An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Shrews are small, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Soricidae, characterized by their pointed snouts, tiny eyes, and rapid movements.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.

Cardiopulmonary effects of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists medetomidine and ST-91 in anesthetized sheep. (1/170)

To test the hypothesis that pulmonary alterations are more important than hemodynamic changes in alpha2-agonist-induced hypoxemia in ruminants, the cardiopulmonary effects of incremental doses of (4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imadazole) hydrochloride (medetomidine; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4 micrograms/kg) and 2-(2, 6-diethylphenylamino)-2-imidazol (ST-91; 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12 micrograms/kg) were compared in five halothane-anesthetized, ventilated sheep using a placebo-controlled randomized crossover design. Pulmonary resistance (RL), dynamic compliance, and tidal volume changes in transpulmonary pressure (DeltaPpl) were determined by pneumotachography, whereas cardiac index (CI), mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (Ppaw) were determined using thermodilution and a Swan-Ganz catheter. The most important finding was the fall in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) after administration of medetomidine at a dose (0.5 micrograms/kg) 20 times less than the sedative dose. The PaO2 levels decreased to 214 mm Hg as compared with 510 mm Hg in the placebo-treated group. This decrease in PaO2 was associated with a decrease in dynamic compliance and an increase in RL, DeltaPpl, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without changes in heart rate, CI, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, Ppa, or Ppaw. On the other hand, ST-91 only produced significant changes in PaO2 at the highest dose. After this dose of ST-91, the decrease in PaO2 was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CI and an increase in mean arterial pressure, Ppa, Ppaw, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without significant alterations of RL and DeltaPpl. The study suggests that the mechanism(s) by which medetomidine and ST-91 produce lower PaO2 are different and that drug-induced alterations in the pulmonary system are mainly responsible for the oxygen-lowering effect of medetomidine.  (+info)

Direct effects of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in dogs. (2/170)

BACKGROUND: The effects of adrenergic agonists, often used as local anesthetic additives or spinal analgesics, on spinal vessels have not been firmly established. The authors investigated the effects of alpha2- and alpha1-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in vivo. METHODS: Pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs (n = 28) were prepared for measurement of spinal pial-vessel diameter in a spinal-window preparation. The authors applied dexmedetomidine, clonidine, phenylephrine, or epinephrine in three different concentrations (0.5, 5.0, and 50 microg/ml; [2.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 2.3] x [10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4)] M, respectively) under the window (one drug in each dog) and measured spinal pial arteriolar and venular diameters in a sequential manner. To enable the comparison of their effects on cerebral vessels, the authors also administered these drugs under a cranial window. RESULTS: On topical administration, each drug constricted spinal pial arterioles in a concentration-dependent manner. Phenylephrine and epinephrine induced a significantly larger arteriolar constriction than dexmedetomidine or clonidine at 5 microg/ml (8%, 11%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Spinal pial venules tended to be less constricted than arterioles. In cerebral arterioles, greater constrictions were induced by dexmedetomidine and clonidine than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine (14%, 8%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Cerebral pial venules tended to exhibit larger constrictions than cerebral arterioles (unlike in spinal vessels). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine and clonidine constricted spinal vessels in a concentration-dependent manner, but such vasoconstrictions were smaller than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine.  (+info)

Anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine identified by stimulus-response and continuous measurements in rats. (3/170)

This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. At constant plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine (range, 0.5-19 ng/ml), targeted and maintained by target-controlled infusion, the whisker reflex, righting reflex, startle reflex (to noise), tail clamp response, hot water tail-flick latency, and attenuation of heart rate (HR) increase associated with tail-flick (sympathoadrenal block) and corneal reflex, were assessed in 22 rats. EEG (power in 0.5- to 3.5-Hz frequency band), mean arterial pressure, and HR were recorded continuously. Blood gas values and arterial drug concentrations were determined regularly. The following steady-state plasma EC(50) values of dexmedetomidine (mean +/- S.E. nanograms per milliliter) were estimated: HR decrease (0.51 +/- 0.04), EEG (1.02 +/- 0.08), whisker reflex (1.09 +/- 0.10), sympathoadrenal block (1.85 +/- 0.80), mean arterial blood pressure increase (1.99 +/- 0.44), righting reflex (2.13 +/- 0.15), tail-flick latency (3.65 +/- 0.87), startle reflex (3.75 +/- 0.64), tail clamp (5.49 +/- 1.34), and corneal reflex (24.5 +/- 12.3). At the EC(50) value of tail clamp, ventilatory depression was minor. In rats, dexmedetomidine creates bradycardia, sedation/hypnosis, sympathoadrenal blocking effects, and blood pressure-increasing effects at plasma concentrations below 2.5 ng/ml. Higher plasma concentrations are needed to loose the startle reflex, tail-flick, tail clamp, and corneal reflex responses. Ventilatory depressant effects are minor. The applied EEG measure seems to reflect sedation/hypnosis but seems to have limited value to predict the deeper levels of analgesia and anesthesia of dexmedetomidine.  (+info)

Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations. (4/170)

This study was designed to evaluate 2 combinations for immobilization of bison. Seven wood bison received 1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of xylazine HCl + 1.5 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 1.5 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCl on one occasion. The bison received 60 micrograms/kg BW of medetomidine HCl + 0.6 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 0.6 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCL on another occasion. Xylazine was antagonized with 3 mg/kg BW of tolazoline HCl and medetomidine HCl was antagonized with 180 micrograms/kg (BW) of atipamezole HCl. Temporal characteristics of immobilization and physiological effects (acid-base status, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects) of the drug combinations were compared. Induction was significantly faster with xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Recovery following antagonist administration was significantly faster with medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. The average drug volumes required were 7.00 mL of xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCL and 2.78 mL of medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and rumenal tympany were the major adverse effects with both drug combinations.  (+info)

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. (5/170)

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. (6/170)

The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. (7/170)

The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine, and xylazine in horses were studied. Fifteen horses, whose right carotid arteries had previously been surgically raised to a subcutaneous position during general anesthesia were used. Five horses each were given the following 8 treatments: an intravenous injection of 4 doses of medetomidine (3, 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg), 3 doses of detomidine (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg), and one dose of xylazine (1 mg/kg). Heart rate decreased, but not statistically significant. Atrio-ventricular block was observed following all treatments and prolonged with detomidine. Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV) were decreased with all treatments. The CI decreased to about 50% of baseline values for 5 min after 7.5 and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine, for 20 min after 20 microg/kg detomidine, and for 50 min after 40 microg/kg detomidine. All treatments produced an initial hypertension within 2 min of drug administration followed by a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure (ABP) in horses administered 3 to 7.5 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Hypertension was significantly prolonged in 20 and 40 microg/kg detomidine. The hypotensive phase was not observed in 10 microg/kg medetomidine or detomidine. The changes in ABP were associated with an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Respiratory rate was decreased for 40 to 120 min in 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen decreased significantly in 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine, while the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide did not change significantly. Medetomidine induced dose-dependent cardiovascular depression similar to detomidine. The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine and xylazine were not as prolonged as that of detomidine.  (+info)

Partial to complete antagonism by putative antagonists at the wild-type alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor based on kinetic analyses of agonist:antagonist interactions. (8/170)

1. Activation of the recombinant human alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2C) AR) by (-)-adrenaline in CHO-K1 cells transiently co-expressing a chimeric G(alpha q/i1) protein induced a rapid, transient Ca(2+) response with a high-magnitude followed by a low-magnitude phase which continued throughout the recorded time period (15 min). 2. Activation of the alpha(2C) AR by various alpha(2) AR agonists revealed the following rank order of high-magnitude Ca(2+) response [E(max) (%) versus 10 microM (-)-adrenaline]: UK 14304 (102+/-4)=talipexole (101+/-3)=(-)-adrenaline (100)=d-medetomidine (98+/-1)>oxymetazoline (81+/-4) reverse similarclonidine (75+/-5). 3. The methoxy- (RX 821002) and ethoxy-derivatives (RX 811059) of idazoxan and the dexefaroxan analogue atipamezole were fully effective as antagonists of both the high- and the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response. However, though acting as full antagonists of the high-magnitude response, the further putative alpha(2) AR antagonists idazoxan (27%), SKF 86466 (29%) and dexefaroxan (59%) reversed the low-magnitude response only partially. 4. In conclusion, kinetic analyses of agonist : antagonist interactions at the alpha(2C) AR demonstrate a wide spectrum of partial to complete antagonism of the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response for structurally related alpha(2) AR ligands.  (+info)

Medetomidine is a potent alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used primarily in veterinary medicine as an sedative, analgesic (pain reliever), and sympatholytic (reduces the sympathetic nervous system's activity). It is used for chemical restraint, procedural sedation, and analgesia during surgery or other medical procedures in various animals.

In humans, medetomidine is not approved by the FDA for use but may be used off-label in certain situations, such as sedation during diagnostic procedures. It can cause a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, so it must be administered carefully and with close monitoring of the patient's vital signs.

Medetomidine is available under various brand names, including Domitor (for veterinary use) and Sedator (for human use in some countries). It can also be found as a combination product with ketamine, such as Dexdomitor/Domitor + Ketamine or Ketamine + Medetomidine.

Xylazine is a central alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, often used in veterinary medicine as a sedative and analgesic. It can produce profound sedation, muscle relaxation, and analgesia. Xylazine is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States, due to its potential for severe side effects such as respiratory depression, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and hypotension (low blood pressure).

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates adrenergic alpha receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by chemicals called catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), that are released in response to stress or excitement.

When adrenergic alpha-agonists bind to these receptors, they mimic the effects of catecholamines and cause various physiological responses, such as vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways.

Adrenergic alpha-agonists are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), glaucoma, nasal congestion, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of adrenergic alpha-agonists include phenylephrine, clonidine, and guanfacine.

It's important to note that adrenergic alpha-agonists can have both beneficial and harmful effects, depending on the specific medication, dosage, and individual patient factors. Therefore, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Zolazepam is a veterinary medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is used in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in animals, often in combination with other medications. Zolazepam works by depressing the central nervous system, producing sedation, muscle relaxation, and amnesia.

In veterinary medicine, zolazepam is commonly combined with tiletamine, another dissociative anesthetic, to form a drug called Telazol. This combination provides balanced anesthesia with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory depression.

It's important to note that zolazepam is not approved for use in humans and should only be administered by trained veterinary professionals under strict supervision.

Tiletamine is a veterinary medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics. It is often used in combination with zolazepam, and the combination is sold under the brand name Telazol. This drug combination is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in various animal species.

Tiletamine works by blocking the action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are involved in pain perception, learning, and memory. By doing so, it produces a state of dissociation, where animals may appear to be conscious but are not aware of their surroundings or the procedures being performed on them.

It is important to note that tiletamine should only be used under the direction of a licensed veterinarian, as its use requires proper training and experience to ensure safe and effective administration.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Combined anesthetics refer to the use of two or more types of anesthetic agents together during a medical procedure to produce a desired level of sedation, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. This approach can allow for lower doses of individual anesthetic drugs, which may reduce the risk of adverse effects associated with each drug. Common combinations include using a general anesthetic in combination with a regional or local anesthetic technique. The specific choice of combined anesthetics depends on various factors such as the type and duration of the procedure, patient characteristics, and the desired outcomes.

Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate adrenergic alpha-2 receptors, which are found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors play a role in regulating various bodily functions, including blood pressure, heart rate, and release of certain hormones.

When adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they can cause a variety of effects, such as:

* Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can increase blood pressure
* Decreased heart rate and force of heart contractions
* Suppression of the release of norepinephrine (a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the "fight or flight" response) from nerve endings
* Analgesia (pain relief)

Adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists are used in a variety of medical conditions, including:

* High blood pressure
* Glaucoma (to reduce pressure in the eye)
* Anesthesia (to help prevent excessive bleeding and to provide sedation)
* Opioid withdrawal symptoms (to help manage symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, and muscle aches)

Examples of adrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists include clonidine, brimonidine, and dexmedetomidine.

Dissociative anesthetics are a class of drugs that produce a state of altered consciousness, characterized by a sense of detachment or dissociation from the environment and oneself. These drugs work by disrupting the normal communication between the brain's thalamus and cortex, which can lead to changes in perception, thinking, and emotion.

Some examples of dissociative anesthetics include ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP), and dextromethorphan (DXM). These drugs can produce a range of effects, including sedation, analgesia, amnesia, and hallucinations. At high doses, they can cause profound dissociative states, in which individuals may feel as though they are outside their own bodies or that the world around them is not real.

Dissociative anesthetics are used medically for a variety of purposes, including as general anesthetics during surgery, as sedatives for diagnostic procedures, and as treatments for chronic pain and depression. However, they also have a high potential for abuse and can produce significant negative health effects when taken recreationally.

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by binding to the opiate receptors in the brain, which reduces the perception of pain. Butorphanol is available as an injectable solution and a nasal spray.

The medical definition of 'Butorphanol' is:

A synthetic opioid analgesic with agonist-antagonist properties. It is used in the management of moderate to severe pain, as a veterinary analgesic, and for obstetrical analgesia. Butorphanol has a high affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor, a lower affinity for the mu-opioid receptor, and little or no affinity for the delta-opioid receptor. Its actions at the mu-opioid receptor are antagonistic to those of morphine and other mu-opioid agonists, while its actions at the kappa-opioid receptor are similar to those of other opioids.

Butorphanol has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect. It may cause respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting, and other side effects common to opioid analgesics. Butorphanol is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

Guaifenesin is a medication that belongs to the class of expectorants. According to the Medical Dictionary by Farlex, guaifenesin is defined as:

"A salicylate-free agent with expectorant properties; it increases respiratory secretions and decreases their viscosity, making coughs more productive. It is used as an antitussive in bronchitis and other respiratory tract infections."

Guaifenesin works by helping to thin and loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways of bothersome mucus and phlegm. It is commonly available as an over-the-counter medication for relieving symptoms associated with a common cold, flu, or other respiratory infections.

Guaifenesin can be found in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, liquid, or extended-release products. Common brand names of guaifenesin include Mucinex and Robitussin. It is important to follow the recommended dosage on the product label and consult a healthcare professional if you have any questions about its use or if your symptoms persist for more than one week.

Imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a double-bonded nitrogen atom and two additional nitrogen atoms in the ring. They have the chemical formula C3H4N2. In a medical context, imidazoles are commonly used as antifungal agents. Some examples of imidazole-derived antifungals include clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. These medications work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of the fungal cells. Imidazoles may also have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Methotrimeprazine is a phenothiazine derivative with antiemetic, antipsychotic, and sedative properties. It works as a dopamine receptor antagonist and has been used in the management of various conditions such as nausea and vomiting, schizophrenia, anxiety, and agitation.

It is important to note that Methotrimeprazine can have significant side effects, including sedation, orthostatic hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms (such as involuntary movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially life-threatening reaction). Its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it is important to follow their instructions carefully.

Acepromazine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called phenothiazine derivatives. It acts as a tranquilizer and is commonly used in veterinary medicine to control anxiety, aggression, and excitable behavior in animals. It also has antiemetic properties and is sometimes used to prevent vomiting. In addition, it can be used as a pre-anesthetic medication to help calm and relax animals before surgery.

Acepromazine works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate movement, emotion, and cognition. This leads to sedation, muscle relaxation, and reduced anxiety. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injectable solutions, and transdermal gels, and is typically given to dogs, cats, and horses.

As with any medication, acepromazine can have side effects, including drowsiness, low blood pressure, decreased heart rate, and respiratory depression. It should be used with caution in animals with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or liver disease, and should not be given to animals that are pregnant or lactating. It is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a veterinarian carefully and to monitor the animal for any signs of adverse reactions.

Veterinary surgery refers to the surgical procedures performed on animals by trained veterinarians or veterinary surgeons. It involves the use of various surgical techniques and tools to diagnose, treat, or prevent diseases and injuries in animals. This can include soft tissue surgeries such as abdominal or thoracic surgeries, orthopedic surgeries for bone and joint issues, neurological surgeries, oncological surgeries for the removal of tumors, and reconstructive surgeries. Veterinary surgeons must complete extensive education and training in order to provide safe and effective surgical care for animals.

Veterinary drugs, also known as veterinary medicines, are substances or combinations of substances used to treat, prevent, or diagnose diseases in animals, including food-producing species and pets. These drugs can be administered to animals through various routes such as oral, topical, injectable, or inhalation. They contain active ingredients that interact with the animal's biological system to produce a therapeutic effect. Veterinary drugs are subject to regulatory control and must be prescribed or recommended by a licensed veterinarian in many countries to ensure their safe and effective use.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

Midazolam is a medication from the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. It works by enhancing the effect of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which has a calming effect on the brain and nervous system. Midazolam is often used for its sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

Medically, midazolam is used for various purposes, including:

1. Preoperative medication (sedation before surgery)
2. Procedural sedation (for minor surgical or diagnostic procedures)
3. Treatment of seizures (status epilepticus)
4. Sedation in critically ill patients
5. As an adjunct to anesthesia during surgeries
6. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms
7. To induce amnesia for certain medical or dental procedures

Midazolam is available in various forms, such as tablets, intravenous (IV) solutions, and intranasal sprays. It has a rapid onset of action and a short duration, making it suitable for brief, intermittent procedures. However, midazolam can cause side effects like drowsiness, confusion, respiratory depression, and memory impairment. Therefore, its use should be carefully monitored by healthcare professionals.

Immobilization is a medical term that refers to the restriction of normal mobility or motion of a body part, usually to promote healing and prevent further injury. This is often achieved through the use of devices such as casts, splints, braces, slings, or traction. The goal of immobilization is to keep the injured area in a fixed position so that it can heal properly without additional damage. It may be used for various medical conditions, including fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries. Immobilization helps reduce pain, minimize swelling, and protect the injured site from movement that could worsen the injury or impair healing.

Dexmedetomidine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. It is used for sedation and analgesia (pain relief) in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine works by mimicking the effects of natural chemicals in the body that help to regulate sleep, wakefulness, and pain perception.

The medical definition of dexmedetomidine is: "A selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and sympatholytic properties, and its effects are mediated by activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system."

It is important to note that dexmedetomidine should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory function.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

The anesthesia recovery period, also known as the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU) or recovery room stay, is the time immediately following anesthesia and surgery during which a patient's vital signs are closely monitored as they emerge from the effects of anesthesia.

During this period, the patient is typically observed for adequate ventilation, oxygenation, circulation, level of consciousness, pain control, and any potential complications. The length of stay in the recovery room can vary depending on the type of surgery, the anesthetic used, and the individual patient's needs.

The anesthesia recovery period is a critical time for ensuring patient safety and comfort as they transition from the surgical setting to full recovery. Nurses and other healthcare providers in the recovery room are specially trained to monitor and manage patients during this vulnerable period.

Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.

Examples of biogenic amines include:

1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.

Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in various organs and tissues throughout the body.

Activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, including inhibition of neurotransmitter release, vasoconstriction, and reduced heart rate. These receptors play important roles in regulating blood pressure, pain perception, and various cognitive and emotional processes.

There are several subtypes of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, including alpha-2A, alpha-2B, and alpha-2C, which may have distinct physiological functions and be targeted by different drugs. For example, certain medications used to treat hypertension or opioid withdrawal target alpha-2 adrenergic receptors to produce their therapeutic effects.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Adrenergic alpha-antagonists, also known as alpha-blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline at alpha-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the smooth muscle of blood vessels, the heart, the genitourinary system, and the eyes.

When alpha-blockers bind to these receptors, they prevent the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. This results in a relaxation of the smooth muscle, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Alpha-blockers are used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor of the adrenal gland), and certain types of glaucoma.

Examples of alpha-blockers include doxazosin, prazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin. Side effects of alpha-blockers may include dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, weakness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing).

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "shrews" is not a medical term. It is a common name used in zoology to refer to small mammals that are part of the family Soricidae and the suborder Soricomorpha. Shrews are insectivores, distantly related to moles and hedgehogs. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

... is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. It is mainly effective against barnacles, but has also ... Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion ... The free base form of medetomidine is sold as Selektope for use as an antifouling substance in marine paints. In veterinary ...
Medetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist. Nonspecific agonists act as agonists at both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors. ... "A review of the physiological effects of alpha2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice ...
Medetomidine Dexmedetomidine Clarke, Kathy W.; Hall, Leslie W.; Trim, Cynthia M., eds. (2014). "Principles of sedation, ...
It has two isomers, with the (S) isomer being the more potent, as with medetomidine. 4-NEMD was also investigated by the United ... September 1997). "Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of ... July 1996). "Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 2. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of ... January 2004). "Medetomidine analogs as selective agonists for the human alpha2-adrenoceptors". Biochemical Pharmacology. 67 (1 ...
Lewis, J. C. M. (1993). "Medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)". Journal of Veterinary ...
Moresco, A. & Larsen, R. S. (2003). "Medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol anesthetic combinations in binturongs (Arctictis ...
... and because medetomidine is sold as 1 mg/mL, 1 mL of atipamezole reverses 1 mL of medetomidine. When the enantiomerically pure ... Atipamezole is sold at 5 mg/mL for ease of use: 5 times as much atipamezole as medetomidine is needed for full reversal, ... Kim MS, Jeong SM, Park JH, Nam TC, Seo KM (October 2004). "Reversal of medetomidine-ketamine combination anesthesia in rabbits ... ISBN 978-0-8138-2061-3. Talke P, Harper D, Traber L, Richardson CR, Traber D (February 1999). "Reversal of medetomidine induced ...
Xylazine is approved for use in dogs, cats, horses, deer, and elk in the United States, while medetomidine is only approved for ... α2 agonists like xylazine and medetomidine are especially useful because they can be reversed, xylazine by yohimbine and ... Sedatives commonly used include acepromazine, hydromorphone, midazolam, diazepam, xylazine, and medetomidine. ...
"Effects of carprofen on renal function during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in dogs". American Journal of ...
"Effects of carprofen on renal function during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in dogs". American Journal of ...
Caulkett NA, Cattet MR, Cantwell S, Cool N, Olsen W (January 2000). "Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/ ...
Ryeng, K. A.; Larsen, S.; Arnemo, J. M. (2002). "Medetomidine-Ketamine in Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus Tarandus): Effective ...
... medetomidine-ketamine, and medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 30 (3): 354-60. PMID ...
Ketamine has been found safe for use in servals together with medetomidine and butorphanol and with the antagonist atipamezole ... "Evaluation of the effects of naloxone on recovery time and quality after ketamine-medetomidine-butorphanol anesthesia in ... "Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol and antagonism with atipamezole in servals (Felis ...
"Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of three doses of romifidine in comparison with medetomidine in five cats". The ...
Pettifer GR, Dyson DH (April 1993). "Comparison of medetomidine and fentanyl-droperidol in dogs: sedation, analgesia, arterial ...
"Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic ... different aspects of manifestation and characteristics with medetomidine and acepromazine preanaesthetic medication (PDF). ...
"Chemical restraint by medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam and its reversal by atipamezole in Japanese macaques ('Macaca ...
Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and medetomidine-butorphanol- midazolam in patas ...
The first advantage is balanced anesthesia can make patients calm by using the drugs, such as: medetomidine, diazepam or ...
"Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a ...
For sedation, it may be combined with tranquilizers such as alpha-2 agonists (medetomidine), benzodiazepines, or acepromazine ...
... crocodiles with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole". Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 39 (4): 345-356. doi:10.1111 ...
Alpha-2 receptor agonist drugs such as xylazine, romifidine, detomidine, and medetomidine, are used frequently in veterinary ...
... medetomidine MeSH D03.383.129.308.535 - methimazole MeSH D03.383.129.308.550 - miconazole MeSH D03.383.129.308.585 - ...
Etilefrine Ethylnorepinephrine 6-Fluoronorepinephrine Guanabenz Guanfacine Guanoxabenz Levonordefrin Lofexidine Medetomidine ...
... medetomidine - surgical anesthetic and analgesic meloxicam - nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) metacam - used to ...
Detomidine Dexmedetomidine Fadolmidine Guanabenz Guanfacine Lofexidine Marsanidine Medetomidine Methyldopa Mivazerol ...
... medetomidine (INN) medibazine (INN) medifoxamine (INN) Medigesic Plus Medihaler Ergotamine Medihaler-Epi Medihaler-Iso Medipren ...
Patients undergoing anaesthesia for these procedures should not be premedicated with α2-agonists (medetomidine, xylazine) as ...
Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. It is mainly effective against barnacles, but has also ... Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion ... The free base form of medetomidine is sold as Selektope for use as an antifouling substance in marine paints. In veterinary ...
Medetomidine, Ketamine, and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) American Association of Zoo ... The combination of medetomidine, ketamine and sevoflurane appears to be a safe and effective anesthetic protocol providing ... The combination of medetomidine and ketamine provided adequate jaw and glottis relaxation to facilitate endotracheal intubation ... Turtles were induced with 50 µg/kg medetomidine (Pfizer Animal Health, Exton, PA) and 5 mg/kg ketamine (Fort Dodge Animal ...
These animals received an actual dosage (mean±SD) of 15.16±3.3 μg/kg of medetomidine, 15.16±3.3 μg/kg of thiafentanil, and 0.99 ... Since both medetomidine and thiafentanil had been antagonized, the narcosis and ataxia probably resulted from residual ketamine ... 2. Grobler D, Bush M, Jessup D, Lance W. Anaesthesia of gemsbok (Oryx gazelle) with a combination of A3080, medetomidine, and ... Comparative Physiologic Effects of Thiafentanil-Azaperone and Thiafentanil-Medetomidine-Ketamine in Free-Ranging Uganda Kob ( ...
Safety and Efficacy of Nalbuphine, Medetomidine, and Azaperone for Immobilizing Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) Logan F. Thomas; ... We evaluated the safety and efficacy of nalbuphine (40 mg/mL), plus medetomidine (10 mg/mL), plus azaperone (10 mg/mL) under ... Medetomidine, and Azaperone for Immobilizing Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). J Wildl Dis 1 July 2022; 58 (3): 636-640. doi: https ... with alpha-2 agonist-ketamine combinations gave median and average induction times of 4.6 min and 11.2 min using medetomidine- ...
2023 The University of Sydney. Last updated: 23 Sep 2023. ABN: 15 211 513 464. CRICOS number: 00026A. Phone: +61 2 9351 2222. Authorised by: Dean, Sydney School of Veterinary Science.. Contact the University , Disclaimer , Privacy , Accessibility. ...
... or fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine (FMM) (10 μg/kg−1; 0.5−1; 20 μ−1) both IM. Oxygen (100 %) was ... midazolam and medetomidine in comparison to ketamine. Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), (n = 16, 5 males and 3 females randomly ... RCS: Ketamine 7 ± 2; Fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine 1 ± 1. VAS: Ketamine 6.2 ± 0.8; Fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine 2.2 ± 0.5 ... Bertrand, H.G.M.J., Ellen, Y.C., OKeefe, S. et al. Comparison of the effects of ketamine and fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine ...
Sufentanil and medetomidine anaesthesia in the rat and its reversal with atipamezole and butorphanol. Lookup NU author(s): Dr ... Combinations of sufentanil/medetomidine at 40 μg/150 μg and 50 μg/150 μg/kg administered subcutaneously, and 80 μg/300 μg/kg by ... The induction of anaesthesia with sufentanil/medetomidine and its reversal with a combination of atipamezole and butorphanol is ... This study assessed and compared the characteristics of anaesthesia induced with combinations of sufentanil and medetomidine ...
Return to Article Details Effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on serum glucose and cortisol levels in captive reindeer ( ...
Dexmedetomidine and medetomidine showed comparable clinical effects.. Cardiac rhythms were evaluated by auscultation. ... Bradycardia occurred within 5 to 15 minutes after IV dexmedetomidine or medetomidine, and within 15 to 30 minutes after either ... Effects of preemptive atropine administration on incidence of medetomidine-induced bradycardia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 ... In the field study safety analysis, 106 dogs received dexmedetomidine and 107 received medetomidine. Dogs ranged from 16 weeks ...
Immobilization of three sub-species of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of ... with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of immobilization with atipamezole. Rangifer, 10(4), 65-66. https:// ...
Return to Article Details Kombinasi Penggunaan Butorphanol, Medetomidine dan Midazolam pada Anastesia Badak Sumatera di ...
... were studied in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposure to medetomidine, a veterinary sedative and an antifouling ...
Females were anesthetized using the mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol during operation. The number of ...
... and in the medetomidine-induced condition." Then one wonders, why in medetomidine? Lacking the information that medetomidine is ... and in the medetomidine-induced condition." Then one wonders, why in medetomidine? Lacking the information that medetomidine is ... Medetomidine hydrochloride. Dorbene vet. Zoetis. 08164-43. 0.08 mg/kg/hr. Chemical compound, drug. Carbomer. Vidisic. 74013T296 ... It should be included at the start of the results including what the comparison is, and why medetomidine is a good equivalent ...
Title: Immobilization of California sea lions using medetomidine plus ketamine with and without isoflorane and reversal with ... Immobilization of California sea lions using medetomidine plus ketamine with and without isoflorane and reversal with ... Immobilization of California sea lions using medetomidine plus ketamine with and without isoflorane and reversal with ... Keywords: Anesthesia, atipamezole, California sea lion, immobilization, isoflurane, ketamine, medetomidine, Zalophus ...
KEYWORDS: medetomidine, midazolam, butorphanol, M/M/B, ketamine/xylazine, Taeniopygia guttata, Lonchura striata. ...
Sisco E, Appley M. Identification of the veterinary sedative medetomidine in combination with opioids and xylazine in Maryland ... monitoring xylazine trends and other sedatives such as medetomidine (8) that have recently appeared in the drug supply is ...
Effects of medetomidine can be antagonised by prior, simultaneous or subsequent administration of an-antagonists. In human ... Medetomidine, an imidazoline derivative is a lipophilic compound with selective (2-adrenoceptor agonist activity. It has a ... Medetomidine - A new selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist. BV Venkataraman, MA Nagarani. October-December 1993, 25(4):188-192 ...
Intranasal atomization of ketamine, medetomidine and butorphanol in pet rabbits using a mucosal atomization device. Animals 13( ... Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits ... versus ketamine-medetomidine (later antagonised by atipamezole) (KMT-A) in rabbits... ...
Cardiopulmonary effects of fentanyl in conscious dogs and dogs sedated with a continuous rate infusion of medetomidine. Am J ...
PROCEDURES Each tiger was anesthetized once with a combination of ketamine, midazolam, medetomidine, and isoflurane. Anesthetic ...
Alpha-2-agonist drugs, xylazine and medetomidine (Domitor), provide excellent sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation. ...
B) Within- and between-network interactions detected in isoflurane (blue lines), medetomidine (red lines) and medetomidine/ ... In isoflurane/medetomidine anesthetized mice network interactions, blue lines represent interactions observed in mice under ... However, mice on medetomidine mostly displayed subcortical functional connectivity, including between cortical and thalamic ... Specifically, researchers looked at two common anesthetics, Isoflurane and medetomidine.. Mice receiving isoflurane primarily ...
Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological ... Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits ... versus ketamine-medetomidine (later antagonised by atipamezole) (KMT-A) in rabbits... ...
Male mice (30-40 days) were anesthetized using a mixture of ketamine hydrochloride 100 mg/ml: medetomidine hydrochloride (1 mg/ ... The incision was sutured and the sedative effects of medetomidine reversed by i.p. injection of atipamezole hydrochloride (50 ...
... medetomidine, and fentanyl in rats. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 49(4), 454 - 459.*Google ... medetomidine and fentanyl in mice. Laboratory Animals, 43(1), 27 - 33.*Google Scholar ...
Virtanen R, Savola JM, Saano V, Nyman L. Characterization of the selectivity, specificity and potency of medetomidine as an ...
05.02.2016 Intramuscular low-dose medetomidine plus butorphanol or methadone in dogs. *02.02.2016 Clearance of intra-articular ... 07.07.2012 Intravenous medetomidine in the horse - pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics *30.06.2012 Novel presentation of ...
  • At the end of each procedure, medetomidine was reversed with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole (Pfizer Animal Health, Exton, PA) intravenously. (
  • Atipamezole (Antisedan,™ Orion Pharmaceuticals, Espoo, Finland) was administered at three times the medetomidine dose by IM injection in the TMK group. (
  • Induction and reversal times with NalMed-A were 5.53±2.61 min and (following atipamezole administration) 5.08±2.43 min while previous studies with alpha-2 agonist-ketamine combinations gave median and average induction times of 4.6 min and 11.2 min using medetomidine-ketamine and xylazine-ketamine, respectively. (
  • Although this can be achieved by the addition of medetomidine, as in other species, recovery is still relatively prolonged even after reversal of the medetomidine with atipamezole [ 11 ]. (
  • This study compared the effects of a combination of fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine (FMM), followed by reversal with naloxone and atipamezole, with ketamine (KET) in rhesus macaques. (
  • This study assessed and compared the characteristics of anaesthesia induced with combinations of sufentanil and medetomidine administered as a single subcutaneous or intraperitoneal dose, and reversal with butorphanol and atipamezole. (
  • The induction of anaesthesia with sufentanil/medetomidine and its reversal with a combination of atipamezole and butorphanol is an effective technique for anaesthetizing rats. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess the impact on gastrointestinal transit time of ketamine-midazolam (KMZ) versus ketamine-medetomidine (later antagonised by atipamezole) (KMT-A) in rabbits. (
  • Pharmacology - Atipamezole competitively inhibits alpha 2 -adrenergic receptors, thereby acting as a reversal agent for alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists ( e.g. , medetomidine). (
  • Uses/Indications - Atipamezole is labeled for use as a reversal agent for medetomidine. (
  • Drug Interactions - The manufacturer states that information on the use of atipamezole with other drugs is lacking, therefore, caution should be taken when using with other drugs (other than medetomidine). (
  • If it has been at least 45 minutes since medetomidine was given, may give atipamezole at half the volume of medetomidine if administered IV. (
  • If after 10-15 minutes an IM dose of atipamezole has not seemed to reverse the effects of medetomidine, an additional dose of atipamezole at 1/2 the volume of the medetomidine dose may be given. (
  • d) Atipamezole effectively reverses medetomidine sedation at doses of 200 mcg/kg body weight. (
  • In veterinary anesthesia, medetomidine is often used in combinations with opioids (butorphanol, buprenorphine etc.) as premedication (before a general anesthetic) in healthy cats and dogs. (
  • The cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane anesthesia were evaluated in six juvenile loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta ) presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine for trauma-related injuries between 1996 and 1999. (
  • Colors indicate significant interactions observed under isoflurane (blue) or medetomidine anesthesia (red). (
  • For the group receiving the combination anesthesia, elements are indicated in different colors depending on whether they apparently arise from the isoflurane group (blue), from the medetomidine group (red), from both groups (blue/red) or were observed in the combination group exclusively (green). (
  • Medetomidine (medetomidine hydrochloride), used alone and in combination with other drugs, has been shown to be useful for anesthesia and immobilization in zoo animals. (
  • 2023. Intranasal atomization of ketamine, medetomidine and butorphanol in pet rabbits using a mucosal atomization device. (
  • 2015). The effects of different concentrations of the α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine on basal excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices of adult mice . (
  • Combinations of sufentanil/medetomidine at 40 μg/150 μg and 50 μg/150 μg/kg administered subcutaneously, and 80 μg/300 μg/kg by intraperitoneal injection were found to produce surgical anaesthesia for 101 ± 49, 124 ± 45 and 76 ± 23 min (means ± SD) respectively. (
  • It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride, a crystalline white solid. (
  • 2020. Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane. (
  • This study assessed the effects of sedation using a combination of fentanyl, midazolam and medetomidine in comparison to ketamine. (
  • Medetomidine also induces sedation for a longer period than does xylazine. (
  • Specifically, researchers looked at two common anesthetics, Isoflurane and medetomidine. (
  • The researchers then considered whether combining isoflurane and medetomidine at lower doses could provide the necessary benefits with less of the clouding effects of each anesthesic separately given at full dose. (
  • We evaluated the safety and efficacy of nalbuphine (40 mg/mL), plus medetomidine (10 mg/mL), plus azaperone (10 mg/mL) under the premixed label NalMed-A. From January to March 2020, 10 aoudad ( Ammotragus lervia ) were immobilized via dart-gun for seven separate sampling periods for a total of 45 recorded individual immobilization events. (
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical effects of combination of the anesthetics desflurane, detomidine and medetomidine in horses. (
  • Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion analgesia in canines. (
  • The combination of medetomidine and ketamine provided adequate jaw and glottis relaxation to facilitate endotracheal intubation. (
  • The combination of medetomidine, ketamine and sevoflurane appears to be a safe and effective anesthetic protocol providing relatively short induction and recovery times in loggerhead sea turtles. (
  • The drug product is a balanced combination of medetomidine and vatinoxan. (
  • However, mice on medetomidine mostly displayed subcortical functional connectivity, including between cortical and thalamic locales. (
  • Medetomidine (5mg/ml) provides superior pain relief and muscle relaxation to other compounds employing α-2 adrenergic agonists, with Ketamine HCL (150 mg/ml) supplying an effective paralytic. (
  • drugs such as medetomidine that modify pain, heart rate and blood pressure. (
  • These animals received an actual dosage (mean±SD) of 15.16±3.3 μ g/kg of medetomidine, 15.16±3.3 μ g/kg of thiafentanil, and 0.99±0.04 mg/kg of ketamine. (
  • The pharmacological restraint and pain relief provided by medetomidine facilitates handling and aids in the conduct of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (
  • Medetomidine has an alpha-2:alpha-1 selectivity factor of 1620 and, when compared to xylazine, is reportedly 10 times more specific for alpha-2 receptors vs alpha-1 receptors. (
  • Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. (
  • Salonen and M. Finel, "Regio- and stereospecific N-glucuronidation of medetomidine the di%erences between UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 and UGT2B10 account for the complex kinetics of human liver microsomes," Drug Metab. (
  • The free base form of medetomidine is sold as Selektope for use as an antifouling substance in marine paints. (
  • Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. (
  • Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion analgesia in canines. (
  • The combination of medetomidine (30-100 µg/kg) and ketamine (1-8 mg/kg depending on species) has proven to be quite effective in a variety of nondomestic mammals. (
  • 3 Little is known about the physiological effects of medetomidine-ketamine in nondomestic species. (
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular medetomidine (40 µg/kg) and ketamine (2 mg/kg) when used as an induction combination prior to isoflurane anesthesia in gorillas and chimpanzees. (
  • A previous report had indicated that in chimpanzees medetomidine-ketamine provided rapid induction, stable immobilization, excellent relaxation, and calm recovery. (
  • 4 We chose to extend these findings by monitoring blood pressure, hemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO 2 during medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anesthesia. (
  • Medetomidine (10 mg/ml) and ketamine (200 mg/ml) were purchased separately (Wildlife Laboratories, Fort Collins, CO, USA) and mixed in the same syringe prior to injection. (
  • Medetomidine-ketamine provided sedation within 3-5 minutes and complete immobilization within 10-15 minutes of initial injection in both chimpanzees and gorillas. (
  • Once the medetomidine-ketamine had taken effect, only 3-5 minutes of 2-3% isoflurane by mask was required for intubation. (
  • Xylazine 6 mg/kg in animals of group xylazine-ketamine (XK), acepromazine 2 mg/kg in animals of group acepromazine-ketamine (AK), medetomidine 125 μg/kg in group medetomidine-ketamine 1 (MK1) or medetomidine 250 μg/kg in group medetomidine-ketamine 2 (MK2) were administered by intramuscular injection (IM). (
  • It was concluded that medetomidine 250 µg/kg and ketamine 60 mg/kg produced excellent anaesthesia to allow pain free surgery and may be considered suitable for anaesthesia in New Zealand White rabbits. (
  • In these procedures, a mixture of ketamine and medetomidine was used. (
  • 6. Immobilization of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam and antagonism with atipamezole. (
  • 11. Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins. (
  • 18. Immobilization of captive Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) using medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam. (
  • During hibernation, bears were located BML-190 in their dens and anaesthetized with a mixture of medetomidine, zolazepam, tiletamine, and ketamine. (
  • The presence of medetomidine has been identified in both public health and law enforcement samples and in the presence of fentanyl and xylazine-another veterinary sedative that has been widely observed over the last year. (
  • 2021. Comparison of recovery quality following medetomidine versus xylazine balanced isoflurane anaesthesia in horses: A retrospective analysis. (
  • After medetomidine premedication (30ug/kg) and propofol induction (2 mg/kg), dogs were maintained with 0.2 mg/kg/min (P0.2), 0.4 mg/kg/min (P0.4), 0.6 mg/kg/min (P0.6), and 0.8 mg/kg/min (P0.8) of propofol infusion for 90 minutes. (
  • Vasiljević M, Krstić V, Stanković S, Zrimšek P, Nemec Svete A, Seliškar A. Cardiac troponin I in dogs anaesthetized with propofol and sevoflurane: the influence of medetomidine premedication and inspired oxygen fraction . (
  • However, the little data are available concerning anesthetic effects in puppies treated with medetomidine and propofol. (
  • This study was performed to evaluate anaesthetic effects of variable infusion rates of propofol in beagle puppies premedicated with medetomidine. (
  • A combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and azaperone was used to immobilize captive Chacoan peccaries ( Catagonus wagneri ) for health assessments and biological sample collection at the Centro Chaqueño para la Conservación e Investigación (CCCI) in the Paraguayan Chaco during July in 2017 and 2018. (
  • The mean intramuscular (IM) anesthetic drug and dosages were 0.03±0.00 mg/kg of medetomidine, 0.91±0.10 mg/kg of Zoletil 50 (tiletamine-zolazepam), and 0.30±0.03 mg/kg azaperone. (
  • During active state, the same BML-190 bears were located in their habitat and darted from a helicopter with a mixture of medetomidine, zolazepam, and tiletamine. (
  • The free base form of medetomidine is sold as Selektope for use as an antifouling substance in marine paints. (
  • Through this project, we have recently detected the presence of the veterinary sedative medetomidine in a small number of samples. (
  • Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. (
  • A substance called medetomidine was used as a negative control - a molecule originally used as a sedative for large mammals. (
  • Medetomidine alone has been used effectively as a sedative-analgesic in a variety of species, but has proven inadequate as a complete immobilization agent. (
  • In the dog, intramuscular medetomidine results in rapid and intense vasoconstriction followed by a profound compensatory bradycardia. (
  • Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. (
  • Procedure -Dogs received medetomidine or dexmedetomidine intravenously at the following dose levels: 0.4 µg of medetomidine or 0.2 µg of dexmedetomidine/kg of body weight (M0.4/D0.2), 4.0 µg of medetomidine or 2.0 µg of dexmedetomidine/ kg (M4/D2), and 40 µg of medetomidine or 20 µg of dexmedetomidine/kg (M40/D20). (
  • Combined mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration for all dose levels was higher in dogs that received medetomidine, compared with dexmedetomidine. (
  • When the barnacle cyprid larva encounters a surface containing medetomidine the molecule interacts with the octopamine receptor in the larva. (
  • In this study, NRTL-SAC model, as one of the known and famous predictive models in the solubility modeling of pharmaceutical compounds, has been applied to ternary phase diagram modeling of chiral medetomidine salts in alcohols. (