An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both CHLORPROMAZINE and PROMETHAZINE. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.

Cardiopulmonary effects of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists medetomidine and ST-91 in anesthetized sheep. (1/170)

To test the hypothesis that pulmonary alterations are more important than hemodynamic changes in alpha2-agonist-induced hypoxemia in ruminants, the cardiopulmonary effects of incremental doses of (4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imadazole) hydrochloride (medetomidine; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4 micrograms/kg) and 2-(2, 6-diethylphenylamino)-2-imidazol (ST-91; 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12 micrograms/kg) were compared in five halothane-anesthetized, ventilated sheep using a placebo-controlled randomized crossover design. Pulmonary resistance (RL), dynamic compliance, and tidal volume changes in transpulmonary pressure (DeltaPpl) were determined by pneumotachography, whereas cardiac index (CI), mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (Ppaw) were determined using thermodilution and a Swan-Ganz catheter. The most important finding was the fall in partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) after administration of medetomidine at a dose (0.5 micrograms/kg) 20 times less than the sedative dose. The PaO2 levels decreased to 214 mm Hg as compared with 510 mm Hg in the placebo-treated group. This decrease in PaO2 was associated with a decrease in dynamic compliance and an increase in RL, DeltaPpl, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without changes in heart rate, CI, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, Ppa, or Ppaw. On the other hand, ST-91 only produced significant changes in PaO2 at the highest dose. After this dose of ST-91, the decrease in PaO2 was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CI and an increase in mean arterial pressure, Ppa, Ppaw, and the intrapulmonary shunt fraction without significant alterations of RL and DeltaPpl. The study suggests that the mechanism(s) by which medetomidine and ST-91 produce lower PaO2 are different and that drug-induced alterations in the pulmonary system are mainly responsible for the oxygen-lowering effect of medetomidine.  (+info)

Direct effects of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in dogs. (2/170)

BACKGROUND: The effects of adrenergic agonists, often used as local anesthetic additives or spinal analgesics, on spinal vessels have not been firmly established. The authors investigated the effects of alpha2- and alpha1-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in vivo. METHODS: Pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs (n = 28) were prepared for measurement of spinal pial-vessel diameter in a spinal-window preparation. The authors applied dexmedetomidine, clonidine, phenylephrine, or epinephrine in three different concentrations (0.5, 5.0, and 50 microg/ml; [2.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 2.3] x [10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4)] M, respectively) under the window (one drug in each dog) and measured spinal pial arteriolar and venular diameters in a sequential manner. To enable the comparison of their effects on cerebral vessels, the authors also administered these drugs under a cranial window. RESULTS: On topical administration, each drug constricted spinal pial arterioles in a concentration-dependent manner. Phenylephrine and epinephrine induced a significantly larger arteriolar constriction than dexmedetomidine or clonidine at 5 microg/ml (8%, 11%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Spinal pial venules tended to be less constricted than arterioles. In cerebral arterioles, greater constrictions were induced by dexmedetomidine and clonidine than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine (14%, 8%, 0%, and 1%, respectively). Cerebral pial venules tended to exhibit larger constrictions than cerebral arterioles (unlike in spinal vessels). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine and clonidine constricted spinal vessels in a concentration-dependent manner, but such vasoconstrictions were smaller than those induced by phenylephrine and epinephrine.  (+info)

Anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine identified by stimulus-response and continuous measurements in rats. (3/170)

This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. At constant plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine (range, 0.5-19 ng/ml), targeted and maintained by target-controlled infusion, the whisker reflex, righting reflex, startle reflex (to noise), tail clamp response, hot water tail-flick latency, and attenuation of heart rate (HR) increase associated with tail-flick (sympathoadrenal block) and corneal reflex, were assessed in 22 rats. EEG (power in 0.5- to 3.5-Hz frequency band), mean arterial pressure, and HR were recorded continuously. Blood gas values and arterial drug concentrations were determined regularly. The following steady-state plasma EC(50) values of dexmedetomidine (mean +/- S.E. nanograms per milliliter) were estimated: HR decrease (0.51 +/- 0.04), EEG (1.02 +/- 0.08), whisker reflex (1.09 +/- 0.10), sympathoadrenal block (1.85 +/- 0.80), mean arterial blood pressure increase (1.99 +/- 0.44), righting reflex (2.13 +/- 0.15), tail-flick latency (3.65 +/- 0.87), startle reflex (3.75 +/- 0.64), tail clamp (5.49 +/- 1.34), and corneal reflex (24.5 +/- 12.3). At the EC(50) value of tail clamp, ventilatory depression was minor. In rats, dexmedetomidine creates bradycardia, sedation/hypnosis, sympathoadrenal blocking effects, and blood pressure-increasing effects at plasma concentrations below 2.5 ng/ml. Higher plasma concentrations are needed to loose the startle reflex, tail-flick, tail clamp, and corneal reflex responses. Ventilatory depressant effects are minor. The applied EEG measure seems to reflect sedation/hypnosis but seems to have limited value to predict the deeper levels of analgesia and anesthesia of dexmedetomidine.  (+info)

Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations. (4/170)

This study was designed to evaluate 2 combinations for immobilization of bison. Seven wood bison received 1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of xylazine HCl + 1.5 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 1.5 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCl on one occasion. The bison received 60 micrograms/kg BW of medetomidine HCl + 0.6 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 0.6 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCL on another occasion. Xylazine was antagonized with 3 mg/kg BW of tolazoline HCl and medetomidine HCl was antagonized with 180 micrograms/kg (BW) of atipamezole HCl. Temporal characteristics of immobilization and physiological effects (acid-base status, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects) of the drug combinations were compared. Induction was significantly faster with xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Recovery following antagonist administration was significantly faster with medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. The average drug volumes required were 7.00 mL of xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCL and 2.78 mL of medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and rumenal tympany were the major adverse effects with both drug combinations.  (+info)

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. (5/170)

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. (6/170)

The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine and xylazine in horses. (7/170)

The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine, detomidine, and xylazine in horses were studied. Fifteen horses, whose right carotid arteries had previously been surgically raised to a subcutaneous position during general anesthesia were used. Five horses each were given the following 8 treatments: an intravenous injection of 4 doses of medetomidine (3, 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg), 3 doses of detomidine (10, 20, and 40 microg/kg), and one dose of xylazine (1 mg/kg). Heart rate decreased, but not statistically significant. Atrio-ventricular block was observed following all treatments and prolonged with detomidine. Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV) were decreased with all treatments. The CI decreased to about 50% of baseline values for 5 min after 7.5 and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine, for 20 min after 20 microg/kg detomidine, and for 50 min after 40 microg/kg detomidine. All treatments produced an initial hypertension within 2 min of drug administration followed by a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure (ABP) in horses administered 3 to 7.5 microg/kg medetomidine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Hypertension was significantly prolonged in 20 and 40 microg/kg detomidine. The hypotensive phase was not observed in 10 microg/kg medetomidine or detomidine. The changes in ABP were associated with an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Respiratory rate was decreased for 40 to 120 min in 5, 7.5, and 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen decreased significantly in 10 microg/kg medetomidine and detomidine, while the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide did not change significantly. Medetomidine induced dose-dependent cardiovascular depression similar to detomidine. The cardiovascular effects of medetomidine and xylazine were not as prolonged as that of detomidine.  (+info)

Partial to complete antagonism by putative antagonists at the wild-type alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor based on kinetic analyses of agonist:antagonist interactions. (8/170)

1. Activation of the recombinant human alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2C) AR) by (-)-adrenaline in CHO-K1 cells transiently co-expressing a chimeric G(alpha q/i1) protein induced a rapid, transient Ca(2+) response with a high-magnitude followed by a low-magnitude phase which continued throughout the recorded time period (15 min). 2. Activation of the alpha(2C) AR by various alpha(2) AR agonists revealed the following rank order of high-magnitude Ca(2+) response [E(max) (%) versus 10 microM (-)-adrenaline]: UK 14304 (102+/-4)=talipexole (101+/-3)=(-)-adrenaline (100)=d-medetomidine (98+/-1)>oxymetazoline (81+/-4) reverse similarclonidine (75+/-5). 3. The methoxy- (RX 821002) and ethoxy-derivatives (RX 811059) of idazoxan and the dexefaroxan analogue atipamezole were fully effective as antagonists of both the high- and the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response. However, though acting as full antagonists of the high-magnitude response, the further putative alpha(2) AR antagonists idazoxan (27%), SKF 86466 (29%) and dexefaroxan (59%) reversed the low-magnitude response only partially. 4. In conclusion, kinetic analyses of agonist : antagonist interactions at the alpha(2C) AR demonstrate a wide spectrum of partial to complete antagonism of the low-magnitude Ca(2+) response for structurally related alpha(2) AR ligands.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential role of the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway as an underlying mechanism of the effects of medetomidine on insulin and glucose homeostasis. AU - Guedes, Alonso Gp. AU - Rude, Elaine P.. AU - Kannan, Mathur S.. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Objective: To investigate the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway as possible underlying mechanism of the effects of medetomidine on insulin and glucose homeostasis. Animals: Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice of both sexes. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and CD38-knockout (CD38-/-) mice received medetomidine (50 μg kg-1) or a similar volume of 0.9% NaCl (control) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection (each group n = 8). The mice were euthanized 45 minutes later with sodium pentobarbital IP and blood was sampled via cardiac puncture. Insulin and glucose concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay and by the oxygen rate method, respectively. Data were analyzed with anova and Bonferroni post hoc (5% significance) and are shown as mean ± SD. Results: Plasma ...
Objectives: 1) To describe electroencephalogram (EEG) appearance in the awake dog and compare these results with EEG recordings after low dose medetomidine (2 μg/kg IV) followed by atipamezole (10 μg/kg, IM); 2) To institute EEG recordings after low dose medetomidine or dexmedetomidine as a standard of practice if focal abnormalities and amplitudes were not significantly altered by pharmaceuticals in Phase 1 of this study. Methods: Electroencephalograms were performed on eight clinical canine patients with suspected intracranial disease involving the prosencephalon. A five lead montage was used to record the EEGs. Each dog had an awake, baseline recording followed by an EEG performed after administration of low dose medetomidine (2 μg/kg IV) then atipamezole (10 μg/kg, IM). In the second phase of this study, the same dose of medetomidine or dexmedetomidine at 1 μg/kg IV and atipamezole (10 μg/kg, IM) were used in the evaluation of 20 clinical patients with suspected neurologic disease
Product Description Medetomidine Factory Supply Pain Killer Material Medetomidine CAS86347-14-0 Water Solution Medetomidine Basic information Product Name: Medetomidine Synonyms: Medetomidine;4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole;( -)-4-(alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole;(Rs)-4-(alpha,2,3-trimethylbenzyl)imidazol;1H-Imidazole, 4-(1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl)-;86347-15-1 (Hydrochloride);Medetomidina;Medetomidina [spanish] CAS: 86347-14-0 MF: C13H16N2 MW: 0 EINECS: Product Categories: Mol File: 86347-14-0.mol
KRUGER, K y STEGMANN, G F. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.233-236. ISSN 2224-9435.. A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.. Palabras clave : anaesthesia; halothane; horse; ketamine; lidocaine; ...
Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of surgical (60 per cent) and non.surgical (40 per cent) procedures. Eighty.four dogs were used at four sites. Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia by the administration of propofol (n = 44) or ketamine (n = 40) dosed to effect. The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. Sixteen of the dogs suffered an adverse effect, 13 of them vomited. Anaesthesia was induced by the intravenous administration of propofol (2.1 [0.7] mg/kg) or ketamine (3.7 [1.9] mg/kg), and further doses of the anaesthetic were given, depending on the length of the operation, once in 17 per cent, twice in 11 per cent and three or more times in 24 per cent of the cases. The heart ...
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Medetomidine is a commonly used sedative in veterinary medicine whether administered alone or in combination with an opioid such as butorphanol. There are no previous studies that look at the effects of this drug on sequential Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 readings in dogs, including effects on tear pr …
Atipamezole HCl is a selective ??2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.1, 1.0, 0.89, 1300 and 6500 nM for ??2A, ??2B, ??2C, ??1A and ??1B receptors respectively). Has been shown to be a brain penetrant.
The cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine (20 microg/kg bodyweight [BW] and 10 mg/kg BW) (MK group) or dexmedetomidine-ketamine (10 microg/kg BW and 10 mg/kg BW) (DK group) were studied in golden-headed lion tamarins. Heart rate decreased after administration of both combinations; this reduction was statistically greater in the ...
This website is intended for professionals in the medical sector.. The sale of medical devices is determined by art. 10bis of the Royal Decree of 18/03/1999.. Sales to doctors and nurses are also recorded in the MB of 18/05/2005. ...
Dexmedetomidine is a new selective and potent alpha-2 agonist. It has centrally acting anesthetic properties. It has been known that intrathecal addition of alpha-2 adrenergic agents result in prolongation of the duration of the sensory and motor blockade induced by hyperbaric bupivacaine. But the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the spinal block was not evaluated. The aim of study is to assess the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the low-dose spinal anesthesia for the transurethral surgery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An isobolographic analysis of the hypnotic effects of combinations of dexmedetomidine with fentanyl or diazepam in rats. AU - Horváth, G.. AU - Szikszay, Margit. AU - Rubicsek, György. AU - Benedek, G.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The effects of the combinations of dexmedetomidine-fentanyl and dexmedetomidine-diazepam on the righting reflex were studied in rats. The doses that block the righting reflex for the agents given alone and for their combinations were determined with a probit procedure and compared with an isobolographic analysis. The interactions between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl or diazepam were found to be synergistic. In the dexmedetomidine-diazepam combination studies, less than one-fourth of the single drug dose (for each of two agents) was needed to produce the required effect. These data confirm synergistic interactions between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl or diazepam in producing hypnotic-anesthetic action.. AB - The effects of the combinations of ...
Background:. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective arfa2-adrenergic agonist, is known to be a unique sedative agent which causes less acute tolerance, drug addiction and withdrawal compared with gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) agonists. Dexmedetomidine was approved for short-term ICU sedation in 2004 in Japan, and it has been used particularly for surgical ICU patients. In August 2010 dexmedetomidine was approved in Japan for sedation lasting more than 24 hours.. Recent evidence demonstrated that dexmedetomidine has organ protective effects including neuroprotection, cardioprotection, renal protection, gastrointestinal tract action, and anti-inflammatory action. Dexmedetomidine was shown to significantly decrease the infarct size in isolated rat hearts. Additionally, dexmedetomidine exhibited a preconditioning effect against ischemic injury in hippocampal slices, and this result was considered an apoptosis suppression effect of dexmedetomidine. Aydin C et al reported that dexmedetomidine enhanced the ...
Objectives: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a complex phenomenon, which is known to cause cell damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine on lung in the renal IR model in diabetic rats ...
Effect of dexmedetomidine on the postoperative cognitive function of patients undergoing radical resection of esophageal cancer, Gao-Fei Fan, Yuan Hu, Jun Zhang, Liang Chen, Wen-Sh
Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride Injection use in pregnant women. In an in vitro human placenta study, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine occurred. In a study in the pregnant rat, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine was observed when radiolabeled dexmedetomidine was administered subcutaneously. Thus, fetal exposure should be expected in humans, and Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus.. Teratogenic effects were not observed in rats following subcutaneous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from gestation day 5 to 16) with doses up to 200 mcg/kg (representing a dose approximately equal to the maximum recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) or in rabbits following intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from ...
Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Precedex use in pregnant women. In an in vitro human placenta study, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine occurred. In a study in the pregnant rat, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine was observed when radiolabeled dexmedetomidine was administered subcutaneously. Thus, fetal exposure should be expected in humans, and Precedex should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus.. Teratogenic effects were not observed in rats following subcutaneous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from gestation day 5 to 16) with doses up to 200 mcg/kg (representing a dose approximately equal to the maximum recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) or in rabbits following intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from gestation day 6 to 18) with doses up to 96 mcg/kg (representing ...
PARAMUS, N.J., Oct. 11, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - WG Critical Care, LLC (WGCC), a wholly owned subsidiary of PharmaSphere, Inc., announced today that it has launched the first and only Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride Injection 400 mcg/4 mL and 1000 mcg/10 mL multi-dose vials. Dexmedetomidine HCl Injection is currently sold as a 2 mL vial by multiple manufacturers. Dexmedetomidine is also available in ready to use glass bottles marketed by Hospira under the brand name PRECEDEX® (Dexmedetomidine HCl Injection).. To view the full product webpage page, click here: http://wgcriticalcare.com/injectable-pharmaceuticals/our-products/dexmedetomidine-hcl-injection/.. A 200 mcg/2 mL vial is currently the only generic Dexmedetomidine HCl Injection alternative. WGCC will be supplying a unique 400 mcg/4 mL vial presentation. The 4 mL vial easily transfers into one 100 mL bag making it more convenient for the end user. Using only one vial to admix a bag saves time and there is less chance for a medication error. ...
Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Precedex use in pregnant women. In an in vitro human placenta study, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine occurred. In a study in the pregnant rat, placental transfer of dexmedetomidine was observed when radiolabeled dexmedetomidine was administered subcutaneously. Thus, fetal exposure should be expected in humans, and Precedex should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risk to the fetus.. Teratogenic effects were not observed in rats following subcutaneous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from gestation day 5 to 16) with doses up to 200 mcg/kg (representing a dose approximately equal to the maximum recommended human intravenous dose based on body surface area) or in rabbits following intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine during the period of fetal organogenesis (from gestation day 6 to 18) with doses up to 96 mcg/kg ...
This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular medetomidine and xylazine on tear flow in healthy cats. Five cats each received medetomidine 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/kg IM; xylazine 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg IM; and physiological saline (2.0 ml IM) in a randomised order separated by intervals of at least 1 week. The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed in both eyes before and 0.25 ...
This trial is investigating the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for the prevention of stress and postoperative pain in patients undergoing thoracotomy under
Pharmacology refers to the chemical makeup and behavior of DEXMEDETOMIDINE (dexmedetomidine hydrochloride injection, solution, concentrate).
PubMed journal article: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of four fixed rate infusion regimens of phenylephrine for hemodynamic support during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate histological effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on lung injury induced by liver ischemia-reperfusion i..
Ahmed S, Murugan R. Dexmedetomidine use in the ICU: Are we there yet? Crit Care. 2013 May 31;17(3):320. BACKGROUND: Long-term sedation with midazolam or propofol in intensive care units (ICUs) has serious adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist available for ICU sedation, may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and enhance patient comfort. METHODS: OBJECTIVE:…
Buy Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (CAS 145108-58-3), a water soluble potent, highly selective a2 agonist. Join researchers using high quality Dexmedetomidine…
This Dexmedetomidine is the compound of Dexmedetomidine Impurity-6 Other Isomer & category of Impurity Having CAS number NA | Manufactured by DAICEL
1996) Medetomidine sedation in dogs and cats: A review of its pharmacology, antagonism and dose. British Veterinary Journal, 152 (5). pp. 519-535. Calver, M.C., Wyburn, R.S., Barrett, J., Clark, W.T., Cullen, L.K., Eger, C.E., Labuc, R., Main, A.N., McConnell, M.F., Mills, J., Read, R.A., Shaw, S.E. and Sutherland, R.J. ...
In most pre-clinical animal research investigating stem cell therapy in severe myocardial infarction (AMI), the administered stem cells are isolated from healthy donors. sufentanil (50?g/kg) and medetomidine (150?m/kg) subcutaneously. Because these trials acquired to end up being performed under different aneasthesia, as hypnorm/dormicum was no obtainable much longer, an additional healthy control group was included. […]. ...
Tại nhiều quốc gia trên thế giới đã mở ra những d. thuoc augmentin 1g gia bao nhieu, TƯƠNG tác THUỐC và CHÚ ý KHI CHỈ ĐỊNH - Tài liệu textUpsa C viên nén s i 1 buy viagra pills g Vita C viên nén mg co gi t, do gi m tác d ng c a thu c ch ng đ ng kinh trên h th n kinh trung jumpfly.info viet hung tu dien thao moc duoc hoc. Theo công thức, mỗi gói Augmentin mg/62,5mg chứa mg kháng sinh Amoxicillin dạng Amoxicillin trihydrate và 62,5mg acid clavulanic dạng kali dị ứng nào và thay thế điều trị thích hợp đồng thời khuyến cáo người sử dụng nên thận trọng khi dùng bởi nguy cơ xuất hiện phản ứng ở gan (ứ mật). Medetomidine. Cholera-regular.. ...
This study will investigate the effects and efficacy of adjuvant dexmedetomidine administered during anaesthesia in patients undergoing laproscopic surgery. The
Learn about the potential side effects of dexmedetomidine. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Find information on Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
SINGH, Gyan D. et al. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2013, vol.84, n.1, pp.1-11. ISSN 2224-9435.. The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 pg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 pg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 pg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were ...
Cerebral (BIS, NIRS, CBFV) and cardiorespiratory parameters (mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, ETco2, respiratory rate, heart rate) were observed continuously throughout the study period. In addition, at six predetermined intervals, simultaneous samples of arterial and jugular venous blood were obtained for blood gas determination. The six intervals were presedation, presedation with hyperventilation (presedation-HV), steady state dexmedetomidine plasma level 0.6 ng/ml (0.6 ng/ml), steady state dexmedetomidine plasma level 1.2 ng/ml (1.2 ng/ml), steady state dexmedetomidine plasma level 1.2 ng/ml with hyperventilation (1.2 ng/ml-HV), and 30 min after discontinuation of dexmedetomidine infusion (recovery). After placement of the right internal jugular catheter, the room lighting was lowered, and 10 min of undisturbed stabilization ensued. Thereafter, the presedation arterial and venous samples and physiologic data were obtained. The subject was then asked to hyperventilate ...
Excretion. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of dexmedetomidine is approximately 2 hours and clearance is estimated to be approximately 39 L/h. A mass balance study demonstrated that after nine days an average of 95% of the radioactivity, following intravenous administration of radiolabeled dexmedetomidine, was recovered in the urine and 4% in the feces. No unchanged dexmedetomidine was detected in the urine. Approximately 85% of the radioactivity recovered in the urine was excreted within 24 hours after the infusion. Fractionation of the radioactivity excreted in urine demonstrated that products of N-glucuronidation accounted for approximately 34% of the cumulative urinary excretion. In addition, aliphatic hydroxylation of parent drug to form 3-hydroxy-dexmedetomidine, the glucuronide of 3-hydroxy-dexmedetomidine, and 3-carboxylic acid-dexmedetomidine together represented approximately 14% of the dose in urine. N-methylation of dexmedetomidine to form 3-hydroxy N-methyl dexmedetomidine, ...
Recent studies have shown that dexmedetomidine exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing serum levels of inflammatory factors, however, the up-stream mechanism is still unknown. The transcription factor NF-κB enters the nucleus and promotes the transcription of its target genes, including those encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. In this study, we established a rat model that simulates a clinical surgical procedure to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of perineural administration of dexmedetomidine and the underlying mechanism. Dexmedetomidine reduced the sciatic nerve levels of IL-6 and TNF-α at both the mRNA and protein level. Dexmedetomidine also inhibited the translocation of activated NF-κB to the nucleus and the binding activity of NF-κB. The anti-inflammatory effect is confirmed to be dose-dependent. Finally, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate also reduced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine inhibited the nuclear
Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, when used as an adjuvant in general anaesthesia attenuates stress response to various noxious stimuli, maintains perioperative haemodynamic stability and provides sedation without significant respiratory depression po
TY - JOUR. T1 - Respiratory effect of dexmedetomidine. T2 - As a sedative for sub-dural haematoma evacuation. AU - Raja, Kurinchi. AU - Rao, Rammoorthi. AU - Vasudevarao, Sunil Baikadi. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Background: Maintaining arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen within physiological range is very crucial for the better outcome of neurosurgery patients. We studied respiratory effect of dexmedetomidine, fentanyl combination along with infiltration of local anesthesia for chronic SDH evacuation in ASA 2,3 and 4 patients. Material and methods: 56 patients with chronic SDH posted for burrhole evacuation were divided in to 2 groups. Group A received bolus dose dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg over 10 minutes in addition to fentanyl 1µgm/kg, midazolam 0.02 mg/kg, followed by infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.3µg/kg/min.group B recieved fentanyl 1 µg/kg, midazolam 0.02 mg/kg. Haemodynamics and artetial blood gas (ABG), between the two groups were compared. Results; Following ...
Results Kaplan-Meier curves for the first analgesic request were similar between groups (log-rank test; p=0.27). Median (IQR) duration of analgesia was similar between placebo (1575 min (1211-1952)) and DexM (1470 min (1263-1700)) groups (p=0.56). Cumulative consumption of oxycodone at the 48th hour was 20 mg (10-30) and 30 mg (20-40) in placebo and DexM groups, respectively (p=0.14). The day after surgery, 93% and 89% of patients were able to walk in placebo and DexM groups, respectively (p=0.46). Intravenous DexM was associated with bradycardia, hypotension and longer recovery room stay (p,0.05 for all comparisons). ...
Rioja, E., Dzikiti, B. T., Fosgate, G., Goddard, A., Stegmann, F. G. and Schoeman, J. P. (2012), Effects of a constant rate infusion of magnesium sulphate in healthy dogs anaesthetized with isoflurane and undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 39: 599-610. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00722.x ...
Background: Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects. We evaluate the effect of preanaesthetic dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg single infusion on sedation, haemodynamics, anaesthetic consumption, and recovery profiles during anaesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients of both gender with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II undergoing surgery with anticipated operation time of 2 h, were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (study group) or normal saline (control group) intravenously over 10 min before anaesthetic induction. After tracheal intubation with Inj. thiopentone sodium 5 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.), vecuronium 0.12 mg/kg i.v., anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, O2 50%, N2O 50% around a BIS value of 40. Results: After infusion of the study drug was completed, BIS of study group was significantly lower than that of control group (57.36±3.88 vs 96.66±1.51, p , 0.0001). After tracheal intubation, ...
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Objectives: This study aims to examine the potential protective effect of the selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine. (DEX) against aortic occlusion-induced myocardial injury.. Patients and methods: A total of 30 rats were randomly assigned into three groups of 10 animals each as control, ischemia+reperfusion. (I/Rep), and I/Rep+DEX. In the I/Rep and I/Rep+DEX groups, after the completion of the shock stage, 60-min lower torso ischemia was. induced with the application of cross-clamps to the abdominal aorta, followed by 120-min reperfusion. The I/Rep+DEX group received. intraperitoneal 100 μg/kg DEX 30 min before the ischemia period.. Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in myocardial tissue increased with the application of I/Rep, while glutathione (GSH) levels. decreased. We also observed swollen, degenerative, apoptotic cardiac myofibrils exhibiting caspase-3 positivity, widespread edematous areas,. vascular congestion, and an increase in the heart damage scores. The ...
DEXMEDETOMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE (injection, solution) can come in different packaging based on the dosage and strength of the medication. Below are pictures of Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride packaging to help you recognize it.
OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this study were the evaluation of the intraoperatory analgesia of remifentanil in dogs, comparing with fentanyl and a placebo solution, and the study of the hemodynamic and respiratory response and the patient recovery after two hours of anesthesia.. MATERIALS. Seven beagles dogs ASA I were anesthetized three times. All dogs were anaesthetized with medetomidine (10 mcg/kg IV), propofol (3 mg/kg IV, sevoflurane and atracurium (150 mcg/kg IV every 30 minutes. Three different analgesic protocols were evaluated: RMF: (remifentanil: 0,5 mcg/kg IV + 0,25 mcg/kg/min. FEN (2 mcg/kg IV + 0,1 mcg/kg/min IV). PCB (glucosade fluid infusion). In all cases the following postanesthetic analgesic protocol was used: morphine (0,2 mg/kg IM) and meloxicam (0,2 mg/kg IV) 20 minutes before the end of the procedure. Several cardiovascular and respiratory variables were studied every 5 minutes. Pain response was observed evaluated with a pinch with a forceps in the back paws. Recovery ...
Atipamezole is used in animals to reverse the effects of analgesic medications after a veterinary procedure is performed. Visit VetDepot.com for a complete collection of veterinary medication guides.
Page 4: Slayback Pharma LLC: Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection is a relatively selective alpha 2 -adrenergic agonist indicated...
Dexmedetomidine pretreatment protects the heart against I/R injury via inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis through downregulation of the ERS signaling pathway
702 medications are known to interact with dexmedetomidine. Includes Albumin-Alpine (albumin human), Ativan (lorazepam), Bumex (bumetanide).
DEX decreases CI in children and has a cumulative effect. For patients undergoing prolonged procedures HR and CI remained decreased at the time of discharge together with a decrease in SI and an increase in SVRI.
This website is intended for professionals in the medical sector.. The sale of medical devices is determined by art. 10bis of the Royal Decree of 18/03/1999.. Sales to doctors and nurses are also recorded in the MB of 18/05/2005. ...
QN05CM91 Medetomidine. QN05CM92 Xylazine. QN05CM93 Romifidine. QN05CM94 Metomidate. N05CX 바르비탈계를 제외한 수면진정제의 조합[편집]. N05CX01 ...
"Effects of carprofen on renal function during medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anesthesia in dogs". American journal of ...
Zhang, X; Yao, XT; Dalton, JT; Shams, G; Lei, L; Patil, PN; Feller, DR; Hsu, FL; George, C (1996). "Medetomidine analogs as ... Zhang, X; De Los Angeles, JE; He, MY; Dalton, JT; Shams, G; Lei, L; Patil, PN; Feller, DR; Miller, DD (1997). "Medetomidine ... Lalchandani, SG; Zhang, X; Hong, SS; Liggett, SB; Li, W; Moore Bm, 2nd; Miller, DD; Feller, DR (2004). "Medetomidine analogs as ... 3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of medetomidine analogs and their potential binding interactions with ...
Medetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist. Nonspecific agonists act as agonists at both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors. ... "A review of the physiological effects of alpha2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice ... Tizanidine Medetomidine Methyldopa Methylnorepinephrine Norepinephrine (R)-3-nitrobiphenyline is an α2C selective agonist as ...
Medetomidine Dexmedetomidine Clarke, Kathy W.; Hall, Leslie W.; Trim, Cynthia M., eds. (2014). "Principles of sedation, ...
It has two isomers, with the (S) isomer being the more potent, as with medetomidine. 4-NEMD was also investigated by the United ... September 1997). "Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of ... July 1996). "Medetomidine analogs as alpha 2-adrenergic ligands. 2. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of ... January 2004). "Medetomidine analogs as selective agonists for the human alpha2-adrenoceptors". Biochemical Pharmacology. 67 (1 ...
... and because medetomidine is sold as 1 mg/mL, 1 mL of atipamezole reverses 1 mL of medetomidine. When the enantiomerically pure ... Atipamezole is sold at 5 mg/mL for ease of use: 5 times as much atipamezole as medetomidine is needed for full reversal, ... Kim MS, Jeong SM, Park JH, Nam TC, Seo KM (October 2004). "Reversal of medetomidine-ketamine combination anesthesia in rabbits ... ISBN 978-0-8138-2061-3. Talke P, Harper D, Traber L, Richardson CR, Traber D (February 1999). "Reversal of medetomidine induced ...
Xylazine is approved for use in dogs, cats, horses, deer, and elk in the United States, while medetomidine is only approved for ... α2 agonists like xylazine and medetomidine are especially useful because they can be reversed, xylazine by yohimbine and ... Sedatives commonly used include acepromazine, hydromorphone, midazolam, diazepam, xylazine, and medetomidine. ...
Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of three doses of romifidine in comparison with medetomidine in five cats. Veterinary ...
Caulkett, N.A.; Cattet, M.R.; Cantwell, S.; Cool, N.; Olsen, W. (January 2000). "Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine- ...
Ryeng, K. A.; Larsen, S.; Arnemo, J. M. (2002). "Medetomidine-Ketamine in Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus Tarandus): Effective ...
... medetomidine-ketamine, and medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine". Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 30 (3): 354-60. PMID ...
Ketamine has been found safe for use in servals together with medetomidine and butorphanol and with the antagonist atipamezole ... "Evaluation of the effects of naloxone on recovery time and quality after ketamine-medetomidine-butorphanol anesthesia in ... "Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol and antagonism with atipamezole in servals (Felis ...
"Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of three doses of romifidine in comparison with medetomidine in five cats". The ...
"Evaluation of the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic ... different aspects of manifestation and characteristics with medetomidine and acepromazine preanaesthetic medication (PDF). ...
"Chemical restraint by medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam and its reversal by atipamezole in Japanese macaques ('Macaca ...
Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and medetomidine-butorphanol- midazolam in patas ...
The first advantage is balanced anesthesia can make patients calm by using the drugs, such as: medetomidine, diazepam or ...
"Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a ...
For sedation, it may be combined with tranquilizers such as alpha-2 agonists (medetomidine), benzodiazepines, or acepromazine ...
... crocodiles with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole". Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 39 (4): 345-356. doi:10.1111 ...
... (INN) (brand name Nopron) is a sedative-hypnotic drug of the phenylpiperazine group.[1][2] It has been used in the treatment of sleep disturbances since the early 1970s in several European countries including France, Italy, and Luxembourg.[3][4] It is commonly used with children and adolescents on account of its favorable safety and tolerability profile and lack of abuse potential.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Originally believed to act as an antihistamine and anticholinergic,[11] niaprazine was later discovered to have low or no binding affinity for the H1 and mACh receptors (Ki = , 1 μM), and was instead found to act as a potent and selective 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki = 75 nM and 86 nM, respectively).[12] It possesses low or no affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B, D2, and β-adrenergic, as well as at SERT and VMAT (Ki = all , 1 μM), but it does have some affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 730 nM),[12] likely acting as an antagonist there as well. Niaprazine ...
... is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker[1][2] . ICI binds to the β2 subtype with at least 100 times greater affinity than β1 or β3, the two other known subtypes of the beta adrenoceptor.[3][4] The compound was developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, which was acquired by AkzoNobel in 2008. ICI-118,551 has no known therapeutic use in humans although it has been used widely in research to understand the action of the β2 adrenergic receptor, as few other specific antagonists for this receptor are known.[5] ICI-118,551 has been used in pre-clinical studies using murine models.[6][7][8] When dissolved in saline, the compound crosses the blood-brain barrier. Common systemic doses used in rodent research are 0.5 or 1 mg/kg although efficacy has been demonstrated at doses as low as 0.0001 mg/kg in rhesus monkeys.[9] Doses up to 20 mg/kg have been used without toxicity. At room temperature in saline, the ICI 118,551 hydrochloride is soluble to ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...
There are a variety of clinically useful ergoline derivatives for the purpose of vasoconstriction, the treatment of migraines, and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Ergoline alkaloids found their place in pharmacology long before modern medicine as preparations of ergot were often used by midwives in the 12th century to stimulate childbirth.[10] Following Arthur Stoll's isolation of ergometrine, the therapeutic use of ergoline derivatives became well explored. The induction of uterine contractions via the preparation of ergot was attributed to ergonovine, an ergoline derivative found in ergot, which is a powerful oxytocic. From this, methergine, a synthetic derivative, was elucidated.[7] While used to facilitate child birth, ergoline derivatives can pass into breast milk and should not be used during breastfeeding.[11] They are uterine contractors that can increase the risk of miscarriage during pregnancy.[3] Another example of medically relevant ergoline alkaloids is ergotamine, an alkaloid ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless liquid with a smell of menthol. It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and fragrance.[1] ...
The most common side effect is eye irritation felt as stinging or burning, which occurs in up to a third of patients. Blepharoconjunctivitis occurs in up to 5% of patients. Rarer adverse effects include keratitis, edema and increased lacrimation.[2][3] Allergies are rare, but seem to be more common than under the related drug timolol.[1] If the substance reaches the nasal mucosa via the tear duct, it can be absorbed into the bloodstream and cause systemic side effects. These include orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure) and other effects on the heart and circulatory system, breathing problems in people with asthma, and skin symptoms such as itching and aggravation of psoriasis.[1] ...
InChI=1S/C23H40N2O4/c1-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-23(27)25-15-19-12-13-21(22(14-19)28-4)29-17-20(26)16-24-18(2)3/h12-14,18,20,24,26H,5-11,15-17H2,1-4H3,(H,25,27 ...
Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, ... Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. It is mainly effective against barnacles, but has also ... Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion ... The free base form of medetomidine is sold as Selektope for use as an antifouling substance in marine paints. In veterinary ...
... medetomidine explanation free. What is medetomidine? Meaning of medetomidine medical term. What does medetomidine mean? ... Looking for online definition of medetomidine in the Medical Dictionary? ... medetomidine. Also found in: Wikipedia. medetomidine. a potent α2 adrenoreceptor agonist used widely as a sedative, hypnotic ... Medetomidine , definition of medetomidine by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/medetomidine ...
EVALUATION OF MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA WITH ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL IN AMERICAN ALLIGATORS... MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE- ... CAPTURE AND MEDETOMIDINE KETAMINE ANESTHESIA OF FREE RANGING WOLVERINES (GULO... MASS CAPTURE AND ANESTHESIA OF AUSTRALIAN ... Timothy J. Portas, Michael J. Lynch, and Larry Vogelnest "COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-DETOMIDINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ... ETORPHINE-KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA IN WILD IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS) OF... ...
Each dog had an awake, baseline recording followed by an EEG performed after administration of low dose medetomidine (2 μg/kg ... After medetomidine and atipamezole, EEG waveforms were slower. Following atipamezole, however, the frequencies were observed to ... Administration of low dose medetomidine or dexmedetomidine followed by atipamezole reliably reduced the impact of movement ... appearance in the awake dog and compare these results with EEG recordings after low dose medetomidine (2 μg/kg IV) followed by ...
2023) has been withdrawn from sale for commercial reasons and replaced by Medetomidine hydrochloride (Cat. No. 5160). ... Reviews for Medetomidine hydrochloride. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Medetomidine ... Keywords: Medetomidine hydrochloride, Medetomidine hydrochloride supplier, Potent, selective, α2-adrenoceptor, alpha2- ... Medetomidine hydrochloride. Cat. No. 2023 Submit a Review Datasheet / COA / SDS Discontinued Product. This product has been ...
Doses of 50-200 micrograms/kg medetomidine alone or 30-125 micrograms/kg medetomidine combined with greater than or equal to ... with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of immobilization with atipamezole.. Tyler NJ1, Hotvedt R, Blix AS, ... Atipamezole successfully antagonized medetomidine (-ketamine) resulting in rapid and persistent reversal of immobilization in ... The sedative action of medetomidine (-ketamine) was studied in 12 captive Norwegian semidomesticated reindeer (NR), including 4 ...
... medetomidine, ketamine (MMK) drug combination were determined in cats. Six healthy, adult female cats were administered 0.2 mg/ ... Six healthy, adult female cats were administered 0.2 mg/kg morphine sulphate, 60 microg/kg medetomidine hydrochloride, and 5 mg ... The quality and duration of anaesthesia, cardiorespiratory effects and recovery characteristics of a morphine, medetomidine, ...
Medetomidine preparation information is provided by Wedgewood Pharmacy. ... Medetomidine Injection Solution may be prescribed for Analgesia. ... Medetomidine Injection Solution. Prescribed For: Dogs, Cats and ... The dosage form available for Medetomidine is Injection Solution. 2 strengths of Medetomidine Injection Solution are available ... Medetomidine Injection Solution. Prescribed For: Dogs, Cats and Exotics. May be Prescribed For: Analgesia and Sedation. If you ...
Medetomidine Synonym(s): Medetomidine HCl, Domitor, Domtor, Zalopine, Dorbene, Dormilan, Medetor, Sedastart, Sedator, Sededorm ... Schernthaner A, Lendl C E, Hartmann K et al (2011) Medetomidine/midazolam/ketamine anaesthesia in ferrets: effects on ... When used for premedication, medetomidine will significantly reduce the dose of all other anesthetic agents. ... Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study. Lab Anim ...
KRUGER, K and STEGMANN, G F. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane. ... ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a ... ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery. ...
Find details on Medetomidine. Medication for dogs including uses, administration, pharmacokinetics, precautions, adverse ... Anesthetic effects of ketamine or isoflurane induction prior to isoflurane anesthesia in medetomidine-premedicated dogs.JAAHA37 ...
Find details on Medetomidine. Medication for rabbits including uses, administration, pharmacokinetics, precautions, adverse ... Difilippo S M, Norberg P J, Suson U D et al (2004) A comparison of xylazine and medetomidine in an anesthetic combination in ... Orr H E, Roughan J V & Flecknell P A (2005) Assessment of ketamine and medetomidine anaesthesia in the domestic rabbit. Vet ... Flecknell P A & Liles J H (1996) Halothane anaesthesia in the rabbit - a comparison of the effects of medetomidine, ...
Medetomidine is a commonly used sedative in veterinary medicine whether administered alone or in combination with an opioid ... Effects of medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol combination on Schirmer tear test 1 readings in dogs Vet Ophthalmol. Jan- ... Results revealed that intravenous sedation with medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol in dogs with no history of ophthalmic ... Medetomidine is a commonly used sedative in veterinary medicine whether administered alone or in combination with an opioid ...
Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction ... Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in ... The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration ... Clinical efficacy and safety of propofol or ketamine anaesthesia in dogs premedicated with medetomidine ...
The effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidine and butorphanol (MB), and ... The effect of a combination of medetomidine-butorphanol and medetomidine, butorphanol, atropine on glomerular filtration rate ... The effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidine and butorphanol (MB), and medetomidine, butorphanol, atropine (MBA) on ... The results of this study indicate that the administration of medetomidine in combination with butorphanol significantly ...
... medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in combination with ketamine in dogs , O. Guzel, D.A. Kaya, K. Altunatmaz, G. Sevim, D. Sezer ... The second group, the medetomidine/ketamine group, intravenously received medetomidine (10 µg/kg) followed by ketamine (5 mg/kg ... If medetomidine is used, special care should be taken because of the rapid decrease in heart rate. ... The end tidal carbon dioxide levels were higher in the medetomidine/ketamine group than in the other two groups, and oxygen ...
Methods: Wild-type (WT) and CD38-knockout (CD38-/-) mice received medetomidine (50 μg kg-1) or a similar volume of 0.9% NaCl ( ... Correspondingly, medetomidine caused a significantly greater increase in plasma glucose concentrations in the WT than in the ... Correspondingly, medetomidine caused a significantly greater increase in plasma glucose concentrations in the WT than in the ... Correspondingly, medetomidine caused a significantly greater increase in plasma glucose concentrations in the WT than in the ...
Both medetomidine and xylazine increased glucose levels. The hyperglycemic effect of medetomidine, in contrast with xylazine, ... Both medetomidine and xylazine similarly and dose-dependently inhibited norepinephrine release and lipolysis. Medetomidine ... The results suggested that the effect of medetomidine on glucose metabolism may not be due only to alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated ... and 80 microg/kg medetomidine, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg xylazine, intramuscularly. Blood samples were taken at 10 times during ...
yog ib qho kev kawm medetomidine hcl, cas 86347-15-1 chaw ua hauj lwm thiab cov chaw muag khoom nrog lub Hoobkas, txais tos ... yuav medetomidine hcl, cas 86347-15-1 cov khoom los ntawm peb. ... Medetomidine HCl CAS: 86347-15-1 cov lus qhia kom ntxaws *. ... Nqe lus piav txog Medetomidine HCl CAS: 86347-15-1: Medetomidine yog ib hom tshuaj siv hluavtaws siv los ua ob qho kev phais ... Medetomidine yog ib hom tshuaj siv hluavtaws siv los ua ob qho kev phais thiab kev mob nkeeg. Nws yog siv raws li cov ...
... over medetomidine 67. The primary author observed no differences in clinical effects when medetomidine is replaced by ... is reduced when using medetomidine at the low dose of 7 µg/kg. Therefore, the author uses 10 µg/kg medetomidine premedication ... of medetomidine. Although dexmedetomidine and medetomidine induced similar clinical effects 66, there are theoretical ... The use of medetomidine as premedicant permits the use of less than half the induction dose of propofol usually required when ...
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Miksa, I. R., Cummings, M. R., & Poppenga, R. H. (2005). Determination of acepromazine, ketamine, medetomidine, and xylazine in ... Miksa, IR, Cummings, MR & Poppenga, RH 2005, Determination of acepromazine, ketamine, medetomidine, and xylazine in serum: ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Determination of acepromazine, ketamine, medetomidine, and xylazine in serum: ... T1 - Determination of acepromazine, ketamine, medetomidine, and xylazine in serum. T2 - Multi-residue screening by liquid ...
... medetomidine (30 micrograms/kg intramuscularly), xylazine plus propofol (3 mg/kg intravenously) and medetomidine plus propofol ... Xylazine and medetomidine premedication prolonged propofol anaesthesia in dogs. Propofol alone reduced blood pressure and ... Bradycardia was a common feature in all the dogs given xylazine or medetomidine, but hypertension was consistently recorded in ... 1993) Xylazine or medetomidine premedication before propofol anaesthesia. Veterinary Record, 132 (15). pp. 378-83. ...
For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4% and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb ... OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and ... Comparison of the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion on the stress response, urine production ... Comparison of the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion on the stress response, urine production ...
Medetomidine Synonyms: Medetomidine;4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole;( -)-4-(alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole;( ... Product Description Medetomidine Factory Supply Pain Killer Material Medetomidine CAS86347-14-0 Water Solution Medetomidine ... Medetomidine. Synonyms:. Medetomidine;4-[1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole;( -)-4-(alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole ... Factory Supply Pain Killer Material Medetomidine CAS86347-14-0 Water Solution. * by chemicals ...
Effects of a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam and, fentanyl on glioma cell calcium activity. Video 7: . Calcium activity of ... Activity significantly decreases under deep anesthesia with a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and fentanyl (second half; n= ... medetomidine and fentanyl compared with control (minimal dose anaesthesia) conditions (n = 154 cells per group in 3 S24 PDX ...
Acknowledgements. About This Book.. Abacavir.. Acarbose.. Acetyl sulfisoxazole.. Acrivastine.. Adapalene.. Adefovir dipivoxil.. Adrenocorticotropic hormone.. Afloqualone.. Alacepril.. Alclometasone 17,21-dipropionate.. Alitretinoin.. Allethrin.. Almotriptan.. Alosetron.. Amcinonide.. Aminolevulinic acid.. Amprenavir.. Anagrelide.. Anakinra.. Apraclonidine.. Aprepitant.. Aranidipine.. Arotinolol.. Arteether.. Articaine.. Asparaginase.. Atazanavir sulfate.. Atipamezole.. Atomoxetine hydrochloride.. Atorvastatin.. Atosiban.. Balofloxacin.. Bambermycins.. Befunolol.. Benzalkonium chloride.. Betaine.. Bethanechol chloride.. Bexarotene.. Biapenem.. Bimatoprost.. Bioresmethrin.. Bivalirudin.. Boldenone.. Bosentan.. β-Boswellic acid.. Brimonidine.. Bromfenac.. Brovincamine.. Bucillamine.. Budipine.. Bulaquine.. Butacaine.. Butamben.. Butoconazole.. Butyl flufenamate.. Cambendazole.. Candesartan cilexetil.. Capecitabine.. Casanthranol.. Caspofungin.. Castor ...
Dex,medetomidine for maintaining Hypotensive Anaesthesia in middle ear surgeries. Author: Dr. Trupti D Shah, Dr. Sachi Mehta ...
Mice were anesthetized (80 mg/kg ketamine; 0.2 mg/kg medetomidine) and fixed in a stereotaxic frame (RWD, San Diego, CA). The ...
... medetomidine HCl, 0.4 mg/kg s.c.; Pfizer) and Sublimaze (fentanyl, 0.45 mg/kg i.p.; Janssen-Cilag). A cannula was aimed at the ...
  • In veterinary anesthesia, medetomidine is often used in combinations with opioids (butorphanol, buprenorphine etc.) as premedication (before a general anesthetic) in healthy cats and dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of serial anesthesia using ketamine or ketamine/ medetomidine on hematology and serum biochemistry values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (245.3 ± 63.4 μg/kg). (bioone.org)
  • Timothy J. Portas , Michael J. Lynch , and Larry Vogelnest "COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-DETOMIDINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE ADDAX ( ADDAX NASOMACULATUS )," Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3), 269-273, (1 September 2003). (bioone.org)
  • Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and ketamine and Show more OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. (islandscholar.ca)
  • For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4% and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. (islandscholar.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol + sevoflurane, midazolam + sevoflurane, medetomidine + ketamine + sevoflurane anesthetic combinations on IOP, and to find out suitable anesthesia protocol in rabbits for ophthalmic surgery. (erciyes.edu.tr)
  • To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (±SD = 0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (±0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (±0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (±0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (±0.02). (edu.au)
  • Blood Collection & Restraint sub-carapacial sinus Anesthesia Ketamine hydrochloride at a dose of 5-10 mg/kg combined with medetomidine at 50 mcg/kg IM works very well. (prezi.com)
  • The predilection for delayed morbidity and mortality in males after anesthesia suggests that anesthesia with 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine is a potential risk factor for obstructive uropathy due to release of seminal coagulum. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Highly concentrated alpha-2 agonists such as medetomidine commonly used in veterinary anesthesia, can potentially cause signific-ant harm or death if accidentally exposed to a human. (ispub.com)
  • After administration of medetomidine anesthesia, the investigators performed similar evaluations of the reindeer nasal mucosa. (go.com)
  • Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalusbubalis). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine: a review of cardiovascular effects and antinociceptive properties in the dog. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2) To institute EEG recordings after low dose medetomidine or dexmedetomidine as a standard of practice if focal abnormalities and amplitudes were not significantly altered by pharmaceuticals in Phase 1 of this study. (scirp.org)
  • In the second phase of this study, the same dose of medetomidine or dexmedetomidine at 1 μg/kg IV and atipamezole (10 μg/kg, IM) were used in the evaluation of 20 clinical patients with suspected neurologic disease. (scirp.org)
  • Administration of low dose medetomidine or dexmedetomidine followed by atipamezole reliably reduced the impact of movement artifacts and produced clinically valid EEG recordings in dogs. (scirp.org)
  • L. Tepper and A. Shores, "Electroencephalographic Recordings in the Canine: Effects of Low Dose Medetomidine or Dexmedetomidine Followed by Atipamezole," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine , Vol. 4 No. 2, 2014, pp. 7-13. (scirp.org)
  • Guzel O., Kaya D.A., Altunatmaz K., Sevim G., Sezer D., Erdikmen D.O. (2018): Evaluation of the cardiorespiratory effects of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in combination with ketamine in dogs. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • In this study, we compared the effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in combination with ketamine on heart rate, respiratory rate, blood gas values, temperature and sedation scores. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • An increase was observed in venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide values at T 2 in the xylazine/ketamine group compared to the medetomidine/ketamine and dexmedetomidine/ketamine groups. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • It was determined that none of α 2 -agonists, namely xylazine, medetomidine or dexmedetomidine, had superior properties over the others. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • In recent surveys of anaesthetic mortality in the dog however, premedication with medetomidine prior to anaesthesia for routine surgery, was not identified as an increased risk factor for mortality 17 and data from human literature has shown that dexmedetomidine is associated with a reduction in all causes of mortality when used for non-cardiac, cardiac and vascular surgery 18,19 . (vetlink.co.za)
  • Medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) are widely used to provide general anaesthesia in laboratory animals, but have not been compared directly in many of these species, including rodents. (strath.ac.uk)
  • This study failed to demonstrate clinical advantages of the enantiomer dexmedetomidine over medetomidine when combined with ketamine to produce general anaesthesia in mice. (strath.ac.uk)
  • REVERTIDINE is indicated for the reversal of the sedative and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, and medetomidine hydrochloride in dogs. (drugs.com)
  • REVERTIDINE is administered intramuscularly (IM) for reversal of sedation and analgesia regardless of the route used for dexmedetomidine or medetomidine. (drugs.com)
  • The atipamezole dose for the reversal of IV dexmedetomidine or medetomidine is 3750 mcg/m 2 . (drugs.com)
  • Since atipamezole is always used concomitantly with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine, it should not be used in dogs with the following conditions: cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney diseases, dogs in shock, severely debilitated dogs, or dogs stressed due to extreme heat, cold or fatigue. (drugs.com)
  • Selected examples are: Clonidine (mixed alpha2-adrenergic and imidazoline-I1 receptor agonist) Dexmedetomidine Fadolmidine Guanfacine, (preference for alpha2A-subtype of adrenoceptor) Guanabenz (most selective agonist for alpha2-adrenergic as opposed to imidazoline-I1) Guanoxabenz (metabolite of guanabenz) Guanethidine (peripheral alpha2-receptor agonist) Xylazine, Tizanidine Medetomidine Methyldopa Methylnorepinephrine Norepinephrine (R)-3-nitrobiphenyline is an α2C selective agonist as well as being a weak antagonist at the α2A and α2B subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical comparison of preanaesthetic intramuscular medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in domestic sheep. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Accidental overdose (OD) with an alpha-2 agonist (a2a), such as dexmedetomidine (DEX) medetomidine (MED), or clonidine can potentially be life-threatening. (ispub.com)
  • Each dog had an awake, baseline recording followed by an EEG performed after administration of low dose medetomidine (2 μg/kg IV) then atipamezole (10 μg/kg, IM). (scirp.org)
  • After medetomidine and atipamezole, EEG waveforms were slower. (scirp.org)
  • Immobilization of Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and Svalbard Reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of immobilization with atipamezole. (nih.gov)
  • Atipamezole successfully antagonized medetomidine (-ketamine) resulting in rapid and persistent reversal of immobilization in all cases (NR and SR). Both medetomidine and atipamezole had wide safety margins and no conspicuous lasting side effects after reversal. (nih.gov)
  • All dogs had tear readings taken presedation, 15 min postsedation, and 15 min after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole. (nih.gov)
  • Immobilization of captive nubian ibex (capra nubiana) with butorphanol-midazolam-medetomidine or butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine and atipamezole reversal. (wizdom.ai)
  • This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-anesthetic drugs, such as medetomidine and atipamezole, are used in anesthetic protocols in different domestic and wild species due to their excellent sedative effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The medetomidine is then reversed with atipamezole. (prezi.com)
  • It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride, a crystalline white solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imalgene, Italy) plus medetomidine hydrochloride at 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This product has been withdrawn from sale and is superseded by Medetomidine hydrochloride (Cat. (tocris.com)
  • Currently there are no citations for Medetomidine hydrochloride. (tocris.com)
  • Be the first to review Medetomidine hydrochloride and earn rewards! (tocris.com)
  • Have you used Medetomidine hydrochloride? (tocris.com)
  • Six healthy, adult female cats were administered 0.2 mg/kg morphine sulphate, 60 microg/kg medetomidine hydrochloride, and 5 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride intramuscularly. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nws yog siv raws li cov hydrochloride ntsev, medetomidine hydrochloride, crystalline dawb khoom. (ok-biotech.com)
  • The anaesthetic protocol used in the current study included the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitor®, Zoetis Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa) at 7 µg/kg iv as a premedicant, followed one minute later by propofol (Fresenius propoven®1%, Fresenius Kabi, Midrand, South Africa) at 1 to 2 mg/kg iv as an induction agent. (vetlink.co.za)
  • CEPETOR™ (medetomidine hydrochloride) is a synthetic α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with sedative and analgesic properties. (drugs.com)
  • Combinations of medetomidine with either propofol or ketamine were compared for the sedation and induction of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of surgical (60 per cent) and non.surgical (40 per cent) procedures. (bmj.com)
  • Medetomidine was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 1000 μg/m 2 body surface area 10 to 15 minutes before the induction of anaesthesia by the administration of propofol (n = 44) or ketamine (n = 40) dosed to effect. (bmj.com)
  • This study assessed puppy vigour and survival following medetomidine, propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia for elective CS. (vetlink.co.za)
  • The duration of action and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol (6.55 mg/kg intravenously), xylazine (0.8 mg/kg intramuscularly), medetomidine (30 micrograms/kg intramuscularly), xylazine plus propofol (3 mg/kg intravenously) and medetomidine plus propofol (3 mg/kg intravenously) were compared in dogs. (edu.au)
  • Xylazine and medetomidine premedication prolonged propofol anaesthesia in dogs. (edu.au)
  • The apnoea and hypoxaemia induced by propofol alone also occurred in the premedicated groups with hypoxaemia being most evident in the medetomidine/propofol group. (edu.au)
  • The Effect of Tiletamine/Zolazepam (Zoletile) Combination with Xylazine or Medetomidine on Electroencephalograms in Dogs," The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, Vol. 66, No. 5, 2004, pp. 501-507. (scirp.org)
  • Bradycardia was a common feature in all the dogs given xylazine or medetomidine, but hypertension was consistently recorded in all the dogs given medetomidine. (edu.au)
  • PROCEDURES: Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV. (islandscholar.ca)
  • When used for premedication, medetomidine will significantly reduce the dose of all other anesthetic agents. (vetstream.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication and administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased serum cortisol concentration, increased serum glucose concentration, and superior anesthetic recovery characteristics, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Medetomidine (MED) group was administered 20 mcg/ kg of iv MED for premedication. (bvsalud.org)
  • Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. (scielo.org.za)
  • Medetomidine is a commonly used sedative in veterinary medicine whether administered alone or in combination with an opioid such as butorphanol. (nih.gov)
  • The present study looked at two groups of 10 dogs each that were sedated with intravenous medetomidine or a combination of medetomidine and butorphanol. (nih.gov)
  • Results revealed that intravenous sedation with medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol in dogs with no history of ophthalmic disease and presedation STT 1 readings above 15 mm/min, causes a significant decrease in tear production that is measurable at 15 min postsedation. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of intramuscularly administered medetomidine and butorphanol (MB), and medetomidine, butorphanol, atropine (MBA) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined in six dogs as measured by 99m-Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) nuclear scintigraphy. (avmi.net)
  • The results of this study indicate that the administration of medetomidine in combination with butorphanol significantly increases total GFR in healthy dogs, while the administration of the combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and atropine does not. (avmi.net)
  • We therefore compared inhalational anaesthesia using isoflurane (ISO), with an intramuscular (i.m.) combination of ketamine and xylazine (KX) as well as a completely antagonizable anaesthesia using the combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl (MMF) administered i.m. in adult male Wistar rats instrumented for the continuous, telemetric collection of cardiovascular parameters. (beds.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. (islandscholar.ca)
  • This study investigated effects on cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia with isoflurane (ISO, 2-3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg kg -1 + 5 mg kg -1 ) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg kg -1 + 2.0 mg kg -1 + 0.005 mg kg -1 ) in rats throughout induction, maintenance and recovery from anaesthesia. (beds.ac.uk)
  • His thesis was in "A study on medetomidine an Alpha2 Adrenoceptor agent alone and in combination with other Anaesthetics on different animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion analgesia in canines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterisation of selectivity, specificity and potency of medetomidine as an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared with xylazine in beagle dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Guedes, AG, Rude, EP & Kannan, MS 2013, ' Potential role of the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway as an underlying mechanism of the effects of medetomidine on insulin and glucose homeostasis ', Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia , vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 512-516. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: The CD38/cADPR signaling pathway may be one underlying mechanism of the glucose and insulin effects of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine and likely other drugs of its' class. (elsevier.com)
  • Carter Jennifer E, Campbell Nigel B, Posner Lysa P, Swanson Cliff (2010): The hemodynamic effects of medetomidine continuous rate infusions in the dog. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Effects of different doses of medetomidine on clinical hematological parameters in dogs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Xylazine and medetomidine showed a similar pharmacodynamic behavior but with different clinical aspects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effect of Medetomidine on Electroencephalography and Use of a Quantitative Electroencephalograph for Evaluating Sedation Levels in Dogs," Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, Vol. 48, No. 9, 2001, pp. 525-535. (scirp.org)
  • The dogs became sedated by medetomidine after a mean (sd) time of 6.7 (5.4) minutes, and their heart rates and respiration rates decreased. (bmj.com)
  • This study was aimed to investigate and compare the effects of medetomidine and xylazine on the blood level of some stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic variables in clinically normal dogs, especially focusing on time and dose relations of the effects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The pharmacological restraint and pain relief provided by medetomidine facilitates handling dogs and aids in the conduct of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (drugs.com)
  • Spontaneous muscle contractions (twitching) can be expected in some dogs sedated with medetomidine. (drugs.com)
  • The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The effects of medetomidine , an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on ventilatory drive in the dog. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Profound sedation and recumbency, with reduced sensitivity to environmental stimuli (sounds, etc.), are seen with medetomidine. (drugs.com)
  • The pharmacological response elicited by α2-agonists (e.g., medetomidine) in such animal is often reduced, with depth and duration of sedative/analgesic effects ranging from slightly diminished to nonexistent. (drugs.com)
  • When medetomidine was given at 3 and 5 times the recommended dose IV, and 5 and 10 times IM, effects were not intensified but were prolonged. (drugs.com)
  • A combination of medetomidine and ketamine is currently considered a safe and reliable alternative to opioid combinations for captive giraffe, but is considered less than optimal for capture of free-ranging giraffe. (girafferesourcecentre.org)
  • To compare, by continuous infusion of ketamine or medetomidine combined to methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine , ketamine and midazolam , the degree of hypnosis , myorelaxation, anesthetic quality and surgical feasibility through evaluation of possible parametric alterations and recovery quality . (bvsalud.org)
  • A preliminary investigation into the immobilising potential of a tiletamine/zolazepam mixture, metomidate, a metomidate and azaperone combination and medetomidine in ostriches (Struthio camelus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thirty-five anesthetic events involving 15 captive addax ( Addax nasomaculatus ) were performed between August 1998 and February 2002 using a combination of etorphine (33.7 ± 7.9 μg/kg) and detomidine (21.9 ± 4.6 μg/kg) or a combination of medetomidine (57.4 ± 8.6 μg/kg) and ketamine (1.22 ± 0.3 μg/kg), with or without supplemental injectable or inhalant anesthetic agents. (bioone.org)
  • Animals became recumbent within 5 min when the combination of etorphine and detomidine was used and within 11 min when the combination of medetomidine and ketamine was used. (bioone.org)
  • The quality and duration of anaesthesia, cardiorespiratory effects and recovery characteristics of a morphine, medetomidine, ketamine (MMK) drug combination were determined in cats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Giral M, Garcia-Olmo D V, Gomez-Juarez M et al (2014) Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study . (vetstream.com)
  • Correspondingly, medetomidine caused a significantly greater increase in plasma glucose concentrations in the WT than in the CD38 -/- mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheinin et al (1989) Medetomidine - a novel α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist: a review of its pharmacodynamic effects. (tocris.com)
  • Schernthaner A, Lendl C E, Hartmann K et al (2011) Medetomidine/midazolam/ketamine anaesthesia in ferrets: effects on cardiorespiratory parameters and evaluation of plasma drug concentrations . (vetstream.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway as possible underlying mechanism of the effects of medetomidine on insulin and glucose homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • As part of a thorough ecotoxicological evaluation of medetomidine, its short-term effects on algal and bacterial communities were investigated and environmental concentrations were predicted with the MAMPEC model. (chalmers.se)
  • It is concluded that medetomidine does not cause any acute toxic effects on bacterial protein synthesis and only small acute effects on photosynthesis at high concentrations in marine microbial communities. (chalmers.se)
  • Active enantiomer of medetomidine ( ab120787 ). (abcam.com)
  • Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery. (scielo.org.za)
  • Male and female mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection with a mixture delivering 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine to achieve immobilization for whole-body radiographs and bone densitometry, as part of a phenotypic screen for bone and mineral disorders in mice carrying genetic modifications induced through mutagenesis with N ′-ethyl- N ′-nitrosourea. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Savola et al (1986) Evidence for medetomidine as a selective and potent agonist at alpha 2-adrenoceptors. (tocris.com)
  • Field immobilization using alfaxalone and alfaxalone-medetomidine in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): a randomized comparative study. (koalahealthhub.org.au)
  • The second group, the medetomidine/ketamine group, intravenously received medetomidine (10 µg/kg) followed by ketamine (5 mg/kg). (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • With medetomidine administration, blood pressure is initially increased due to peripheral vasoconstriction and thereafter drops to normal or slightly below-normal levels. (drugs.com)
  • Immobilization of Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and Svalbard Reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) with medetomidine and medetomidine-ke. (nih.gov)
  • As compared to controls, medetomidine administration produced a statistically significant decrease in plasma insulin concentrations in the WT mice whereas the decrease in the CD38 -/- mice was not statistically significant. (elsevier.com)
  • Accuracy, precision, and specificity were evaluated and the method was determined to be applicable to detection of medetomidine, xylazine, ketamine, and acepromazine in serum samples of multiple animal species (canine, equine, and bovine). (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the potential of such systems in functional MR imaging (fMRI) of somatosensory cortex activity elicited by forepaw stimulation in medetomidine-sedated rats. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)