Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Mice, Inbred BALB CProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
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"Inhibin antagonizes inhibition of liver cell growth by activin by a dominant-negative mechanism". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (11): 6308 ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ... Cell. Biol. 16 (3): 1066-73. PMC 231089 . PMID 8622651. Liu QY, Niranjan B, Gomes P, Gomm JJ, Davies D, Coombes RC, Buluwela L ... Cell. Biol. 17 (3): 1682-91. PMC 231893 . PMID 9032295. Macías-Silva M, Hoodless PA, Tang SJ, Buchwald M, Wrana JL (1998). " ...
Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel proteolytic mechanism of receptor activation.". Cell. 64 (6 ... A novel mechanism for resensitization of a G protein-coupled receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (44): 27719-26. PMID 7961693.. ... Biol. 54 (2): 145-51. PMID 8395550.. *. Schmidt VA, Vitale E, Bahou WF (1996). „Genomic cloning and characterization of the ... 1996). „Cloning and identification of regulatory sequences of the human thrombin receptor gene.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (42): ...
... cloning, characterization and complementation analysis". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (8): 1725-32. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3107-7. ... Biol. 348 (2): 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.02.049. PMID 15811369. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... evidence for a conserved two-step reaction mechanism". RNA. 11 (1): 99-106. doi:10.1261/rna.7194605. PMC 1370695 . PMID ... Biol. Chem. 266 (18): 11986-92. PMID 2050693. Hu QD, Lu H, Huo K, Ying K, Li J, Xie Y, Mao Y, Li YY (2003). "A human homolog of ...
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A common source is E.coli cells carrying a cloned nuc gene encoding Staphylococcus aureus extracellular nuclease (micrococcal ... Research on the mechanisms of protein folding. Heins JN, Suriano JR, Taniuchi H, Anfinsen CB (1967). "Characterization of a ... Biol. Chem. 243 (18): 4769-77. PMID 5687719. Arnone A, Bier J, et al. (1971). "A High Resolution Structure of an Inhibitor ... Hydrolysis of nucleic acids in crude cell-free extracts. Sequencing of RNA. Preparation of rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Studies ...
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"Expression cloning of an interferon-inducible 17-kDa membrane protein implicated in the control of cell growth". J Biol Chem. ... Potential mechanisms.IFITM proteins inhibit viral membrane and cellular endosomal or lyso¬somal vesicles membrane fusion by ... 2003). "Involvement of LEU13 in interferon-induced refractoriness of human RSa cells to cell killing by X rays". Radiat. Res. ... 1984). "Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells". Cell. 38 (3 ...
Zhang W, Chen T, Wan T, He L, Li N, Yuan Z, Cao X (Sep 2000). "Cloning of DPK, a novel dendritic cell-derived protein kinase ... through tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2-dependent mechanism in response to the ER stress". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2004). "SEREX identification of new tumour-associated antigens in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma". Br. J. Dermatol. 150 (2): 252-8. ... J Biol Chem. 274 (47): 33287-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.47.33287. PMID 10559204. ...
Consequently, all clone of cells derived from GSC are marked with a functional lacZ gene. By tracking the marked cells, they ... May 2011). "Emerging Models and Paradigms for stem cell ageing". Nat Cell Biol. 13 (5): 506-512. doi:10.1038/ncb0511-506. Smith ... doi:10.1016/S0301-472X(03)00088-2. Rao MS, Mattson MP (2001). "Stem cells and aging: expanding the possibilities". Mechanisms ... First, different cells may have different lifespans even though they are originated from the same stem cells (See T-cells and ...
A potential mechanism for cytokine-mediated insulin resistance". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (28): 25889-93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010579200 ... Cell. Biol. 22 (13): 4567-78. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.13.4567-4578.2002. PMC 133908 . PMID 12052866. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ... "Cloning and functional analysis of cDNAs with open reading frames for 300 previously undefined genes expressed in CD34+ ... The expression of this gene can be induced by GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. A high expression level of this gene was ...
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Cell. Biol. 22 (4): 1266-75. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.4.1266-1275.2002. PMC 134630 . PMID 11809816. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, ... Biol. Chem. 274 (15): 10618-24. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.15.10618. PMID 10187858. Zhang QH, Ye M, Wu XY, et al. (2001). "Cloning and ... The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ...
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"Cloning and functional analysis of BAG-1: a novel Bcl-2-binding protein with anti-cell death activity". Cell. 80 (2): 279-84. ... Cell. Biol. 23 (20): 7189-97. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.20.7189-7197.2003. PMC 230325 . PMID 14517289. Knee DA, Froesch BA, Nuber U, ... enhances the anti-apoptotic effects of BCL2 and represents a link between growth factor receptors and anti-apoptotic mechanisms ... Cell. Biol. 23 (10): 3477-86. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.10.3477-3486.2003. PMC 164759 . PMID 12724406. Liu R, Takayama S, Zheng Y, ...
Buckley MF, Loveland KA, McKinstry WJ, Garson OM, Goding JW (1990). "Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein PC-1. cDNA cloning of ... Abate N, Chandalia M, Di Paola R, Foster DW, Grundy SM, Trischitta V (2007). "Mechanisms of disease: Ectonucleotide ... the human molecule, amino acid sequence, and chromosomal location". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (29): 17506-11. PMID 2211644. Belli SI, ... and cartilage cells. Regulation of PC-1 expression in osteosarcoma cells by transforming growth factor-beta". J. Clin. Invest. ...
V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ... 2002). "The mechanism of growth-inhibitory effect of DOC-2/DAB2 in prostate cancer. Characterization of a novel GTPase- ... activating protein associated with N-terminal domain of DOC-2/DAB2". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (15): 12622-31. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ...
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"MicroRNA-203 Modulates the Radiation Sensitivity of Human Malignant Glioma Cells". Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 94 (2): ... "Unraveling the mechanism of BRCA2 in homologous recombination". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18 (7): 748-54. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2096 ... Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Matsuda Y, Ushio N, Ikeo K, Ogawa T (Jul 1993). "Cloning of human, mouse and fission yeast recombination ... Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ...
... green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed‐color colonies, and ... In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or ... Cell Biol. Toxicol. 13:301‐315.. Shen, E., Lei, Y., Liu, Q., Zheng, Y., Song, C., Marc, J., Wang, Y., Sun, L., and Liang, Q. ... separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or ...
Structural Mechanism Underpinning Cross-reactivity of a CD8+ T-cell Clone That Recognizes a Peptide Derived from Human ... J Biol Chem. 2017 Jan 20;292(3):802-813. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.741603. Epub 2016 Nov 30. ... Coreceptor scanning by the T cell receptor provides a mechanism for T cell tolerance. ... Human β-cell killing by autoreactive preproinsulin-specific CD8 T cells is predominantly granule-mediated with the potency ...
1993) A mutation-induced activated state of the β2-adrenergic receptor: extending the ternary complex model. J. Biol. Chem. 268 ... 1994) Membrane organization in G-protein mechanisms. FASEB J. 8:939-946. ... On day 0, HEK 293 cells were plated at a concentration of 106cells/100-mm dish. On day 1, cells were cotransfected with clone ... cDNA for clones 77 and 134 shows the similarity to the CTR cloned by Gorn et al.. (15) from BIN-67 cells. ...
J Theor Biol, 1990, 145: 397-405. Beardsley TR, Pierschbacher M, Wetzel GD, Hays EF. Induction of T-cell maturation by a cloned ... The role of a thymus-pineal axis in an immune mechanism of aging. ... T-cells have various types known as T-4 helper cells, T-8 killer cells, and T-8 suppressor cells. T-4 cells are helper cells ... White blood cells are the defenders of the body and come in various different forms. You have a few kinds of T-cells, B-cells ...
... and mechanism of action of the B-cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:4115-4124. ... 1995) Cloning, functional characterization, ... Cell lines.The KSHV-infected cell line BCBL-1 was cultured in ... For BCBL-1 cells, 106 cells/well in six-well plates were cotransfected with 2 μg of pcDNA3.1-ORF50/well and 0.2 μg of the ... 1996) Epstein-Barr virus latency is disrupted by the immediate-early BRLF1 protein through a cell-specific mechanism. Proc. ...
Structural mechanism underpinning cross-reactivity of a CD8+ T-cell clone that recognises a peptide derived from human ... J Mol Biol. 2008 May 9;378(4):887-97. Epub 2008 Mar 8. PMID:18395224 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.03.002 ... Structural mechanism underpinning cross-reactivity of a CD8+ T-cell clone that recognises a peptide derived from human ... Despite the lack of focused TCR-peptide binding , the ILA1 T-cell clone was still cross-reactive. Overall, the TCR-peptide ...
Cell. Biol., Oct 2010; 30: 4901 - 4921 [CAMK2A] More ORF Clones Citations >> ... The use of this ORF Clones has been cited in the following citations:. Mechanism of Hypoxia-Induced NF-{kappa}B, Carolyn Culver ... SgfI-MluI Cloning Scheme for this gene Plasmid Map OTI Annotation:. This clone was engineered to express the complete ORF with ... CAMK2A Rat Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. RN201121. Camk2a (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent ...
Sun, T., Goodman, H.M., and Ausubel, F.M. (1992). Cloning the Arabidopsis GA1 locus by genomic subtraction. Plant Cell 4, 119- ... Sun, T.P., and Gubler, F. (2004). Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55, 197-223. ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... The location of this T-DNA was determined by cloning flanking genomic DNA by plasmid rescue. Genomic DNA was digested with SpeI ...
Journal Article] Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.2009. *. Author(s). Inoue K, Ogonuki N, Mekada K, Yoshiki A, ... Philos Trans RSoc Lond B Biol Sci. Volume: 368 Pages: 329-329 ... Journal Article] Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse ... Journal Article] Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.2009. *. Author(s). Inoue, K., Ogonuki, N., Mekada, K., Yoshiki ... Journal Article] Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.2011. *. Author(s). Ogura A, Inoue K, Wakayama ...
Cell migration in the vertebrate embryo: role of cell adhesion and tissue environment in pattern formation. Annu Rev Cell Biol ... Molecular cloning of a new transforming gene from a chemically transformed human cell line. Nature 1984;311:29-33.PubMed ... Mechanism of met oncogene activation. Cell 1986;45:895-904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Smooth muscle releases an epithelial cell scatter factor which binds to heparin. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1989;25:163-73.PubMed ...
Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Jul;12(7):497-503. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2079. Epub 2016 May 9. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... The results in two of the four cell lines were shown. Five shRNA clones targeting FDFT1 are shown in polychromatic lines. A ... Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Jul;12(7):497-503. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2079. Epub 2016 May 9. ... Global survey of cell death mechanisms reveals metabolic regulation of ferroptosis.. Shimada K1, Skouta R1, Kaplan A1, Yang WS1 ...
25 Years of resistance gene cloning identifies nine mechanisms for R protein function. Plant Cell 30, 285-299. doi: 10.1105/tpc ... J. Biol. Sci. 11, 359-366. doi: 10.3923/jbs.2011.359.366. CrossRef Full Text , Google Scholar ... The finding of two RPM1 orthologs in D. rotundata suggests that a function and mechanism similar to that of RPM1 may have been ... During the past 30 years, over 300 R genes have been cloned from many plant species (Kourelis and van der Hoorn, 2018). These R ...
... and also plays a role in cell signaling for cellular processes like cell division and apoptosis. In the mammalian pancreas, ... E. Ohana et al., A sodium zinc exchange mechanism is mediating extrusion of zinc in mammalian cells. J. Biol. Chem. 279(6), ... F. Chimienti et al., Identification and cloning of a beta-cell-specific zinc transporter, ZnT-8, localized into insulin ... Investigation of transport mechanisms and regulation of intracellular Zn2+ in pancreatic alpha-cells. J. Biol. Chem. 283(15), ...
Sun, T.P., Goodman, H.M., and Ausubel, F.M. (1992). Cloning the Arabidopsis Ga1 locus by genomic subtraction. Plant Cell 4: 119 ... Sun, T.P., and Gubler, F. (2004). Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55: 197-223. ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... PAC treatment also leads to a decrease in RGA mRNA accumulation in wild-type Ler, indicating that this mechanism is not unique ...
Expression of the protein product of the prostaglandin synthase-2/TIS10 gene in mitogen-stimulated Swiss 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem ... Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment. ... Prostanoid biosynthesis and mechanisms of action. Am J Physiol 1992. 263:F181-F191. View this article via: PubMed Google ... The nonadherent cells were then washed off, and the remaining cell population, which was 95% pure monocytes, was removed from ...
The cells are obtained by causing cultures of pluripotent stem cells to differentiate in vitro, and then harvesting cells with ... Differentiated cells bear cell surface and morphologic markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes, and a proportion of them ... This invention provides populations human cells of the cardiomyocyte lineage. ... Cell Dev. Biol. 10(1):85-91 (1999).. 14. Claycomb et al., HL-1 cells: A cardiac muscle cell line that contracts and retains ...
Because the cells used in the present experiments do not possess a vesicular storage mechanism, accumulated 5-HT will leave the ... 1977) Active transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine by plasma membrane vesicles isolated from human blood platelets. J Biol Chem 252: ... The calculation was based on a cell volume of 1.25 pl/cell and a cell number of 27,000 cells/coverslip (under Materials and ... the calculation was based on a cell volume of 1.25 pl/cell and a cell number of 27,000 cells/coverslip. Symbols represent mean ...
The MFSD2A mutations impaired transport activity in a cell-based assay. Moreover, when expressed in mfsd2aa-morphant zebrafish ... Expression in alveolar type II cells and possible involvement in surfactant production. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 20140-20147 (2006). ... B.R., D.Q.Y.Q., B.H.W. and B.C.T. assisted with cloning, immunoblots and imaging. A.C.-G. and M.R.W. provided expertise in mass ... Structure-based mechanism for Na+/melibiose symport by MelB. Nat. Commun. 5, 3009 (2014). ...
HLA A*0201-restricted PPI-specific and HLA B*2705-restricted VIPR1-specific T-cell clones generated using the optimised ... are enriched for low affinity TCRs due to the removal of cells with higher affinity receptors by immune tolerance mechanisms. ... specific T-cells but recent evidence shows that normal use of these reagents can miss fully functional T-cells that bear T-cell ... This issue is particularly pronounced for anti-cancer and autoimmune T-cells as self-reactive T-cell populations are enriched ...
The mechanism of adenosine formation in cells. Cloning of cytosolic 5-nucleotidase-I Sala-Newby, GB, Skladanowski, A, Newby, ... J Biol Chem. 2003. 2344353. Partial purification and properties of an AMP-specific soluble 5-nucleotidase from pigeon heart ... J Biol Chem. 1999. 11133996. Human cytosolic 5-nucleotidase I. Characterization and role in nucleoside analog resistance ...
2014). In vivo transcriptional governance of hair follicle stem cells by canonical Wnt regulators. Nat. Cell Biol. 16, 179-190. ... 2003). Positional cloning of a temperature-sensitive mutant emmental reveals a role for sly1 during cell proliferation in ... 2012). Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic β cells in vivo. Cell Metab. 15, 885-894. ... 2004). Runx1 is expressed in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells and differentiating myeloid and lymphoid cells, but not in ...
... and blood-derived human T-cell clones, favoring the Th1 profile through two mechanisms. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996 Apr;14( ... Study of an IL-4-dependent versus an IL-2-dependent natural killer cell clone. J Immunol. 1991 Apr 1;146(7):2453-60. [PubMed: ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection / T Cell Leukemia. 1. ... Antibodies to CD44 trigger effector functions of human T cell clones. J Immunol. 1993 May 15;150(10):4225-35. [PubMed:8097750] ...
Biol. Cell 2017 [ITGB1] PRL-3/PTP4A3 phosphatase regulates integrin ß1 in adhesion structures during migration of human ocular ... TGF-β triggers rapid fibrillogenesis via a novel TβRII dependent fibronectin trafficking mechanism, Varadaraj, A;Jenkins, LM; ... SgfI-MluI Cloning Scheme for this gene Plasmid Map OTI Annotation:. This clone was engineered to express the complete ORF with ... Cell Res 2017 [ITGB1] Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells Uncover Pathways that Protect against Pulmonary ...
A novel hematopoietic multilineage clone, Myl-D-7, is stromal cell-dependent and supported by an alternative mechanism(s) ... Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]. *Tracking of mouse cell lineage using microinjected DNA sequences: analyses using genomic Southern ... Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]. *Relationship between globin mRNA accumulation and commitment to terminal cell differentiation in ... Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]. *Chromatin-binding in vivo of the erythroid kruppel-like factor, EKLF, in the murine globin loci. ...
1994) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of chick lens fiber connexin45.6. Mol Biol Cell 5:363-373. ... 2002) Cellular mechanisms of connexin32 mutations associated with CNS manifestations. J Neurosci Res 68:522-534. ... 1986) Molecular cloning of cDNA for rat liver gap junction protein. J Cell Biol 103:123-134. ... 2000) Cloning and characterization of a novel central nervous system specific connexin, mouse connexin29. Mol Biol Cell [Suppl] ...
  • 1992). "Mechanisms of inherited deficiencies of multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms in two patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type I.". FASEB J . 6 (10): 2859-63. (
  • Apoptosis, an active process consisting of an evolutionarily conserved cascade, exhibits characteristic features, including cell shrinkage, condensation of chromatin, and formation of genomic DNA into specific oligonucleosomal fragments (DNA fragmentation) ( Steller, 1995 ). (
  • Fluoride Increase Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Osteoblast-like Cells: Regulatory Role for the Stimulation of Cell Proliferation and Pi Transport Across the Plasma Membrane," J Bone Miner Res (1995) 10:164-171. (
  • During the past 30 years, over 300 R genes have been cloned from many plant species ( Kourelis and van der Hoorn, 2018 ). (
  • Each of the clones expressed the osteoclast marker genes TRAP and cathepsin-K mRNA with RANKL treatment. (
  • In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. (
  • A prerequisite for genome-wide analysis of TF genes at the protein level is a collection of cDNA clones with intact open-reading-frames (ORFs). (
  • Vertebrates synthesize, in cell type-specific patterns, a variety of lamins encoded by separate genes or generated by differential RNA splicing (e.g. (
  • Here we show that BLIMP1 binds directly to repress somatic and cell proliferation genes. (
  • Publications] Sato,S.: 'Subtractive hybridization cloning and analysis of genes expressed during carrot somatic embryogenesis. (
  • Dynamic repositioning of genes in the nucleus of lymphocytes preparing for cell division // Mol. (
  • Association of transcriptionally silent genes with Ikaros complexes at cen-tromeric heterochromatin // Cell. (
  • The mechanism underlying tumor metastasis remains unclear but considerable focus has been directed towards characterizing metastasis genes in the context of relevant signaling pathways. (
  • In order to further study the mechanisms underlying the tolerance phenotype, Haa1 translocation and transcriptional activation of Haa1 target genes was compared between Haa1 mutant, overproduction and wild-type strains. (
  • While the rapid Haa1 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to acetic acid was not affected in the Haa1 S135F mutant strain, the levels of transcriptional activation of four selected Haa1-target genes by acetic acid were significantly higher in cells of the mutant strain as compared to cells of the wild-type strain. (
  • To discover the basis for methionine-dependent growth, we have analyzed 12 tumor cell lines and 2 non-tumor-derived cell lines for defects in two key genes in different methionine synthetic pathways. (
  • Apoptosis is one type of programmed cell death. (
  • Zinc (Zn 2+ ) is an essential element crucial for growth and development, and also plays a role in cell signaling for cellular processes like cell division and apoptosis. (
  • Prenatal exposure to chromium induces early reproductive senescence by increasing germ cell apoptosis and advancing germ cell cyst breakdown in the F1 offspring. (
  • Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53. (
  • Of these, the Fas-CD95-Apo-1 Ag has a critical function in the control of mature peripheral T cells by activation-induced apoptosis ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • Protein kinase B (c-Akt), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and STAT5 are activated by erythropoietin (EPO) in HCD57 erythroid cells but are constitutively active in an EPO-independent, apoptosis-resistant subclone (HCD57-SREI cells). (
  • The authors emphasise how HIV infection may affect cytotoxic lymphocyte activation, lung capillary endothelial cell injury and apoptosis, sphingolipid imbalance and oxidative stress in the lung. (
  • JNK inhibition is associated with PI3K-dependent negative regulation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which acts upstream from JNK in PV-infected IMR5 cells. (
  • PV triggers apoptosis in vitro in tissue cultures of human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells ( 4 ), promonocytic cells (U937) ( 29 ), dendritic cells ( 41 ), murine L cells expressing CD155 ( 21 , 36 ), HeLa cells ( 8 , 39 ), and cultures of mixed mouse primary nerve cells ( 12 ) from the cerebral cortexes of mice transgenic for CD155. (
  • Analyses of the apoptotic pathways induced following PV infection in several cell lines have demonstrated that mitochondria are key actors of PV-induced apoptosis. (
  • Cells become committed to undergoing apoptosis in response to a collection of multiple survival and death signals. (
  • They play a critical role in the induction phase of apoptosis and are responsible for the biochemical and morphological changes in the affected cells ( Cohen, 1997 ). (
  • Berninghausen O, Leippe M. Necrosis versus apoptosis as the mechanism of target cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica. (
  • Ozaki K. NF-kB Inhibitors Stimulate Apoptosis of Rabbit Mature Osteoclasts and Inhibit Bone Resorption by These Cells. (
  • An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that this regulation might be through a non-DNA-binding mechanism involving ORF50/Lyta and the octamer-binding protein (Oct-1), which could bind with an element in the ORF50/Lyta promoter in vitro. (
  • In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1989;25:163-73. (
  • Joplin R, Hishida T, Tsubouchi H, et al Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells proliferate in vitro in response to human hepatocyte growth factor. (
  • The cells are obtained by causing cultures of pluripotent stem cells to differentiate in vitro, and then harvesting cells with certain phenotypic features. (
  • In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. (
  • In vitro models of osteoclast differentiation are principally based on primary cell culture, which are poorly suited to molecular and transgene studies due to the limitations associated with the use of primary macrophage. (
  • The association of E6 with p53 leads to the specific ubiquitination and degradation of p53 in vitro, suggesting a model by which E6 deregulates cell growth control by the elimination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. (
  • They are capable of long-term self-renewal and can differentiate in vitro and after ectopic (dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue) or orthotopic (myocardial infarction) transplantation in SCID beige mouse to yield the major specialized cell types of the heart: myocytes (ie, cells demonstrating contractile activity and/or showing cardiomyocyte markers) and vascular cells (ie, cells with endothelial or smooth muscle markers). (
  • The present study evaluated the role of ATRA as an inducer of differentiation in a variety of tumor cells in the growth TYST cell lines in vitro and explored the molecular mechanism of TYST cell proliferation. (
  • The continuous generation of functional heterogeneity among the clonal progeny of HSCs is in support of intrinsic control of stem cell fate and provides a model for the long-term maintenance of hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Thus, despite intense efforts to establish determinants by which primitive HSCs can be defined prospectively, available in vivo and in vitro stem cell assays only allow retrospective identification of HSCs. (
  • RESULTS We first sought an in vitro surrogate cell-culture system to examine the individual and cooperative roles of BLIMP1, PRDM14 and AP2γ, and to identify their direct targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, which requires large amounts of material. (
  • In vitro invasion assay showed that eATP induced a dose-and time-dependent increase in the invasive capacities of the A549 cells. (
  • The utmost relevance of SCNT in regenerative medicine remains unquestionable due to the fact that it is not only free of somatic epigenetic memory but also more similar to conventional embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from in vitro fertilized embryos in their transcriptomic and epigenomic signatures [ 4 ]. (
  • The GJ hemichannels, or connexons, are transported to the plasma membrane where they dock with connexons in the membranes of adjacent cells and aggregate to mediate intercellular transfer of various ions, signaling molecules, and metabolites ( Simon and Goodenough, 1998 ). (
  • Experimental Cell Research 242 460-469, Aug. 1998. (
  • The Proteasome:Paradigm of a Self-Compartmentalizing Protease," Cell (Feb. 6, 1998) 92:367-380. (
  • Interestingly, VWF had no direct inhibitory effect either on the ability of DCs to present antigenic peptides or on the activation potency of CD4 + T cells. (
  • During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. (
  • Structural Mechanism Underpinning Cross-reactivity of a CD8+ T-cell Clone That Recognizes a Peptide Derived from Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase. (
  • Human breast cell carcinoma MCF-7 cells were found to bind 125 I-labeled rat amylin (rAmylin) and the peptide amylin antagonist radioligand 125 I-AC512 with high affinity. (
  • Similar high affinity binding of both 125 I-rAmylin and an sCAL antagonist analogue radiolabel 125 I-AC512 has been described ( 9 ) in human MCF-7 cells. (
  • To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8+ T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). (
  • Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human hepatocyte growth factor. (
  • This invention provides populations human cells of the cardiomyocyte lineage. (
  • Thus, although human Schwann cells require Cx32 to maintain functionality, murine Schwann cells may be less dependent. (
  • Human atrial natriuretic polypeptide, which stimulates cGMP accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells, also enhanced interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide release at a concentration of 100 nmol/L. In contrast, coincubation with 10 μmol/L methylene blue, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, inhibited interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide release from vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • 7 Furthermore, Eigler et al 8 have recently shown that NO-releasing agents enhance cytokine-induced TNF-α synthesis in human mononuclear cells. (
  • Baker SJ, Markowitz S, Fearon ER, Willson JK, Vogelstein B. Suppression of human colorectal carcinoma cell growth by wild-type p53. (
  • p53 point mutation in HPV negative human cervical carcinoma cell lines. (
  • Although implicated in carcinogenesis, they inhibit the proliferation of a variety of normal cell types, and their role in diverse human diseases is not fully understood. (
  • We describe the isolation of undifferentiated cells that grow as self-adherent clusters (that we have termed "cardiospheres") from subcultures of postnatal atrial or ventricular human biopsy specimens and from murine hearts. (
  • Because these cells also have been isolated and expanded from human heart biopsy specimens, they could have a significant impact on future clinical strategies to treat patients with heart disease. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that VWF protects FVIII from being endocytosed by human dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently presented to FVIII-specific T cells. (
  • PPARγ activation inhibits growth and survival of human endometriotic cells by suppressing estrogen biosynthesis and PGE2 signaling. (
  • Induction of peritoneal endometriosis in nude mice with use of human immortalized endometriosis epithelial and stromal cells: a potential experimental tool to study molecular pathogenesis of endometriosis in humans. (
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 regulates survival, migration, and invasion of human endometriotic cells through multiple mechanisms. (
  • The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 has been used as a model to study the epithelial function of the intestine. (
  • Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST. (
  • The present studies aimed at establishing the animal model of TYST and the human TYST cell line and evaluating the characteristics of the disease and bio-function of human TYST cells. (
  • LTC-ICs are highly enriched among cells with a CD34 + CD38 − phenotype, and the yield of LTC-ICs in such cells from adult human marrow and umbilical cord blood is ∼20 (( 16 )) and ∼50% (( 17 )), respectively. (
  • Based on these considerations, human CD34 + CD38 − cells are expected to be highly enriched for HSCs. (
  • The heterogeneity within the CD34 + CD38 − compartment of human cells is reminiscent of the functional heterogeneity as outlined above for murine cells with a Thy-1.1 lo Sca1 hi Lin −/lo phenotype. (
  • The seminal discoveries by Hall, Rosbash and Young have revealed a crucial physiological mechanism explaining circadian adaptation, with important implications for human health and disease. (
  • The human naive T cell repertoire is the repository of a vast array of TCRs. (
  • Growth differentiation factor-15, a common constituent of ECM derived from the human TM cells, was confirmed to be distributed throughout the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway of the human eye. (
  • The spatial organization of human chromosomes within the nuclei of normal and emerin-mutant cells // Hum. (
  • 11. Chubb J.R., Boyle S., Perry P., Bickmore W.A. Chromatin motion is constrained by association with nuclear com-partments in human cell // Curr. (
  • Reactivity was observed in transfected human 293 cells and human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells (endogenous). (
  • Various bioassays were used in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells to test our hypothesis. (
  • The generation of a complete physical map of the human genome should be achieved by the use of large segments of DNA contained in yeast artificial chromosomes (18), P1 clones =-=(34)-=-, and cosmid or phage contigs (32, 33). (
  • Together, these studies show that radiation deregulates centrosome stability, which underlies genomic instability in normal human epithelial cells, and that this can be opposed by radiation-induced TGFbeta signaling. (
  • In this study, using the human T-lymphoma cell line, Jurkat cells, we investigated the apoptotic signal transduction mediated by FTY720, in particular comparing its role on the cleavage of caspases, with that mediated by etoposide or anti-Fas antibody. (
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of deep-sea water (DSW) on the metastatic potential of two human breast cancer cell lines exhibiting highly different phenotypes. (
  • Role of microRNA29-b in the ochratoxin A-induced enhanced collagen formation in human kidney cells. (
  • Weidner, M., T. Welsch, F. Hübner, G. Schwerdt, M. Gekle and HU Humpf: Identification and apoptotic potential of T-2 toxin metabolites in human cells. (
  • Königs, M., D. Mulac, G. Schwerdt, M. Gekle and HU Humpf: Metabolism and cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin and its metabolites on human cells in primary culture. (
  • Schwerdt, G., H. Holzinger, M. Königs, HU Humpf and M. Gekle: Effect of ochratoxin A on cell survival and collagen homeostasis in human mesangial cells in primary culture. (
  • Schwerdt, G., M. Königs, H. Holzinger, HU Humpf and M. Gekle: Effects of the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) on cell death in human kidney cells and human lung fibroblasts in primary culture. (
  • This is a pseudodiploid human cell line. (
  • The role of T3 surface molecules in the activation of human T cells: a two-stimulus requirement for IL-2 production reflects events occurring at a pre-translational level. (
  • V. Identification of an interleukin 2-producing human leukemia T cell line. (
  • Abstract 8-Bromo-guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), an analogue of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), induced a time- and dose-dependent enhancement of interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Mammalian cells in culture maintain a total zinc quota within a narrow range around 0.4 fmol per cell, corresponding to a total cellular Zn(II) concentration in the millimolar range (primary sources). (
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown a wide application in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and therapeutic cloning. (
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown great advantages and application prospects in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and stem cell therapy [ 1 ]. (
  • In SCNT, a somatic cell nucleus from the patient is injected into an enucleated oocyte, and the resulting ESCs are then isolated from cloned blastocysts. (
  • Thrombin and the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) possess a number of functionally antagonistic properties in vascular endothelial cells. (
  • 1 2 3 α-Thrombin also causes various cells in culture to migrate and proliferate. (
  • In addition, in the 1970, thrombin and trypsin have been demonstrated to stimulate mitogenesis by acting at the cell surface. (
  • 14 Because there was an obvious correlation between the observation that activated platelets express phosphatidylserine and the observation that phosphatidylserine in purified lipids is required for thrombin generation, it was concluded by many that phosphatidylserine exposure provided the primary mechanism for regulating coagulation reactions and thrombin generation. (
  • Presently, c-kit is shown to efficiently support both mitogenesis and survival in the FDCP1 cell subline, FDC2. (
  • Signaling pathways activated in a unique mast cell line where interleukin-3 supports survival and stem cell factor is required for a proliferative response. (
  • Metallothionein is part of a zinc-scavenging mechanism for cell survival under conditions of extreme zinc deprivation. (
  • BAG-1, BAG-3, and BAG-4 [also known as silencer of death domain (SODD)] are involved in the survival of cancer cells and have been linked with aggressiveness of breast, gastric, and pancreatic cancer ( 8 - 11 ). (
  • We showed here that PV simultaneously activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt survival signaling pathway in these cells, limiting the extent of JNK activation and thereby cell death. (
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the transmission of survival signals in various cell types ( 14 , 26 ), including neurons ( 16 ). (
  • PV activates the PI3K/Akt survival signaling pathway in IMR5 cells. (
  • Our recent studies demonstrated that extracellular ATP is taken up by cancer cells through macropinocytosis and other endocytosis and promotes cancer cell growth, survival, and drug resistance (1-3). (
  • The germ cell genome can acquire totipotency, the genomic state of early fertilized embryos. (
  • Optimized procedures stained an average of 40.5-fold ( p = 0.01, range between 1.4 and 198) more cells than could be detected without the inclusion of PKI and cross-linking anti-fluorochrome antibody. (
  • Pretreatment with a broad caspase inhibitor [benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-(Ome) fluoromethyl ketone] markedly decreased the incidence of apoptotic cells induced by FTY720, etoposide, and anti-Fas antibody, through the abrogation of cleavage of Bid, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspases 3, 8, and 9. (
  • Use Anti-monomethyl-Histone H4 (Lys20) Antibody, clone NL314 (rabbit monoclonal antibody) validated in WB, Mplex to detect monomethyl-Histone H4 (Lys20) also known as H4K20me1, Histone H4 (mono methyl K20). (
  • In the 1880s, Bizzozero 1 and Hayem, 2 working independently, wrote about a blood particle, previously observed by others as a colorless corpuscle smaller than red or white cells, that they called a hematoblast or platelet. (
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the cells are differentiated in the presence of a nucleotide analog that affects DNA methylation. (
  • GSK-3 is unusual in that it is normally active in cells and is primarily regulated through inhibition of its activity. (
  • Among the root clones, clones in which the accumulation of TED3 mRNAs were suppressed showed the inhibition of root growth. (
  • Similar to the inhibitory effects shown in MDA-MB-231 cells, we observed that DSW treatment resulted in the inhibition of TPA-induced migration and MMP-9 activity with a concomitant decrease in mRNA levels of MMP-9, TGF-β, Wnt5a and Wnt3a. (
  • The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. (
  • The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST) is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally [ 1 ], while germ cell tumors in the testis account for approximately 60-75% of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. (
  • Metastasis, the dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumors to distant organs, is responsible for 90% of solid tumor-related deaths. (
  • Recent studies have indicated that the extracellular microenvironment of tumors contains much higher concentrations of ATP than normal tissues of the same cell origins. (
  • In an examination of 56 caspase-independent lethal compounds, modulatory profiling showed that 10 compounds induced three different types of regulated non-apoptotic cell death. (
  • Experimental scheme to identify regulated non-apoptotic cell death inducers with high modulatability. (
  • JNK activation occurred early after PV infection, whereas apoptotic features were observed later in PV-infected cells. (
  • Cav1.3 channels and intracellular calcium activates JNK2 and disrupts tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. (
  • Intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels of pdeA or pdeB mutant cells under these stressful conditions were about 1.3-fold to 2.0-fold higher than those of wild-type cells. (
  • The inability to transform many clinically important Gram-negative bacteria has hampered genetic studies addressing the mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • 1 Recent studies suggest that it may also play a role in controlling cell proliferation in the vascular wall, 2 3 renal glomerulus, 4 and central nervous system. (
  • Enzo Life Sciences' ROS-ID ® Total ROS/Superoxide detection kit is designed to directly monitor real time reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in live cells using fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. (
  • Through the combination of these two specific fluorescent probes, the kit provides a simple and specific assay for the real-time measurement of global levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and specifically superoxide in living cells. (
  • Profiling of reactive oxygen species formation by fluorescence microscopy was achieved in HeLa cells loaded with ROS/Superoxide detection reagents and treated with pyocyanin. (
  • Specific profiling of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species formation by fluorescence microscopy in HeLa cells loaded with dyes from ROS-ID ® ROS/RNS Detection Kit (ENZ-51001). (
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are distributed ubiquitously as a component of extracellular matrix (ECM) at the cell surface and bear glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). (