Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, originating from the sweat glands (eccrine or apocrine) and found anywhere on the skin surface.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 43 patients from the Nebraska Lymphoma Study Group. (1/673)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a more aggressive course than other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with CD20-positive DLBL who presented with a mediastinal mass measuring at least 5.0 cm and were treated with curative intent were identified. A control group of 352 patients with nonmediastinal DLBL was selected for comparison. RESULTS: The 43 patients with PMLBL had a male to female ratio of 20:23 and a median age of 42 years. Stage I/II disease was present in 58% of the patients, with only 9% having bone marrow involvement. A complete remission was achieved in 63% of the patients, and the 5-year overall and failure-free survivals were 46% and 38%, respectively. Among the clinical variables, an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, a low performance score, more than one extranodal site, and an intermediate or high International Prognostic Index score were predictive of poor survival. When compared with the DLBL group, a younger median age was the only clinical feature that was significantly different in the PMLBL group. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of PMLBL do not appear to be significantly different from those of nonmediastinal DLBL. Although the younger age of onset, slight female predominance, mediastinal location, and size of the mass may justify the recognition of PMLBL as a clinical syndrome, additional evidence is needed to define it as a distinct disease entity.  (+info)

Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy. (2/673)

A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin.  (+info)

Diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal masses in patients with intrapulmonary lesions and nondiagnostic bronchoscopy. (3/673)

Several procedures are available for the cytopathological diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with mediastinal mass lesions/lymph node enlargement. All patients had intrapulmonary lesions on chest X ray and/or CT scan, and inconclusive findings by endobronchial forceps biopsy and/or brush cytology. EUS-guided FNA was performed in 16 patients using a modified oblique forward-viewing gastroscope with an electronic multielement curved linear ultrasound transducer. After the region of interest was localized, a 22-gauge Vilmann-Hancke needle was introduced via the 2-mm biopsy channel. The cytological diagnosis of EUS-guided FNA was conclusive for cancer in 9 patients and in the other 7 patients the aspirated samples revealed a benign lesion. In 10 patients the final diagnosis was cancer, thus EUS-guided FNA was diagnostic for malignancy in all but 1 of the lesions (sensitivity 90.0%). In 1 patient epitheloid cell granuloma was detected by cytological examination of the FNA. Following tuberculostatic treatment the lesions disappeared completely on CT scan and EUS. The overall accuracy in this study amounted to 93.7%. From this and other studies discussed, it is assumed that the procedure is an accurate and safe technique to examine nodular lesions suggestive of metastatic lymph node involvement.  (+info)

Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients. (4/673)

The purpose of this study was to determine the demographics, histology, methods of treatment, and survival in primary mediastinal malignancies. We did a retrospective review of the statewide New Mexico Tumor Registry for all malignant tumors treated between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 1995. Benign tumors and cysts of the mediastinum were excluded. Two hundred nineteen patients were identified from a total of 110,284 patients with primary malignancies: 55% of tumors were lymphomas, 16% malignant germ cell tumors, 14% malignant thymomas, 5% sarcomas, 3% malignant neurogenic tumors, and 7% other tumors. There were significant differences in gender between histologies (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of germ cell tumors occurred in males, 66% of neurogenic tumors were in females; other tumors occurred in males in 58% of cases. There were also significant differences in ages by histology (P < 0.001). Neurogenic tumors were most common in the first decade, lymphomas and germ cell tumors in the second to fourth decades, and lymphomas and thymomas in patients in their fifth decades and beyond. Stage at presentation (P = 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) also differed significantly between histologic groups. Five-year survival was 54% for lymphomas, 51% for malignant germ cell tumors, 49% for malignant thymomas, 33% for sarcomas, 56% for neurogenic tumors, and 51% overall. These survival rates were not statistically different (P > 0.50). Lymphomas, malignant germ cell tumors, and thymomas were the most frequently encountered malignant primary mediastinal neoplasms in this contemporary series of patients. Demographics, stage at presentation, and treatment modality varied significantly by histology. Despite these differences, overall five-year survival was not statistically different.  (+info)

Thymic carcinoma of the thymic hormone secretory type in a cow. (5/673)

An 8-year-old Holstein cow had tumor nodules and enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, and metastatic tumor masses in the pelvic cavity. The neoplastic cells were characterized by squamous features and intracytoplasmic vacuoles carrying microvilli, some of which contained periodic acid Schiff-positive globular cores, but tubular structures or goblet cells were absent. Many neoplastic cells stained positively for keratin, and occasional cells were positive for thymosin. The presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm was confirmed by electron microscopy. This neoplasm was considered to be of thymic hormone-secreting epithelial cell origin.  (+info)

Core needle biopsy is effective in the initial diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. (6/673)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: With the development and refinement of guidance modalities for percutaneous biopsies, many investigators have reported studies supporting the role of guided core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. The aims of this report are to evaluate the efficacy of findings at core needle biopsy of mediastinal masses on patient care and define the key determinants of clinical success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluoroscopy-guided (in 75 patients) and computed tomography-guided (in 8 patients) core needle biopsies were performed in 83 patients with mediastinal lymphoma: all but one of the patients were at first diagnosis. All the biopsies were performed using a Menghini needle (from 1.2 mm to 1.8 mm). In the vast majority of cases the 1.8 mm gauge was employed. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity for the diagnosis of lymphoma was 81% (67/83 cases). In the remaining 16 patients the lymphoma diagnosis was reached either by mediastinoscopy (11 cases) or anterior mediastinotomy (3 cases) or core needle biopsy of the lung (1 case); one patient was treated directly after the needle biopsy had been unsuccessful because he needed rapid therapy. In 77/82 (93%) patients it was possible to assess the specific histotype. There was no operative mortality; all the biopsies were performed on an outpatient basis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that core needle biopsy should be considered as an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of patients with mediastinal lymphoma with the possibility of determining the tumor subtype and subsequent specific treatment.  (+info)

Diagnostic role of gallium scanning in the management of lymphoma with mediastinal involvement. (7/673)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Therapy of both Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with mediastinal presentation at the time of diagnosis is frequently followed by radiological detection of residual masses. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is generally unable to detect the differences between tumor tissue and fibrosis. Gallium-67-citrate single photon emission ((67)GaSPECT) can potentially differentiate residual active tumor tissue from fibrosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with HD or aggressive NHL presenting mediastinal involvement (64% with a bulky mass) were studied with CT and (67)GaSPECT at the end of combined modality therapy (chemo- and radiation therapy). RESULTS: After treatment, 3/3 (100%) patients with positive (67)GaSPECT and negative CT scan relapsed while only 1/18 (6%) patients with both negative (67)GaSPECT and CT scan did so. At the same time, 54 patients had a positive restaging CT scan (abnormal mass < 10% of size of initial mass). Of these patients, 13 had a positive (67)GaSPECT, 10 of whom (77%) relapsed; 41 had a negative (67)GaSPECT of whom 5 (12%) relapsed. The 4-year actuarial relapse-free survival rate was 90% for those with negative scans compared with 23% for gallium-positive patients (p < 0.000000). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In lymphoma patients with mediastinal involvement, (67)GaSPECT should be considered, at least in patients who are CT positive, the imaging technique of choice for monitoring and differentiating the nature of any residual masses.  (+info)

Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a study of 29 cases. (8/673)

Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) represent a particular entity among intrathoracic neoplasms. Twenty-nine patients with primary mediastinal aggressive NHL diagnosed and treated in the author's institution were studied. According to the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, there were 15 diffuse large B-cell, eight T-lymphoblastic, four anaplastic, one large T-cell and one Burkitt's lymphomas. The study group consisted of 14 females and 15 males, with a mean age of 38 yrs. Symptoms arose from an aggressive anterior mediastinal mass, with a high prevalence of superior vena caval syndrome, pleural, and pericardial effusions. At the time of diagnosis, disease was confined to supradiaphragmatic areas in 24 patients, while subdiaphragmatic nodal or extranodal involvement was also present in five. All patients received a combination of aggressive chemotherapy regimens, mainly according to the French protocols for the treatment of NHL. A chest radiograph response of <50% after the first course of chemotherapy and failure to achieve a complete remission after the first line of chemotherapy were significantly associated with unfavourable prognosis. Overall 5-yr and 9-yr survival rates were 55 and 48%, respectively. Patients properly diagnosed and treated with a combined modality of chemotherapy can experience prolonged survival.  (+info)

Mediastinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves. Mediastinal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from any of the tissues or organs within the mediastinum.

Benign mediastinal neoplasms may include thymomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, or teratomas, among others. These tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause symptoms or complications by compressing adjacent structures within the mediastinum, such as the airways, blood vessels, or nerves.

Malignant mediastinal neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Common types of malignant mediastinal neoplasms include thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors often require aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, to control their growth and spread.

It is important to note that mediastinal neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location, size, and type. Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may experience cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, or swallowing difficulties. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and biopsies, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the best course of treatment for mediastinal neoplasms.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Neoplasms of connective and soft tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the body's supportive tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and fat. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Lipomas: slow-growing, fatty tumors that develop under the skin.
- Fibromas: firm, benign tumors that develop in connective tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
- Nevi (plural of nevus): benign growths made up of cells called melanocytes, which produce pigment.

Malignant connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Sarcomas: a type of cancer that develops in the body's supportive tissues such as muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, or blood vessels. There are many different types of sarcomas, including liposarcoma (fatty tissue), rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), and osteosarcoma (bone).
- Desmoid tumors: a rare type of benign tumor that can become aggressive and invade surrounding tissues. While not considered cancerous, desmoid tumors can cause significant morbidity due to their tendency to grow and infiltrate nearby structures.

Connective and soft tissue neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the tumor.

Plasma cell neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates from plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. These cells are responsible for producing antibodies to help fight off infections. When plasma cells become cancerous and multiply out of control, they can form a tumor called a plasmacytoma.

There are two main types of plasma cell neoplasms: solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Solitary plasmacytoma is a localized tumor that typically forms in the bone, while multiple myeloma is a systemic disease that affects multiple bones and can cause a variety of symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and anemia.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diagnosed through a combination of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the stage and extent of the disease, but may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) is a specific type of cancer that forms in the ducts that carry digestive enzymes out of the pancreas. It's the most common form of exocrine pancreatic cancer, making up about 90% of all cases.

The symptoms of PDC are often vague and can include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), unexplained weight loss, and changes in bowel movements. These symptoms can be similar to those caused by other less serious conditions, which can make diagnosis difficult.

Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is often aggressive and difficult to treat. The prognosis for PDC is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of only about 9%. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. However, because PDC is often not detected until it has advanced, treatment is frequently focused on palliative care to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

A neoplasm of vascular tissue is an abnormal growth or mass of cells in the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are typically not harmful and may not require treatment. However, they can cause symptoms if they grow large enough to press on nearby organs or tissues. Malignant neoplasms, such as angiosarcomas, are cancerous and can invade and destroy surrounding tissue, as well as spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Treatment for vascular tissue neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the growth, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Radiation-induced neoplasms are a type of cancer or tumor that develops as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the formation of ions. This type of radiation can damage DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in the development of a neoplasm.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as that received during radiation therapy for cancer treatment or from nuclear accidents. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm depends on several factors, including the dose and duration of radiation exposure, the type of radiation, and the individual's genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced damage.

Radiation-induced neoplasms can take many years to develop after initial exposure to ionizing radiation, and they often occur at the site of previous radiation therapy. Common types of radiation-induced neoplasms include sarcomas, carcinomas, and thyroid cancer. It is important to note that while ionizing radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer, the overall risk is still relatively low, especially when compared to other well-established cancer risk factors such as smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.

Adenocarcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells and grows in a finger-like projection (called a papilla). This type of cancer can occur in various organs, including the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, and female reproductive system. The prognosis and treatment options for papillary adenocarcinoma depend on several factors, such as the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

Carcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the cells that line the glandular structures or the lining of organs. In a papillary carcinoma, the cancerous cells grow and form small finger-like projections, called papillae, within the tumor. This type of cancer most commonly occurs in the thyroid gland, but can also be found in other organs such as the lung, breast, and kidney. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis, especially when it is diagnosed at an early stage.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Neoplasms in muscle tissue refer to abnormal and excessive growths of muscle cells that can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from any of the three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle. Neoplasms in muscle tissue are classified based on their origin, behavior, and histological features.

Benign neoplasms in muscle tissue include leiomyomas (smooth muscle), rhabdomyomas (skeletal muscle), and myxomas (cardiac muscle). These tumors are usually slow-growing and do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant neoplasms in muscle tissue, also known as sarcomas, include leiomyosarcoma (smooth muscle), rhabdomyosarcoma (skeletal muscle), and angiosarcoma (cardiac muscle). These tumors are aggressive, invasive, and have the potential to metastasize to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of neoplasms in muscle tissue depend on their location, size, and type. They may include a painless or painful mass, weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing or breathing. Treatment options for neoplasms in muscle tissue include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the type, stage, location, and patient's overall health condition.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues that serve no purpose and can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Glandular and epithelial neoplasms refer to specific types of tumors that originate from the glandular and epithelial tissues, respectively.

Glandular neoplasms arise from the glandular tissue, which is responsible for producing and secreting substances such as hormones, enzymes, or other fluids. These neoplasms can be further classified into adenomas (benign) and adenocarcinomas (malignant).

Epithelial neoplasms, on the other hand, develop from the epithelial tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and the inner surfaces of cavities. These neoplasms can also be benign or malignant and are classified as papillomas (benign) and carcinomas (malignant).

It is important to note that while both glandular and epithelial neoplasms can become cancerous, not all of them do. However, if they do, the malignant versions can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body, making them potentially life-threatening.

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the mucin-producing cells in the lining of a cyst. It is a subtype of cystadenocarcinoma, which is a malignant tumor that develops within a cyst. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas are typically found in the ovary or pancreas but can also occur in other organs such as the appendix and the respiratory tract.

These tumors are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a gel-like substance that can accumulate within the cyst and cause it to grow. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas tend to grow slowly but can become quite large and may eventually spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Symptoms of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, changes in bowel movements, or vaginal bleeding. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for mucinous cystadenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis and the patient's overall health.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Neoplasms, adnexal and skin appendage refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the sweat glands, hair follicles, or other structures associated with the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur anywhere on the body.

Adnexal neoplasms are tumors that arise from the sweat glands or hair follicles, including the sebaceous glands, eccrine glands, and apocrine glands. These tumors can range in size and severity, and they may cause symptoms such as pain, itching, or changes in the appearance of the skin.

Skin appendage neoplasms are similar to adnexal neoplasms, but they specifically refer to tumors that arise from structures such as hair follicles, nails, and sweat glands. Examples of skin appendage neoplasms include pilomatricomas (tumors of the hair follicle), trichilemmomas (tumors of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle), and sebaceous adenomas (tumors of the sebaceous glands).

It is important to note that while many adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms are benign, some can be malignant and may require aggressive treatment. If you notice any unusual growths or changes in your skin, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and care.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Vascular neoplasms are a type of tumor that develops from cells that line the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign vascular neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are usually harmless and may not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications. Malignant vascular neoplasms, on the other hand, are known as angiosarcomas and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body and potentially causing serious health problems.

Angiosarcomas can develop in any part of the body but are most commonly found in the skin, particularly in areas exposed to radiation or chronic lymph edema. They can also occur in the breast, liver, spleen, and heart. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the sweat glands. These growths can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign sweat gland neoplasms include hidradenomas and syringomas, which are usually slow-growing and cause little to no symptoms. Malignant sweat gland neoplasms, also known as sweat gland carcinomas, are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as a lump or mass under the skin, pain, swelling, and redness. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the growth.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Palatal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur on the palate, which is the roof of the mouth. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, while malignant neoplasms are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and organs.

Palatal neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, environmental exposures, and viral infections. They may present with symptoms such as mouth pain, difficulty swallowing, swelling or lumps in the mouth, bleeding, or numbness in the mouth or face.

The diagnosis of palatal neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or spread of the neoplasm.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When referring to "Complex and Mixed Neoplasms," it is typically used in the context of histopathology, where it describes tumors with a mixture of different types of cells or growth patterns.

A complex neoplasm usually contains areas with various architectural patterns, cell types, or both, making its classification challenging. It may require extensive sampling and careful examination to determine its nature and behavior. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, depending on the specific characteristics of the tumor cells and their growth pattern.

A mixed neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor that contains more than one type of cell or tissue component, often arising from different germ layers (the three primary layers of embryonic development: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). A common example of a mixed neoplasm is a teratoma, which can contain tissues derived from all three germ layers, such as skin, hair, teeth, bone, and muscle. Mixed neoplasms can also be benign or malignant, depending on the specific components of the tumor.

It's important to note that the classification and behavior of complex and mixed neoplasms can vary significantly based on their location in the body, cellular composition, and other factors. Accurate diagnosis typically requires a thorough examination by an experienced pathologist and may involve additional tests, such as immunohistochemistry or molecular analysis, to determine the appropriate treatment and management strategies.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Mandibular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the mandible, which is the lower jawbone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and may metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Mandibular neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and infection with certain viruses. The symptoms of mandibular neoplasms may include swelling or pain in the jaw, difficulty chewing or speaking, numbness in the lower lip or chin, loose teeth, and/or a lump or mass in the mouth or neck.

The diagnosis of mandibular neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Cystadenocarcinoma is a type of tumor that arises from the epithelial lining of a cyst, and it has the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. It typically affects glandular organs such as the ovaries, pancreas, and salivary glands.

Cystadenocarcinomas can be classified into two types: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenocarcinomas produce a watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenocarcinomas produce a thick, mucus-like fluid. Both types of tumors can be benign or malignant, but malignant cystadenocarcinomas are more aggressive and have a higher risk of metastasis.

Symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma depend on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown large enough to cause pain or other problems. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with any affected surrounding tissue. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used in some cases to help prevent recurrence or spread of the cancer.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Splenic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the spleen, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can arise from various cell types present within the spleen, including hematopoietic cells (red and white blood cells, platelets), stromal cells (supporting tissue), or lymphoid cells (part of the immune system).

There are several types of splenic neoplasms:

1. Hematologic malignancies: These are cancers that affect the blood and bone marrow, such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. They often involve the spleen, causing enlargement (splenomegaly) and neoplastic infiltration of splenic tissue.
2. Primary splenic tumors: These are rare and include benign lesions like hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, and hamartomas, as well as malignant tumors such as angiosarcoma, littoral cell angiosarcoma, and primary splenic lymphoma.
3. Metastatic splenic tumors: These occur when cancer cells from other primary sites spread (metastasize) to the spleen. Common sources of metastasis include lung, breast, colon, and ovarian cancers, as well as melanomas and sarcomas.

Symptoms of splenic neoplasms may vary depending on the type and extent of the disease but often include abdominal pain or discomfort, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and sometimes requires a biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the type of neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

A serous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the serous glands, which are glands that produce a watery, lubricating fluid. This type of tumor typically develops in the ovary or the pancreas.

Serous cystadenomas of the ovary are usually filled with a clear, watery fluid and have multiple loculations (compartments). They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Although these tumors are benign, they can cause symptoms if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or if they rupture and release their contents into the abdominal cavity.

Serous cystadenomas of the pancreas are less common than ovarian serous cystadenomas. They typically occur in the tail of the pancreas and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. These tumors are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort if they become large enough to press on surrounding organs.

It is important to note that while serous cystadenomas are generally benign, there is a small risk that they may undergo malignant transformation and develop into a type of cancer known as a serous cystadenocarcinoma. For this reason, it is important for patients with these tumors to be followed closely by a healthcare provider and to have regular imaging studies and/or surgical excision to monitor for any changes in the tumor.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Maxillary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the maxilla, which is the upper jaw bone. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites.

Maxillary neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as swelling, pain, numbness, loose teeth, or difficulty in chewing or swallowing. They may also cause nasal congestion, nosebleeds, or visual changes if they affect the eye or orbit. The diagnosis of maxillary neoplasms usually involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor.

Treatment options for maxillary neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis and ensure optimal outcomes.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Anal gland neoplasms, also known as anal sac tumors, are abnormal growths that develop from the cells lining the anal glands. These glands are located on either side of the anus in dogs and some other animals, and they produce a scent used for marking territory.

Anal gland neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors are more common and tend to grow quickly, invading surrounding tissues and spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis). Common symptoms of anal gland neoplasms include straining to defecate, bleeding from the rectum, and a firm mass that can be felt near the anus.

Treatment for anal gland neoplasms typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended. The prognosis for animals with anal gland neoplasms depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, and the overall health of the animal.

Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are types of tumors that originate from the abnormal growth of cells. Here's a brief medical definition for each:

1. Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths or masses, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled cell division and may invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis.
2. Germ Cell Tumors: These are rare tumors that develop from the germ cells, which give rise to sperm and eggs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). They can be benign or malignant and may occur in both children and adults. Germ cell tumors can also arise outside of the reproductive organs, a condition known as extragonadal germ cell tumors.
3. Embryonal Tumors: These are a type of malignant neoplasm that primarily affects infants and young children. They develop from embryonic cells, which are immature cells present during fetal development. Embryonal tumors can occur in various organs, including the brain (medulloblastomas), nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumors or PNETs), and other areas like the kidneys and liver.

It is essential to note that these conditions require professional medical evaluation and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in oncology and related fields.

Bone marrow neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. These neoplasms can be divided into two main categories: hematologic (or liquid) malignancies and solid tumors.

Hematologic malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells, which normally fight infections. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding.

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which helps to fight infections and remove waste from the body. Lymphoma can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, leading to bone damage, anemia, and an increased risk of infection.

Solid tumors of the bone marrow are rare and include conditions such as chordomas, Ewing sarcomas, and osteosarcomas. These cancers originate in the bones themselves or in other tissues that support the bones, but they can also spread to the bone marrow.

Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplasms in adipose tissue refer to abnormal and excessive growths of cells that form tumors within the fatty connective tissue. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms, such as lipomas, are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body (metastasis). An example of a malignant neoplasm in adipose tissue is liposarcoma. It's important to note that while some neoplasms may not cause any symptoms, others can cause pain, swelling or other uncomfortable sensations, and therefore should be evaluated by a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

Duodenal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives digestive secretions from the pancreas and bile duct. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms include adenomas, leiomyomas, lipomas, and hamartomas. They are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, or obstruction of the intestine.

Malignant neoplasms include adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), lymphomas, and sarcomas. They are more aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, anemia, or bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms is usually made through imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI, or endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

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Bernatz rapidly acquired clinical experience with the treatment of thymoma, a potentially-aggressive mediastinal neoplasm which ... Kaiser LR: Surgical treatment of thymic epithelial neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008; 22: 475-488. Skeie GO, Romi F: ...
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Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma Mast cell leukemia Mediastinal large B cell lymphoma Multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm ...
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... vascular neoplasms MeSH C04.588.894.309 - heart neoplasms MeSH C04.588.894.479 - mediastinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.894.797 - ... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 - spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588.180.390 ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.250.250 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 - skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 - jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450.583 ...
Historically, mature histiocytic and dendritic cell (HDC) neoplasms have been considered mature lymphoid neoplasms, since these ... CD7 It often presents as a mediastinal mass because of involvement of the thymus. It is highly associated with NOTCH1 mutations ... lymphoma classification should reflect in which lymphocyte population the neoplasm arises. Thus, neoplasms that arise from ... July 2009). "The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: ...
... (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ-cell tumors can be cancerous or benign. Germ cells normally ... Bebb GG, Grannis FW, Paz IB, Slovak ML, Chilcote R (August 1998). "Mediastinal germ cell tumor in a child with precocious ... Teratocarcinoma at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Clinical Image: Mediastinal Teratoma ... Of all anterior mediastinal tumors, 15-20% are GCTs of which about 50% are benign teratomas. Ovarian teratomas may be ...
Baranov E, Hornick JL (March 2020). "Soft Tissue Special Issue: Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ... Manappallil RG, Nambiar H, Mampilly N, Harigovind D (December 2019). "Superior vena cava syndrome due to mediastinal Gardner ... a mediastinal GF has caused the life-threatening superior vena cava syndrome); retropharyngeal space, i.e. space behind the ... Connective and soft tissue neoplasms, Benign neoplasms). ...
CEBPA mutation Myeloid neoplasms with germline DDX41 mutation Myeloid neoplasms with germline RUNX1 mutation Myeloid neoplasms ... grade 3 Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma ALK-positive large B-cell ... neoplasms with PDGFRA rearrangement Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with PDGFRB rearrangement Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 ... NOS Lymphoid neoplasms Precursor lymphoid neoplasms B-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma, NOS B-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma ...
... of the neoplasms associated with the BRD4-NUTM1 fusion gene. These questions also apply to a wide range of neoplasms that have ... and mediastinal areas, occasionally develops in the salivary glands, pancreas, urinary bladder, retroperitoneum (i.e. space ... It is generally accepted that the BRD4-NUT protein promotes these neoplasms by maintaining their neoplastic cells in a ... Luo W, Stevens TM, Stafford P, Miettinen M, Gatalica Z, Vranic S (November 2021). "NUTM1-Rearranged Neoplasms-A Heterogeneous ...
Other neoplasms (or sources of inflammation) should therefore be considered in known or suspected LAM cases in which FDG-PET ... Other CT features include linear densities (29%), hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy (9%), pneumothorax, lymphangiomyoma, and ...
Spivach A, Borea B, Bertoli G, Daris G (July 1976). "[Primary lung neoplasm of rare incidence: giant cell carcinoma]". Minerva ... and potentially difficult differential diagnostic dilemma occurs when GCCLs must be separated from pulmonary or mediastinal ... The new paradigm recognizes that lung cancers are a large and extremely heterogeneous family of malignant neoplasms, with over ... Travis WD (November 2010). "Sarcomatoid neoplasms of the lung and pleura". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 134 (11): 1645-58. doi: ...
G1 and G2 neuroendocrine neoplasms are called neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) - formerly called carcinoid tumours. G3 neoplasms ... Soga J, Yakuwa Y, Osaka M (October 1999). "Evaluation of 342 cases of mediastinal/thymic carcinoids collected from literature: ... Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common ... Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. They most ...
A later-appearing metastasis within mediastinal lymph nodes in the same case also showed a durable response to a taxane alone. ... They also more frequently express "non-carcinomatous" markers typically associated with "dedifferentiated" neoplasms. ... rhabdoid neoplasms (i.e. those that do not contain cells containing other histological variants) Lung cancers are now ... a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. Despite their microscopic similarities, LCLC-RP is not associated ...
... in human normal organs and mediastinal and pulmonary tumors". Pathology, Research and Practice. 195 (8): 571-4. doi:10.1016/ ... and Foxn1 in thymic epithelial neoplasms". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 31 (7): 1038-44. doi:10.1097/PAS. ...
... is an undifferentiated neoplasm composed of primitive-appearing cells. As the name implies, the cells in ... There is usually early involvement of the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. The mechanisms of its metastatic progression are ...
Mediastinal pseudocysts, a rare form of pancreatic pseudocysts in the abdomen, may cause dysphagia, dyspnea, airway obstruction ... The CT scan's weakness is its lack of differentiation between pseudocysts and cystic neoplasm. Also, the intravenous contrast ...
... neoplasm - nephrotomogram - nephrotoxic - nephroureterectomy - nerve block - nerve grafting - nerve-sparing radical ... mediastinal pleura - mediastinoscopy - mediastinum - medical castration - medical oncologist - medroxyprogesterone - medullary ... Hürthle cell neoplasm - hydrazine sulfate - hydromorphone - hydronephrosis - hydroureter - hydroxychloroquine - hydroxyurea - ...
It often presents as a mediastinal mass because of involvement of the thymus. It is highly associated with NOTCH1 mutations. ... cell neoplasms: aggressive NK cell leukemia and extranodal NK cell lymphoma, nasal type". Ann. Oncol. 21 (5): 1032-40. doi: ...
Axillary, inguinal, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy are also found in Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease. Accumulation of ... "Revised classification of histiocytoses and neoplasms of the macrophage-dendritic cell lineages". Blood. 127 (22): 2672-2681. ...
Increase in venous pressure can be due to venous sinus thrombosis, heart failure, or obstruction of superior mediastinal or ... In cases of confirmed brain neoplasm, dexamethasone is given to decrease ICP. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, current ...
These findings can differentiate LGFMS from various spindle-shaped cell and myxoid neoplasms including benign soft tissue ... "Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma incidentally discovered as an asymptomatic mediastinal mass: a case report and review of the ... A report of two metastasizing neoplasms having a deceptively benign appearance". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 88 (5 ... Connective and soft tissue neoplasms, Cancer, Sarcoma). ...
Saito K, Katsumata Y, Hirabuki T, Kato K, Yamanaka M (2007). "Fetus-in-fetu: parasite or neoplasm? A study of two cases". Fetal ... Testicular teratomas present as a palpable mass in the testis; mediastinal teratomas often cause compression of the lungs or ... It can be confused with other small round cell neoplasms such as neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type, ... Ovarian Neoplasm Imaging. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 165. ISBN 9781461486336. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". ...
Hodgkin's disease Signs and Symptoms Painless mass in the neck Persistent cough secondary to a mediastinal mass Less commonly: ... cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 ( ...
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa CO2) is elevated above the normal range (>44 mm Hg) leading to a blood pH lower than 7.35.
C R Nichols; N A Heerema; C Palmer (1987). "Klinefelters syndrome associated with mediastinal germ cell neoplasms". Journal of ... The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. In addition to ... Mediastinitis Mediastinal fibrosis Mediastinum Alan Sandler (1997). "Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors". Semin Respir Crit Care Med ... However, the cardiotoxicity of mediastinal radiation is substantial and the standard treatment of mediastinal seminomas is with ...
MEDIASTINAL SOFT TISSUE TUMORS. Mesenchymal neoplasms of the mediastinum are very rare, and they only account for about 2% to 6 ... Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is derived from thymic B cells and ... MEDIASTINAL GERM CELL TUMORS. Germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 15% of adult mediastinal tumors as the second most common tumor ... Mediastinal metastatic clear cell sarcoma. Fine-needle aspiration from a large mediastinal mass in a 20-year-old man. A, The ...
Syndromes Associated with Mediastinal Nonseminomatour Germ Cell Tumors ... All hematologic neoplasms developed in the 287 patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, for a 2% incidence ... However, the specific association of leukemias and other hematologic neoplasms with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell ... The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. In addition to ...
Hauck F, Heine S, Beier R, Wieczorek K, Müller D, Hahn G. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mimicking neoplasms: a suspected ... mediastinal teratoma unmasking as thymic granulomas due to X-linked CGD, and 2 related cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Dec ...
Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. This definition excludes other tumors that may affect the thymus, such as ... Primary anterior mediastinal neoplasms account for 50% of all mediastinal masses, and 45% of anterior mediastinal masses are ... 4] Other anterior mediastinal malignancies include lymphoma (20%), parathyroid or thyroid tumors (15%), germ cell neoplasms (15 ... of pediatric mediastinal tumors, compared with 36% of adult mediastinal tumors. (Neurogenic tumors, germ cell tumors, lymphomas ...
The prevalence of neoplasia within the study population was 3.2%. The most commonly diagnosed neoplasms were squamous cell ... The majority (3/4 [75%]) of mediastinal thymoma neoplasms were considered incidental findings as they did not have associated ... The remaining 4 goats with cranial mediastinal thymomas and the 1 goat with both ventral cervical and cranial mediastinal ... Four of the uterine neoplasms were leiomyosarcoma (4/6 [67%]) with the remaining neoplasms identified as leiomyofibroma (1/6 [ ...
EUS-FNA has the potential to perform mediastinal tissue sampling more accurate than TBNA, PTNB, and mediastinoscopy, with fewer ... PET has the highest accuracy in the mediastinal staging of NSCLC, but is not generally used yet. ... Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging * Lung Neoplasms / pathology* * Lymph Nodes / pathology * Lymphatic Metastasis ... Current concepts in the mediastinal lymph node staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer Ann Surg. 2003 Aug;238(2):180-8. doi: ...
Lung Neoplasms. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective ... Lung Neoplasms. lymph node metastasis. male. Mediastinal Neoplasms. middle aged. mortality. multimodality cancer therapy. ... Number of mediastinal lymph nodes as a prognostic factor in PN2 non small cell lung cancer: A single centre experience and ... Therefore we evaluated the number of mediastinal lymph nodes as a prognostic factor in locally advanced NSCLC after ...
Neoplasms, Experimental (0) * Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent (0) * Neoplasms, Multiple Primary (0) * Neoplasms, Post-Traumatic (0 ...
Respiratory acidosis occurs when the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa CO2) is elevated above the normal range (>44 mm Hg) leading to a blood pH lower than 7.35.
Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma (PMBL) is a rare neoplasm that arises in the mediastinum, and then forms a mass. A ... Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, difficult differentiation from the epithelial neoplasm. *Case Report ...
Mediastinal and Other Neoplasms - Videos & Audios & PDF. 6. Obstructive Lung Disease (4). ...
Neurogenic tumors represent approximately 30% of all mediastinal neoplasms; most are BNTs, which have a good prognosis after ... of all pediatric mediastinal neoplasms [1]. Among these cases, malignant neurogenic tumor (MNT) of the thorax is rare. Although ... A posterior mediastinal tumor was detected on chest CT in a 17-year-old male without signs of neurofibromatosis type 1. Both ... An abnormal shadow was detected on a chest radiograph in a 42-year-old female; a posterior mediastinal tumor was revealed on ...
Ectopic Anterior Mediastinal Pancreas: An Unusual Case of New Onset Hemoptysis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2022 05; 113(5):e367-e369. ... Case 16-2022: A 55-Year-Old Man with Fevers, Night Sweats, and a Mediastinal Mass. N Engl J Med. 2022 05 26; 386(21):2036-2048. ... Mediastinal Neoplasms. *Mediastinum. *Thoracic Diseases. *Radiography, Thoracic. *Respiratory System Abnormalities. * ... "Mediastinal Diseases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
Baseline Radiomic CT Features Differentiate Mediastinal Masses As Thymic Neoplasms Or Lymphomas 1-gen-2019 Ninatti, G; Kirienko ... Baseline Radiomic CT Features Differentiate Mediastinal Masses As Thymic Neoplasms Or Lymphomas. ... Computed tomography (CT)-derived radiomic features differentiate prevascular mediastinum masses as thymic neoplasms versus ... Computed tomography (CT)-derived radiomic features differentiate prevascular mediastinum masses as thymic neoplasms versus ...
Thymic neuroendocrine tumours are rare anterior mediastinal neoplasms often associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. A patient ... In highly malignant esophageal neoplasms, however, the status of p16 has remained largely unknown. We immunolocalized p16 and ... Nevertheless, patients clinical outcome of these neoplasms significantly differs; therefore, small-cell carcinomas have to be ... BACKGROUND: Previously, only six cases of mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNENs) with squamous cell ...
We report the case of a 7-month-old infant with a superior mediastinal mass extending into the right chest, who was referred to ... Tuberculosis has not been reported to be a cause of mediastinal masses in previous case series of mediastinal masses in ... Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Infant, Mediastinal Diseases, Mediastinal Neoplasms, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Tuberculosis ... Tuberculosis has not been reported to be a cause of mediastinal masses in previous case series of mediastinal masses in ...
Consider mediastinal node sampling.". So my oncologist has referred me to a pulmonologist to have a biopsy by EBUS. Meet with ... This could be due to primary lung neoplasm, inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, or metastatic disease. ... "interval development of extensive hyper metabolic and pathologically enlarged hilar/mediastinal adenopathy. In addition there ...
Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. This definition excludes other tumors that may affect the thymus, such as ... Primary anterior mediastinal neoplasms account for 50% of all mediastinal masses, and 45% of anterior mediastinal masses are ... 4] Other anterior mediastinal malignancies include lymphoma (20%), parathyroid or thyroid tumors (15%), germ cell neoplasms (15 ... of pediatric mediastinal tumors, compared with 36% of adult mediastinal tumors. (Neurogenic tumors, germ cell tumors, lymphomas ...
Anja C. Roden, M.D., studies mediastinal neoplasms such as thymic epithelial tumors and primary mediastinal germ cell tumors ... Anja C. Roden, M.D., studies mediastinal neoplasms such as thymic epithelial tumors and primary mediastinal germ cell tumors ... In addition, she actively participates in multidisciplinary global studies of mediastinal neoplasms and multi-institutional ...
View other providers who treat Benign Mediastinal Tumor Benign Neoplasm of the Digestive System ...
... parathyroid neoplasms. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms ... Minimally Invasive Management of Mediastinal .... Minimally Invasive Management of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenomas ... ... Parathyroid neoplasms. Parathyroid surgery: 12 hrs after tumor removal w .... On 11/28/12 I had parathyroid surgery with Dr. ...
Chemodectomas are neoplasms of chemoreceptor cells of the aortic and carotid bodies. They may appear as discrete, well ... encapsulated or infiltrative masses, around the great vessels and mediastinal structures.. Less commonly, there is direct ...
Neoplasms, benign, malignant, and unspecified: Uterine leiomyoma degeneration. Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders ...
Dive into the research topics of Thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal tumors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Mediastinal Neoplasms:complications, Middle Aged, Thyroid Neoplasms:complications, Tomography, X-Ray C. : A rare case with ...
Dive into the research topics of Thoracoscopic removal of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Together they form a ...
  • Rare cases of adult onset acute megakaryoblastic leukemia are associated with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases, the mediastinal germ cell tumor develops before or concomitantly with but not after acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of a mediastinal germ cell tumor should be considered in all young males with a mediastinal mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though not a primary tumor of the mediastinum, substernal extension of the cervical thyroid gland is discussed in this article because it is a relatively common problem and is traditionally considered one of the differential diagnoses of an anterior mediastinal mass. (medscape.com)
  • 11. [Treatment of mediastinal tumor]. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Surgical treatment of malignant mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment selection for a given mediastinal tumor or cyst depends on the diagnosis of the lesion being investigated. (medscape.com)
  • Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike benign germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, malignant mediastinal tumors are usually symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment for mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors should follow guidelines for poor-prognosis testicular cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are much less common than germ cell tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syndromes associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors include Hematologic Neoplasia and Klinefelter's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediastinal and other extragonadal germ cell tumors were initially thought to represent isolated metastases from an inapparent gonadal primary site. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20. Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. (nih.gov)
  • Anterior mediastinal masses include germ cell tumors , lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and masses arising from the thyroid. (medscape.com)
  • The only known risk factor for extragonadal germ cell tumors is Klinefelter syndrome (47XXY), which is associated with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, which are characterized by their location on the midline from the pineal gland to the coccyx. (medscape.com)
  • According to this theory, the differences in phenotypes expressed by mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) and gonadal germ cell tumors may be explained by differences in the cellular environment between the gonad and the anterior mediastinum. (medscape.com)
  • Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounting for 2% to 4% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma (MGZL) has immunopathologic features between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and primary mediastinal thymic B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), leading to uncertainty regarding its biological relationship to these entities. (nih.gov)
  • This could be due to primary lung neoplasm, inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, or metastatic disease. (cancer.org)
  • In view of this observation, the Lung Cancer Study Group recommends that all patients have rigorous mediastinal lymph node staging done at the time of pulmonary resection to establish prognosis and criteria for study of adjuvant treatment interventions. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • A relatively common mass identified as an anterior mediastinal mass is a substernal extension of a thyroid goiter . (medscape.com)
  • The Endocrine Surgery service treatment for patients with thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal gland neoplasms as well as neuroendocrine tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Riedel's thyroiditis causes intense fibrosis of the thyroid and surrounding structures, leading to an induration of the tissues in the neck, and may be associated with mediastinal and retroperitoneal fibrosis. (family-health-information.com)
  • This rare disorder needs to be differentiated from thyroid neoplasm. (family-health-information.com)
  • For instance, mediastinal irradiation has been associated with late cardiovascular ( 2 ) and pulmonary toxicity ( 3 ), along with increased risks of secondary malignancies, including neoplasms of the thyroid, breast, and lung ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Following craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma, secondary neoplasms are among the most serious long-term sequelae that include leukemias and solid tumors of the urinary or digestive tracts, thyroid, skin, and central nervous system. (amjcaserep.com)
  • It is already used commonly for biopsy of masses and lymph nodes and has also been described for resection of various mediastinal cysts, mediastinal parathyroid adenomas, and localized benign tumors of the posterior mediastinum, such as ganglioneuromas. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from Schwann cells. (journalcra.com)
  • A continuum of differentiation from thymoma to thymic carcinoma is apparent, and primary thymic epithelial neoplasms can have features of both. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with potentially malignant or suspicious lesions, or with biopsy proven lung cancers or esophageal cancers, malignant pleural mesotheliomas, mediastinal or chest wall neoplasms, thymoma/thymic carcinomas, or thoracic metastases from cancers of non-thoracic origin. (nih.gov)
  • Thymoma and thymic carcinoma originate within the epithelial cells of the thymus, resulting in an anterior mediastinal mass. (cancer.gov)
  • The term thymoma is customarily used to describe neoplasms that show no overt atypia of the epithelial component. (cancer.gov)
  • Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Mediastinitis Mediastinal fibrosis Mediastinum Alan Sandler (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any discussion of neoplasms or other masses found within the mediastinum requires delineation of the boundaries of that area. (medscape.com)
  • While neoplasms of the middle mediastinum are most commonly of lymphatic origin, neurogenic tumors also occasionally occur in this area. (medscape.com)
  • Neurogenic tumors are, by far, the most common neoplasm of the posterior mediastinum. (medscape.com)
  • However, an anteroposterior chest x-ray revealed a widened mediastinum, and the trans-thoracic echocardiogram performed to exclude an intracardiac thrombus before cardioversion showed a mediastinal mass. (asahq.org)
  • 12. [Percutaneous fine needle biopsy for malignant mediastinal tumors]. (nih.gov)
  • INTRODUCTION: The presence of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy and mediastinal masses in the pediatric population often presents a diagnostic challenge. (duke.edu)
  • All patients with pulmonary, mediastinal or paravertebral mass who underwent CT guided intrathoracic biopsy were included in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CT Chest Indications: To assess equivocal plain x-ray findings Staging of lung neoplasm Merastatic workup of extra thoraces malignancies Diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases with HRCT Assessment of bronchietasis Assessment of suspected posttraumatic complications Diagnosis of mediastinal and chest wall lesions Diagnosis of suspected pulmmary embolism HRCT TECHNIQUE - FoV S Field of view is minimized, so as to minimize the size of each pixel. (desertdingo.com)
  • Objective To explore the features of various mediastinal lymphadenopathies using computed tomography perfusion (CTP).Methods CTP parameters (CTPs) of the selected mediastinal nodes from 59 patients with pathology-proven malignant lymph nodes and of those from 29 patients with clinically diagnosed or pathology-proven inflammatory lymphadenopathies were collected. (cams.cn)
  • Pure mediastinal seminomas are curable in the large majority of patients, even when metastatic at the time of diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, modalities such as positron emission tomoggraphy (PET) and radionuclide studies may be able to assist in the diagnosis of specific neoplasms and in posttherapy surveillance for recurrent disease. (medscape.com)
  • The histologic diagnosis of thymic neoplasms can be difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Due to the low overall procedural risk of EBUS-TBNA, it should be considered as a potential first line diagnostic option for children presenting with mediastinal or hilar abnormalities but further prospective studies are needed. (duke.edu)
  • The radiologist's impression reads "interval development of extensive hyper metabolic and pathologically enlarged hilar/mediastinal adenopathy. (cancer.org)
  • CT scan showed confluent ill-defined areas of consolidation with multiple thin-walled cavitations at the upper lobe of the right lung and multiple mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes (Figure 2 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 18. Surgical treatment of malignant mediastinal neurogenic tumors in children. (nih.gov)
  • Neoplasms and other masses originating from vascular or mesenchymal tissues also may be found. (medscape.com)
  • For patients who present with mediastinal masses, an extensive differential should come to mind. (medscape.com)
  • Background Anterior mediastinal masses are a rare but well documented finding in Graves disease. (ecu.edu)
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is part of the armamentarium of the thoracic surgeon for treatment of a number of mediastinal diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical removal is not indicated as primary treatment for some specific mediastinal tumors and cysts. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Primary mediastinal malignancies in children: report of 22 patients and comparison to 197 adults. (nih.gov)
  • Method: Articles were selected by searching the Scopus, Scielo, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the Key words: schwannoma, neurinoma, neurilemmoma, nerve tissue neoplasm, thoracotomy, thoracoscopy and mediastinal neoplasms. (journalcra.com)
  • When the patient was seven days old, she underwent a posterolateral thoracotomy with resection of the mediastinal mass and removal of 40 mL of straw-colored fluid. (jbjs.org)
  • Primary resection is the treatment of choice for neurogenic tumors of paraganglionic origin, which include paraganglionoma, chemodectoma, and mediastinal pheochromocytoma. (medscape.com)
  • Standard therapy includes en-bloc resection, with accompanying radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy if complete resection is not possible. (medscape.com)
  • Needle placement in small pulmonary lesions or deep mediastinal nodes can be accurately determined with CT, and vascular and cardiac structures are well demonstrated and safely avoided [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare low-grade vascular neoplasm that can arise in the lung, liver, soft tissues or, less commonly, bone. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • A malignant neoplasm arising from the vascular tissue. (nih.gov)
  • From the archives of the AFIP: primary vascular neoplasms of the spleen: radiologic-pathologic correlation. (nih.gov)
  • However, the cardiotoxicity of mediastinal radiation is substantial and the standard treatment of mediastinal seminomas is with chemotherapy using bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for either three or four 21-day treatment cycles depending on the location of any metastatic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Thoracic Surgery service treats patients with primary or metastatic disease of the lung in addition to mediastinal pathology. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Clinical spectrum of primary mediastinal tumors: a comparison of adult and pediatric populations at a single Japanese institution. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Treatment of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas]. (nih.gov)
  • Twenty-nine patients in the study had mediastinal primary tumors, and nine patients (31%) had Klinefelter syndrome. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • Characterisation of malignant mediastinal lymphoid neoplasm (Sternberg sarcoma) as thymic in origin. (nih.gov)
  • Thymic carcinoma exhibits aggressive cytologic features with evidence of mediastinal invasion in the majority of patients. (medscape.com)
  • This is a retrospective study on 201 cases of cervical neoplasm comprising of 129 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 72 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). (ijpmonline.org)
  • Radiation Induced Multiple Skin Neoplasms Following Craniospinal Irradiation for Medulloblastoma. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Representative image from the infusion computerized tomography shows a large posterior mediastinal, inhomogeneous mass located between the heart and the descending aorta. (asahq.org)
  • Angiographic techniques using localized intra-arterial injection of hypertonic contrast and embolization techniques have been used in several centers to obliterate mediastinal parathyroid adenomas. (medscape.com)
  • Fifteen (6 females, 9 males) pediatric HL patients treated with mediastinal RT were analyzed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Akimbo arm positioning may be advantageous to decrease breast doses in female pediatric HL patients undergoing mediastinal RT, especially in the absence of axillary disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • After Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee approval at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, we retrospectively identified and reviewed the treatment plans of pediatric HL patients treated with mediastinal RT at our institution from 2008 to 2013. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mediastinal neoplasms in patients with Graves disease: a possible link between sustained hyperthyroidism and thymic neoplasia? (ecu.edu)
  • This is the first study to examine whether arm positioning (raised versus akimbo) result in differential cardiopulmonary and breast doses in patients undergoing mediastinal RT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Few candidates considered the significant risk of sedating/anaesthetising patients with a mediastinal mass. (derangedphysiology.com)
  • Isolated cystic abnormalities of lymphatic origin, such as hygromas or lymphangiomas, can develop within the middle mediastinal compartment but are more often extensions of these abnormalities from cervical lymphatics. (medscape.com)
  • Features of Computed Tomography Perfusion of Mediastinal Lymphadenopathies: a Pathology-based Retrospective Study[J].Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, 2015, 30(3): 162-169. (cams.cn)
  • A total of 130 cases were evaluated, out of which 108 (83.1%) were pulmonary, 16 (12.3%) were mediastinal and 6 (4.6%) were paravertebral. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we discuss the case of a 58 year-old gentleman with mediastinal EHE and review existing literature on pulmonary EHE (PEH). (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The initial chest radiograph showed a large right-sided effusion with a mediastinal shift. (jbjs.org)
  • They usually present incidentally as mediastinal widening on chest X-ray, with thromboembolism or mass effect on adjacent structures, or rupture. (amegroups.org)
  • The mass was removed en bloc. (jbjs.org)
  • Maffucci syndrome is a rare cause of mediastinal mass, but the principles at play in this case report are common and important and highlight the role of the anesthesiologist as consultant. (asahq.org)
  • Most mediastinal GCTs in adolescents and young adults occur in males, and 22% to 50% have cytogenetic changes consistent with Klinefelter syndrome. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • This study aims to determine the expression of p16 INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm. (ijpmonline.org)