Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsLymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 43 patients from the Nebraska Lymphoma Study Group. (1/673)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a more aggressive course than other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with CD20-positive DLBL who presented with a mediastinal mass measuring at least 5.0 cm and were treated with curative intent were identified. A control group of 352 patients with nonmediastinal DLBL was selected for comparison. RESULTS: The 43 patients with PMLBL had a male to female ratio of 20:23 and a median age of 42 years. Stage I/II disease was present in 58% of the patients, with only 9% having bone marrow involvement. A complete remission was achieved in 63% of the patients, and the 5-year overall and failure-free survivals were 46% and 38%, respectively. Among the clinical variables, an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, a low performance score, more than one extranodal site, and an intermediate or high International Prognostic Index score were predictive of poor survival. When compared with the DLBL group, a younger median age was the only clinical feature that was significantly different in the PMLBL group. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of PMLBL do not appear to be significantly different from those of nonmediastinal DLBL. Although the younger age of onset, slight female predominance, mediastinal location, and size of the mass may justify the recognition of PMLBL as a clinical syndrome, additional evidence is needed to define it as a distinct disease entity.  (+info)

Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy. (2/673)

A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin.  (+info)

Diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal masses in patients with intrapulmonary lesions and nondiagnostic bronchoscopy. (3/673)

Several procedures are available for the cytopathological diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with mediastinal mass lesions/lymph node enlargement. All patients had intrapulmonary lesions on chest X ray and/or CT scan, and inconclusive findings by endobronchial forceps biopsy and/or brush cytology. EUS-guided FNA was performed in 16 patients using a modified oblique forward-viewing gastroscope with an electronic multielement curved linear ultrasound transducer. After the region of interest was localized, a 22-gauge Vilmann-Hancke needle was introduced via the 2-mm biopsy channel. The cytological diagnosis of EUS-guided FNA was conclusive for cancer in 9 patients and in the other 7 patients the aspirated samples revealed a benign lesion. In 10 patients the final diagnosis was cancer, thus EUS-guided FNA was diagnostic for malignancy in all but 1 of the lesions (sensitivity 90.0%). In 1 patient epitheloid cell granuloma was detected by cytological examination of the FNA. Following tuberculostatic treatment the lesions disappeared completely on CT scan and EUS. The overall accuracy in this study amounted to 93.7%. From this and other studies discussed, it is assumed that the procedure is an accurate and safe technique to examine nodular lesions suggestive of metastatic lymph node involvement.  (+info)

Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients. (4/673)

The purpose of this study was to determine the demographics, histology, methods of treatment, and survival in primary mediastinal malignancies. We did a retrospective review of the statewide New Mexico Tumor Registry for all malignant tumors treated between January 1, 1973 and December 31, 1995. Benign tumors and cysts of the mediastinum were excluded. Two hundred nineteen patients were identified from a total of 110,284 patients with primary malignancies: 55% of tumors were lymphomas, 16% malignant germ cell tumors, 14% malignant thymomas, 5% sarcomas, 3% malignant neurogenic tumors, and 7% other tumors. There were significant differences in gender between histologies (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of germ cell tumors occurred in males, 66% of neurogenic tumors were in females; other tumors occurred in males in 58% of cases. There were also significant differences in ages by histology (P < 0.001). Neurogenic tumors were most common in the first decade, lymphomas and germ cell tumors in the second to fourth decades, and lymphomas and thymomas in patients in their fifth decades and beyond. Stage at presentation (P = 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) also differed significantly between histologic groups. Five-year survival was 54% for lymphomas, 51% for malignant germ cell tumors, 49% for malignant thymomas, 33% for sarcomas, 56% for neurogenic tumors, and 51% overall. These survival rates were not statistically different (P > 0.50). Lymphomas, malignant germ cell tumors, and thymomas were the most frequently encountered malignant primary mediastinal neoplasms in this contemporary series of patients. Demographics, stage at presentation, and treatment modality varied significantly by histology. Despite these differences, overall five-year survival was not statistically different.  (+info)

Thymic carcinoma of the thymic hormone secretory type in a cow. (5/673)

An 8-year-old Holstein cow had tumor nodules and enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, and metastatic tumor masses in the pelvic cavity. The neoplastic cells were characterized by squamous features and intracytoplasmic vacuoles carrying microvilli, some of which contained periodic acid Schiff-positive globular cores, but tubular structures or goblet cells were absent. Many neoplastic cells stained positively for keratin, and occasional cells were positive for thymosin. The presence of secretory granules in the cytoplasm was confirmed by electron microscopy. This neoplasm was considered to be of thymic hormone-secreting epithelial cell origin.  (+info)

Core needle biopsy is effective in the initial diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. (6/673)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: With the development and refinement of guidance modalities for percutaneous biopsies, many investigators have reported studies supporting the role of guided core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. The aims of this report are to evaluate the efficacy of findings at core needle biopsy of mediastinal masses on patient care and define the key determinants of clinical success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fluoroscopy-guided (in 75 patients) and computed tomography-guided (in 8 patients) core needle biopsies were performed in 83 patients with mediastinal lymphoma: all but one of the patients were at first diagnosis. All the biopsies were performed using a Menghini needle (from 1.2 mm to 1.8 mm). In the vast majority of cases the 1.8 mm gauge was employed. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity for the diagnosis of lymphoma was 81% (67/83 cases). In the remaining 16 patients the lymphoma diagnosis was reached either by mediastinoscopy (11 cases) or anterior mediastinotomy (3 cases) or core needle biopsy of the lung (1 case); one patient was treated directly after the needle biopsy had been unsuccessful because he needed rapid therapy. In 77/82 (93%) patients it was possible to assess the specific histotype. There was no operative mortality; all the biopsies were performed on an outpatient basis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that core needle biopsy should be considered as an effective and safe procedure in the diagnosis of patients with mediastinal lymphoma with the possibility of determining the tumor subtype and subsequent specific treatment.  (+info)

Diagnostic role of gallium scanning in the management of lymphoma with mediastinal involvement. (7/673)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Therapy of both Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with mediastinal presentation at the time of diagnosis is frequently followed by radiological detection of residual masses. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is generally unable to detect the differences between tumor tissue and fibrosis. Gallium-67-citrate single photon emission ((67)GaSPECT) can potentially differentiate residual active tumor tissue from fibrosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients with HD or aggressive NHL presenting mediastinal involvement (64% with a bulky mass) were studied with CT and (67)GaSPECT at the end of combined modality therapy (chemo- and radiation therapy). RESULTS: After treatment, 3/3 (100%) patients with positive (67)GaSPECT and negative CT scan relapsed while only 1/18 (6%) patients with both negative (67)GaSPECT and CT scan did so. At the same time, 54 patients had a positive restaging CT scan (abnormal mass < 10% of size of initial mass). Of these patients, 13 had a positive (67)GaSPECT, 10 of whom (77%) relapsed; 41 had a negative (67)GaSPECT of whom 5 (12%) relapsed. The 4-year actuarial relapse-free survival rate was 90% for those with negative scans compared with 23% for gallium-positive patients (p < 0.000000). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In lymphoma patients with mediastinal involvement, (67)GaSPECT should be considered, at least in patients who are CT positive, the imaging technique of choice for monitoring and differentiating the nature of any residual masses.  (+info)

Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a study of 29 cases. (8/673)

Aggressive primary mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) represent a particular entity among intrathoracic neoplasms. Twenty-nine patients with primary mediastinal aggressive NHL diagnosed and treated in the author's institution were studied. According to the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, there were 15 diffuse large B-cell, eight T-lymphoblastic, four anaplastic, one large T-cell and one Burkitt's lymphomas. The study group consisted of 14 females and 15 males, with a mean age of 38 yrs. Symptoms arose from an aggressive anterior mediastinal mass, with a high prevalence of superior vena caval syndrome, pleural, and pericardial effusions. At the time of diagnosis, disease was confined to supradiaphragmatic areas in 24 patients, while subdiaphragmatic nodal or extranodal involvement was also present in five. All patients received a combination of aggressive chemotherapy regimens, mainly according to the French protocols for the treatment of NHL. A chest radiograph response of <50% after the first course of chemotherapy and failure to achieve a complete remission after the first line of chemotherapy were significantly associated with unfavourable prognosis. Overall 5-yr and 9-yr survival rates were 55 and 48%, respectively. Patients properly diagnosed and treated with a combined modality of chemotherapy can experience prolonged survival.  (+info)

  • The 2016 World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms recommends that immunohistochemistry and/or gene expression profiling be used to subclassify 'typical' DLBCL into tumors of germinal center and non-germinal center origin, in recognition that these two classes of tumors have different prognoses with current therapies [ 1 ]. (
  • A total of 104 consecutive patients who had undergone surgical resection of anterior mediastinal tumors were divided into two groups: Additional PET to another modality and no additional PET to another modality, and further subdivided into three groups: CT alone, additional MRI to CT and additional PET to CT. (
  • They include both thymomas (20% of mediastinal neoplasms ) and thymic carcinomas. (
  • Thymomas have an unpredictable evolution, with cases that remain indolent for a long time up to very aggressive neoplasms with aspects of local infiltration and stories of multiple recurrences and distant metastases. (
  • One in every 17 patients with primary mediastinal non-seminomatous GCTs develop an incurable hematologic malignancy and prior data intriguingly suggests a clonal relationship exists between hematologic malignancies and GCTs in these cases. (
  • Here, we traced the clonal evolution and characterized the genetic features of each neoplasm from a cohort of fifteen patients with GCTs and associated hematologic malignancies. (
  • Hematologic malignancies arising in this setting genetically resembled mediastinal GCTs rather than de novo myeloid neoplasms. (
  • The palliative treatment of the mediastinal malignancies have poor prognosis and radical surgical therapy is the only option. (
  • Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 2% of cases are mediastinal large B cell lymphomas. (