Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (1/1662)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (2/1662)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat. (3/1662)

The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can influence both the mechanical coupling between ankle and knee.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (4/1662)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. I. Receptive fields and discharge patterns. (5/1662)

Three adolescent Macaca fascicularis monkeys weighing between 3.5 and 4 kg were trained to use a precision grip to grasp a metal tab mounted on a low friction vertical track and to lift and hold it in a 12- to 25-mm position window for 1 s. The surface texture of the metal tab in contact with the fingers and the weight of the object could be varied. The activity of 386 single cells with cutaneous receptive fields contacting the metal tab were recorded in Brodmann's areas 3b, 1, 2, 5, and 7 of the somatosensory cortex. In this first of a series of papers, we describe three types of discharge pattern, the receptive-field properties, and the anatomic distribution of the neurons. The majority of the receptive fields were cutaneous and covered less than one digit, and a chi2 test did not reveal any significant differences in the Brodmann's areas representing the thumb and index finger. Two broad categories of discharge pattern cells were identified. The first category, dynamic cells, showed a brief increase in activity beginning near grip onset, which quickly subsided despite continued pressure applied to the receptive field. Some of the dynamic neurons responded to both skin indentation and release. The second category, static cells, had higher activity during the stationary holding phase of the task. These static neurons demonstrated varying degrees of sensitivity to rates of pressure change on the skin. The percentage of dynamic versus static cells was about equal for areas 3b, 2, 5, and 7. Only area 1 had a higher proportion of dynamic cells (76%). A third category was identified that contained cells with significant pregrip activity and included cortical cells with both dynamic or static discharge patterns. Cells in this category showed activity increases before movement in the absence of receptive-field stimulation, suggesting that, in addition to peripheral cutaneous input, these cells also receive strong excitation from movement-related regions of the brain.  (+info)

Phase-dependent presynaptic modulation of mechanosensory signals in the locust flight system. (6/1662)

In the locust flight system, afferents of a wing hinge mechanoreceptor, the hindwing tegula, make monosynaptic excitatory connections with motoneurons of the elevator muscles. During flight motor activity, the excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) produced by these connections changed in amplitude with the phase of the wingbeat cycle. The largest changes occurred around the phase where elevator motoneurons passed through their minimum membrane potential. This phase-dependent modulation was neither due to flight-related oscillations in motoneuron membrane potential nor to changes in motoneuron input resistance. This indicates that modulation of EPSP amplitude is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms that affect the efficacy of afferent synaptic input. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) were recorded in the terminal arborizations of tegula afferents, presynaptic to elevator motoneurons in the same hemiganglion. PADs were attributed to presynaptic inhibitory input because they reduced the input resistance of the afferents and were sensitive to the gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonist picrotoxin. PADs occurred either spontaneously or were elicited by spike activity in the tegula afferents. In summary, afferent signaling in the locust flight system appears to be under presynaptic control, a candidate mechanism of which is presynaptic inhibition.  (+info)

C-fiber depletion alters response properties of neurons in trigeminal nucleus principalis. (7/1662)

The effects of C-fiber depletion induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment on the functional properties of vibrissa-sensitive low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) neurons in the rat trigeminal nucleus principalis were examined in adult rats. Neonatal rats were injected either with capsaicin or its vehicle within 48 h of birth. The depletion of unmyelinated afferents was confirmed by the significant decrease in plasma extravasation of Evan's blue dye induced in the hindlimb skin of capsaicin-treated rats by cutaneous application of mustard oil and by the significant decrease of unmyelinated fibers in both the sciatic and infraorbital nerves. The mechanoreceptive field (RF) and response properties of 31 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in capsaicin-treated rats were compared with those of 32 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in control (untreated or vehicle-treated) rats. The use of electronically controlled mechanical stimuli allowed quantitative analysis of response properties of vibrissa-sensitive neurons; these included the number of center- and surround-RF vibrissae within the RF (i.e., those vibrissae which when stimulated elicited >/=1 and <1 action potential per stimulus, respectively), the response magnitude and latency, and the selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae in different directions with emphasis on combining both the response magnitude and direction of vibrissal deflection in a vector analysis. Neonatal capsaicin treatment was associated with significant increases in the total number of vibrissae, in the number of center-RF vibrissae per neuronal RF, and in the percentage of vibrissa-sensitive neurons that also responded to stimulation of other types of orofacial tissues. Compared with control rats, capsaicin-treated rats showed significant increases in the response magnitude to stimulation of surround-RF vibrissae as well as in response latency variability to stimulation of both center- and surround-RF vibrissae. C-fiber depletion also significantly altered the directional selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae. For neurons with multiple center-RF vibrissae, the proportion of center-RF vibrissae with net vector responses oriented toward the same quadrant was significantly less in capsaicin-treated compared with control rats. These changes in the functional properties of principalis vibrissa-sensitive neurons associated with marked depletion of C-fiber afferents are consistent with similarly induced alterations in LTM neurons studied at other levels of the rodent somatosensory system, and indeed may contribute to alterations previously described in the somatosensory cortex of adult rodents. Furthermore, these results provide additional support to the view that C fibers may have an important role in shaping the functional properties of LTM neurons in central somatosensory pathways.  (+info)

Distinct signaling pathways mediate touch and osmosensory responses in a polymodal sensory neuron. (8/1662)

The Caenorhabditis elegans ASH sensory neurons mediate responses to nose touch, hyperosmolarity, and volatile repellent chemicals. We show here that distinct signaling pathways mediate the responses to touch and hyperosmolarity. ASH neurons distinguish between these stimuli because habituation to nose touch has no effect on the response to high osmolarity or volatile chemicals (1-octanol). Mutations in osm-10 eliminate the response to hyperosmolarity but have no effect on responses to nose touch or to volatile repellents. OSM-10 is a novel cytosolic protein expressed in ASH and three other classes of sensory neurons. Mutations in two other osmosensory-defective genes, eos-1 and eos-2, interact genetically with osm-10. Our analysis suggests that nose touch sensitivity and osmosensation occur via distinct signaling pathways in ASH and that OSM-10 is required for osmosensory signaling.  (+info)

Three different kinds of mechanosensitive neurons were detected by direct electrical recording from Auerbachs plexus. Neurons classified as fast-adapting mechanoreceptors discharged spikes at the...
| We were all taught as children that there are 5 senses: sight, taste, sound, smell, and touch. The initial four senses utilize clear, distinct organs, such as the eyes, taste buds, ears, and nose, but just how does the body sense touch exactly? Touch is experienced over the entire body, both inside and outside. There is not one distinct organ that is responsible for sensing touch. Rather, there are tiny receptors, or nerve endings, around the entire body which sense touch where it occurs and sends signals to the brain with information regarding the type of touch that occurred. As a taste bud on the tongue detects flavor, mechanoreceptors are glands within the skin and on other organs that detect sensations of touch. Theyre known as mechanoreceptors because theyre designed to detect mechanical
MECHANORECEPTORS & CHEMORECEPTORS: Mechanoreceptors are receptors in the skin and on other organs that detect sensations of touch. They are called mechanoreceptors…. ...
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are pressure receptors located in the skin and also in various internal organs. Each is connected to a sensory neuron. Because of its relatively large size, a single lamellar corpuscle can be isolated and its properties studied. Mechanical pressure of varying strength and frequency can be applied to the corpuscle by stylus, and the resulting electrical activity detected by electrodes attached to the preparation. Deforming the corpuscle creates a generator potential in the sensory neuron arising within it. This is a graded response: the greater the deformation, the greater the generator potential. If the generator potential reaches threshold, a volley of action potentials (nerve impulses) are triggered at the first node of Ranvier of the sensory neuron. Once threshold is reached, the magnitude of the stimulus is encoded in the frequency of impulses generated in the neuron. So the more massive or rapid the deformation of a single corpuscle, the higher ...
Many health practitioners believe that there is a connection between oral health and the well-being of the body as a whole.. A 2009 study reported in the journal Dental Aegis reviewed a new paradigm in dentistry called teeth as sensory organs. Mechanoreceptors in teeth control a sequence of neural activities when we eat. They determine how hard and how fast we chew and provide sensory feedback to the brain. Tooth pulp contains mechanoreceptive fibers.. Mechanoreception is the unconscious sensing or conscious perception of touch or mechanical displacement arising from stimuli outside the body. Mechanoreceptors are sensory end organs that respond to mechanical stimuli such as tension, pressure, or vibration.. Teeth are therefore not inert but important for neural communication, providing unique sensory input that incites other biological processes.. A Finnish study isolated the genes that are responsible for tooth development and found that these same genes are responsible for the ...
Mechanoreceptors can also be separated into categories based on their rates of adaptivity. When a mechanoreceptor receives a stimulus it begins to fire impulses or action potentials at an elevated frequency (the stronger the stimulus the higher the frequency). The cell, however, will soon adapt to a constant or static stimulus and the pulses will subside to a normal rate. Receptors that adapt quickly (i.e. quickly return to a normal pulse rate) are referred to as phasic. Those receptors that are slow to return to their normal firing rate are called tonic. Phasic mechanoreceptors are useful in sensing such things as texture, vibrations, etc; whereas tonic receptors are useful for temperature and proprioception among others. ...
Our research utilizes mouse genetics to characterize mechanoreceptors that are essential in providing information about touch, pressure, vibration, and cutaneous tension. The article we recently published genetically identifies the least -understood mechanoreceptor. Specifically, we researched circumferential endings associated with hair follicles, as their properties have not been reported and it was first described nearly 50 years ago in the cat by Burgess and colleagues. In vivo recordings, we found that those circumferential nerve endings are low-threshold mechanoreceptors, also known as Aβ field--LTMRs, that are uniquely responsive to gentle stroking of the skin, but unresponsive to hair deflection and less sensitive to skin indentation.. For future work, we will further explore how Aβ field--LTMRs contribute to tactile perception and [look at] their involvement with the postsynaptic partners. Since LTMR neurons play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of multiple chronic pain syndromes ...
Grasping an object between the pads of the thumb and the index finger is the prototype grip used for precision-handling studies. Precision grip must be controlled in order to achieve the optimal minimum force necessary to prevent the slip of an object. In perceptual tasks such as surface discrimination, the normal loading must be modulated to provoke a controlled slip. The precise control of finger pressure derives from the responses of strain-sensitive cutaneous mechanoreceptors at the tips of the digits, as well as from motor control systems that sense muscle length and power based on sensory input from both cutaneous and muscle mechanoreceptors [1,2]. The dynamic tactile signals from the cutaneous mechanoreceptors reliably encode various aspects of contact events around which most object manipulation tasks are organized [3,4]. In 1984, Westling & Johansson [5] published the results of an ingenious paradigm to study the control of grip force during the grasping and lifting of objects. They ...
The neural basis of auditory motion generation is supported by the mechanics of the receiver in nompC2 mutants (24, 29). nompC encodes a mechanosensory transduction channel (29) that accounts for about half the compound electrical response of the mechanosensory neurons in the auditory system of the fly (15). In nompC2 mutants, the nonlinearity of the receiver was markedly reduced (Fig. 4A). When the stimulus particle velocity was decreased from 10−3 to 10−5 m/s, fR shifted down from 634 ± 30 Hz to 579 ± 20 Hz (Δ = 55 Hz) in the mutants and from 791 ± 26 Hz to 402 ± 11 Hz (Δ = 389 Hz) in controls (Fig. 4B). The slopes of the shift were 1.4 and 9.7 Hz/dB for mutants and controls, respectively (Fig. 4B). This partial linearization coincided with a reduced oscillation activity. In nompC2 mutants, the power of the spontaneous oscillations of the receiver was nearly 4 times less than in controls (Figs. 5 and 6). Instead of the single resonance observed in responses to sound, the spontaneous ...
1. Single unit impluses were recorded from the ulnar and median nerves of awake human subjects with tungsten electrodes inserted percutaneously in the upper arm. 2. One hundred and one slowly adapting receptors with receptive fields in the glabrous skin area were studied. The units were classified a …
Meissners Corpuscles (MCs) are touch-pressure sensation receptors in glabrous skin. They are imaged by reflectance confocal microscopy to provide a non-invasive, in vivo quantification of their density or size to allow screening for, diagnosis or monitoring of sensory neuropathy and other peripheral nervous system disorders related to diabetes, HIV, or other conditions.
Pain signals are transmitted by multisynaptic glutamatergic pathways. Their first synapse between primary nociceptors and excitatory spinal interneurons gates the sensory load. In this pathway, glutamate release is orchestrated by Ca2+-sensor proteins, with N-terminal EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) being particular abundant. However, neither the importance of NECAB2+ neuronal contingents in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord nor the function determination by NECAB2 has been defined. A combination of histochemical analyses and single-cell RNA-sequencing showed NECAB2 in small- and medium-sized C- and Aδ D-hair low-threshold mechanoreceptors in DRGs, as well as in protein kinase C γ excitatory spinal interneurons. NECAB2 was downregulated by peripheral nerve injury, leading to the hypothesis that NECAB2 loss of function could limit pain sensation. Indeed, Necab2-/- mice reached a pain-free state significantly faster after peripheral inflammation than did WT littermates. Genetic ...
Om bindevevets struktur, mye om mechanoreceptors i bindevevet (golgi, ruffini og pacini spesielt), pluss den nevner dynamic ligaments som en del av bindevevet inni og igjennom muskler. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091473/ The discrimination between so-called joint receptors and muscle receptors is an artificial distinction when function is considered. Mechanoreceptors, also the so-called muscle receptors, are arranged in the…
The Certification Handbook - pay attention to how long a personal trainer should keep client records (4 years). • OPT Model (differences and goals in all phases). • overweight + obesity statistics. • Diabetes (Type I and Type II). • proprioception. • prime movers. • hypertrophy. • Definitions in Chapter 2. • Muscle as Movers. (Agonist, Synergist, Stabilizer, Antagonist functions of exercises). • Figure 2.34 (page 41) concentrate on Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium. • the function of bones (as levers). • stroke volume. (The way they worded this one tricked me! Pay attention to this definition.). • Functions of the right/left atrium and right/left ventricles. (and Figure 3.3 on page 57). • arteries and veins. • depressions and processes in bones. • mechanoreceptors: muscle spindles fibers and golgi tendon organ (GTO). • aerobic and anaerobic metabolism (ATP-PC, Glycolysis, Oxidative). • EPOC. • force and force-couples. • Pay special attention to definitions ...
Affiliation:昭和大学,教養部,教授, Research Field:Biological pharmacy,Functional basic dentistry,General pharmacology,General physiology,General pharmacology, Keywords:laser scanning confocal microscopy,mechanosensitive channel,機械受容チャネル,機械受容応答,mechanoreception,リゾホスファチジン酸,細胞内Ca^|2+|イオン濃度,microarray,in situ,流れ刺激, # of Research Projects:8, # of Research Products:14
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The classic theory of specific nerve energies proposes that sensory information is encoded and transmitted centrally along labeled lines. According to this view...
mechanoreceptors detect distension of the lower esophagus and the orad stomach by the food bolus and relay sensory information to the CNS via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
General senses Widely distrubuted|pain touch pressure proprioceptionSpecial senses Localized area|taste smell hearing sight5 type of senses receptors|chemoreceptors mechanoreceptors nocieptors thermoreceptorssteps in sensory perception|stimulus receptor conducted translated interpreted
Nu stiu ce sa ii dau, suntem in Anglia si aici medicina e f diferită, medicii nu iti fac analize doar in situații f grave, pentru ca am fost cu ea la control si răspunsul a fost ca nu are probleme cu burta si as vrea daca se poate va rog sa imi spuneti ce pot sa ii dau.
Elie Saab incanta lumea modei cu acele rochii care iti taie respiratia. De cate ori vad un fashion show Elie Saab, ma gandesc cat de mult inseamna sa cunosti femeia ca sa ii creezi o asemenea rochie care pur si simplu o transforma in zeita. Elie Saab, ca si marca de parfumuri, m-a cucerit de cand mirosit primul parfum. Stiu ca eram intr-un aeroport, le-am vazut prima data si cand le-am mirosit am zis ca unde au stat ascunse pana […]. ...
Differences in terminology may or may not reflect differences in function. However, the application of in vivo or ex vivo approaches promises to rectify this deficiency by reconciling the similarities of function expressed by morphological vs. physiological terminologies, as well as by understanding the implications of the differences in morphological vs. electrophysiological terms. Using direct stimulation of histologically isolated corpuscles in the cat mesentery in vivo, Pacinian corpuscles have been shown to be rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors (Gray and Matthews, 1951). Merkel endings in the skin of the trunk of neonatal mice have been identified as slowly adapting type I low-threshold mechanoreceptors by means of an intracellular ex vivo approach (Woodbury and Koerber, 2007). In patch clamp experiments, individual Merkel cells and their attached axon terminals displayed slowly adapting features (Maksimovic et al., 2014; Woo et al., 2014; Ikeda et al., 2014). Using intra-axonal recording, ...
1. In the stretch receptor neurones of the crayfish Astacus astacus, the intracellular pH (pHi), the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and the membrane potential (Em) were measured simultaneously using ion-selective and conventional microelectrodes. Normal Astacus saline (NAS), and salines containing varying amounts of Ca2+ (Ca2+-NAS) but of constant ionic strength, with Na+, Mg2+ or Ba2+ as substituting ions, were used to investigate the effects of extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) on pHi and pHi regulation, on [Na+]i and on Em. The maximum rate of pHi recovery was used as a measure of pHi regulation. Acid loads were imposed using the NH4+/NH3 rebound technique. 2. [Ca2+]o affected pHi, pHi regulation, [Na+]i and Em. The magnitudes of the effects were inversely related to [Ca2+]o and were specific to the ion used for [Ca2+]o substitution. 3. Compared with controls, increasing [Ca2+]o threefold (in exchange for Na+) elicited some alkalization, a 7 % faster maximum rate of pHi ...
Looking for Pacinian corpuscle end-organs? Find out information about Pacinian corpuscle end-organs. An encapsulated lamellar sensory nerve ending that functions as a kinesthetic receptor Explanation of Pacinian corpuscle end-organs
Looking for Pacinian corpuscle? Find out information about Pacinian corpuscle. An encapsulated lamellar sensory nerve ending that functions as a kinesthetic receptor Explanation of Pacinian corpuscle
In order to estimate thermal fluctuations in erythrocyte and mechanoreceptor membranes the transverse fluctuations of plane and spherical bilayer membranes and the fluctuations of the surface of a part of such a membrane, possessing disc shape of the radius R are calculated. The obtained values of the transverse fluctuations are two orders smaller than in the paper [5]. Total plane fluctuations of the disc with R=5.10(-7) cm are some orders higher than the threshold values epsilonpi of relative deformation in mechanoreceptor membranes, but their value in the frequency range of 0 dividied by 20 kHz is of the same order as epsilonpi. The estimates of fluctuations are also produced for Pacinian corpuscle membrane and for the globular protein molecule. The conditions necessary for high sensitivity of mechanoreceptor membranes are the large value of Young modulus E and low membrane viscosity eta.
Receptors are sensitive to discrete stimuli and are often classified by both the systemic function and the location of the receptor.. Sensory receptors are found throughout our bodies, and sensory receptors that share a common location often share a common function. For example, sensory receptors in the retina are almost entirely photoreceptors. Our skin includes touch and temperature receptors, and our inner ears contain sensory mechanoreceptors designed for detecting vibrations caused by sound or used to maintain balance.. Force -sensitive mechanoreceptors provide an example of how the placement of a sensory receptor plays a role in how our brains process sensory inputs. While the cutaneous touch receptors found in the dermis and epidermis of our skin and the muscle spindles that detect stretch in skeletal muscle are both mechanoreceptors, they serve discrete functions.. In both cases, the mechanoreceptors detect physical forces that result from the movement of the local tissue, cutaneous ...
The T-type Ca2+ channel Cav3.2 is expressed in nociceptive and mechanosensitive sensory neurons. The mechanosensitive D-hair (down-hair) neurons, which innervate hair follicles, are characterized by a large-amplitude Cav3.2 T-current involved in the amplification of slow-moving stimuli. The molecules and signalling pathways that regulate T-current expression in mechanoreceptors are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NT-4 (neurotrophin-4) on Cav3.2 T-current expression in D-hair neurons in vitro. Interruption of the supply of NT-4 with peripheral nerve axotomy induced a non-transcriptional decrease in the T-current amplitude of fluorogold-labelled axotomized sensory neurons. The T-current amplitude was restored by incubation with NT-4. Deletion of NT-4 through genetic ablation resulted in a similar selective loss of the large-amplitude T-current in NT-4−/− sensory neurons, which was rescued by the addition of NT-4. NT-4 had no effect on the T-current in ...
Fig. 1. Mechanoreceptors in the skin. Mechanoreceptors which therapists employ during palpation respond to the different degree of deformation as the initial stimulation. All mechanoreceptors which deliver sensory information to the brain are divided in two groups - rapidly adapting and slowly adapting. This concept is very important for therapists since it directly affects palpation skills. The rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors fire immediately, but with continuous stimulation they very quickly cease the production of nervous impulses (i.e., action potentials) to the brain.. In contrast, slowly adapted mechanoreceptors do not respond to initial stimuli quickly but they continue to fire to the brain, in some cases, even after the initial stimuli are withdrawn.. Merkels disks receptors are located in the top layers of the dermis and they detect touch (see Fig.1). They are slowly adapting receptors. Merkels disks allow us to detect continued touch and pressure. However, they are very bad at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of musculotendon kinematics under controlled tendon indentation. AU - Chardon, Matthieu K.. AU - Dhaher, Yasin Y.. AU - Suresh, Nina I.. AU - Jaramillo, Giselle. AU - Zev Rymer, W.. N1 - Funding Information: We extend our gratitude to Colin Feng and to Matt Kindig for their help with experimental design; to Mehdi Mirbagheri-PhD and to Li-Qun Zhang-PhD for giving access to equipment and facilities. This work was supported by an NIH -Center-Grant- R24-HD50821-07 . PY - 2015/10/15. Y1 - 2015/10/15. N2 - The effects of tendon indentation on musculotendon unit mechanics have been left largely unexplored. Tendon indentation is however routinely used in the tendon reflex exam to diagnose the state of reflex pathways. Because muscle mechanoreceptors are sensitive to mechanical changes of the musculotendon unit, this gap in knowledge could potentially impact our understanding of these neurological exams. Accordingly, we have used ultrasound (US) imaging to compare the effects ...
Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs. ...
We obtained human cruciate ligaments at the time of total knee replacement and from autopsy and amputation specimens, and examined histological sections of the ligaments for the presence of mechanoreceptors using the Bodian, Bielschowsky, and Ranvier gold-chloride stains for axons and nerve-endings. …
11 Richard Axel and Linda Buck used molecular techniques to determine the number of different olfactory receptor types. The concept and strategy: 1. SPECIFICITY WOULD BE BASED ON STRUCTURE OF RECEPTOR-G PROTEIN COMPLEX; THEREFORE, IF YOU DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT RECEPTOR STRUCTURES, YOU KNOW THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL TYPES, AND THEREFORE THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PRIME ODORS 2. STRUCTURALLY DIFFERENT RECEPTOR PROTEINS WOULD BE CODED BY DIFFERENT GENES; CLONE, SEQUENCE, CHARACTERIZE GENES EXPRESSED IN THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM, LOOK FOR SYSTEMATIC VARIATION ON G-PROTEIN TYPES 3. LOCALIZE THE EXPRESSED GENES BACK TO THE OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS ...
The effects of axotomy and successful regeneration varied among different groups of cutaneous sensory neurons examined. Among myelinated fibers, nociceptors were found to have decreased thermal and mechanical thresholds, whereas SA1 low-threshold mechanoreceptors exhibited normal thresholds but decreased firing rates to mechanical stimuli. The increase in myelinated nociceptor sensitivity coincided with altered expression of NGF in the reinnervated skin and ASIC3 and TRPV2 in the DRGs. In addition, recent data have described mechanical sensitization of myelinated nociceptors in mice that overexpress NT-3 (McIlwrath et al., 2007). Thus, it should be noted that there was a trend toward increased in NT-3 levels in the skin at 21 d (p = 0.06). Regardless, many myelinated nociceptors do label positively for ASIC3 and/or TRPV2 (McIlwrath et al., 2007; Lawson et al., 2008), and at least some of this increase could be attributable to cells responsive to NGF (Wright and Snider, 1995). The time course of ...
The Pacinian corpuscles are sensory preceptors that are found in many areas of the body, with their greatest density occurring in areas that are more sensitive to touch, such as the fingertips. Those...
Program Features. * Treat basic common musculoskeletal conditions.. * Essentials of neurogenic muscle imbalance assessment protocols using the unique specialized Trigenics® myoneural-kinetic functional isolated muscle-specific strength and length assessment and recording system.. * Treatment protocols to locally recalibrate muscle firing patterns for immediate measurable strength, length and movement increases as well as immediate pain reduction.. * Simple interactive patient participation with only concentrative biofeedback breathing. (Target muscle PNF contraction is also used in some cases.). * Unique stimulative muscle mechanoreceptor longitudinal distortion specifically targeting spindles and GTOs.. ...
Differential expression of ion channels contributes functional diversity to sensory neuron signaling. We find nerve injury induced by the Chung model of neuropathic pain leads to striking reductions in voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel subunit expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, suggesting a potential molecular mechanism for hyperexcitability of injured nerves. Moreover, specific classes of DRG neurons express distinct Kv channel subunit combinations. Importantly, Kv1.4 is the sole Kv1 alpha subunit expressed in smaller diameter neurons, suggesting that homomeric Kv1.4 channels predominate in A delta and C fibers arising from these cells. These neurons are presumably nociceptors, because they also express the VR-1 capsaicin receptor, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and/or Na(+) channel SNS/PN3/Nav1.8. In contrast, larger diameter neurons associated with mechanoreception and proprioception express high levels of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 without Kv1.4 or other Kv1 alpha subunits, suggesting ...
My aim is to educate the therapists on a safe, ethical and effective treatment technique by providing education congruent with current evidence informed research and by developing the therapists skill, confidence and proficiency for the treatment of injured ligaments and the surrounding tissues.. LAST is a precise, principle based, mechanoreceptor specific manual therapy technique, supported by evidence-informed research, utilized in the treatment of peripheral joint tissue injuries to improve treatment outcomes and improve the quality of life of patients. LAST influences the fascial system and CNS modulation by targeting the ligamentoperiosteal and tenoperiosteal enthuses; areas known to have high concentrations of mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptor specific techniques, targeting peripheral joint tissues, affect autonomic nervous system functions resulting in decreased protective myofascial engagement, increased pain pressure sensitivity, normalize kinesthetic and proprioceptive awareness ...
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The results of this study indicate that vagal ileal units are inhibited by SCFAs. Furthermore, the mechanical sensitivity of ileal units was severely impaired after SCFA contact. This desensitization occurred with SCFA concentrations in the range of those occurring during coloileal reflux episodes.. Ileal afferents described in this study are all of the mucosal type because their mechanical sensitivity was reversibly inhibited by topical lignocaine application (20). However, they differed significantly from vagal mucosal afferents described elsewhere in the gut. All units found in our study were slowly adapting to mechanical stimulus, whereas Leek (28) described duodenal mucosal receptors with an on-off response to mechanical distension. In contrast, Cottrell and Iggo (5) showed mucosal afferent fibers in the adult sheep duodenum with persistent responses to mechanical distension. The adaptation time of these duodenal mucosal receptors was within the range of that found for ileal units. More ...
Information processing/Interneurons Overview CNS Brain and Spinal Cord Information processing/Interneurons PNS Nerves Sensory/Afferent Motor/Efferent Examples of each Recall that we have anatomically, PNS, CNS is specifically brain and spinal cord. On the sensory side, receptors, these fibers are all called afferent, going towards the central nervous system, can divide sensations into two main categories, special sensories are defined as vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell, those are the special senses. General senses can be coming from outside world, touch, temp, pain, pressure. Same thing could be coming from internal structures, not usually as clearly defined in the brain or localized, c an feel pain and signals you are not aware of, visceral afferent. Also mention that on the somatic side have proprioceptors, which are the muscle spindles in the muscles, golgi tendon organs and so forth, monitoring positions of joints and muscles, body positions, all is general sensory, afferent. On
This paper presents a simplified dynamical model for the control of one-degree-of-freedom synovial joints considered as pure trochlean joints. This model considers the joint dynamics, the dynamics of the corresponding muscles and their calcium balance dynamics, as well as position and force feedbacks provided by the spindles and the Golgi tendon organs. Delays in the transmission of information are also taken into account as they proved to be of critical importance for the dynamical behavior of the considered systems. The linearized version of this model, which is valid for a rather wide range of movements, also allows us to investigate the stability of the system, as well as its stability robustness with respect to the feedback gains. Further, particular behaviors such as tremor are described.. ...
Self Myofascia Release - Myo refers to muscle, fascia to the tissue that surrounds the muscle fibers. By applying pressure on tender areas along the muscle tissue, the golgi tendon organs help trigger the relaxation of the muscle spindles, helping to dissipate the adhesions, increase blood flow, and enhance overall movement ...
Golgi tendon organ в A proprioceptive organ that provides information to the brain about changes in muscle tension. Catch-up vaccination is also recommended for all children and adolescents up to the age of 19 who were not w hat immunized. Journal of neurochemistry 71, 1325-1328. Matsuura M.
The aim of our research is to determine how mechanical stimulus is converted to electrical activity or metabolic changes in different cell types, and how different ion channels participate in this process.
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The part of the eye that contains the sensory receptors for sight is the retina. The sensory receptors are located in the outermost layer of the retina, which means that light must travel through...
Fascia is the most important tissue for posture and movement and the nervous system is the most important target for influencing posture and movement. Percussion therapy influences mechanoreceptors eliciting targeted neuromuscular responses.. The role of tissue is to generate, absorb, direct or disperse and release energy. To accomplish this, it needs to be elastic, compliant and mobile and at the same time springy, stiff and stable.. Percussion therapy can improve tissue reactivity and stability or strength to aid in creating longer lasting soft tissue change and movement efficiency.. ...
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Successive periods of investigation have produced anatomic, physiological, and psychological phases in our understanding of skin sensation. Each phase has been the result of technological...
Mechanoreceptors[edit]. Main article: Mechanoreceptor. Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors which respond to mechanical ... Certain receptors are sensitive to certain types of stimuli (for example, different mechanoreceptors respond best to different ... the majority of mechanoreceptors are cutaneous and are grouped into four categories: *Slowly adapting type 1 receptors have ... stimulating a mechanoreceptor in a finger will send information to the brain about that finger). The duration of the stimulus ( ...
Evidence for stochastic resonance in a sensory system was first found in nerve signals from the mechanoreceptors located on the ... Slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) mechanoreceptors output signals in response to mechanical vibrations below 500 Hz. The skin was ... Collins JJ, Imhoff TT, Grigg P (July 1996). "Noise-enhanced information transmission in rat SA1 cutaneous mechanoreceptors via ... Extracellular recordings were made of the mechanoreceptor response from the extracted nerve. The encoding of the pressure ...
... there need to be mechanoreceptors on the surface of chondrocytes. Candidates for chondrocyte mechanoreceptors include stretch- ... However, there exist a few hypotheses which begin with the identification of mechanoreceptors.[citation needed] In order for ... The stimulation of a mechanoreceptor causes mechanically sensitive ion channels to open and produce a transduction current that ... More recent studies have hypothesized that chondrocyte primary cilium act as a mechanoreceptor for the cell, transducing forces ...
Receptors include thermoreceptors, and mechanoreceptors. Control centres include the respiratory centre, and the renin- ...
Mechanoreceptors of the ankle send proprioceptive sensory input to the central nervous system (CNS). Muscle spindles are ... "Mechanoreceptors in human ankle ligaments". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 77 (2): 219-24. doi:10.1302/ ... thought to be the main type of mechanoreceptor responsible for proprioceptive attributes from the ankle. The muscle spindle ...
Those axes are yaw pitch and roll, as illustrated in the above figure (Directions of rotation). The mechanoreceptors at the ... Keil, TA (15 December 1997). "Functional morphology of insect mechanoreceptors". Microscopy Research and Technique. 39 (6): 506 ...
These mechanoreceptors are classified into two. The first of which is Slow Adapting receptors (SA) that sense steady flow. The ...
Fish have mechanoreceptors lined in their nasal cavity. It is suggested that the multi-ciliated cells around the rim of their ... The mechanoreceptors in the somatosensory system can be found the skin surface of most aquatic animals, as well as on the ... Aquatic animals use mechanoreceptors to detect acoustic signals. Aside from aquatic mammals which have external ears, other ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Breithaupt, T.; Tautz, J. (1990). "The Sensitivity of Crayfish Mechanoreceptors to ...
Like mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors in deep fascia also have the ability to promote fascial relaxation. We tend to think of ... Deep fascia can also relax slowly as some mechanoreceptors respond to changes over longer timescales. Unlike the Golgi tendon ... By monitoring changes in muscular tension, joint position, rate of movement, pressure, and vibration, mechanoreceptors in the ... mechanoreceptors); change in the chemical milieu (chemoreceptors); and fluctuation in temperature (thermoreceptors). Deep ...
A hair plexus or root hair plexus is a special group of nerve fiber endings and serves as a very sensitive mechanoreceptor for ... They are mechanoreceptors conveying touch sensation. Specifically, crude touch and pressure sensation conveyed through the ...
Periodontal mechanoreceptors are present in pdl. They will transmit information about the stimulated tooth, direction and ... Trulsson M (April 2006). "Sensory-motor function of human periodontal mechanoreceptors". Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 33 (4 ...
... an important input the cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The web of the hand is a "fold of skin which connects the digits". These ...
... mechanoreceptors and interneurons, leading to the transmission of pain information by mechanoreceptors A different study ... Mechanoreceptors follow the same general pathway. However, they do not cross over at the level of the spinal cord, but at the ... Despite this anatomical separation, mechanoreceptors can influence the output of nociceptors by making connections with the ...
MechanoreceptorsEdit. Breastfeeding by the baby innervates slowly adapting and rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors that are ... Another function of an areola is to house slowly-adapting mechanoreceptors that trigger oxytocin excretion during nursing. The ...
MechanoreceptorsEdit. Main article: Mechanoreceptor. Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors which respond to mechanical forces ... Certain receptors are sensitive to certain types of stimuli (for example, different mechanoreceptors respond best to different ... the majority of mechanoreceptors are cutaneous and are grouped into four categories: *Slowly adapting type 1 receptors have ... such as pressure or distortion.[11] While mechanoreceptors are present in hair cells and play an integral role in the ...
... s act as rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. Groups of corpuscles respond to pressure changes, e.g. on ... are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin. They are nerve endings in the ...
Stretch-activated ion channels are located on these mechanoreceptor cells and serve to lower the action potential threshold, ... Afferent nerve endings without mechanoreceptor cells are called free nerve endings. They are less sensitive than the ... This results from the specialized mechanoreceptor cells that are superimposed upon the afferent nerve fibers. ... not to be confused with mechanoreceptors). They are present in the membranes of organisms from the three domains of life: ...
The baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors. At low pressures, baroreceptors become inactive. When blood pressure ...
... s or Meissner's corpuscles are a type of mechanoreceptor discovered by anatomist Georg Meissner (1829-1905) ... the only other type of phasic tactile mechanoreceptor), which are located deeper in the dermis, and some free nerve endings. ... A Multiafferented Mechanoreceptor with Nociceptor Immunochemical Properties". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (18): 7236-46. ... Tactile corpuscles are rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. They are sensitive to shape and textural changes in exploratory and ...
Primary type Ia sensory fibers (large diameter) spiral around all intrafusal muscle fibres, ending near the middle of each fibre. Secondary type II sensory fibers (medium diameter) end adjacent to the central regions of the static bag and chain fibres.[2] These fibres send information by stretch-sensitive mechanically-gated ion-channels of the axons.[3] The motor part of the spindle is provided by motor neurons: up to a dozen gamma motor neurons and one or two beta motor neurons, collectively called fusimotor neurons.[citation needed] These activate the muscle fibres within the spindle. Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within and outside of the spindle. Activation of the neurons causes a contraction and stiffening of the end parts of the muscle spindle muscle fibers. Fusimotor neurons are classified as static or dynamic according to the type of muscle fibers they innervate and their effects on the responses of ...
... s are skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors) that detect the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle.[1] They constitute the muscle spindle and are innervated by both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. Gamma efferents from small multipolar cells from anterior gray column innervate it. These form a part of neuromuscular spindles. Intrafusal muscle fibers are walled off from the rest of the muscle by an outer connective tissue sheath consisting of flattened fibroblasts and collagen.[2] This sheath has a spindle or "fusiform" shape, hence the name "intrafusal". There are two types of intrafusal muscle fibers: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibers. They bear two types of sensory ending, known as annulospiral and flower-spray endings. Both ends of these fibers contract but the central region only stretches and does not contract. They are innervated by gamma motor neurons and beta motor neurons. It is by the sensory ...
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Mechanoreceptors also help lower thresholds for action potential generation in afferent fibers and thus make them more likely ... Problems with mechanoreceptors lead to disorders such as: Neuropathic pain - a severe pain condition resulting from a damaged ... Muscle spindles contain mechanoreceptors that detect stretch in muscles. Somatic sensory receptors near the surface of the skin ... Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors which respond to mechanical forces, such as pressure or distortion. Specialized sensory ...
In animals, these neurons are referred to as C low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs). CT neurons belong to a group C nerve ... "The Low-Threshold Calcium Channel Cav3.2 Determines Low-Threshold Mechanoreceptor Function" (PDF). Cell Reports. 10 (3): 370- ... "Mechanical allodynia in human glabrous skin mediated by low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors with unmyelinated fibres". ... "Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors". Nature. 462 (7273): 651-655. doi:10.1038 ...
One of the latter two is expressed in mechanoreceptors. Tmc1 is a sodium-sensitive cation channel required for salt (Na+) ...
The tongue contains taste receptors, as well as mechanoreceptors. Afferents from taste receptors and mechanoreceptors of the ...
The mechanoreceptors are very crucial to the snail's sensory. Hancock's organ Sensory ecology Sensory systems in fish This ... The sensory organs of gastropods (snails and slugs) include olfactory organs, eyes, statocysts and mechanoreceptors. Gastropods ...
The sensory organs are generically known as somatosensory mechanoreceptors. In insects these sensors are known as campaniform ...
The sucking activates mechanoreceptors in and around the nipple. These signals are carried by nerve fibers through the spinal ...
... are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs. When the lung expands, the receptors initiate the Hering- ...
Look up mechanoreceptor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *Mechanoreceptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Invertebrate mechanoreceptors include campaniform sensilla and slit sensilla, among others. Mechanoreceptors are also present ... Cutaneous mechanoreceptors can also be separated into categories based on their rates of adaptation. When a mechanoreceptor ... Slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptors have multiple Merkel corpuscle end-organs.. *Slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors ...
Piezo2 integrates mechanical and thermal cues in vertebrate mechanoreceptors Wang Zheng, Yury A. Nikolaev, Elena O. Gracheva, ... Ultrastructural organization of NompC in the mechanoreceptive organelle of Drosophila campaniform mechanoreceptors Landi Sun, ...
Once the plant perceives a mechanical stimulus via mechanoreceptor cells or mechanoreceptor proteins within the plasma membrane ... Not only can mechanoreceptors be present within the plasma membrane of cells, but they can also exist as whole cells whose ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory organ or cell that responds to mechanical stimulation such as touch, pressure, vibration, and ... Mechanoreceptors are well-documented in animals and are integrated into the nervous system as sensory neurons. While plants do ...
mechanoreceptor synonyms, mechanoreceptor pronunciation, mechanoreceptor translation, English dictionary definition of ... mechanoreceptor. n. A specialized sensory end organ that responds to mechanical stimuli such as tension, pressure, or ... mechanoreceptor. Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to mechanoreceptor: chemoreceptor, thermoreceptor ... Mechanoreceptor - definition of mechanoreceptor by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/mechanoreceptor ...
"Vibrissal mechanoreceptors" by Satomi Ebara, Takahiro Furuta and Kenzo Kumamoto is licensed under a Creative Commons ... Thus responses of mechanoreceptors may vary depending not only on vibrissal movements but also on the movements of other ... Each type of mechanoreceptor has a characteristic morphology (see Merkel or lanceolate endings Figs. 1 and 2). With the ... Other types of mechanoreceptors intermingle with free nerve endings (Fig. 3); the extent to which these receptor types ...
Researchers at the Nagoya Institute of Technology in Japan have demonstrated that Meissners corpuscle mechanoreceptors can be ... Two-Photon in vivo Imaging of Meissners Corpuscle Mechanoreceptor in the Fingertip of a Mouse Paw (IMAGE) view more ... Not only could this imaging method unlock the mechanism of mechanoreceptor function, but could also be used as a novel ... The NITech-NU research team has now opened a window to understanding the mechanism of mechanoreceptor function by using two- ...
A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor. By Benjamin C.-K. Tee, Alex Chortos, Andre Berndt, Amanda Kim Nguyen, Ariane ... A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor. By Benjamin C.-K. Tee, Alex Chortos, Andre Berndt, Amanda Kim Nguyen, Ariane ... Tee et al. describe an approach to simulate the mechanoreceptors of human skin, using pressure-sensitive foils and printed ring ... We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure ...
... and examined histological sections of the ligaments for the presence of mechanoreceptors using the Bodian, Bielschowsky, and ... Mechanoreceptors in Human Cruciate Ligaments. A Histological Study J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984 Sep;66(7):1072-6. ... The autopsy and amputation specimens, however, contained fusiform mechanoreceptor structures measuring 200 by seventy-five ... This is the first histological demonstration of mechanoreceptors in human cruciate ligaments. ...
... mechanoreceptor explanation free. What is mechanoreceptor? Meaning of mechanoreceptor medical term. What does mechanoreceptor ... Looking for online definition of mechanoreceptor in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to mechanoreceptor: chemoreceptor, thermoreceptor. mechanoreceptor. [mek″ah-no-re-sep´ter] a nerve ending sensitive to ... mechanoreceptor (mi·kanˈ·ō·ri·sepˑ·t. r),. n a sense receptor activated by mechanical pressure (e.g., touch, massage) or ...
... that are regularly arranged on the surface of the Drosophila adult function as mechanoreceptors, and since their development ...
Integrins and stretch activated ion channels; putative components of functional cell surface mechanoreceptors in articular ... In this hypothesis paper we propose a chondrocyte mechanoreceptor model incorporating key extracellular matrix macromolecules, ...
The aim of our research is to determine how mechanical stimulus is converted to electrical activity or metabolic changes in different cell types, and how different ion channels participate in this process.
Mechanoreceptors and Minimal Reflex Activity Determining Claw Laterality In Developing Lobsters Message Subject (Your Name) has ... critical period with a substratum that could not be grasped or with reduced input from predominantly internal mechanoreceptors ...
... J Physiol. 1975 Feb;245(1):63- ...
2005) Slow adaptation in spider mechanoreceptor neurons. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191:403-411. ... 2001) Frequency response functions and information capacities of paired spider mechanoreceptor neurons. Biol Cybern 85:293-300. ... Mechanoreceptor afferents entering the CNSs of vertebrates and invertebrates probably all receive presynaptic neuromodulation ( ... 1994) Sodium-dependent receptor current in a new mechanoreceptor preparation. J Neurophysiol 72:3026-3028. ...
The mechanoreceptor used here is a member of the arthropod type I receptors (McIver, 1985; French, 1988), having bipolar ... Transduction in many mechanoreceptor neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates occurs at the ends of fine dendritic ... Active Signal Conduction through the Sensory Dendrite of a Spider Mechanoreceptor Neuron. Ewald Gingl and Andrew S. French ... Juusola M, French AS (1998) Adaptation properties of two types of sensory neurons in a spider mechanoreceptor organ. J ...
Purpose Various histological and immunological methods have been used to detect the mechanoreceptors and nerve fibers on the ... Hogervorst T, Brand RA (1998) Mechanoreceptors in joint function. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80:1365-1378PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Zimny ML, Schutte M, Dabezies E (1986) Mechanoreceptors in the human anterior cruciate ligament. Anat Rec 214:204-209PubMed ... Adachi N, Ochi M, Uchio Y, Iwasa J, Ryoke K, Kuriwaka M (2002) Mechanoreceptors in the anterior cruciate ligament contribute to ...
Researchers have identified a mechanoreceptor protein which mediates the sense of touch in mammals. Read More ...
... to have a better understanding of the role of ligaments in canine shoulder joint stability the presence of mechanoreceptors in ... Mechanoreceptors in the medial and lateral glenohumeral ligaments of the canine shoulder joint. Grandis, A.; Spadari, A.; ... The variety of mechanoreceptors in canine shoulder ligaments might indicate an afferent function in providing the CNS with ... Three morphologically distinct mechanoreceptors were identified: Ruffini receptors (type I endings), Pacinian corpuscles (type ...
Touch was affected by the number and function of regenerated fibers and mechanoreceptors. In contrast, tactile gnosis depends ... We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function ... The recovered function of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers and reinnervated mechanoreceptors may differentially influence ... including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. ...
Spider mechanoreceptor neurons receive efferent innervation on their peripherally located axons, somata and sensory dendrites, ... Dendritic excitability and localization of GABA-mediated inhibition in spider mechanoreceptor neurons. ...
Halothane, Tracheal Compliance and Upper-airway Mechanoreceptors Susan K. Palmer, M.D.; Edward J. Zuperku, Ph.D.; Zeljko ... Halothane, Tracheal Compliance and Upper-airway Mechanoreceptors You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... Halothane, Tracheal Compliance and Upper-airway Mechanoreceptors. Anesthesiology 10 1978, Vol.49, 260-265. doi: ... Tracheal Compliance and Upper-airway Mechanoreceptors. Anesthesiology 1978;49(4):260-265. ...
Principal Investigator:TAKAGAKI Yuko, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:時限, Research Field:咀嚼
We conclude that, in anesthetized animal preparations, mechanoreceptors with group III afferents contribute to the reflex ... Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal ... Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal ... Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal ...
210000000412 Mechanoreceptors Anatomy 0 abstract claims description title 182 * 238000004624 confocal microscopy Methods 0 ... Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of mechanoreceptors in skin using confocal microscopy Download PDF Info. Publication number. ... US11/878,638 2006-07-26 2007-07-25 Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of mechanoreceptors in skin using confocal microscopy Active ... It is therefore an object of the invention to visualize MCs (and, more generally, mechanoreceptors in human or animal skin). ...
Identifying Factors that Control Mechanoreceptor Neuron Development in C. elegans. Alexis Tchaconas1, Martin Chalfie1. 1 ... In C. elegans, mechanoreceptor neurons (MRNs) detect touch, with three types that require the gene mec-3 (one of the LIM- ... Identifying Factors that Control Mechanoreceptor Neuron Development in C. elegans. Alexis Tchaconas, Martin Chalfie Volume 6, ...
... four types of mechanoreceptors are present in the hairless skin, which will be discussed in this article along with ... Mechanoreceptors. A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor which detects the mechanical stimulus of stretch and distortion. It ... Mechanoreceptors, Encapsulated & Unencapsulated and Free Nerve Ending (FNE) Mechanoreceptors, Encapsulated & Unencapsulated and ... Overview of encapsulated mechanoreceptor afferents. Pacini corpuscles. Meissner corpuscles. Ruffini endings. Hair cell. Merkel´ ...
Mechanoreceptors[edit]. Main article: Mechanoreceptor. Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors which respond to mechanical ... Certain receptors are sensitive to certain types of stimuli (for example, different mechanoreceptors respond best to different ... the majority of mechanoreceptors are cutaneous and are grouped into four categories: *Slowly adapting type 1 receptors have ... stimulating a mechanoreceptor in a finger will send information to the brain about that finger). The duration of the stimulus ( ...
You are here: Home › Tag Archives: mechanoreceptors * Chiropractic Adjustments Help with Stress. December 5, 2012 by Pain in ...
  • There are also mechanoreceptors in hairy skin, and the hair cells in the receptors of primates like rhesus monkeys and other mammals are similar to those of humans and also studied even in early 20th century anatomically and neurophysiologically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phasic mechanoreceptors are useful in sensing such things as texture or vibrations, whereas tonic receptors are useful for temperature and proprioception among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torkkeli and Panek, 2002 ), but mechanoreceptors and pain receptors can also be modulated in the periphery, by either direct efferent innervation or circulating neuromodulators. (jneurosci.org)
  • Peripheral modulation is well known in invertebrates ( Torkkeli and Panek, 2002 ) and probably widespread in vertebrates, as shown by the sensitivity of some vertebrate mechanoreceptors to sympathetic activity ( Loewenstein, 1956 ), GABAergic inhibition of vagal mechanoreceptors ( Page and Blackshaw, 1999 ), and the presence of glutamate receptors on nociceptive terminals ( Carlton, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Three morphologically distinct mechanoreceptors were identified: Ruffini receptors (type I endings), Pacinian corpuscles (type II endings) and Golgi tendon organ-like receptors (type III endings). (gsajournals.org)
  • Certain receptors are sensitive to certain types of stimuli (for example, different mechanoreceptors respond best to different kinds of touch stimuli, like sharp or blunt objects). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first big category of somatosensory receptors respond to physical forces, so we call those mechanoreceptors, because they respond to mechanical stimuli. (khanacademy.org)
  • Receptors in the category of mechanoreceptors can detect the position of body parts, relative to each other, and vibration, and touch. (khanacademy.org)
  • These are two types of mechanoreceptors that can be found in the skin, and there's lots of different types of mechanoreceptors in the skin that sense all sorts of mechanical stimuli to the skin, but there are also somatosensory receptors in the deep tissues, way below the skin here. (khanacademy.org)
  • These types of receptors, like this one in muscle, along with other ones in tendons and in the capsules around joints, are very important for position sense, because they can send information back to the nervous system about the relative position of body parts, whereas some of these mechanoreceptors in the skin or the tissues just closer to the skin are often more important for detecting things like vibration and touch. (khanacademy.org)
  • The pressure used in the Graston Technique activates certain nerve fibers as well as the body's sensory receptors including mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors. (pthealth.ca)
  • Receptors of the skin are classified as thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors -the last being sensitive to stimulation that is noxious, or likely to damage the tissues of the body. (britannica.com)
  • The receptors for the sense of hearing are mechanoreceptors that are sensitive to sound waves or vibrations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Articular chondrocytes express connexin 43 hemichannels and P2 receptors - a putative mechanoreceptor complex involving the primary cilium? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mechanoreceptors are well-documented in animals and are integrated into the nervous system as sensory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 Hz (mean [+ or -] SD)) than in all other mechanoreceptor neurons (135. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We measured action potential firing produced by random mechanical stimulation of spider mechanoreceptor neurons during long-duration excitation by the GABA A agonist muscimol. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transduction in many mechanoreceptor neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates occurs at the ends of fine dendritic processes, spatially distant from regions that can be penetrated with microelectrodes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spider mechanoreceptor neurons receive efferent innervation on their peripherally located axons, somata and sensory dendrites, and the dendrites have recently been shown to be excitable. (ovid.com)
  • In C. elegans, mechanoreceptor neurons (MRNs) detect touch, with three types that require the gene mec-3 (one of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factors) for their proper differentiation: touch receptor neurons (TRNs) (gentle touch), FLP neurons (tip of the head touch) and PVD neurons (harsh touch). (columbia.edu)
  • Mechanoreceptors are primary neurons that respond to mechanical stimuli by firing action potentials. (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, nociceptors fail to respond to low intensity thermal and mechanical stimuli while mechanoreceptors are exquisitely sensitive to stimuli that fail excite nociceptor neurons. (grantome.com)
  • There are thousands of small neurons that branch out to all areas of the human body, and on the endings of many of these neurons are mechanoreceptors. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • In neurons in which mechanoreceptor input caused postsynaptic spikes, Leu-Enk decreased synaptic input and increased the basal intraluminal pressure of the colon. (elsevier.com)
  • These neurons innervate the same hair follicle forming a functional unit 18 , and are among the most sensitive of all cutaneous mechanoreceptors, and respond preferentially to dynamic stimuli, making them a strong candidate for the neuronal subtype mediating mechanical allodynia. (nature.com)
  • It's this whole structure right here, and this particular somatosensory receptor is a mechanoreceptor that detects stretch of skeletal muscle, so when this skeletal muscle is stretched, this receptor can detect that and send that information back to the central nervous system, through neurons. (khanacademy.org)
  • Cutaneous mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical stimuli that result from physical interaction, including pressure and vibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only can mechanoreceptors be present within the plasma membrane of cells, but they can also exist as whole cells whose primary purpose is to detect mechanical stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nagoya, Japan - When a fingertip explores the surface of a material, mechanoreceptors called Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) near the surface of the skin mainly respond to low-frequency vibration stimuli such as fluttering or slipping on the skin. (eurekalert.org)
  • The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • Mechanical stimuli are transmitted by trigeminal mechanoreceptors innervating the bill, a highly specialized tactile organ. (pnas.org)
  • Measurements of both spontaneous activity and responses of tarsal joint mechanoreceptors to repeated graded mechanical stimuli were made. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • 4. Within-breath phasic changes in airway mechanoreceptor stimuli (negative pressure or flow) were highly correlated with within-breath phasic genioglossal activation, probably representing a robust mechanoreceptive reflex. (elsevier.com)
  • Dr. Gardner discloses mechanoreceptors are activated by strong stimuli: sharp, pricking sensations. (prnewswire.com)
  • In glabrous (hairless) skin, there are four principal types of mechanoreceptors, each shaped according to its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four main types of mechanoreceptors in glabrous, or hairless, mammalian skin: lamellar corpuscles (Pacinian corpuscles), tactile corpuscles (Meissner's corpuscles), Merkel nerve endings, and bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini corpuscle). (wikipedia.org)
  • In human beings, four types of mechanoreceptors are present in the hairless skin, which will be discussed in this article along with encapsulated and unencapsulated nerve endings and free nerve endings. (lecturio.com)
  • In human beings, four types of mechanoreceptors are present in the hairless skin: Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's cells and Ruffini endings. (lecturio.com)
  • These two types of mechanoreceptors have small discrete receptive fields and are thought to underly most low threshold use of the fingers in assessing texture, surface slip, and flutter. (wikidoc.org)
  • The objective of the current study was to help determine the different types of mechanoreceptors present in the two lower intervertebral discs. (dynamicdiscdesigns.com)
  • The role of PGE 2 in the sensitization of highthreshold tarsal joint mechanoreceptors (putative nociceptors) has been investigated in 11 arthritic and 16 normal rats. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • It has been also suggested that ACL-resection-associated disruption of the afferent signals from the mechanoreceptor of ACL may modulate the muscle tone around the knee joint (Barrack et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has been reported that the disruption of knee extension is observed in both ACL-injured and contralateral limbs of patients having ACL injury and is suggested to be attributed to the lack of afferent feedback from mechanoreceptors through the [gamma] loop (Konishi et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The variety of mechanoreceptors in canine shoulder ligaments might indicate an afferent function in providing the CNS with joint proprioceptive information. (gsajournals.org)
  • Superfusion of the IMG with Leu-Enk decreased colonic, afferent mechanoreceptor synaptic input. (elsevier.com)
  • All of the mechanoreceptors examined had afferent fibres with conduction velocities in the C or A-δ range. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Using this new model of joint inflammation we have shown that lysine acetylsalicylate reduces the mechanical sensitivity of these joint mechanoreceptors and reduces the spontaneous activity in afferent nerve fibres. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 is unable to restore either the spontaneous activity in the afferent axon or the mechanical sensitivity of tarsal joint mechanoreceptors after lysine acetylsalicylate in the arthritic rat. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • 4. We conclude that the left ventricular mechanoreceptors may not be the primary afferent trigger for syncope. (clinsci.org)
  • Shu, HD, Love, JA & Szurszewski, JH 1987, ' Effect of enkephalins on colonic mechanoreceptor synaptic input to inferior mesenteric ganglion ', American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology , vol. 252, no. 1 (15/1), pp. (elsevier.com)
  • McCord, JL, Hayes, SG & Kaufman, MP 2008, ' Acid-sensing ion and epithelial sodium channels do not contribute to the mechanoreceptor component of the exercise pressor reflex ', American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 295, no. 3. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanoreceptor endings in human cervical facet joints. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sensory nerve endings are divided into two groups morphologically: mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings (Fig. 1, inset). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Each type of mechanoreceptor has a characteristic morphology (see Merkel or lanceolate endings Figs. 1 and 2). (scholarpedia.org)
  • We obtained human cruciate ligaments at the time of total knee replacement and from autopsy and amputation specimens, and examined histological sections of the ligaments for the presence of mechanoreceptors using the Bodian, Bielschowsky, and Ranvier gold-chloride stains for axons and nerve-endings. (nih.gov)
  • Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • Type III are encapsulated mechanoreceptors that share similarity to Golgi endings. (dynamicdiscdesigns.com)
  • Three types of nerve endings [ mechanoreceptors ] were observed in the surrounding connective tissue and the septa between collagen fibers of the ligaments . (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. The mechanoreceptors of the L.O.S. region were quite similar to oesophageal slowly adapting endings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vagal mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors in mouse stomach and esophagus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although group III and IV muscle afferents are known to be responsible for this reflex pressor response, there is no evidence that the stimulation of muscle mechanoreceptors, many of which are supplied by group III fibers, plays a role in causing this contraction-induced reflex effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that, in anesthetized animal preparations, mechanoreceptors with group III afferents contribute to the reflex stimulation of renal sympathetic outflow evoked by muscular contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to epidermal nerve fibers, we quantified mechanoreceptors and their myelinated afferents. (painscience.com)
  • Here, we addressed this question by recording whisker motion and electrophysiological responses from primary mechanoreceptor afferents innervating several distinct structures on the face, including regions of hairy skin, vibrissae other than the mystacial whiskers, and jaw muscles ( Figure 1A ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The Rapidly Adapting (RA) or Meissner corpuscle end-organ mechanoreceptor underlies the perception of flutter [8] and slip on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RAI type mechanoreceptor underlies the perception of flutter, [3] and slip on the skin. (wikidoc.org)
  • A mechanoreceptor is a sensory organ or cell that responds to mechanical stimulation such as touch, pressure, vibration, and sound from both the internal and external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a growing body of knowledge about how mechanoreceptors in plant cells receive information about a mechanical stimulation, but there are many gaps in the current understanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphometric changes in the ZP could be explained by the activation of the mechanoreceptor Integrina / Pax-Fax, located in the chondrocytes, which through mechanical stimulation generates activation of the pathway PI3k / Akt, inhibiting the phosphorylation of B-Catenin, which on accumulation migrate to the nucleus promoting cell proliferation and MEC secretion genes (Takeuchi et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using direct stimulation of histologically isolated corpuscles in the cat mesentery in vivo , Pacinian corpuscles have been shown to be rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors (Gray and Matthews, 1951). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. (ovid.com)
  • Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Food ingestion precipitates or exacerbates symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating in patients with IBS through different hypothesised mechanisms including immune and mast cell activation, mechanoreceptor stimulation and chemosensory activation. (bmj.com)
  • In the normal rat, however, PGE 2 potentiates the excitatory action of bradykinin and enhances the sensitizing effect of bradykinin on the responses of joint mechanoreceptors to mechanical stimulation when both substances are injected simultaneously. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The contribution of the recruitment of different muscle groups, the activity of the cardiac mechanoreceptors, the level of arterial baroreceptor stimulation, and the hemodynamic effects of gravity on the exercising muscles was analyzed during upright (U) and S exercise. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been recognized that through sensory stimulation and repetitious mental exercises resulting from repetitive finger movement indenting into mechanoreceptors, memory is increased, cognitive abilities improved, anxiety, depression and stress released. (prnewswire.com)
  • Juvenile lobsters reared during this critical period with a substratum that could not be grasped or with reduced input from predominantly internal mechanoreceptors (proprioceptors) (achieved by cutting the dactyl and its chordotonal organ or by tenotomizing the claw opener or closer muscles) failed to develop a crusher claw and hence remained bilaterally symmetrical: they developed paired cutter claws. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, feedback about whisker position must occur via self-motion-triggered ('reafferent') activity of peripheral mechanoreceptors other than classical muscle proprioceptors, such as the cutaneous LTMRs responsible for sensing touch. (elifesciences.org)
  • When a mechanoreceptor receives a stimulus, it begins to fire impulses or action potentials at an elevated frequency (the stronger the stimulus, the higher the frequency). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanoreceptors detect mechanical stimulus originating from within the plant (intrinsic) and from the surrounding environment (extrinsic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the plant perceives a mechanical stimulus via mechanoreceptor cells or mechanoreceptor proteins within the plasma membrane of a cell, the resulting ion flux is integrated through signaling pathways resulting in a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor which detects the mechanical stimulus of stretch and distortion. (lecturio.com)
  • The location of the receptor that is stimulated gives the brain information about the location of the stimulus (for example, stimulating a mechanoreceptor in a finger will send information to the brain about that finger). (wikipedia.org)
  • Various histological and immunological methods have been used to detect the mechanoreceptors and nerve fibers on the intact ACLs as well as on the remnant stumps. (springer.com)
  • The recovered function of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers and reinnervated mechanoreceptors may differentially influence recovery of sensory modalities. (ovid.com)
  • Touch was affected by the number and function of regenerated fibers and mechanoreceptors. (ovid.com)
  • In addition to diagnostic applications, this technique allows clarification of the mode of termination of Abeta fibers and their relationship with mechanoreceptors, leading to relevant electrophysiological speculations. (painscience.com)
  • Sensory transduction occurs at the tips of relatively long sensory dendrites in many mechanoreceptors of both vertebrates and invertebrates, but little is known about the electrical properties of these crucial links between transduction and action potential generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Slowly Adapting type 2 (SA2) mechanoreceptors , with the Ruffini corpuscle end-organ , respond to skin stretch, but have not been closely linked to either proprioceptive or mechanoreceptive roles in perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Work in rhesus monkeys has found virtually identical mechanoreceptors with the exception of Ruffini corpuscles which are not found in the monkey. (wikidoc.org)
  • Slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors have single Ruffini corpuscle end-organs. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main four mechanoreceptors in hairless skin areas are Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's discs, and Ruffini corpuscles. (answers.com)
  • Rapidly adapting type II mechanoreceptors (usually called Pacinian) have single Pacinian corpuscle end-organs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Type II are encapsulated mechanoreceptors that are similar to Pacinian corpuscles. (dynamicdiscdesigns.com)
  • Some mechanoreceptors, such as the Pacinian copulscule, which detects deep pressure touch and high frequency vibrations, are as large as 1 mm. (answers.com)
  • As a taste bud on the tongue detects flavor, mechanoreceptors are glands within the skin and on other organs that detect sensations of touch. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • They're known as mechanoreceptors because they're designed to detect mechanical sensations or differences in pressure. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • Different mechanoreceptors are specialized to detect different touch sensations, and can be found at a variety of different depths in the skin. (answers.com)
  • In order to have a better understanding of the role of ligaments in canine shoulder joint stability, the presence of mechanoreceptors in the medial (MGHL) and lateral (LGHL) glenohumeral ligaments was detected by means of a modified gold chloride stain. (gsajournals.org)
  • The skin is innervated by an array of functionally distinct populations of mechanoreceptors that can be distinguished by their conduction velocity, response properties, mechanical threshold, and the type of end organ that they innervate 17 . (nature.com)
  • We compared the encoding of whisker motion among these different populations of mechanoreceptors to that of whisker mechanoreceptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • There are also mechanoreceptors in the hairy skin, and the hair cells in the cochlea are the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in tranducing air pressure waves into sound. (wikidoc.org)
  • More recent work has expanded the role of the cutaneous mechanoreceptors for feedback in fine motor control . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous mechanoreceptors can be categorized by morphology, by what kind of sensation they perceive, and by the rate of adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous mechanoreceptors can also be separated into categories based on their rates of adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous mechanoreceptors with small, accurate receptive fields are found in areas needing accurate taction (e.g. the fingertips). (wikidoc.org)
  • Invertebrate mechanoreceptors include campaniform sensilla and slit sensilla , among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central targeting and integration of mechanoreceptive input in crustaceans is most thoroughly understood from studies of the tailflip reflex in freshwater crayfish, a behavior that is driven by a relatively large population of bidirectional mechanoreceptor sensilla on the telson, uropods, and abdominal tergites (Kennedy et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • putative components of functional cell surface mechanoreceptors in articular chondrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Wood L., and Ferrell W.R., 1985, Fluid compartmentation and articular mechanoreceptor discharge in the cat knee joint, Quart. (springer.com)
  • The positivity of monoclonal antibody against NFP showed a statistically significant relationship with the presence of morphologically normal mechanoreceptors, whereas the positivity of monoclonal antibody against S-100 showed a statistically significant relationship with the presence of free nerve ending in the residual stump of an injured ACL. (springer.com)
  • In the fingertips and lips, innervation density of slowly adapting type 1 and rapidly adapting type 1 mechanoreceptors are greatly increased. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mechanoreceptors in Human Cruciate Ligaments. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first histological demonstration of mechanoreceptors in human cruciate ligaments. (nih.gov)
  • Baroreceptors are a type of mechanoreceptor sensory neuron that is excited by stretch of the blood vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those mechanoreceptors send a message along the neuron they are connected to. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • The neuron connects all the way to the brain, which receives the message that something is touching your body in the exact location of the specific mechanoreceptor that sent the message. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • These data provide strong evidence that upper airway dilator muscles can be activated throughout inspiration via ongoing mechanoreceptor reflexes. (elsevier.com)
  • The Slowly Adapting type 1 (SA1) mechanoreceptor , with the Merkel corpuscle end-organ , underlies the perception of form and roughness on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptors have multiple Merkel corpuscle end-organs. (wikidoc.org)
  • We propose experiments to systematically investigate the influence of neurogenic inflammation on SAI mechanoreceptors and to use irnmunocytochemical techniques to identify the cellular elements within the touch dome that influence the type I/Merkel cell complex. (grantome.com)
  • This reduces muscular contraction in masticatory muscles by suppressing the mechanoreceptor activity due to shortened disclusion time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. The mechanoreceptors located in the inferior thoracic oesophagus were activated both by distension and contraction of the viscera. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During this period of time, the sudden tension developed by contraction onset briskly discharges mechanoreceptors, whereas it has little effect on the discharge of metaboreceptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Rapidly adapting type I mechanoreceptors have multiple Meissner corpuscle end-organs. (wikidoc.org)
  • Breastfeeding by the baby innervates slowly adapting and rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors that are densely packed around the areolar region. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show mechanosensory specialization in ducks involves the formation of functional rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors prior to hatching. (pnas.org)
  • Baroreceptors are a type of mechanoreceptors present in the large blood vessels . (lecturio.com)
  • I will use two in vitro preparations to study quantitatively the response characteristics of aortic arch baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors located in the superior vena cava just outside the right atrium. (elsevier.com)
  • A study 1 published in the 'Journal of Clinical Neuroscience' decided to analyze mechanoreceptors present in the lumbar spine's intervertebral discs. (dynamicdiscdesigns.com)
  • [5] SAII mechanoreceptors respond to skin stretch, but have not been closely linked to either proprioceptive or mechanoreceptive roles in perception. (wikidoc.org)
  • Facial proprioception may instead rely on mechanoreceptors that encode both touch and self-motion. (elifesciences.org)
  • Vibrissal follicles have been shown to be associated with a dense distribution of several kinds of mechanoreceptors. (go.jp)
  • The autopsy and amputation specimens, however, contained fusiform mechanoreceptor structures measuring 200 by seventy-five micrometers, with a single axon exiting from the capsule of the receptor. (nih.gov)
  • However, recent evidence now suggests a complex interaction between mechanoreceptor function and inflammatory processes such as that exposure to capsaicin produces modulation of SAI mechanoreceptor behavior similar to that induced by axon reflex activation. (grantome.com)
  • For instance, right here, this little structure on the end of this axon that's coming into the skin, that's one type of mechanoreceptor, close to the surface of the skin, and here's another type of mechanoreceptor, with this structure here at the end, of this axon that's coming into the skin. (khanacademy.org)
  • Adachi N, Ochi M, Uchio Y, Iwasa J, Ryoke K, Kuriwaka M (2002) Mechanoreceptors in the anterior cruciate ligament contribute to the joint position sense. (springer.com)
  • A mechanoreceptor , also called mechanoceptor , is a sensory cell that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Kar Lai Pang , co-first author of the paper said: "It is intriguing that our group has discovered a novel mechanoreceptor that responds to turbulent blood flow which leads to EndMT pathophysiological process and atherosclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also attempted to validate the methodology of immunohistology as a means of characterizing functional mechanoreceptors in the residual stump of an injured ACL. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the article below is to demonstrate as well as discuss in detail the functional organization and molecular determinants of mechanoreceptors. (wellnessdoctorrx.com)
  • As a type of mechanoreceptor it is responsible for sensitivity to light touch. (lecturio.com)
  • This project will test whether abnormal function of the cardiovascular mechanoreceptors contributes to these decreases in baroreflex sensitivity in DS rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Single mechanoreceptors will be tested for steady-state discharge characteristics including threshold and suprathreshold sensitivity, for rapid resetting to changes in the conditioning pressure and for sensitivity to changes in external ionic concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanoreceptors found in areas of the body with less tactile acuity tend to have larger receptive fields . (wikidoc.org)
  • Del Valle ME, Harwin SF, Maestro A et al (1998) Immunohistochemical analysis of mechanoreceptors in the human posterior cruciate ligament: a demonstration of its proprioceptive role and clinical relevance. (springer.com)
  • This study was undertaken to identify the mechanoreceptors in the cruciate ligament of rabbit . (bvsalud.org)
  • describe an approach to simulate the mechanoreceptors of human skin, using pressure-sensitive foils and printed ring oscillators (see the Perspective by Anikeeva and Koppes). (sciencemag.org)
  • We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mechanoreceptors in the Skin. (lecturio.com)
  • Whisker motion was encoded best by whisker mechanoreceptors, but also by those innervating whisker pad hairy skin and supraorbital vibrissae. (elifesciences.org)
  • Touch begins with the activation of low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) in the skin. (elifesciences.org)
  • We find that a subset of hairy skin mechanoreceptors encodes whisker motion at levels comparable to whisker mechanoreceptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • LAS VEGAS , July 31, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- John Hopkins University Krieger Brain Institute research has found 3000 mechanoreceptors, located just under the skin of each fingertip. (prnewswire.com)
  • Kinesiology tape can thus be utilized as an extension of the massage therapy session by continuing to provide tactile sensory input to these mechanoreceptors in the skin. (massagemag.com)
  • The mechanoreceptor in the esophagus is sensitive to stretch distension, and when activated, the signal is sent to the brainstem via the esophageal plexus [12]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • abstract = "The effects of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk) on colonic mechanoreceptor input to the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) and on colonic intraluminal pressure of the guinea pig were studied in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanoreceptors are also present in the hair of cochlea which transmits vibration signals to the brain. (lecturio.com)
  • Recently, a low threshold mechanoreceptor was suggested to be able to modulate nociceptive activity in the DRG and DH and produce inhibitory effects on spinothalamic tract cells [45]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The progressive release of substance P, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 (as well as histamine and serotonin through mast cell degranulation) appears to modulate SAI mechanoreceptor activity at each stage of the inflammatory process. (grantome.com)