the di-enol form that ... This compound has the best antibacterial activity of Endiandrianic acid A-G compounds. Endiandric acid C was tested towards ... which should happen if enzymes mediate this process. The Diels-Alder reaction itself is a powerful reaction that can give ... Milne, B. F.; Long, P. F.; Starcevic, A.; Hranueli, D.; Jaspars, M. Spontaneity in the Patellamide Biosynthetic Pathway. Org. ...
September 2004). "Inhibition of both the extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways through nonhomotypic death-fold interactions". ... but differ in insects where they are involved in NF-κB signaling and antibacterial responses. PYRIN PYRINS are the most ... Death fold domains are an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of domains that mediate apoptotic signaling. The two types of ... apoptosis, extrinsic and intrinsic, are tightly regulated by the interplay of activating and inhibitory pathways. The ...
... inhibits NF-κB at a very low concentration by targeting the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway (UPP) in ... Animal and in vitro studies have shown antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus ... mediated prosurvival by withaferin A facilitates c-Jun-NH2-kinase-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. Withaferin A ... It also inhibits other transcription factors including Ap1 and Sp1 which are important mediators of many signalling pathways ...
"Anti-bacterial personal hygiene products may not be worth potential risks." UC Davis Health System Feature Story: Anti- ... ENR is a highly conserved enzyme of lipid biosynthetic pathways in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and ... Triclocarban induces weak responses mediated by aryl hydrocarbon, estrogen, and androgen receptors in vitro. This has yet to be ... "Antibacterial soap soon to disappear". USA Today. Retrieved 3 September 2016. "Antibacterial Soap? You Can Skip It -- Use Plain ...
... pathway, which is initiated from C5 sugars. In both pathways, IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl ... Geranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor to monoterpenes (and hence monoterpenoids).[2] Biosynthesis is mediated by terpene ... Several monoterpenes derivatives have antibacterial activity, such as linalool. Others are used as flavors, such as menthol. ... An alternative, unrelated biosynthesis pathway of IPP is known in some bacterial groups and the plastids of plants, the so- ...
AntibacterialEdit. The plants with flavonoids as their major constituents can inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection and use as ... Chang CF, Cho S, Wang J (Apr 2014). "(-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways". Ann Clin Transl ... The photomorphogenic process of phytochrome-mediated flavonoid biosynthesis has been observed in Amaranthus, barley, maize, ... Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes". Biotechnology Journal. 2 (10): 1235-49. doi:10.1002/ ...
The mupirocin pathway also contains several tandem acyl carrier protein doublets or triplets. This may be an adaptation to ... The formation of the pyran ring requires many enzyme-mediated steps (Figure 4). The double bond between C8 and C9 is proposed ... However, the MupA gene may co-transfer with other antibacterial resistance genes. This has been observed already with ...
Piu F, Aronheim A, Katz S, Karin M (May 2001). "AP-1 repressor protein JDP-2: inhibition of UV-mediated apoptosis through p53 ... JDP2, which has been shown to regulate Wnt signaling pathway and prevent ROS production, may play roles in cell reprogramming. ... "The transcription factor Jdp2 controls bone homeostasis and antibacterial immunity by regulating osteoclast and neutrophil ... JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment system,[clarification needed] to dimerize with c-Jun to repress AP-1-mediated activation. ...
Gavriliouk D, Aitken RJ (2015). "Damage to Sperm DNA Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species: Its Impact on Human Reproduction and ... The IVT diluent is composed of several salts, sugars and antibacterial agents and gassed with CO2. Semen cryopreservation can ... Cellular pathways and implications for basic and clinical science". Human Reproduction Update. 20: 40-62. doi:10.1093/humupd/ ... and disruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways increases spermatozoa-derived chromosomal aberrations. ...
Plasma concentrations of iron are lowered for this anti-bacterial reason in fever. Lowered threshold for pain ensures that an ... Maier, SF; Wiertelak, EP; Martin, D; Watkins, LR (1993). "Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by ... A pathway for the induction of non-specific symptoms of sickness?". Brain Research. 588 (2): 291-296. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(92) ... "Different receptor mechanisms mediate the pyrogenic and behavioral effects of interleukin 1". Proceedings of the National ...
An alternative flavin-mediated oxygenation mechanism involves the use of a flavin-N(5)-oxide rather than a flavin-C(4a)-(hydro) ... New design of anti-bacterial medications is of continuing importance in scientific research as bacterial antibiotic resistance ... Chorismate synthase (CS) catalyzes the last step in the shikimate pathway-the formation of chorismate. There are two classes of ... FAD-dependent proteins function in a large variety of metabolic pathways including electron transport, DNA repair, nucleotide ...
The idea that the effect of a drug in the human body is mediated by specific interactions of the drug molecule with biological ... von Nussbaum F, Brands M, Hinzen B, Weigand S, Häbich D (August 2006). "Antibacterial natural products in medicinal chemistry-- ... Later, small molecules were synthesized to specifically target a known physiological/pathological pathway, avoiding the mass ... an anti-bacterial; and a treatment for gout. Cloning of human proteins made possible the screening of large libraries of ...
"Retinoids down-regulate telomerase and telomere length in a pathway distinct from leukemia cell differentiation". Proceedings ... "Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin mediates 13-cis retinoic acid-induced apoptosis of human sebaceous gland cells" ... Antibacterial. *Azelaic acid. *Benzoyl peroxide#. *8-Hydroxyquinoline. *Blue light therapy. *Tea tree oil ... "Regulation of dopaminergic pathways by retinoids: activation of the D2 receptor promoter by members of the retinoic acid ...
Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated IκBα degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide. ... Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated IκBα degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide. ... Local pH elevation mediated by the intrabacterial urease of Helicobacter pylori cocultured with gastric cells. ... Local pH elevation mediated by the intrabacterial urease of Helicobacter pylori cocultured with gastric cells. ...
Antibacterial mode of action also could be mediated by stimulation of defensin secretion. In fact, it has been shown that a ... To investigate whether F. prausnitzii or its supernatant could be active by a gut-independent pathway, we tested i.p. injection ... Antibacterial Assay.. Antibacterial effect of F. prausnitzii supernatant was investigated in vitro using two different ... F. prausnitzii Supernatant Did Not Display In Vitro Antibacterial Effect.. We investigated antibacterial properties of F. ...
... pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Component of an autophagy-mediated antibacterial pathway together with ATG16L1 (PubMed:20637199). Plays also a role in sensing ... Component of an autophagy-mediated antibacterial pathway together with ATG16L1 (PubMed:20637199). Plays also a role in sensing ... Pathways by source for NOD2 Gene. 2 BioSystems pathways for NOD2 Gene. ...
This review mainly aims to discuss advances in unraveling the mechanisms of antibacterial activity of polymyxins and bacterial ... "Rapid killing of Acinetobacter baumannii by polymyxins is mediated by a hydroxyl radical death pathway," Antimicrobial Agents ... 4. Antibacterial Mechanism of Polymyxins. 4.1. Membrane Lysis Death Pathway. In Gram-negative bacteria, OM acts as a ... Antibacterial Mechanisms of Polymyxin and Bacterial Resistance. Zhiliang Yu. ,1 Wangrong Qin. ,1 Jianxun Lin. ,2 Shisong Fang. ...
The Tim3-galectin 9 pathway induces antibacterial activity in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. ... Bat3 promotes T cell responses and autoimmunity by repressing Tim-3-mediated cell death and exhaustion. Nat. Med. 18: 1394-1400 ... Enhanced neutrophil-mediated killing of Gal-9-opsonized Pseudomonas was observed, an antimicrobial effect perturbed in the CF ... Gal-9-evoked enhanced P. aeruginosa killing is TIM-3 mediated. (A) Neutrophils (1 × 107) were incubated for 10 min in the ...
Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated IκBα degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide. J. Clin. ... Signaling pathways mediating IDR-1002 chemokine induction in human PBMCs. A and B, The effects of specific chemical inhibitors ... Receptors and signaling pathways mediating the chemokine-induction activity of IDR-1002. The involvement of various signaling ... The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of ...
Caspase-1 was required for Birc1e-dependent antibacterial responses ex vivo in macrophages and in a mouse model of Legionnaires ... Translocation of bacterial products into host-cell cytosol was essential for Birc1e-mediated control of bacterial replication. ... Here we describe a Birc1e-dependent signaling pathway that restricted replication of the intracellular pathogen Legionella ...
Fucoxanthin Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity via NFκB-Mediated Pathway and Downregulates DNA Repair Gene Expression in ... Antibacterial Polyketides from the Marine Alga-Derived Endophitic Streptomyces sundarbansensis: A Study on Hydroxypyrone ... Keywords: antibacterial; antinematode; functional genomic screen; fosmid libraries; marine bacteria; marine bioactives; ... Caenorhabditis elegans antibacterial; antinematode; functional genomic screen; fosmid libraries; marine bacteria; marine ...
The findings suggest that such mechanism of NFATc1-dependent inhibition of Nod1-mediated innate immune response together with ... CsA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced, Tlr4-mediated production of CXCL2 by epithelial collecting duct cells. In ... the decrease in Tlr4-mediated production of chemoattractant chemokines caused by CsA may contribute to sensitizing kidney ... Phagocytosis-dependent activation of a TLR9-BTK-calcineurin-NFAT pathway co-ordinates innate immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus ...
Antibacterial action of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mycobacterium aurum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:701-707. ... Rapid Killing of Acinetobacter baumannii by Polymyxins Is Mediated by a Hydroxyl Radical Death Pathway. Timothy R. Sampson, ... Rapid Killing of Acinetobacter baumannii by Polymyxins Is Mediated by a Hydroxyl Radical Death Pathway ... Rapid Killing of Acinetobacter baumannii by Polymyxins Is Mediated by a Hydroxyl Radical Death Pathway ...
Mediates activation of AKT1 signaling pathway and subsequent IL8 production in colonic epithelial cells. Regulates ... antibacterial responses in lung by contributing to macrophage bacterial killing, controlling bacterial dissemination and ...
... antibacterial peptides, and the mucous layer and immune system. When the intestinal barrier is disrupted, the luminal toxins ... Resveratrol Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Intestinal Barrier Injury through PI3K/Akt-Mediated Nrf2 Signaling Pathway. Yu ... These cytoprotective effects of RSV at least partly depend on the PI3K/Akt-mediated Nrf2 signaling pathway. ... and GPXs are phase 2 genes which are known as target genes mediated by the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway. Meanwhile, many ...
Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated I kappa B alpha degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide ... The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was first validated as a target for cancer therapy with the demonstration of the activity of ... It seems clear based on preclinical studies that there are many pathways involved in de novo drug resistance that reduce the ... Potent activity of carfilzomib, a novel, irreversible inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, against preclinical models ...
Opportunistic Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Modulates Danger Signal ATP-Mediated Antibacterial NOX2 Pathways in Primary ... Prostanoid-mediated contractions of the carotid artery become Nox2-independent with aging. *Matthias R. Meyer, Natalie C. ...
... interactions and host post-translational modification has uncovered new targets and pathways that influence antibacterial ... our results reveal a surprising diversity in ubiquitin-mediated responses specific to each pathogen. Likewise, using well- ... The pathways that control intracellular bacterial growth and how they are manipulated by pathogens are not completely ... These studies have uncovered a unique mechanism by which bacterial pathogens suppress antibacterial immune responses by ...
... pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Mediates activation of AKT1 signaling pathway and subsequent IL8 production in colonic epithelial cells. Regulates ... Regulates antibacterial responses in lung by contributing to macrophage bacterial killing, controlling bacterial dissemination ... Mediates activation of AKT1 signaling pathway and subsequent IL8 production in colonic epithelial cells. ...
... inhibits bacterial adhesion on titanium alloy and attenuates Ti-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling-mediated ... 1). The antibacterial activity of Ti, Ti CD206 on day 3 of incubation. The expression of TNF-α, + low, and Ti + high ... also lead to destruction of bone structure and loss of The activation of NF-κB signaling pathway occurs pri- bone mass, ... activation and mediates the osteoclastogenic effects ial have considerably aided orthopedic diagnosis and of TNF-α by enhancing ...
This agents analgesic effect is mediated through peripheral and central pathways, resulting in a decrease in pain perception; ... The gluconate salt form of chlorhexidine, a biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity ... CPX inhibits Notch1 activation and inhibits the Notch1-mediated signaling pathway, which is upregulated in many cancer cell ... Upon administration, SY-1365 binds to and inhibits CDK7, thereby inhibiting CDK7-mediated signal transduction pathways. This ...
... with a reduced phosphatidylglycerol composition would increase peptide mediated killing at a distal site. To better understand ... CATH-2 can kill bacteria through a diverse range of antibacterial pathways and exogenous surfactant can improve pulmonary drug ... CATH-2 can kill bacteria through a diverse range of antibacterial pathways and exogenous surfactant can improve pulmonary drug ... each with their own unique antibacterial pathway, would create a promising new pipeline of anti-infective therapeutics. ...
YopJ-mediated inhibition of TRIF prevents DCs from inducing natural killer (NK) cell production of antibacterial IFNγ. During ... Bacteria can inhibit the MyD88 pathway, but if the TRIF pathway is also targeted is unclear. We demonstrate that, in addition ... Currently pathways are defined generically with respect to the organ or cell type where a reaction takes place. The cell type ... We also consider here the possible role of CD14 in initiating this pathway and the way in which the c2 and c3 isoforms of NFAT ...
Inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated IκBα degradation by a naturally occurring antibacterial peptide. J Clin ... protects against ischemic brain injury by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Neurochem Int 63:535-540CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Apelin-13 protects against apoptosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in ischemia stroke. Peptides 75:96-100 ... of PACAP alleviates traumatic brain injury in rats through a mechanism involving the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kappaB pathway. J ...
Beatty PR, Stephens RS: CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated lysis of Chlamydia-infected L cells using an endogenous antigen pathway. J ... Clin Exp Immunol91:96103, 1993 Braun J, Grolms M, Distler A, Sieper J: The specific anti-bacterial proliferation of reactive ... The class I1 MHC antigen processing pathway presents to 1548 SIEPER AND BRAUN Table 1. Hypotheses of T cell-mediated ... are normally presented by pathway 11, and pathogens with access to the cytoplasm (e.g., Shigella) by pathway I. However, the ...
Minnick AA, McKee JA, Dolence EK, Miller MJ (1992) Iron transport-mediated antibacterial activity of and development of ... Sideromycins (siderophore-antibiotic conjugates) exploit essential iron acquisition pathways to achieve receptor-mediated cell ... Zheng T, Nolan EM (2014) Enterobactin-mediated delivery of β-lactam antibiotics enhances antibacterial activity against ... entering Pseudomonas aeruginosa via the pyoverdin-mediated iron uptake pathway. J Antibiot 51:499-507. doi: 10.7164/antibiotics ...
In the present study we show that APS8 inhibits NSCLC tumor cell growth and activates apoptotic pathways. APS8 was not toxic ... pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway ... Marine Pharmacology in 2009-2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, ... In the present study we show that APS8 inhibits NSCLC tumor cell growth and activates apoptotic pathways. APS8 was not toxic ...
The antibacterial effect of plant ethanolic extracts was also examined against E.coli PTCC 1399 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC ... Result of antibacterial activity evaluation showed that under concomitant treatments of KPhi and chitosan, fruit extract ... KPhi and chitosan can induce production of CuE compound and increase antibacterial potential of cucumber plant extract. The ... inhibits tumor angiogenesis through VEGFR2-mediated Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(12):2097-104.View ...
  • The nuclear factor NF-kB is considered as to be a nearly archetypal pro-inflammatory pathway, because NF-kB is so decisive in its control of the expression of genes that lead to upregulation of cytokines (a proinflammatory event). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • The genes encoding antibacterial and antifungal peptides are differentially expressed after injection of distinct microorganisms. (sdbonline.org)
  • We interrogated 177 genes that we classified as essential for the proliferation of cancer cells exhibiting constitutive β-catenin activity and integrated data for each of the candidates, derived from orthogonal short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated gene editing knockout screens, to yield 69 validated genes. (harvard.edu)
  • We then characterized the relationships between sets of these genes using complementary assays: medium-throughput stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry, yielding 3,639 protein-protein interactions, and a CRISPR-mediated pairwise double knockout screen, yielding 375 combinations exhibiting greater- or lesser-than-additive phenotypic effects indicating genetic interactions. (harvard.edu)
  • Today much is known about the biology of penicillin and cephalosporin production by fungi including the pathways, the biosynthetic enzymes including some crystal structures, the genes and their cloning, expression, sequencing and chromosomal locations, the regulation of the genes and enzymes and even some intelligent guesses about their evolutionary relationships. (go.jp)
  • and Horizontal gene transfer of antibacterial genes by Linda Koch, doi:10.1038/nrg3880, n 5 v 16, Nature Reviews Genetics , 2015, online 18 Dec 2014. (panspermia.org)
  • Involved in regulation of CDKN2A- and HRK-mediated apoptosis. (uniprot.org)
  • We here demonstrate the existence of a bacterial PCD pathway that induces characteristics that are strikingly reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptosis, such as fragmentation of DNA, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, and membrane blebbing. (asm.org)
  • The noteworthy aspect of S. pyogenes -mediated cell signaling is the recognition of the role of M protein in a variety of signaling events, starting with the targeting of specific receptors on the cell surface and on through the induction and evasion of NETosis, inflammasome, and autophagy/xenophagy to pyroptosis and apoptosis. (asmscience.org)
  • Kanamycin-induced SGN apoptosis is mediated, at least in part, by ER stress-induced upregulation of CHOP and caspase-12. (bioscirep.org)
  • Perpetual signaling through RAGE-induced survival pathways in the setting of limited nutrients or oxygenation results in enhanced autophagy, diminished apoptosis, and (with ATP depletion) necrosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the past decade, the field of the cellular microbiology of group A Streptococcus ( S. pyogenes ) infection has made tremendous advances and touched upon several important aspects of pathogenesis, including receptor biology, invasive and evasive phenomena, inflammasome activation, strain-specific autophagic bacterial killing, and virulence factor-mediated programmed cell death. (asmscience.org)
  • Variations in reports on S. pyogenes -mediated signaling events highlight the complex mechanism of pathogenesis and underscore the importance of the host cell and S. pyogenes strain specificity, as well as in vitro / in vivo experimental parameters. (asmscience.org)
  • Some of the proteins identified were mapped to the immunologically relevant JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) signalling pathway that is connected to cellular events associated with pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further understand the precise molecular mechanism of action, VEGF-mediated signaling pathways were analyzed in HUVEC cells and mES cell-derived endothelial-like cells. (mdpi.com)
  • HldA is structurally similar to members of the PfkB carbohydrate kinase family and appears to catalyze heptose phosphorylation via an in-line mechanism mediated mainly by a conserved aspartate, Asp270. (nih.gov)
  • Forsythiaside possesses with fresh tryptic soya broth (TSB) medium containing strong antioxidative, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and 10 or 50 μM forsythiaside and added to a standard cyclic adenosine activity [6, and monophosphate flat-bottomed 96-well culture plate such that the final phosphodiesterase (cAMP) inhibitory effects. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversely, transformation in Has2-/- explants mediated by exogenous HA is inhibited by dominant-negative Ras. (jci.org)
  • It was hypothesized that the phosphatidylglycerol component of surfactant was inhibiting AMP function and that an exogenous surfactant, with a reduced phosphatidylglycerol composition would increase peptide mediated killing at a distal site. (nature.com)
  • Chemokine induction by IDR-1002 was found to be mediated through a Gi-coupled receptor and the PI3K, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sideromycins (siderophore-antibiotic conjugates) exploit essential iron acquisition pathways to achieve receptor-mediated cell entry where the spectrum of antibiotic activity is determined by highly selective cell surface siderophore receptors rather than the widely distributed and highly conserved antibacterial target. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we have assessed the ability of a human recombinant soluble form of complement receptor 1 (sCR1) to inhibit complement-mediated RBC destruction in vitro and in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Human complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) is a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein of molecular weight 160 kd to 250 kd (depending on allotype) and is a member of the regulators of complement activators (RCA) family of proteins that prevent excessive complement activation by inhibiting key enzymes, C3 and C5 convertases of the 3 complement pathways, namely the classical, alternative, and lectin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In mammals, exposure to LPS causes septic shock through a Toll-like receptor TLR4-dependent signaling pathway. (sdbonline.org)
  • The findings suggest for the first time that DBHA inhibits angiogenesis by targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in endothelial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • This study shows that PGRP-SD acted upstream of PGRP-LC as an extracellular receptor to enhance peptidoglycan-mediated activation of Imd signaling . (sdbonline.org)
  • Here we found that cold exposure leads to transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-mediated hypertension, which subsequently induces small molecule and fluid extravasation, increases plasma Ig levels, and elicits immunosuppression. (oncotarget.com)
  • Schmidt, J. V. & Bradfield, C. A. Ah receptor signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links TH17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins. (nature.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Metabolism of proteins and Activated TLR4 signalling . (genecards.org)
  • Future Directions: Integrated studies of signaling pathways in the immune system should consider whether S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation processes are among the PTMs influencing the activity of key signaling and adaptor proteins. (csic.es)
  • The team hopes to target human host proteins involved in commonly hijacked cell pathways during the disease state, and develop new therapies that use a single drug to treat multiple pathogens - not only bacterial TB but viral infections and other diseases. (berkeley.edu)
  • C. elegans animals carrying loss-of-function mutations in this pathway have defects in the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors and are hypersusceptible to killing by bacterial and fungal pathogens - . (prolekare.cz)
  • One of the compounds identified in this screen, a small molecule called RPW-24, extended the survival of nematodes infected with the human bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by stimulating the host immune response via the p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 pathway . (prolekare.cz)
  • This work provides a striking example of how a conserved immune pathway, initially described as essential in pathogen clearance, also functions in the control of mutualistic associations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that RSV can directly protect IPEC-J2 cells against oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt-mediated Nrf2 signaling pathway, suggesting that RSV may be an effective feed additive against intestinal damage in livestock production. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence for and against the following hypotheses will be discussed herein (Table 1): 1) Bacterial antigen persisting in the joint is presented, through HLA-B27, to CD8+ T cells, which then mediate an Supported by a grant from the "Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie'' and by a grant from the "Eberhard Bode Stiftung. (docme.ru)
  • SL2 cells resemble embryonic hemocytes and have also been used as a model system to study JNK and other signaling pathways. (sdbonline.org)
  • Measuring the Overall Rate of Protein Breakdown in Cells and the Contributions of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome and Autophagy-Lysosomal Pathways. (harvard.edu)
  • Autophagy promotes hepatic differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells by regulating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. (abcam.com)
  • The blockade of lipophagy pathway is necessary for docosahexaenoic acid to regulate lipid droplet turnover in hepatic stellate cells. (abcam.com)
  • Oxidative Stress Mediates Microcystin-LR-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in KK-1 Cells and C57BL/6 Mice Ovaries. (abcam.com)
  • Dysregulated COX-mediated prostaglandin synthesis was discovered in RECON-deficient cells by comprehensive eicosanoid profiling. (washington.edu)
  • Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is tightly controlled by temporal and spatial regulation of multiple key signaling pathways. (jove.com)
  • For example, the C. elegans NSY-1/SEK-1/PMK-1 Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase pathway, orthologous to the ASK1 (MAP kinase kinase kinase)/MKK3/6 (MAP kinase kinase)/p38 (MAP kinase) pathway in mammals, is required for protection against pathogens . (prolekare.cz)
  • Significance: In the immune system, nitric oxide (NO) has been mainly associated with antibacterial defenses exerted through oxidative, nitrosative, and nitrative stress and signal transduction through cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms. (csic.es)
  • DBHA suppressed the VEGF-induced expression of MAPKs (p38, ERK and SAPK/JNK) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • From an evolutionary perspective, it is logical that hosts respond to threats encountered in the wild at least in part through surveillance pathways that monitor the integrity of core cellular machinery, which are often the targets of xenobiotic small molecules or microbe-generated toxins. (prolekare.cz)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • In the presence of antibacterial IgG, PMN and monocytes required complement to effectively phagocytose and kill the E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • 1 The pathobiologic effects of complement are mediated directly by the formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex (C5b-9), and indirectly by the generation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The addition or substitution of various functional groups to the amido group or in which various substitutions on other amino groups result in compounds with varying physical, chemical, pharmacologic, and antibacterial properties. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Study of fresh leaves isolated four pentacyclic triterpenoids (1-4) including a new constituent, carissin (3beta-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid), and two previously unreported compounds. (stuartxchange.com)
  • We hope that this will serve as an up-to-date reference for researchers to develop polymyxin analogues with better antibacterial activity and less adaptable bacterial tolerance. (hindawi.com)
  • The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was first validated as a target for cancer therapy with the demonstration of the activity of the boronic acid proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib (Velcade) against relapsed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Antibacterial activity of extracts from cultures containing cassava shavings and sugarcane pulp was comparable with that of the standard drug. (cogprints.org)
  • CCL-20 holdes antibacterial activity e.coli atcc 25922 and s.aureus atcc 29213. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In our comparative studies using a parasite line lacking PfeIK1, the Plasmodium orthologue of the eIF2α-kinase GCN2 that mediates amino acid deprivation sensing, we show that HFG activity and the APR are independent from PfeIK1 and eIF2α signaling. (harvard.edu)
  • IRF7-mediated control of the Gbp 2 gene required the presence and basal activity of the S/T kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), whereas the binding of IRF7 to the Gbp 2 promoter did not. (asm.org)
  • Clear contributions were identified between active taxa (genus level) and metabolic pathways, which were associated with the liver and intestinal dysfunction in layers. (springer.com)
  • Different environmental amoeba isolates containing the symbiont were equally well protected as different L. pneumophila isolates were diminished, suggesting ecological relevance of this symbiont-mediated defense. (asm.org)
  • Both lines of defense have been shown to be regulated by a number of signaling pathways, of which the p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), insulin signaling/DAF-2, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/DBL-1 pathways are the most significant (see reference 30 for a recent review). (asm.org)
  • Functional prediction of these changes in microbiota revealed that metabolism-related pathways, including cysteine and methionine metabolism and benzoate degradation, were more abundant. (springer.com)
  • Here we report the structural-functional studies of D-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose 7-phosphate kinase (HldA), an absolutely conserved enzyme in this pathway, from Burkholderia cenocepacia. (nih.gov)
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (2018) 13:139 Page 2 of 10 (AMP), or inorganic ions are either bactericidal on contact forsythiaside concentration that inhibited bacterial or locally release antibacterial agents. (deepdyve.com)