Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Methotrimeprazine: A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)ShrewsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)SvalbardNorwayAntlers: The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.

Cardiopulmonary effects of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists medetomidine and ST-91 in anesthetized sheep. (1/170)

To test the hypothesis that pulmonary alterations are more important than hemodynamic changes in alpha2-agonist-induced hypoxemia in ruminants, the cardiopulmonary effects of incremental doses of (4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imadazole) hydrochloride (medetomidine; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4 micrograms/kg) and 2-(2, 6-diethylphenylamino)-2-imidazol (ST-91; 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12 micrograms/kg) were compared in five halothane-anesthetized, ventilated sheep using a placebo-controlled randomized crossover design. Pulmonary resistance (RL), dynamic compliance, and tidal volume changes in transpulmonary pressure (DeltaPpl) were determined by pneumotachography, whereas cardiac index (CI), mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (Ppaw) were determined using thermodilution and a Swan-Ganz catheter. The most important finding was the fall in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) after administration of medetomidine at a dose (0.5 micrograms/kg) 20 times less than the sedative dose. The PaO2 levels decreased to 214 mm Hg as compared with 510 mm Hg in the placebo-treated group. This decrease in PaO2 was associated with a decrease in dynamic compliance and an increase in RL, DeltaPpl, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without changes in heart rate, CI, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, Ppa, or Ppaw. On the other hand, ST-91 only produced significant changes in PaO2 at the highest dose. After this dose of ST-91, the decrease in PaO2 was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CI and an increase in mean arterial pressure, Ppa, Ppaw, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without significant alterations of RL and DeltaPpl. The study suggests that the mechanism(s) by which medetomidine and ST-91 produce lower PaO2 are different and that drug-induced alterations in the pulmonary system are mainly responsible for the oxygen-lowering effect of medetomidine.  (+info)

Direct effects of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in dogs. (2/170)

BACKGROUND: The effects of adrenergic agonists, often used as local anesthetic additives or spinal analgesics, on spinal vessels have not been firmly established. The authors investigated the effects of alpha2- and alpha1-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in vivo. METHODS: Pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs (n = 28) were prepared for measurement of spinal pial-vessel diameter in a spinal-window preparation. The authors applied dexmedetomidine, clonidine, phenylephrine, or epinephrine in three different concentrations (0.5, 5.0, and 50 microg/ml; [2.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 2.3] x [10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4)] M, respectively) under the window (one drug in each dog) and measured spinal pial arteriolar and venular diameters in a sequential manner. To enable the comparison of their effects on cerebral vessels, the authors also administered these drugs under a cranial window. RESULTS: On topical administration, each drug constricted spinal pial arterioles in a concentration-dependent manner. Phenylephrine and epinephrine induced a significantly larger arteriolar constriction than dexmedetomidine or clonidine at 5 microg/ml (8%, 11%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Spinal pial venules tended to be less constricted than arterioles. In cerebral arterioles, greater constrictions were induced by dexmedetomidine and clonidine than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine (14%, 8%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Cerebral pial venules tended to exhibit larger constrictions than cerebral arterioles (unlike in spinal vessels). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine and clonidine constricted spinal vessels in a concentration-dependent manner, but such vasoconstrictions were smaller than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine.  (+info)

Anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine identified by stimulus-response and continuous measurements in rats. (3/170)

This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. At constant plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine (range, 0.5-19 ng/ml), targeted and maintained by target-controlled infusion, the whisker reflex, righting reflex, startle reflex (to noise), tail clamp response, hot water tail-flick latency, and attenuation of heart rate (HR) increase associated with tail-flick (sympathoadrenal block) and corneal reflex, were assessed in 22 rats. EEG (power in 0.5- to 3.5-Hz frequency band), mean arterial pressure, and HR were recorded continuously. Blood gas values and arterial drug concentrations were determined regularly. The following steady-state plasma EC(50) values of dexmedetomidine (mean +/- S.E. nanograms per milliliter) were estimated: HR decrease (0.51 +/- 0.04), EEG (1.02 +/- 0.08), whisker reflex (1.09 +/- 0.10), sympathoadrenal block (1.85 +/- 0.80), mean arterial blood pressure increase (1.99 +/- 0.44), righting reflex (2.13 +/- 0.15), tail-flick latency (3.65 +/- 0.87), startle reflex (3.75 +/- 0.64), tail clamp (5.49 +/- 1.34), and corneal reflex (24.5 +/- 12.3). At the EC(50) value of tail clamp, ventilatory depression was minor. In rats, dexmedetomidine creates bradycardia, sedation/hypnosis, sympathoadrenal blocking effects, and blood pressure-increasing effects at plasma concentrations below 2.5 ng/ml. Higher plasma concentrations are needed to loose the startle reflex, tail-flick, tail clamp, and corneal reflex responses. Ventilatory depressant effects are minor. The applied EEG measure seems to reflect sedation/hypnosis but seems to have limited value to predict the deeper levels of analgesia and anesthesia of dexmedetomidine.  (+info)

Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations. (4/170)

This study was designed to evaluate 2 combinations for immobilization of bison. Seven wood bison received 1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of xylazine HCl + 1.5 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 1.5 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCl on one occasion. The bison received 60 micrograms/kg BW of medetomidine HCl + 0.6 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 0.6 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCL on another occasion. Xylazine was antagonized with 3 mg/kg BW of tolazoline HCl and medetomidine HCl was antagonized with 180 micrograms/kg (BW) of atipamezole HCl. Temporal characteristics of immobilization and physiological effects (acid-base status, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects) of the drug combinations were compared. Induction was significantly faster with xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Recovery following antagonist administration was significantly faster with medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. The average drug volumes required were 7.00 mL of xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCL and 2.78 mL of medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and rumenal tympany were the major adverse effects with both drug combinations.  (+info)

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. (5/170)

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. (6/170)

The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. (7/170)

The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine, and xylazine in horses were studied. Fifteen horses, whose right carotid arteries had previously been surgically raised to a subcutaneous position during general anesthesia were used. Five horses each were given the following 8 treatments: an intravenous injection of 4 doses of medetomidine (3, 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg), 3 doses of detomidine (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg), and one dose of xylazine (1 mg/kg). Heart rate decreased, but not statistically significant. Atrio-ventricular block was observed following all treatments and prolonged with detomidine. Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV) were decreased with all treatments. The CI decreased to about 50% of baseline values for 5 min after 7.5 and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine, for 20 min after 20 microg/kg detomidine, and for 50 min after 40 microg/kg detomidine. All treatments produced an initial hypertension within 2 min of drug administration followed by a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure (ABP) in horses administered 3 to 7.5 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Hypertension was significantly prolonged in 20 and 40 microg/kg detomidine. The hypotensive phase was not observed in 10 microg/kg medetomidine or detomidine. The changes in ABP were associated with an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Respiratory rate was decreased for 40 to 120 min in 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen decreased significantly in 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine, while the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide did not change significantly. Medetomidine induced dose-dependent cardiovascular depression similar to detomidine. The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine and xylazine were not as prolonged as that of detomidine.  (+info)

Partial to complete antagonism by putative antagonists at the wild-type alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor based on kinetic analyses of agonist:antagonist interactions. (8/170)

1. Activation of the recombinant human alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2C) AR) by (-)-adrenaline in CHO-K1 cells transiently co-expressing a chimeric G(alpha q/i1) protein induced a rapid, transient Ca(2+) response with a high-magnitude followed by a low-magnitude phase which continued throughout the recorded time period (15 min). 2. Activation of the alpha(2C) AR by various alpha(2) AR agonists revealed the following rank order of high-magnitude Ca(2+) response [E(max) (%) versus 10 microM (-)-adrenaline]: UK 14304 (102+/-4)=talipexole (101+/-3)=(-)-adrenaline (100)=d-medetomidine (98+/-1)>oxymetazoline (81+/-4) reverse similarclonidine (75+/-5). 3. The methoxy- (RX 821002) and ethoxy-derivatives (RX 811059) of idazoxan and the dexefaroxan analogue atipamezole were fully effective as antagonists of both the high- and the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response. However, though acting as full antagonists of the high-magnitude response, the further putative alpha(2) AR antagonists idazoxan (27%), SKF 86466 (29%) and dexefaroxan (59%) reversed the low-magnitude response only partially. 4. In conclusion, kinetic analyses of agonist : antagonist interactions at the alpha(2C) AR demonstrate a wide spectrum of partial to complete antagonism of the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response for structurally related alpha(2) AR ligands.  (+info)

  • Conclusion: The CD38/cADPR signaling pathway may be one underlying mechanism of the glucose and insulin effects of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine and likely other drugs of its' class. (
  • As compared to controls, medetomidine administration produced a statistically significant decrease in plasma insulin concentrations in the WT mice whereas the decrease in the CD38 -/- mice was not statistically significant. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. (
  • The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). (
  • Thirty-five anesthetic events involving 15 captive addax ( Addax nasomaculatus ) were performed between August 1998 and February 2002 using a combination of etorphine (33.7 ± 7.9 μg/kg) and detomidine (21.9 ± 4.6 μg/kg) or a combination of medetomidine (57.4 ± 8.6 μg/kg) and ketamine (1.22 ± 0.3 μg/kg), with or without supplemental injectable or inhalant anesthetic agents. (
  • Animals became recumbent within 5 min when the combination of etorphine and detomidine was used and within 11 min when the combination of medetomidine and ketamine was used. (
  • Effects of different doses of medetomidine on clinical hematological parameters in dogs. (
  • The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. (
  • The pharmacological restraint and pain relief provided by medetomidine facilitates handling dogs and aids in the conduct of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (
  • Spontaneous muscle contractions (twitching) can be expected in some dogs sedated with medetomidine. (
  • Medetomidine, the most potent alpha-2 agonist, has been investigated in some species of animals 2,44,51 . (
  • Correspondingly, medetomidine caused a significantly greater increase in plasma glucose concentrations in the WT than in the CD38 -/- mice. (
  • When the barnacle cyprid larva encounters a surface containing medetomidine the molecule interacts with the octopamine receptor in the larva. (