Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Surgical Stomas: Artificial openings created by a surgeon for therapeutic reasons. Most often this refers to openings from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the ABDOMINAL WALL to the outside of the body. It can also refer to the two ends of a surgical anastomosis.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Peritoneal Stomata: Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. Peritoneal stomata constitute the principal pathways for the drainage of intraperitoneal contents from the PERITONEAL CAVITY to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Bandages, Hydrocolloid: Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.BooksCyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
... just as in plants using the C3 mechanism. At night, or when the plant is short of water, the stomata close and the CAM ... Growth habit. Cacti show a wide variety of growth habits, which are difficult to divide into clear, simple categories. ... is a mechanism adopted by cacti and other succulents to avoid the problems of the C3 mechanism. In full CAM, the stomata open ... Plants using the C3 mechanism lose as much as 97% of the water taken up through their roots in this way.[20] A further problem ...
... just as in plants using the C3 mechanism. At night, or when the plant is short of water, the stomata close and the CAM ... or some forms that show abnormal growth (e.g., cristate or monstrose forms). For the host plant-the "stock"-growers choose one ... is a mechanism adopted by cacti and other succulents to avoid the problems of the C3 mechanism. In full CAM, the stomata open ... Plants using the C3 mechanism lose as much as 97% of the water taken up through their roots in this way. A further problem is ...
Plant ecophysiology is concerned largely with two topics: mechanisms (how plants sense and respond to environmental change) and ... In very dry soil, plants close their stomata to reduce transpiration and prevent water loss. The closing of the stomata is ... "Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage". Plant Science. 245: 94-118. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.01.006. ... Knowledge of these mechanisms has been key to breeding for heat stress tolerance in agricultural plants. Plants can avoid the ...
These small peptide hormones play crucial roles in plant growth and development, including defense mechanisms, the control of ... In plants under water stress, ABA plays a role in closing the stomata. Soon after plants are water-stressed and the roots are ... They are used to regulate the growth of cultivated plants, weeds, and in vitro-grown plants and plant cells; these manmade ... Plant hormones frequently regulate the concentrations of other plant hormones.[9] Plants also move hormones around the plant ...
... excess sodium may also be stored in old plant tissue, limiting the damage to new growth. Since only some plants need sodium and ... To avoid these problems, plants developed mechanisms that limit sodium uptake by roots, store them in cell vacuoles, and ... such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata. Excess sodium in the soil limits the ... Trends in Plant Science. 6 (2): 66-71. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01838-0. PMID 11173290. "Plants and salt ion toxicity". Plant ...
Along with cryptochromes and phytochromes they allow plants to respond and alter their growth in response to the light ... Peter E, Dick B, Baeurle SA (2010). "Mechanism of signal transduction of the LOV2-Jα photosensor from Avena sativa". Nat Commun ... Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins ... The Plant Journal. 26.5: 471-78. Briggs WR, Olney MA (January 2001). "Photoreceptors in plant photomorphogenesis to date. Five ...
Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ... They also separate stomata apart from each other as stomata have at least one pavement cell between each other. They do not ... A thick external cell wall influences the direction of growth by impeding expansion towards the outside of the cell and instead ... Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ...
Abscisic acid is an important hormone in helping plants to conserve water-it causes stomata to close and stimulates root growth ... Some marine fish, like sharks, have adopted a different, efficient mechanism to conserve water, i.e., osmoregulation. They ... In these plants the water absorption occur through the whole surface of the plant, e.g., the water lily. Halophytes are plants ... Other plants have leaf modifications to reduce water loss, such as needle-shaped leaves, sunken stomata, and thick, waxy ...
... "stomata conductance" of the epiphytes, reducing the CO2 uptake, which in turn reduces growth and reproduction and even induces ... on top of other plants. They are not planted in the soil and are not parasitic (i.e. they do not feed on other plants; however ... but they still have some mechanisms to help them survive. Some become completely dormant for months at a time; many epiphytes ... Most epiphytic seed plants and ferns are found in tropical and subtropical rainforests because they need high humidity to ...
BABA triggers a plants systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a natural plant defense mechanism. When potatoes are inoculated with ... Delayed planting reduces the growth period in cooler soils subsequently decreaseing germination of the spores. One limitation ... and then penetrating the epidermis through lenticels and stomata. Once inside, the multinucleate plasmodium divides to spread ... One study, found powdery scab was significantly more common on plants grown in constant dampness compared to plants grown with ...
... because it is only during the night that these plants open their stomata. By opening the stomata only at night, the water vapor ... However, this comes at the cost of slow growth: the plant has to store the carbon dioxide in the form of malic acid for use ... The mechanism of gas exchange in invertebrates depends their size, feeding strategy, and habitat (aquatic or terrestrial). The ... Gas exchange measurements are important tools in plant science: this typically involves sealing the plant (or part of a plant) ...
Alpine plants are often opportunistic in their growth with seasonal variation in their growth rate being manifest through ... Adaptations include thick cuticles, rolled leaf margins, sunken stomata or lacking leaves altogether. Some plants have dense ... The alpine vegetation community in Tasmania has generally adopted stress tolerance rather than stress avoidance mechanisms. As ... Typically, Tasmanian alpine plants have a low primary productivity and correspondingly slow growth rates. For example, Epacris ...
Unlike most other plant pathogens, Zymoseptoria tritici infects through stomata rather than by direct penetration and there is ... Light stimulates yeast-like growth of Zymoseptoria tritici. Close-up of yeast-like growth of Zymoseptoria tritici in vitro on ... Very little is known about the cause or mechanism of this lifestyle switch even though Mycosphaerella is one of the largest and ... It is haploid plant-pathogenic fungus. Many fungi are haploid, which greatly simplifies genetic studies. Zymoseptoria tritici ...
This allows CAM plants to reduce water loss (transpiration) by maintaining closed stomata during the day. CAM plants usually ... Zabaleta, E.; Martin, M. V.; Braun, H. P. (2012). "A basal carbon concentrating mechanism in plants?". Plant Science. 187: 97- ... Reducing photorespiration may not result in increased growth rates for plants. Photorespiration may be necessary for the ... C4 plants include sugar cane, corn (maize), and sorghum. CAM plants, such as cacti and succulent plants, also use the enzyme ...
... some plants have developed mechanisms to limit sodium uptake in the roots, to store it in cell vacuoles, and restrict salt ... transport from roots to leaves;[95] excess sodium may also be stored in old plant tissue, limiting the damage to new growth. ... such as maintaining turgor pressure and aiding in the opening and closing of stomata.[93] Excess sodium in the soil can limit ... Zhu, J. K. (2001). "Plant salt tolerance". Trends in Plant Science. 6 (2): 66-71. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01838-0. PMID ...
His second book Causes of Plants covers plant growth and reproduction (akin to modern physiology). Like Aristotle he grouped ... the male sexual organs of the plant". Much was learned about plant sexuality by unravelling the reproductive mechanisms of ... This work included the discovery and naming of parenchyma and stomata. In plant physiology research interest was focused on the ... those with monopodial growth), pratanavati (creeping plants), amsumati (with many stalks), and kandini (plants with knotty ...
... plants may have their vertical axes preserved in growth position, with rhizoids still attached to rhizomes; even the plant ... Stomata have been counted and lignin remnants detected in the plant material, and the breathing apparatus of trigonotarbids-of ... which are found in decaying plant cells; the cells may have decayed as a defence mechanism to prevent the fungi from spreading ... Further, as plants are preserved in situ, the study of exactly how and why the branching patterns of the early plants emerged ...
Genes of this type have been found in many plants studied till now, and the mechanism i.e. repression of KNOX genes in leaf ... covered with stomata all over, and not optimized as much for light harvesting. How the infinite variety of plant leaves is ... Once the leaf primordial cells are established from the SAM cells, the new axes for leaf growth are defined, one important (and ... It presents plant evolution as the evolution of plant development (hologeny). In this sense it is plant evolutionary ...
Plant ecophysiology describes this phenomenon. As described above in the case of a plant, similar mechanisms exist in a ... Jaffe, M. J.; Forbes, S. (1993). "Thigmomorphogenesis: the effect of mechanical perturbation on plants". Plant Growth ... Cells involved in gravity perception Stoma - A plant pore which responds to stimulus and which regulates gas exchange Systemic ... Plant Neurobiology Society Plant Signaling and Behavior Scientific journal for Plant Neurobiology Study hints plants have ...
... but also in part because at higher temperatures the plant is able to outgrow the infection, as evidenced by hyphal growth being ... With no special mechanism, ascospores are all forcibly discharged from the ascus to sit on the leaf surface. Blastospores and ... These hyphae grow over guard cells and enter the leaf tissue through open stomata. Two germ tubes may even form from the same ... Reduced overall growth of the tree may result, but is not common. Cells around the blisters resemble meristematic cells with ...
... when the stomata are closed. The dung jade plant (Crassula ovata) and cacti are typical of CAM plants. Sixteen thousand species ... CCM can make plants more tolerant of heat and water stress. Carbon concentrating mechanisms use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase ( ... When this evolutionary breakthrough occurred, autotrophy (growth using inorganic carbon as the sole carbon source) is believed ... These plants have a carbon isotope signature of −16 to −10 ‰. The large majority of plants are C3 plants. They are so-called to ...
Each plant commences its growth as a herbaceous plant, while woody plants (such as trees, shrubs and woody vines (lianas) will ... Guard cell - One of the paired epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of a stoma in plant tissue. Herbaceous - ... In angiosperms, if the female sporangium is fertilised, it becomes the fruit, a mechanism for dispersing the seeds produced ... Woody - forming secondary growth laterally around the plant so as to form wood. Duration of individual plant lives are ...
"Black rot of crucifers." In: Slusarenko AJ, Fraser RSS, van Loon LC (Eds.) Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases. ... The optimum temperature range for bacterial growth and host symptom development is between 25° to 30 °C . A slower rate of ... Occasionally, infections occur through stomata. Hydathodes provide the pathogen a direct path from the leaf margins to the ... Bacteria present in plant debris can serve as a source of secondary inoculum. Warm and wet conditions favor plant infection by ...
The plant has these positive and negative mediators allowing for normal plant growth and development, which has been proven ... The stomata are considered to be the entry point for pathogenic invaders because microbial invaders enter the plant at the ... Plants have many protection mechanisms to cope with stresses from the environment, which include ultraviolet light, cold or hot ... MAPK pathways in plants are known to regulate cell growth, cell development, cell death, and cell responses to environmental ...
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional plant hormone, playing roles in germination, seasonal growth patterns, and stress ... "Effects of Phaseic Acid and Dihydrophaseic Acid on Stomata and the Photosynthetic Apparatus". Plant Physiol. 65(2): 291--297. ... have demonstrated that, in the case of arabidopsis, these hydroxylases are independent of any regulatory mechanism downstream ... Trends in Plant Science, 4: 472-478 Saito S. (2004). "Arabidopsis CYP707As encode -abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme ...
... it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a ... In any square centimeter of a plant leaf, there may be from 1,000 to 100,000 stomata.[15] ... This mechanism to shed leaves is called abscission. When the leaf is shed, it leaves a leaf scar on the twig. In cold autumns, ... Other plant parts like stems or roots have non-determinate growth, and will usually continue to grow as long as they have the ...
Effect of elevated C[O.sub.2] on vegetative and reproductive growth characteristics of the CAM plants Hylocereus undatus and ... There were not significant correlations between stomata length, stomata density and nuclear DNA content, or between fruit ... through an unidentified mechanism, glucose levels by 50.9% (Lugo-Radilla et al., 2012). In terms of fertility, Ankli et al. ( ... Plant Disease 96 (6) 906-907. Cisneros, A., Tel-Zur, N. 2010. Embryo rescue and plant regeneration follow interspecific crosses ...
In order to avoid this artifact, we used dark-adapted plants. The difference may also be due to the difference of the growth ... 2010) Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter. Plant Cell Physiol 51: 354-365. ... 2013) Open stomata 1 (OST1) kinase controls R-type anion channel QUAC1 in Arabidopsis guard cells. Plant J 74: 372-382. ... B, ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in wild-type and srk2e plants. Dark represents fully dark-adapted stomata; 0 µm ABA ...
... play vital roles in protecting photosynthesis under dehydration via osmotic adjustments and/or antioxidant mechanisms. A ... 2015). Drought induces distinct growth response, protection, and recovery mechanisms in the maize leaf growth zone. Plant ... Plants have various acclimation responses that enable survival under drought. These acclimation responses include stomata ... A plant with improved drought-avoidance might utilize more water via a well-developed root system, while a plant with improved ...
Differential transcriptomes of both mutants were enriched in growth-related genes, including known stomata development ... providing a system to interrogate plant life in the absence of stomata. To this end, we compared their cotyledon transcriptomes ... Differential transcriptomes of both mutants were enriched in growth-related genes, including known stomata development ... source of new genes for the study of stomata development and for characterizing physiology and growth in the absence of stomata ...
Photoreceptors are specialized cells that communicate this information to plants,... ... Can plants tell time? How do they know when its sunny out? ... Blue light also triggers a plants stomata to open. Stomata are ... the growth of a plant toward light, is signaled by blue light. Phototropism is a mechanism that helps plants get as much ... Light stimulates growth and development in plants as well, and the amount of light a plant receives also allows them to measure ...
Where the land is used for agricultural purposes, salt tends to accumulate as plants pull other minerals out of the ground, ... Table salt doesnt actually have to come from a salt shaker to affect plant growth. In fact, sodium chloride (NaCl) is very ... Plants react to water loss by closing the stomata in their leaves, which reduces water loss through transpiration. They also ... A plants response to drought conditions is meant to be a temporary coping mechanism. Long-term drought or saline exposure ...
... just as in plants using the C3 mechanism. At night, or when the plant is short of water, the stomata close and the CAM ... Growth habit. Cacti show a wide variety of growth habits, which are difficult to divide into clear, simple categories. ... is a mechanism adopted by cacti and other succulents to avoid the problems of the C3 mechanism. In full CAM, the stomata open ... Plants using the C3 mechanism lose as much as 97% of the water taken up through their roots in this way.[20] A further problem ...
Structure of flower; functions of anther and pistil, development of male and female gametophytes; pollination mechanisms; plant ... physiology of stomata, evidences and mechanism of phloem transport, source sink relationship; essential macro and micro ... 9. Formation of secondary xylem; general account of wood structure; formation of growth rings, sapwood and heart wood; ... 6. Plant Taxonomy--components, scope and need; plant identification keys; principles of International Code of Botanical ...
Stomata are adjustable pores in the plant epidermis that regulate gas exchange between the plant and atmosphere; they are ... have evolved a system to reduce growth under stress; however, the molecular mechanisms of this stress response are not well ... Coordinated growth of organs requires communication among cells within and between tissues. In plants, leaf growth is largely ... Stomata are epidermal structures that modulate gas exchange between a plant and its environment. During development, stomata ...
1). Thus, we examined stomatal phenotype and plant growth in the transgenic plants, which exhibited a constitutive open stomata ... Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between nighttime water loss and plant growth are required. ... did not show enhanced plant growth (Fig. S7). In addition, the stomata of FT-transgenic plants (GC1::FT-GFP), which have a ... Stomata of FT-transgenic plants were constantly open with a larger aperture than the stomata of WT plants under light and dark ...
... just as in plants using the C3 mechanism. At night, or when the plant is short of water, the stomata close and the CAM ... or some forms that show abnormal growth (e.g., cristate or monstrose forms). For the host plant-the "stock"-growers choose one ... is a mechanism adopted by cacti and other succulents to avoid the problems of the C3 mechanism. In full CAM, the stomata open ... Plants using the C3 mechanism lose as much as 97% of the water taken up through their roots in this way. A further problem is ...
Plant ecophysiology is concerned largely with two topics: mechanisms (how plants sense and respond to environmental change) and ... In very dry soil, plants close their stomata to reduce transpiration and prevent water loss. The closing of the stomata is ... "Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage". Plant Science. 245: 94-118. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.01.006. ... Knowledge of these mechanisms has been key to breeding for heat stress tolerance in agricultural plants. Plants can avoid the ...
The stomata of SlRBOH1-silenced plants showed a significant loss of sensitivity to EBR. However, ABA deficiency abolished EBR- ... especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance. ... Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of ... Plant RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RDR1) is an important element of the RNA silencing pathway in the plant defense against ...
Photorespiration is not detectable (outside of plant) for most of the day as a) CO2 relatively high b) stomata are closed In ... To decrease photorespiration, there should be a mechanism to ,decrease [oxygen] in the region of the chloroplasts. I dont see ... Previous message: growth rates of CAM plants *Next message: growth rates of CAM plants ... Am I missing something here? , ,Doug Jensen No, CAM is primarily water conservation hence the stomata rhythm. ...
Plant vacuoles have additional functions in growth and development. Dynamics of vacuole fusion are also important for critical ... Our lab is starting to elucidate molecular mechanisms of vacuole dynamics that may contribute to responses of plants to these ... physiological functions such as the regulation of stomata closing during water deficit and gravitropism. ... We use chemical and classical genetic approaches to characterize these mechanisms in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
... plants,respond,to,elevated,carbon,dioxide,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... Each plant species shows a differen t carbon dioxide responsiveness, and understanding the underlying mechanisms may make it ... However, studies have shown that, contrary to expectations, increased carbon dioxide does not accelerate plant growth. Previous ... atmospheric carbon dioxide expected to occur this century can cause leaf stomata to close by 20 to 40 percent in diverse plant ...
Breaking the link between DELLA-mediated stress tolerance and growth restriction could potentially provide a mechanism to ... For example, reduced water availability, which is first perceived by the roots, results in closure of the leaf stomata and the ... Plant hormones are small molecules that regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to changing environmental ... 2000). Growth retardants: effects on gibberellin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol ...
I have been doing an investigation into stomatal size in Tagetes species and found that 4n Tagetes have fewer stomata per unit ... ii) The water balance of a plant affects stomatal apperture. Wilting plants close their stomata. The plant growth regulator ... If ABA is the mechanism (as, I believe, it is under drought conditions) then I would predict that all stomata would move in ... Stomata in plants - further information for A-level students and teachers Will stomata density be greater in dicots or monocots ...
To adapt to the broad range of K+ concentrations in soil, plants have evolved a "biphasic" mechanism of K+ incorporation ( ... A characteristic example of the latter is the opening and closing of stomata, where K+ and anion channel activities are ... Pollen tube growth is not defective in trh1 plants, as might be expected, because this cell type also undergoes tip growth. ... tip growth); growth rates during these phases also differ (Dolan et al., 1994; Duckett et al., 1994). Tip growth is a form of ...
... playing important functions in regulating whole-plant growth. Studies demonstrate that maintaining a healthy root system is ... Understanding the basics of root growth and function is helpful for developing effective management programs for maintaining ... Stomata and leaf growth react to these changes in leaf water status and turgor. Undoubtedly, this is the major mechanism by ... ROOT GROWTH. Monocotyledonous plants (monocots), such as turfgrass, tend to have fibrous root systems. The growth and ...
... mechanism_plants_use_to_regulate_their_carbon_dioxide_intake_ ... plants_will_respond_to_increasing_atmospheric_carbon_dioxide_ ... However, studies have shown that, contrary to expectations, increased carbon dioxide does not accelerate plant growth. Previous ... atmospheric carbon dioxide expected to occur this century can cause leaf stomata to close by 20 to 40 percent in diverse plant ... Each plant species shows a different carbon dioxide responsiveness, and understanding the underlying mechanisms may make it ...
CRPs in different duplication models also show contrasting evolutionary rates, although the underlying mechanism is unclear ... We identified 9556 CRPs in 12 plant species and analysed their evolutionary patterns. In most angiosperm plants, whole genome ... The expression divergence between different CRP gene duplication types suggests that different duplication mechanisms affected ... are gaining recognition as regulators of cell-cell communication in plants. ...
ABA causes bud domancy, leaf drop, seed domancy, reduced growth and closed stomata to save wate. It promotes root growth to ... So a conclusion you could draw from this research is that when the plants are under stress they have co-evolved a mechanism ... which has been identified as being associated with several stress mechanisms in plants. Its role within animal physiology ... UK Plants database. * UK DEFRA advisory info BEEHIVE PLANS. * Phil Chandler - hTBH * John Vendy - hTBH * David Heaf - Warré * ...
Plant systematics: monocots, dicots and major plant groups Plant hormones: auxin, cytokinin and growth. Photomorphogenesis ( ... Mechanism of action of auxin; other plant hormones (gibberellin, ethylene and brassinosteroids). Plant Physiology. Cell-to-cell ... Stomata opening and abscisic acid Starch and sucrose synthesis. Absorption, transport and assimilation of nutrients, ... Plant Biology Raven Biology of Plants, Eighth Edition by Ray Evert, Susan Eichhorn, publ. Freeman. Plant Physiology: AAVV. ( ...
These small peptide hormones play crucial roles in plant growth and development, including defense mechanisms, the control of ... In plants under water stress, ABA plays a role in closing the stomata. Soon after plants are water-stressed and the roots are ... They are used to regulate the growth of cultivated plants, weeds, and in vitro-grown plants and plant cells; these manmade ... Plant hormones frequently regulate the concentrations of other plant hormones.[9] Plants also move hormones around the plant ...
  • In development of the epidermis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the specification and distribution of stomatal guard cells also requires oriented cell divisions. (stanford.edu)
  • We use chemical and classical genetic approaches to characterize these mechanisms in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (ncsu.edu)
  • The relationship between GA status and tolerance to drying soil is illustrated in Fig. 1 , which compares mutant lines of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana displaying different degrees of GA deficiency or over-accumulation. (biologists.org)
  • Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a complete loss-of-function tiny root hair 1 ( trh1 ) mutation were generated by means of the T-DNA-tagging method. (plantcell.org)
  • Dow GJ, Berry JA, Bergmann DC (2014) The physiological importance of developmental mechanisms that enforce proper stomatal spacing in Arabidopsis thaliana. (bu.edu)
  • Purdue University researchers found that engineering plants to produce high levels of a protein known as PYL9 dramatically boosted drought tolerance in rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. (purdue.edu)
  • The gene alterations enabled Arabidopsis and rice to better withstand severe drought stress and caused older leaves to yellow sooner compared with the plants' wild type counterparts. (purdue.edu)
  • Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7 affects abiotic stress responses by regulating stomata opening and closing in Arabidopsis thaliana. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we assessed the functional roles of GRP7, one of the eight GRP family members in Arabidopsis thaliana, on seed germination, seedling growth, and stress tolerance under high salinity, drought, or cold stress conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GRP7 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter displayed retarded germination and poorer seedling growth compared with the wild-type plants and T-DNA insertional mutant lines under high salinity or dehydration stress conditions. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, GRP7 overexpression conferred freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these results provide compelling evidence that GRP7 affects the growth and stress tolerance of Arabidopsis plants under high salt and dehydration stress conditions, and also confers freezing tolerance, particularly via the regulation of stomatal opening and closing in the guard cells. (nih.gov)
  • Yue Rui, Chaowen Xiao, Hojae Yi, Baris Kandemir, James Z. Wang, Virendra M. Puri and Charles T. Anderson, ``GUARD CELL POLYGALACTURONASE1 regulates cell expansion and stomatal dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana,'' Plant Cell Dynamics Meeting , 2016. (stanford.edu)
  • A major source of NO in planta is through the activity of nitrate reductase (NR),an enzyme required for nitrate reduction that can also reduce nitrite to NO. The model plant Arabidopsis thalianahas been extensively used to study mechanisms of NO production and signalling. (bl.uk)
  • In this thesis, Arabidopsis was used to as a model plant to investigate the putative regulation of these processes via NR and NO signalling. (bl.uk)
  • This investigation has focused primarily on analysing the initiation of stomatal closure, the formation of aerenchyma, and the induction of hypoxic gene expression in wild- type Arabidopsis plants and NIA gene knockout mutants. (bl.uk)
  • Key mechanism in the plant defense against fungal infections April 11, 2017, Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics Arabidopsis thaliana plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea spores. (chicagostanduppaddleboard.com)
  • reveal that the mRNA of the transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR7 ( PIF7 ) behaves like an "RNA thermometer" to regulate daytime growth in Arabidopsis (check out this twitter thread ). (plantae.org)
  • Figure 1: Effect of drought stress on strigolactone-deficient Arabidopsis plants (left) compared with wild-type plants (right). (phys.org)
  • Tran and his colleagues found that Arabidopsis plants with defective MAX genes were much less resilient to drought and high salinity than wild-type plants (Fig. 1). (phys.org)
  • In the present era of global climate changes and the threat of food insufficiency, finding ways to improve the uptake of CO 2 by terrestrial plants is an increasingly important problem. (pnas.org)
  • The proposed function of TRH1 as a K + transporter was confirmed in 86 Rb uptake experiments, which demonstrated that trh1 plants are partially impaired in K + transport. (plantcell.org)
  • It is now widely accepted that plants can alter root distribution patterns and rates of nutrient uptake when a localized supply of nutrients is elevated. (grounds-mag.com)
  • In dry environments, a typical mesophytic plant would evaporate water faster than the rate of water uptake from the soil, leading to wilting and even death. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Plants that live under arctic conditions also have a need for xerophytic adaptations, since water is unavailable for uptake when the ground is frozen, such as the European resurrection plants Haberlea rhodopensis and Ramonda serbica . (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • In an environment with very high salinity such as mangrove swamps and semi-deserts, water uptake by plants is a challenge due to the high salt ion levels. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • An extreme environmental pH and high salt content of water also disrupt plants' water uptake. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Knowledge of plant water uptake pattern is indispensable for understanding soil-plant inte. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Reduction of GA levels and signalling has been shown to contribute to plant growth restriction on exposure to several stresses, including cold, salt and osmotic stress. (biologists.org)
  • Osmotic stress reduces immediately the expansion of the roots and young leaves which determine a reduction in the size of the plant. (scirp.org)
  • Results showed that mutation of OsGI conferred tolerance to osmotic stress generated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), increased proline and sucrose contents, and accelerated stomata movement. (nih.gov)
  • Given the increased osmotic stress tolerance in osgi plants, we compared the mutant transcriptome to a dehydration-altered transcriptome of WT rice (Qian et al. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse effect of salinity on plant growth is mainly due to ion toxicity and osmotic stress. (botanyconference.org)
  • We investigate how leaf micromorphology (stomatal abundance and distribution) of the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera (a spiny shrub particularly abundant in high-salinity areas of central Argentina) responds to different water status when plants are subjected to different salt treatments (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 and their iso-osmotic mixture). (scirp.org)
  • spch-3 and mute-3 mutants are extreme dwarfs, but produce cotyledons and tiny leaves, providing a system to interrogate plant life in the absence of stomata. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differential transcriptomes of both mutants were enriched in growth-related genes, including known stomata development regulators, which paralleled their epidermal phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A screen of T-DNA insertion lines in genes differentially expressed in the mutants identified a gene putatively involved in stomata development. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of Δ chk1 mutants to infect corn plants is reduced severely. (pnas.org)
  • The high-osmolarity and pheromone pathways also show abnormal cross-talk in hog1 mutants, probably by a different mechanism ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Asking what the genetic details were that caused higher sensitivity of some natural accessions and mutants of thale cress to the air pollutant ozone led to the identification of the mechanism. (err.ee)
  • Compared to wild- type controls, developing stomata are reduced in size in gcpg1 knockout mutants. (stanford.edu)
  • Primary root growth, etiolated hypocotyl length, and rosette size are also reduced in gcpg1 mutants. (stanford.edu)
  • NR was not suggested to be required for cell death leading to aerenchyma, since NIA gene mutants exhibited equivalent lacunae formation to wild-type plants. (bl.uk)
  • Analysis of RNAi mutants and PAP overexpressing plants in cop1-4 background revealed an effect of the cop1 Mutation on PAP-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Application of artificial strigolactone, however, restored the resistance of low-strigolactone mutants to drought stress and even improved drought resistance in wild-type plants. (phys.org)
  • Under drought conditions , max mutants lose water faster than wild-type plants. (phys.org)
  • Namely the plugin is applied in the following cases: defining parameters of jigsaw-puzzle pattern for maize leaf epidermal cells, analysis of the pavement cells morphological parameters for the mature wheat leaf grown under control and water deficit conditions, initiation of cell longitudinal rows, and detection of guard mother cells emergence at the initial stages of the stomatal morphogenesis in the growth zone of a wheat leaf. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Water deficit is one of the most important environmental stresses limiting plant growth and crop yield. (nih.gov)
  • Water deficit under drought conditions in plants is combated foremost by stomatal inhibition. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Under water deficit, total plant growth is also effected directly, being reduced. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Photoreceptors are specialized cells that communicate this information to plants, which in turn helps them know when to make energy from sunlight as well as when and how to grow. (study.com)
  • In plant cells, the sodium is close enough chemically to potassium (K) which is also positively-charged. (gardenguides.com)
  • Mild salt poisoning causes most plants to turn bluish-green as the sodium replaces potassium in some of the plant cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • Plants may be wilted, as they need water pressure in their cells to maintain their structure. (gardenguides.com)
  • The ability of plants to access water depends on the structure of their roots and on the water potential of the root cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most significant difference between the stomata of monocots and dicots is the design of the guard cells - the monocots having the dumbell type, and dicots the pair-of -sausage type. (saps.org.uk)
  • The vacuole is the major storage compartment in plant cells and has important implications for the nutritional value of agricultural crops. (ncsu.edu)
  • Since changes in calcium concentration are used in other communication processes within cells, the need for sensor priming makes certain that the stomata don't close for inappropriate reasons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Plant cells produce hormones that affect even different regions of the cell producing the hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of hormones occurs very often at sites of active growth within the meristems , before cells have fully differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nearly all higher plants, lateral root formation initiates when lateral root founder cells are specified in the pericycle layer of a mature root ( Charleton, 1991 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Studying these cytoskeleton components is not only useful for understanding the mechanisms of cellular organization, but for understanding the response of cells to different stimuli that are known to change the microtubule array configuration. (springer.com)
  • Celler K, Fujita M, Kawamura E, Ambrose C, Herburger K, Holzinger A, Wasteneys GO (2016) Microtubules in plant cells: strategies and methods for immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and live cell imaging. (springer.com)
  • Holzinger A, Kawamura E, Wasteneys GO (2009) Strategies for imaging microtubules in plant cells. (springer.com)
  • Guard cells are probably the most sophisticated sensory systems in plants. (helsinki.fi)
  • Developmental events in fungal cells, however different they may appear, mirror and counter those by which the plant resists infection and are equally important for the understanding and control of disease. (pnas.org)
  • Microscopic images are widely used in plant biology as an essential source of information on morphometric characteristics of the cells and the topological characteristics of cellular tissue pattern due to modern computer vision algorithms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Major characteristics: What distinguishes kingdom plantae from all the other kingdoms, is that the cells of kingdom plantae have cell walls made of cellulose that are used to support the plant. (mixbook.com)
  • Plant organs originate from meristems where stem cells are maintained to produce continuously dau. (ugent.be)
  • The hormone signals the sausage-shaped guard cells bordering the stomata on the leaf skin to close them off. (voiceofsandiego.org)
  • The opening and closing of stomata is regulated by special cells, guard cells that form the stomatal pore. (err.ee)
  • As these cells swell, stomata will open and, vice versa, close as the cells shrink. (err.ee)
  • GRP7 is expressed abundantly in the guard cells, and has been shown to influence the opening and closing of the stomata, in accordance with the prevailing stress conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Each stoma is flanked by a pair of guard cells . (biology-pages.info)
  • When the guard cells are turgid, the stoma is open. (biology-pages.info)
  • the files of short cells bearing the stomata . (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The main differences between the rhizomal and aerial axes is the lack of 'emergences' (the axes consequently appearing 'smooth'), lack of stomata and the thickening of walls in the short cells of the epidermis. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Efficient operation of the C 4 cycle relies on an increased BS-to-M cell ratio relative to that seen in C 3 plants, an increase that is achieved by altering vein density so that vascular bundles are often separated by only two M cells in a recurring vein-BS-M-M-BS-vein pattern across the leaf. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is at least one of the genes responsible for the mechanism of cellular reprogramming, a phenomenon that can turn one cell type into another, which is key to the making of stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The two cells that form the stoma consist of specialized cells (guard cells) that are tuned to the resonant frequency of calcium. (cannagardening.com)
  • Polarized growth of pollen tubes or root hair cells requires molecule delivery to the growing apex through F-actin. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that P. strombulifera responds to progressive salt stress by different salts changing the leaf development, particularly in Na 2 SO 4 -treated plants, leading to structural modifications in leaf size and micro-morphology of leaf cells. (scirp.org)
  • The enzymatic activities of six plant defence response enzymes, such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, b-glucosidase, b-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase, were found to be significantly high in TP-Pi54 at different stages of inoculation by M. Although structural defense mechanisms do prevent the attack of the pathogen, the defense mechanism also includes the chemical substances produced in the plant cells before or after the infection. (chicagostanduppaddleboard.com)
  • In C 4 plants the photosynthesizing cells are protected from the atmosphere by a layer of mesophyll cells. (humboldt.edu)
  • Success in characterizing a zeaxanthin-dependent CO2 sensing mechanism in guard cells will significantly enhance our understanding of stomatal function and CO2 sensing in plants cells. (unt.edu)
  • Further characterization of guard cells acclimation to CO2 should enrich our understanding of plant acclimations and adaptations to their environment, and of possible effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the vegetation. (unt.edu)
  • Plant hormones affect gene expression and transcription levels, cellular division, and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin, including both globular (G) and filamentous (F), regulates various cellular functions that are necessary for plants to grow and respond to environmental changes. (springer.com)
  • Fungal pathogens perceive and respond to molecules from the plant, triggering pathogenic development. (pnas.org)
  • Filamentous fungal pathogens attack plant leaves by a variety of mechanisms ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The current USDA system for protecting agricultural industries has been overwhelmed and has sometimes failed to intercept a number of introductions of exotic pests, including plant pathogens. (apsnet.org)
  • Drought conditions, low and high temperatures, increased salt levels, pathogens and insects are common environmental stresses which plants are exposed to. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Understanding changes in protein expression as well as redox and phospho-switches will provide important insights into how plant response and resistance to pathogens are occurring. (ufl.edu)
  • Conidia of the pathogens causing gray leaf spot and northern leaf blight are the primary inoculum, inciting leaf lesions and initiating the disease epidemic, and are the source of repeated infections via wind dispersal to other plants and fields. (usda.gov)
  • Sporulation in these two pathogens is inhibited by growth in constant light and regulated by nutritional factors. (usda.gov)
  • It is a persistent issue worldwide that an enormous number of plant pathogens, varying from the smallest viroid consisting solely of a single strand of RNA, to more complex pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and nematodes, cause many important plant diseases and are responsible for major crop losses. (chicagostanduppaddleboard.com)
  • and (4) provide insights into the regulatory pathways that allow plants to be developmentally plastic while preserving the essential balance between aboveground and belowground organs. (plantcell.org)
  • Identification of the genetic and molecular basis of this QTL may shed light on a new regulatory mechanism that influences plant growth in response to potassium starvation and confers higher potassium efficiency to plants. (uni-koeln.de)
  • It is our central hypothesis that protein redox modification and dynamic changes in key metabolites are critical regulatory mechanisms in ABA signaling. (ufl.edu)
  • Accomplishing these objectives is significant because it will reveal novel components of ABA signaling networks and provide knowledge of regulatory mechanisms underlying stomatal movements that will help to develop crops with enhanced stress tolerance and productivity. (ufl.edu)
  • The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Elongation is characterized by rapid tip growth (∼2 μm/min), which becomes evident once the hair outgrowth is ∼20 μm in length. (plantcell.org)
  • Elevated PIF7 translation induces the transcription of genes required for growth and auxin biosynthesis and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated the pronounced role of PIF7 in thermomorphogenesis, namely regarding hypocotyl elongation and stomata formation. (plantae.org)
  • Water deficiency usually reaches 60-70% of their fresh weight, as a result of which the growth process of the whole plant is hindered during cell elongation. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • While Sclerotinia growth is prevalent on the epidermis of ZY821, pathogen entry into the subtending layers is slowed. (apsnet.org)
  • Therefore, leaf epidermis is a fruitful biological model for studying mechanisms of plant morphogenesis, for example, in stressful conditions [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two types of cracks are sometimes found on the surface of the stalk: harmless, small corky cracks that are restricted to the epidermis, and growth cracks that may be deep and run the whole length of the internode. (ufl.edu)
  • Will stomata density be greater in dicots or monocots and why? (saps.org.uk)
  • Do you have reason to believe that stomatal density is related to whether a plant is a dicot or monocot? (saps.org.uk)
  • We guess that stomatal density stated in terms of "number of stomata per square mm" would also depend on the size of the stomata. (saps.org.uk)
  • Monocots have stomata on both the "upper" and "lower" surfaces of their leaves, whilst SOME (but not ALL) dicots have stomata on only one surface (usually the lower one), so on this basis, to achieve the same effect, a monocot may need half the stomatal density of a dicot of a type with stomata on only one surface. (saps.org.uk)
  • We would normally expect stomatal density to be related to the climate in which the plant is adapted to grow. (saps.org.uk)
  • The idea of stomata and their density on the leaf surface is often a difficult one to relay to students. (saps.org.uk)
  • Recent work suggests that this balance is achieved in a tropical angiosperm tree by a simple developmental mechanism in which changes to leaf size co-regulate vein and stomatal density (major determinants of water supply and demand, respectively). (edu.au)
  • 3. Does epidermal cell expansion coordinate vein and stomatal density in older plant lineages like ferns? (edu.au)
  • However, contrary to my hypothesis, I found a small but coordinated increase in vein and stomatal density in plants grown under high VPD compared with those grown under low VPD. (edu.au)
  • Contrary to the original premise that differential leaf expansion coordinates vein and stomatal density, I found that leaf size was independent of epidermal cell size in most cases and that relationships between vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were well described by modelled relationships that assume veins and stomata are passively 'diluted' by epidermal cell expansion. (edu.au)
  • The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. (usda.gov)
  • Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. (usda.gov)
  • Therefore, we need to elucidate these protective mechanisms to better understand how plants adapt to drought conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under severe drought conditions, the transgenic plants triggered the death of their old leaves - a process known as senescence - to conserve resources for seeds and buds, a survival strategy some plant scientists refer to as "die and let live. (purdue.edu)
  • This study shows that controlled senescence is good for plants under drought conditions," said Yang Zhao , first author of the study and research assistant in the Jian-Kang Zhu lab in the Department of Horticulture . (purdue.edu)
  • Zhao cautioned, however, that the spike in survival rate does not mean that the yield of the transgenic plants under drought conditions would equal that of conventional rice varieties under good growing conditions. (purdue.edu)
  • Plants are therefore phenotypically plastic and have an impressive array of genes that aid in adapting to changing conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most angiosperm plants, whole genome duplication and segmental duplication are the major factors driving the expansion of CRP family member genes, especially signal peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recognition of feeding activities by plants occurs through the use of transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRS) or, acting largely inside the cell, polymorphic nucleotide-binding leucine-rich-repeat (NB-LRR) protein products, encoded by most R genes. (springer.com)
  • The QTL was fine mapped to a ca 3.9 Mbp region and the response phenotype of different recombinant lines suggested that several interacting genes led to the observed effect of the QTL on growth in response to potassium reduction. (uni-koeln.de)
  • In this report, Wu and coworkers investigated the massive accumulation of 22-nt siRNAs in plants with mutations in DICER-like 4 (DCL4) and RNA-degrading enzymes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE5 (EIN5) and SUPER KILLER2 (SKI2), and found that two genes encoding nitrate reductases (NIA1, NIA2) contributed to almost half of the total amount of 22-nt siRNAs. (plantae.org)
  • The genetic basis of these response QTL could be involved in the adaptation of the plant to the reduction in mineral nutrient supply. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Sweet pepper fruit quality disorders have been related mainly to an unbalanced nutrient supply and non-optimal growth conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Waterlogging stress induced hypoxia in the root environment within 4 days, at which time stomatal aperture was significantly reduced in wild-type plants. (bl.uk)
  • Furthermore, densities of veins and stomata were independent of large VPD-induced changes to leaf size and were instead limited by epidermal cell size (which was fairly insensitive to VPD). (edu.au)
  • HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. (mdpi.com)
  • Mesomorphic leaves (the most common type) are characteristic of crop plants, such as tomatoes and soybeans. (britannica.com)
  • In global terms, the availability of fresh water is the key factor that limits plant growth and crop yield. (err.ee)
  • Low-oxygen or hypoxic stress, induced by periods of waterlogging or 'submergence, is a significant factor impacting plant and crop growth and survival globally. (bl.uk)
  • The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. (pnas.org)
  • Unexpectedly, when transgenic plants were treated with ABA under normal conditions, the old leaves started to wilt, even though the plants received enough water. (purdue.edu)
  • However, many dicots have stomata on BOTH surfaces and some aquatic plants with floating leaves have stomata on the upper surface, so it is not possible to generalise about ALL monocots and ALL dicots. (saps.org.uk)
  • The stomata on such xerophytes may be in deep pits or in the folds of leaves. (saps.org.uk)
  • Occurring for a long time a unidirectional growth of these leaves enables to observe a series of successive morphogenetic stages at one time moment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aecial cups appear seven to ten days later on the lower surface of the leaf, producing aeciospores that are windborne and that cause infection by penetrating the stomata of the wheat leaves. (metos.at)
  • The mature sugarcane plant has an average total upper leaf surface of about 0.5 square meters, and the number of green leaves per stalk is around ten, depending on variety and growing conditions. (ufl.edu)
  • Plants exposed to stress in greenhouse had on average three leaves less, 4% lower water content, and seven-fold higher proline content. (intechopen.com)
  • Why should a plant like wood sorrel fold its leaves at night? (biologyreference.com)
  • These plants grown in an increasing gradient of NaCl (250 - 700 mM· L −1 ) do not develop salt glands in the leaves. (scirp.org)
  • Inoculation of corn leaves with mycelia of the czk3 mutant resulted in small chlorotic lesions with minimal colonization by intercellular hyphae following penetration through stomata. (usda.gov)
  • These plants thrive in environments with high temperatures and low humidities where the stomata in the leaves must be closed. (humboldt.edu)
  • Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. (unt.edu)
  • THE question of how plant leaves develop is far from being answered at the genetic level even though Bateson realized the existence of inherited leaf shape variants as early as 1913 ( B ateson 1913 ). (genetics.org)
  • In spite of the fact that most plant leaves are simple structures, many developmental processes are involved in leaf ontogeny. (genetics.org)
  • It has been proposed that environmental response pathways allow the plant to optimize lateral root number and placement in accordance with its growth conditions, while intrinsic pathways constrain overall root system shape and size and therefore place a limit on root system plasticity ( Malamy, 2005 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Plant-induced defenses are also regulated by a network of inter-connecting signaling pathways, in which JA, SA, and ET play dominant roles. (springer.com)