Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdenine NucleotidesElastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.PyruvatesDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.GlycogenConservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.TriglyceridesDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Meclizine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Sirtuin 3: A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
The insufficiency of energy, i.e. sub-optimal aerobic metabolism, generally results in the accumulation of lactic acid and ... though recent studies have indicated otherwise, actually finding that lactic acid is a source of energy. The fundamental ... Therefore, the feedback that is read by this central regulator could include chemical and mechanical as well as cognitive cues ... Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ...
Bond P (March 2016). "Regulation of mTORC1 by growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli at a glance". J ... mTOR also senses cellular nutrient, oxygen, and energy levels. The mTOR pathway is a central regulator of mammalian metabolism ... In vitro studies have shown Aβ to be an activator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which in turn activates mTOR. In addition, applying ... For example, postmortem studies of human AD brain reveal dysregulation in PTEN, Akt, S6K, and mTOR. mTOR signaling appears to ...
He discovered the principle of conservation of energy while studying muscle metabolism. He tried to demonstrate that no energy ... and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics. As a philosopher, he is known for his philosophy of science, ideas on the ... Helmholtz paved the way in experimental studies on the relationship between the physical energy (physics) and its appreciation ... ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. The usage of terms such as work, force, energy, power, etc. in the 18th and 19th centuries by scientific ...
10 August 2007). "Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton" (PDF). Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In the study of anatomy, anatomists use a number of anatomical terms to describe the appearance, shape and function of bones. ... Bones have a variety of functions: Bones serve a variety of mechanical functions. Together the bones in the body form the ... The study of bones and teeth is referred to as osteology. It is frequently used in anthropology, archeology and forensic ...
One study in rats found that RYGB induced a 19% increase in total and a 31% increase in resting energy expenditure, an effect ... suggests that profound changes in body weight and metabolism resulting from RYGB cannot be explained by simple mechanical ... A study in a large prospective study of 2010 obese patients showed an 29% reduction in mortality up to 15 years following ... "Design and rationale of the Utah obesity study. A study to assess morbidity following gastric bypass surgery", Contemporary ...
The study of plant defenses against herbivory is important, not only from an evolutionary view point, but also in the direct ... The proximate cause of this mechanical response is an abrupt change in the turgor pressure in the pulvini at the base of leaves ... The cholinergic toxine, cicutoxin of water hemlock, is a polyyne derived from the fatty acid metabolism. β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β- ... The final consideration is cost: how much will a particular defensive strategy cost a plant in energy and materials? This is ...
Mechanical studies of Mlp84B-null flight muscles indicate that loss of Mlp84B results in decreased muscle stiffness and power ... Additionally, MLP is indirectly related to calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. Specifically, acetylation of MLP ... Biochemical and functional studies have been performed for some of these mutant proteins, and reveal aberrant localization and ... Studies in Drosophila revealed that genetic ablation of Mlp84B, the Drosophila homolog of MLP, was associated with pupal ...
... energy of the motion of a body Magnetic energy - energy from magnetic fields Mechanical energy - The sum of (usually ... the scientific study of energy flows under transformation Stress-energy tensor, the density and flux of energy and momentum in ... McCall, Robert P. (2010). "Energy, Work and Metabolism". Physics of the Human Body. JHU Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8018-9455-8. ... Chemical energy - energy contained in molecules Electric energy - energy from electric fields Gravitational energy - energy ...
"Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton" (PDF). Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC ... "Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 61: 384-396. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.008.. ... Typically anthropologists and archeologists study bone tools made by Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Bones can serve a ... Mechanical. See also: Skeleton, Human skeleton, and List of bones of the human skeleton ...
"Cerebral energy metabolism studied with phosphorus NMR spectroscopy in normal and birth-asphyxiated infants". Lancet. 2 (8399 ... The problem of infants who failed to breathe at birth had been solved by the invention of mechanical ventilation, so any ... 2003). "Effects of hypothermia on energy metabolism in mammalian central nervous system". J Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23 (5): ... Although rapid recovery of cerebral energy metabolism occurs following successful resuscitation this is followed some hours ...
Contrary to the long-held belief that lactate is formed as a result of oxygen-limited metabolism, substantial evidence exists ... Lupton, H. (1923). "An analysis of the effects of speed on the mechanical efficiency of human muscular movement". J Physiol. ... Brooks demonstrated in his earlier studies that little difference in lactate production rates were seen in trained and ... generating NADH for energy use and completing the cycle (see figure). While the cytosolic fermentation pathway of lactate is ...
... as they use less energy. According to an extensive review by Neubauer & Fink a large number of studies (N=27) have confirmed ... Another theory of brain size in vertebrates is that it may relate to social rather than mechanical skill. Cortical size relates ... as measured by Glucose metabolism. A small sample of participants (N=8) displayed negative correlations between intelligence ... In a study of the head growth of 633 term-born children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, it was ...
A study of mice shows that autophagy is important for the ever-changing demands of their nutritional and energy needs, ... Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to ... these mice illustrated a decrease in endurance and an altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise. ... which referenced a 1955 German study of injury-induced sequestration. The study recognized three continuous stages of ...
A study of mice shows that autophagy is important for the ever-changing demands of their nutritional and energy needs, ... Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to ... these mice illustrated a decrease in endurance and an altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise. ... In a 2012 study conducted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, mutant mice (with a knock-in ...
24 W of mechanical energy, and since muscle energy conversion is only 22-26% efficient, ≈76 W of heat energy. Resting ... Elia, M. (1992) "Energy expenditure in the whole body". Energy metabolism. Tissue determinants and cellular corollaries. 61-79 ... Exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse ... dominates the energy metabolism of the body. Physical activity energy expenditure correlates strongly with the gender, age, ...
In a study on the diet of brushtail possums, 47.5 per cent of possum faeces examined between January 1979 and June 1983 ... When PFK-1 is inhibited, cells are no longer able to metabolize carbohydrates, depriving them of energy. In humans, the ... In clinical cases, use of muscle relaxants, anti-convulsants, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive measures may all be ... which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate disrupts the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) ...
Another common method is the use of a mechanical drum filter where water is run over a rotating drum screen that is ... Water is pumped through the filter, and ammonia is utilized by the bacteria for energy. Nitrate is less toxic than ammonia (> ... Ammonia is a waste product of fish metabolism and high concentrations (>.02 mg/L) are toxic to most finfish. Nitrifying ... and many researchers are currently conducting studies to determine if RAS is a viable form of intensive aquaculture. A series ...
"Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism by the Skeleton" (PDF). Cell. 130 (3): 456-469. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.047. PMC ... "Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 61: 384-396. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.008.. ... Typically anthropologists and archeologists study bone tools made by Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Bones can serve a ... The study of bones and teeth is referred to as osteology. It is frequently used in anthropology, archeology and forensic ...
In addition, the phenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells in processes that are part of the function known as metabolism. ... Physiology is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms function as a whole. The ... the study of bacteria Mycology - the study of fungi Parasitology - the study of parasites and parasitism Virology - the study ... the study of insects Herpetology - the study of reptiles and amphibians Ichthyology - the study of fish Mammalogy - the study ...
ATP-depleted cells begin to undertake anaerobic metabolism to derive energy from glycogen which is known as 'glycogenolysis'. A ... "What Is Necrosis? - Definition & Types - Video & Lesson Transcript , Study.com". Study.com. Retrieved 2016-04-16. Alberts, ... As noted by Haynes, the subunits of DNA are not endowed with any peculiar kind of quantum mechanical stability, and thus DNA is ... It is an energy dependent process mediated by proteolytic enzymes called caspases, which trigger cell death through the ...
Mediero, Aránzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N. (June 2013). "Adenosine and bone metabolism". Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. 24 ( ... Acupuncture Mechanical deformation of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine. A 2014 ... doi:10.1007/s11302-013-9401-4. The study from Jelassi and colleagues further support these findings showing the efficacy of ... Lipmann, Fritz (1941). "Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy". In Nord, F. F.; Werkman, C.H. Advances ...
The ASHRAE 55-2010 Standard defines metabolic rate as the level of transformation of chemical energy into heat and mechanical ... the studies ended up simply presenting comparisons of thermal comfort satisfaction based on the subjective studies. No study ... Thermal neutrality is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed to dissipate, thus maintaining thermal ... Virtual Energy for Thermal Comfort. "Virtual Energy for Thermal Comfort" is the amount of energy that will be required to ...
The examination may require a study of an individual in a sleep lab, although the AAST has said a two belt IHT (In Home Test) ... Mechanical regulation of airflow and/or airway pressure: For individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, one of the more common ... Poor breathing during sleep a] reduces oxygen available for metabolism and may therefore depress basal metabolic rate during ... resulting in sleepiness and/or fatigue that may prompt sufferers to eat more in an attempt to increase short-term energy levels ...
Usually, breaking down releases energy and building up consumes energy. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into ... One of the most prolific of these modern biochemists was Hans Krebs who made huge contributions to the study of metabolism. He ... Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical ... Respirometry Stream metabolism Sulfur metabolism Thermic effect of food Urban metabolism Water metabolism Overflow metabolism ...
Pan JS, He SZ, Xu HZ, Zhan XJ, Yang XN, Xiao HM, Shi HX, Ren JL (2008). "Oxidative stress disturbs energy metabolism of ... In all clinical studies, troxipide was well tolerated. In a comparative study with ranitidine, troxipide was assessed as a more ... mechanical protection, high tensile strength and slow digestibility to the gastric mucosa. Almost all of the gastric mucosal ... which disturb the energy metabolism of mitochondria. Troxipide accelerates oxygen intake of marginal gastric mucosa and ...
Study by FT-IR". Spectroscopy Letters. 26 (6): 1117-1137. Bibcode:1993SpecL..26.1117A. doi:10.1080/00387019308011598.. ... Some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5-10 kJ per mol. The gas may then be desorbed when subjected to ... Similar to EAC, it is also noted for its low pressure drop, high mechanical strength and low dust content, but with a smaller ... toxic to metabolism and neurotoxic. ... A study by FT-IR spectroscopy". Carbon. 37 (10): 1517-1528. doi ...
Effects of Magnesium on Energy Metabolism during Cardiac Cycle And Myocardial Ischemia : Dahl Salt Sensitive Rats Study [in ... Mechanical loading stimulates cell hypertrophy and specific gene expression in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Possible role of ...
Mechanical loading affects the energy metabolism of intervertebral disc cells. Journal of orthopaedic research: official ... However, it is difficult to compare our study with other studies because mechanical compression-related studies on organ- ... The effect of cyclic compression on the mechanical properties of the inter-vertebral disc: an in vivo study in a rat tail model ... Sensitivity of notochordal disc cells to mechanical loading: an experimental animal study. European spine journal: official ...
O. OLSSON: Embryological Studies in the Orchidaceae. The Genus Hetaeria. S. K. KAMRA: Detection of Mechanical Damage and ... A. KYLIN: Investigations in Sulphur Metabolism, Ion Translocation, Energy Transfer and Morphogenesis of Scenedesmus. T. ... METHODS: In the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infraction Study, a cross-sectional study based in Pakistan, we calculated body ... S. K. KAMRA: Studies to Find the Effect of Temporary Removal of Bell Jars from Seed Beds on Jacobsen Apparatus on the ...
Results: Patients were roughly in energy balance while on mechanical ventilation, but in negative energy balance from the ... Energy balance and metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury: A pilot study using doubly labelled water. Krakau, Karolina ... Study IV and V, a prospective descriptive study on metabolic course, energy balance and methods of assessment in six patients ... Energy balance was calculated from energy intake compared to total energy expenditure measured by continuous indirect ...
Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacki... ... Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and variable. ... Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of ... Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacking. Thus, we planned to study the ...
Learn more about the role of adipokines and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk in energy metabolism as well as how they each help ... Studies demonstrate that SWAT expresses higher levels of transcription factors that promote preadipocyte differentiation6. ... VWAT also offers organs mechanical protection3. The abdominal cavity usually contains a large VWAT depot1. ... Choe, et al (2016). Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders. Metabolism and Metabolic ...
The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality ... Chapter 4 B pH w a Manual Mechanical b x 6.4 6.2 w a 6.4 x Manual Mechanical b 6.2 y pH 6.6 c 6 z d pH A pH 6.6 y 6 5.8 y c 5.8 ... Feed withdrawal also leads to alterations in energy metabolism. In generating energy, the carbohydrate metabolism plays an ... The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality ...
Here we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial and energy metabolism are deranged in leg and intercostal muscle of critically ... patients suffering from sepsis-induced multiple organ failure and requiring mechanical ventilation were included in the study. ... Present study develops an experimental model using human peritoneum to study the integration between tissue and different mesh ... New large scale high quality studies are needed to answer this question definitively, since currently analyzed studies vary ...
21484859 - Mechanical loading affects the energy metabolism of intervertebral disc cells.. 11276129 - Tracking oligodendrocytes ... In this study, we systematically examined the effect of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on dopaminergic degeneration in cell ... Nerve Degeneration / chemically induced*, metabolism. Neurons / drug effects*, metabolism. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism ... Caspases / metabolism. Cell Death / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / toxicity*. DNA ...
Other studies unrelated to FoxO have shown increased expression of KIR6.1 following ischemia16 and exercise.17 Moreover, recent ... Atria and ventricles differ in their development and mechanical stress; right and left heart are exposed to different oxygen ... Forkhead Transcription Factors Coordinate Expression of Myocardial KATP Channel Subunits and Energy Metabolism. Pierre Philip- ... PPAR signaling in the control of cardiac energy metabolism. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2000; 10: 238-245. ...
In aerobic metabolism, one molecule of acid (CO2) is produced in order to produce 6 molecules of the energy carrier ATP, ... Mechanical stimulation of the lungs can trigger certain reflexes as discovered in animal studies. In humans, these seem to be ... wheeras in anaerobic metabolism, 6 molecules of lactic acid are produced to produce the same amount of energy. ... Lactic acid produced during anaerobic metabolism lowers pH and thus increases breathing. ...
This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after ... such as energy metabolism and power output, are difficult to maintain in damaged muscle. Previous studies have reported that ... The exercise-induced muscle damage is caused by several factors, including mechanical stress, calcium accumulation, and ... BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle ...
... an assertion that we confirmed in a previous study. Second, metabolism may be altered by chronic partial sleep deprivation. ... Significant changes in energy stores were also observed when flies were subjected to chronic sleep loss via the mechanical ... Interestingly, mechanical stimulation resulted in the same change in energy stores even when it was not associated with sleep ... However, in a parallel study, we observed a genetic link between endogenous sleep and energy stores . Based upon the ...
To study how RYGB affects the physiology of energy balance, we developed a rat model of this procedure. In this report, we ... Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases lifespan and improves glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese ... effects weight loss by altering the physiology of weight regulation and eating behavior rather than by simple mechanical ... Roux-en-Y gastric bypass enhances energy expenditure and extends lifespan in diet-induced obese rats.. Stylopoulos N1, Hoppin ...
Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in ... Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in ... muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in ... In 2002, two studies reported the discovery of a cDNA encoding a novel protein, PeP/Frcp2, now named FNDC5 (124, 125). The ...
... impaired energy metabolism below the level of the lesion, and cessation of sufficient mechanical strain on bone. The prevalence ... Population: A sample of 16 individuals (13 men, 3 women) with chronic SCI participated in this study. The neurological level of ... and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Bone tissue was assessed via hip, distal femur, and proximal tibia ...
4. Karla Oldknow, Edinburgh, UK, Possible roles of PHOSPHO1 in energy metabolism.. 5. Stefanie Thiele, Dresden, Germany, ... Room 2 Studies in cartilage, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Chair: Richard Oreffo. 1. Maria Permuy Mendaoa, Lugo, Spain, Effects ... 2. Hajar Razi, Berlin, Germany, Age related changes in the mechanical regulation of bone adaptation: uncovering the mechano- ... 16.30 Bone metabolism and calciotropic hormones - Richard Eastell, Sheffield, UK. 17.15 Bone diseases, from the common to the ...
Recent studies demonstrate that NO-synthase participates in the regulation of protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle ... Upon mechanical loading, NO reacts with superoxide to generate peroxynitrite. The latter then activates the TRPV1 (transient ... Other studies have demonstrated that supplementation with Epicatechin could increase follistatin, a protein which binds to and ... VASO-6™ is an innovative ingredient which we dubbed "Super Epicatechin". It was first studied and funded through the University ...
Metabolic syndrome and bone metabolism: the Camargo Cohort study. Menopause. 2010;17:955-61 ... Apart from energy metabolism and cardiovascular system, MetS has been implicated in the development of osteoporosis, which is a ... Each component of MetS affects bone metabolism distinctly. For example, obesity increases the mechanical load of the body and ... This cross-sectional study was a part of the more comprehensive bone health study of Malaysian populations conducted from April ...
... and clinical studies related to the identification of disease markers, the elucidation of their role and mechanism, as well as ... Rather than an episode of mechanical stretch, some studies propose that a repetitive mechanical stress was needed to induce ... Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an intracellular enzyme related to energy metabolism, and its level in serum has been ... Our data show no changes in any of the studied damage markers. Although this study examined the outcomes in an asymptomatic ...
1355 words - 5 pages , and mechanical properties. The study conducted by Wang et al. focuses on using human umbilical cord ... Mitochondrial diseases are characterized by changes in the cell energy production that often leads to various manifestations, ... most of them related to growth and metabolism. In addition the disorders are almost always lethal and cause the patient to die ... 1818 words - 7 pages The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the fos B gene and its neurological effects on ...
A recent study in liver cells also indicated that FOXO1 plays a key role in the mediation of FA metabolism (7). This is ... Normal cardiac metabolism.. To maintain normal physiological function, heart needs to consistently produce energy in the form ... 4). In the heart, elevated FA use has been implicated in a number of metabolic, morphological, and mechanical changes and, more ... It should be noted that most of the studies describing glucocorticoids and cardiac metabolism have used glucocorticoids for ...
... and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject ... Normal RANK-RANKL signaling provides proper structure and mechanical strength to bones [5, 6, 22]. However, study on various ... energy metabolism, and bone remodeling . Carboxylated osteocalcin is involved in formation of calcium hydroxyapatite ... Up to date, role of fluoride on the epigenetic alterations is not studied. In the present study, global expression profiling of ...
Eighteen healthy young men participated in each of the three trials of the study: rest, exercise with placebo, and exercise ... These results suggest that fermented milk supplementation improves glucose metabolism and alleviates the effects of muscle ... This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after ... such as energy metabolism and power output, are difficult to maintain in damaged muscle. Previous studies have reported that ...
... key molecules known to play a role in lipid metabolism and energy flux are significantly different between rat and hibernating ... In the current study, we hypothesized that experimental surgical I/R will result in reduced severity of myocardial injury and ... We show that several prominent features of myocardial I/R injury like myocardial necrosis, apoptosis, and mechanical stunning ... Enhanced lipid metabolism possibly regulated by sirtuin-3, PPARs, and other master regulators of metabolism may be key to the ...
HomeostasisAnaerobic metabolismAerobicMyocardialGlucose metabolismCarbohydrateOxidative metabolismMitochondrial metabolismLactic acidIndirect calorimetryIncreasesSubstrateLymphatic drainageThermal and mechanical stimuliLipidNutritionRegulationFatty acid metabSecretionStimulationAdipose tissueVentilationContractionCardiacMortalityBiochemicalPathwaysCatabolismOxygenDual energy x-ray aPhysiologicalPhysiologyPrinciplesStimuliCellsOrganismNeuronalMaturationAffectsClinical studiesReactions involvedMechanismsStructural and mechanical propertiesEffectsSkeletal musclesBoneGlycolysisMoleculesPeripheralErgometryInsulinOccurCellular energyBioengineeringEnergeticsGlycogenMethodsAbstractChemicalRadiofrequencyAssessAmino acidsProteinsMagnesium
- Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical load is necessary for intervertebral disc (IVD) development and disc matrix homeostasis, whereas inappropriate mechanical load plays an important role in initiating and/or aggravating disc degeneration [ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
- Adipose tissue (AT), also referred to as fat tissue, is found throughout the body and is vital for maintaining energy homeostasis 1 . (alpco.com)
- Each type of adipose tissue and adipocyte contributes differently to energy metabolism and overall homeostasis 3 . (alpco.com)
- In this report, we demonstrate that RYGB in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats induces a 25% weight loss, prolongs mean survival by 45%, and normalizes glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
- The clinical effectiveness of RYGB and its physiological effects on body weight regulation and energy expenditure (EE) suggest that this operation provides a unique opportunity to explore the mechanisms of energy homeostasis and to identify novel therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. (nih.gov)
- Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases lifespan and improves glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese Levin Sprague-Dawley (DIO Levin-SD) rats. (nih.gov)
- Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in other organs including the liver, fat or the brain. (frontiersin.org)
- The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage exploratory or developmental research on the role of the nervous system in metabolism, homeostasis, and remodeling and/or regeneration of the postnatal dental and craniofacial skeletal system (DCS) in health and disease. (nih.gov)
- AMPK is a highly conserved cellular energy sensor required for monitoring energy expenditure and meeting the demands of energy homeostasis ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Lactic acid produced during anaerobic metabolism lowers pH and thus increases breathing. (bionity.com)
- In aerobic metabolism , one molecule of acid (CO 2 ) is produced in order to produce 6 molecules of the energy carrier ATP, wheeras in anaerobic metabolism, 6 molecules of lactic acid are produced to produce the same amount of energy. (bionity.com)
- The predictive success of our force application model, both within and across modes of sprint exercise, indicates that as efforts extend from a few seconds to a few minutes, the fractional reliance on anaerobic metabolism progressively impairs whole-body musculoskeletal performance, and does so with a rapid and remarkably consistent time course," the authors wrote. (breakingmuscle.com)
- In this respect, the sprint portion of the performance-duration curve predominantly represents, not a limit on the rates of energy re-supply, but the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle force production that results from a reliance on anaerobic metabolism to fuel intense, sequential contractions. (breakingmuscle.com)
- If this supply falls, even for a few minutes, tissue hypoxemia may develop, resulting in anaerobic metabolism and lactic acidosis. (sportdocbox.com)
- At lower power outputs observed during prolonged endurance exercise, the oxidative ("aerobic") metabolism of carbohydrates (muscle glycogen and blood glucose, derived from liver glycogen/gluconeogenesis, or the gut when carbohydrate is ingested) and lipids (fatty acids derived from intramuscular and adipose tissue triglyceride stores) provides virtually all of the ATP required for the energy-dependent processes in skeletal muscle. (gssiweb.org)
- Along with aerobic fitness, gender and fatness should be considered in future studies of exercise substrate oxidation. (humankinetics.com)
- This shall be studied employing MR spectroscopy of the leg, which is an established model to assess muscle aerobic energy metabolism. (trialbulletin.com)
- Of these patients, 40 were subjected to a treatment protocol with mechanical acoustic vibrations applied to the abdomen, associated or not associated with physical aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. (westhartfordchiropractic.com)
- Competitive matches place a heavy demand on the aerobic system and require players to expend energy at relatively high levels. (nzdl.org)
- INTRODUCTION Christopher Carroll, MD Although cells rely on oxygen for aerobic metabolism and viability, the tissues have no storage system for oxygen. (sportdocbox.com)
- The heart, lungs, and circulation extract oxygen from the atmosphere and generate a flow of oxygenated blood to the tissues to maintain aerobic metabolism. (sportdocbox.com)
- In addition, epidemiologic studies indicate that atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction occur in patients with long-term glucocorticoid treatment or Cushing's syndrome ( 33 , 109 , 187 ). (physiology.org)
- The present study evaluated whether this method for regional myocardial cooling during reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size (IS) in 75â€"kg pigs. (ebscohost.com)
- Results: The present finding revealed that there are detected alterations of myocardial markers and lung amino acid metabolism as well as disruption of myocardial isoenzymes. (scirp.org)
- Our preliminary data establishes the feasibility of our study in achieving the stated aims to: 1.To demonstrate that myocardial recovery results from LVAD unloading and can be defined by functional and structural descriptors, 2. (grantome.com)
- In this study, our team of investigators at the Salt Lake City VAMC and the Richmond VAMC will examine the effects of LVADs on heart function, myocardial structure and myocardial metabolism. (grantome.com)
- Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in young healthy men. (biomedsearch.com)
- BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after acute exercise in humans. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSION: These results suggest that fermented milk supplementation improves glucose metabolism and alleviates the effects of muscle soreness after high-intensity exercise, possibly associated with the regulation of antioxidant capacity. (biomedsearch.com)
- This attenuated glucose metabolism is associated with altered fatty acid supply, composition, and utilization. (physiology.org)
- Therefore, we hypothesized that the decrease of glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage may be prevented by the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previously, we have shown that Lactobacillus helveticus -fermented milk prevents muscle damage induced by acute exercise via activation of antioxidative enzymes of skeletal muscle in an animal study [ 20 ], suggesting that fermented milk may prevent the impairment of glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism in damaged muscle after acute resistance exercise in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, inhibition of TCA cycle shifts glucose metabolism to alternative pathways. (springer.com)
- The biochemistry of muscle, carbohydrate metabolism and phosphorylations was the author's chosen field of research for over forty years. (nhbs.com)
- Carbohydrate and fat oxidation were calculated from V o 2 and RER based on the assumption that protein breakdown contributes little to energy metabolism during exercise. (bmj.com)
- 9 In this context, it may be speculated that more energy would be expended and carbohydrate used if exercise were performed at a fast velocity concomitant with less muscular tension. (bmj.com)
- The longitudinal metabolites screen in peripheral nerves demonstrated that compared with buffer-injected age-matched control mice, mice at 12 and 22 weeks post-STZ showed an early impairment the tricaoboxylic acid (TCA cycle), which is the main pathway of carbohydrate metabolism leading to energy generation. (springer.com)
- He also proved that in anaerobic fermentation, for the release of a given amount of energy, more carbohydrate is used up than is the case if the carbohydrate is oxidized (the Pasteur-Meyerhof effect). (encyclopedia.com)
- 0.8 following feeding initiation, suggesting a change to carbohydrate metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, skeletal muscle accounts for a large portion of oxidative metabolism and of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (frontiersin.org)
- Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the burning sensation we feel when we exhaust our oxygen and oxidative metabolism, but in actuality, lactic acid in presence of oxygen recycles to produce pyruvate in the liver, which is known as the Cori cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are exhausted, producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
- The German biochemist Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884-1951) shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the fixed relationship between oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid in muscle and for establishing the cyclic character of energy transformations in the living cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Further, in the recovery stage only between one-fifth and one-quarter of the lactic acid was oxidized, and the energy of this reaction was used to reconvert to glycogen the remainder of the lactic acid. (encyclopedia.com)
- He introduced the term "glycolysis" for the anaerobic degradation of glycogen to lactic acid, and he demonstrated for the first time the cyclic character of energy transformations in the living cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Intermittent indirect calorimetry measurements were used to differentiate components of the energy expended. (diva-portal.org)
- Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
- It was first studied and funded through the University of South Florida and it significantly increases vasodilation, stimulates blood flow and activates muscle hypertrophy. (anabolicminds.com)
- The net result increases the metabolism of stored energy, increases lymphatic drainage and reduces or shrinks the size of the actual fat cells and fat chambers. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
- 3. Brueckner JC, Atchou G. Capelli C, Duvallet A, Barrault D, Jousselin E, Rieu M & di Prampero PE (1991): The energy cost of running increases with the distance covered. (nzdl.org)
- The heat from the light and RF energies increases metabolism of this fatty layer and shrinks the size of fat cells. (rwwc.com)
- Under physiological conditions, heart acquires most of its energy from metabolism of glucose and fatty acid (FA), with the latter being the major substrate consumed by cardiac tissue ( 145 ). (physiology.org)
- Our study advances the understanding of energy balance and substrate utilization in sepsis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The predominant energy substrate switches from carbohydrates to lipids-the hallmark of fasting physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
- The progression of DPN was investigated by behavioral measurements of sensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli and quantitative morphological assessment of intraepidermal nerve fiber density. (springer.com)
- Lipoic acid locally injected into peripheral receptive fields of pain-sensing sensory neurons (nociceptors) in vivo decreased sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type but not Ca V 3.2 knock-out mice. (jneurosci.org)
- Molecular Physiology Institute and Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (J.B., C.B.N., M.J.M., M.H. (asahq.org)
- Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) provide essential fatty acids (EFAs) and are a dense source of energy in parenteral nutrition (PN). (scribd.com)
- This procedure effects weight loss by altering the physiology of weight regulation and eating behavior rather than by simple mechanical restriction and/or malabsorption as previously thought. (nih.gov)
- Secretion, regulation and metabolism. (physiology.org)
- Gene ontology analysis revealed down-regulation in hibernating AGS hearts of most proteins involved in mitochondrial energy transduction, including electron transport chain complexes, acetyl CoA biosynthesis, Krebs cycle, glycolysis, and ketogenesis. (asahq.org)
- Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
- This volume is comprised of 89 chapters and begins with an analysis of the transport and metabolism of amino acids under osmotic stress, followed by a discussion on cell volume regulation in isolated heart ventricles from the flounder, Platichthys flesus, perfused with anisosmotic media. (elsevier.com)
- It considers the nature of the muscle machine and its fuel, as well as the intricate regulation of energy supply under different conditions. (nhbs.com)
- Versatility and Regulation Food Gives Us Energy! (prezi.com)
- Interestingly, large-scale expression data, target analysis, and metabolic flux assays suggest this let-7-driven CM maturation could be a result of down-regulation of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT protein kinase/insulin pathway and an up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism. (nih.gov)
- Considering the accumulating evidence for roles of both AMPK and TRPA1 in pain sensation, in this study, we tested whether and how AMPK regulates TRPA1 in sensory neurons and investigated the pathophysiological significance of this regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- One way adipose tissue supports energy metabolism is through the generation and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and hormones. (alpco.com)
- Physical activity influences bone metabolism also through hormone secretion and local factors . (termedia.pl)
- Finally it shows how the energy metabolism first elucidated for the mechanical work of muscle has been found to explain most of the other kinds of work done by cells, as in light production, secretion, ionic transport and electrical discharge. (nhbs.com)
- During the last decade, several studies investigated the responses of the disc cell to mechanical stimulation in artificial three-dimensional culture [ 4 , 5 ]. (medsci.org)
- Mechanical stimulation of the lungs can trigger certain reflexes as discovered in animal studies. (bionity.com)
- Interestingly, mechanical stimulation resulted in the same change in energy stores even when it was not associated with sleep deprivation, suggesting that the changes are caused by stress rather than sleep loss. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We examined a number of Drosophila mutants with increased susceptibility to seizures following mechanical or electrical stimulation to better understand the underlying factors that predispose neurons to aberrant activity. (genetics.org)
- Mutants that exhibit seizures and paralysis upon mechanical stimulation ("banging"), are termed bang-sensitive paralytics. (genetics.org)
- Similarly to ESWT, the mechanical stimulation obtained using PEMFs may play a role for treatment of tendinopathy and for tendon regeneration, increasing in vitro TGF-β production, as well as scleraxis and collagen I gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
- However, no clear evidence of a clinical value of ESW and PEMF has been found in literature with regards to the treatment of tendinopathy in human, so further clinical trials are needed to confirm the promising hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of ESWT and PEMF mechanical stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
- Research over the past several decades examining adipokines and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk in energy metabolism has revealed that adipose tissue is a very important metabolically active endocrine organ 1 . (alpco.com)
- Each type of AT releases a different combination of these cell signaling molecules which enable the highly regulated crosstalk between adipose tissue and other organs such as the liver and brain to maintain energy balance 4 . (alpco.com)
- Due to these differences, some researchers refer to each site of adipose tissue as a mini organ, contributing differently to energy metabolism 2 . (alpco.com)
- Visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) is located around the internal organs and is the main type of adipose tissue used for energy storage. (alpco.com)
- In heart, 1 brain, 2 kidney, 3 adipose tissue, 4 muscle, 5 and blood vessels, 6 the ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP channels) emerge as the most important sensors of cellular energy status. (ahajournals.org)
- Adipose tissue was assessed via body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist circumference (WC) (cm), and % body fat, and measured using a floor scale, tape measure, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. (uwaterloo.ca)
- With insulin resistance, metabolism in multiple organ systems such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue is altered. (physiology.org)
- Cawthorn, William 2018-04-28 00:00:00 Purpose of Review The last decade has seen a resurgence in the study of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) across diverse fields such as metabolism, haematopoiesis, skeletal biology and cancer. (deepdyve.com)
- Keywords Bone marrow adipocytes Bone marrow adipose tissue Endocrinology and metabolism Introduction marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) constitutes over 10% of total fat mass in lean, healthy humans. (deepdyve.com)
- Upon formation, adipose tissue is highly 2 diabetes, and radiotherapy, with recent studies also showing active and responds rapidly to external and internal cues . (deepdyve.com)
- Patients were roughly in energy balance while on mechanical ventilation, but in negative energy balance from the 3rdweek post injury. (diva-portal.org)
- The infant was stabilized with mechanical ventilation. (aappublications.org)
- This can include mechanical ventilation, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, anesthesia (in case of seizures), and heart or blood pressure remedies. (doctorshealthpress.com)
- Temporal metabolic profiles in sepsis are altered by the hormonal changes related to reduced food intake before admission and fasting after mechanical ventilation (MV), followed by refeeding [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Note that ventilation and gas transport require energy to power mechanical pumps (the diaphragm and heart respectively), in contrast to the passive diffusion taking place in the gas exchange steps. (wikia.org)
- Sustained production of muscular force and power during exercise is dependent on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that provides energy for a number of cellular processes during muscle contraction. (gssiweb.org)
- Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate source of chemical energy for muscle contraction. (gssiweb.org)
- Nothing was known of the chemical reactions involved or the way in which they release energy for contraction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mechanical loading stimulates cell hypertrophy and specific gene expression in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
- In the present article, we review the action of glucocorticoids, their role in insulin resistance, and their influence in modulating peripheral and cardiac metabolism and heart disease. (physiology.org)
- We first demonstrate that the molecular signatures in 1-year (y) matured human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) are similar to those seen in in vivo-derived mature cardiac tissues, thus making them an excellent model to study human cardiac maturation. (nih.gov)
- The benefits of restoring normal cardiac output through LVAD support are well described, but our understanding of the effects and possible consequences of LVAD- induced mechanical unloading at the level of the myocardium remains limited. (grantome.com)
- We hypothesize that the favorable effects of non-pulsatile LVAD unloading on cardiac function are associated with specific clinical features, specific structural changes at the tissue level and specific alterations in molecular pathways of vascular remodeling, collagen turnover and energy metabolism. (grantome.com)
- The aim of this study was to gain insight into factors which influence mortality, stress, energy metabolism, and meat quality of the broilers on the last day of their life. (slideshare.net)
- Most studies have verified the influence of exercise on CVD mortality. (termedia.pl)
- The most frequent infections during the neonatal period not only contribute to enhance morbidity and mortality rates [ 2 ], but may also impact on the energy and nutrient requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
- We are learning how formins work using a combination of biochemical studies of pure proteins, microscopic analysis of cytoskeletal organization in cells, and observation of the effects of formin gene mutations on the simple model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. (upstate.edu)
- Biochemical analysis in bang-sensitive mutants revealed reductions in ATP levels consistent with disruption of mitochondrial energy production in these mutants. (genetics.org)
- While tissue slicing for biochemical studies of liver, kidney, and brain has been practiced since the 1920s, it was not until the mid-1960s that this technique became a useful tool in the hands of electrophysiologists and pharmacologists. (springer.com)
- In the end, our project will provide a comprehensive understanding of how the adaptive response of the cytoskeleton derives from the complex interplay between its biochemical, structural and mechanical properties. (europa.eu)
- Thereafter he worked in the laboratory of the medical clinic at Heidelberg, where he met the young biochemist Otto Warburg, who encouraged him to use biochemical methods in his studies of the release of energy in the living cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Principles of energetics, metabolism and metabolic pathways Key aspects of metabolism. (southampton.ac.uk)
- You may notice the focus and energy blends have been split because they feature ingredients that predominantly target those respective pathways. (priceplow.com)
- In the present study, we attempted to delineate the sequence of event occurring in alteration of metabolic pathways in relation to nerve damage and sensory loss. (springer.com)
- Data suggests that negative energy balance after a severe TBI could not only be explained by the elevated metabolic rate and catabolism induced by the trauma, but also by difficulties in securing alternative nutritional routes in the distressed patient. (diva-portal.org)
- Study I, a systematic review of 30 articles demonstrated consistent data on increased metabolic rate, of catabolism and of upper gastrointestinal intolerance in the majority of the patients during early post injury period. (diva-portal.org)
- catabolism breaks down larger molecules into smaller ones often with energy release and anabolism is the building up of larger molecules from smaller precursors, often requiring energy. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- In 1867 Ludimar Hermann found that muscle can contract in the absence of oxygen, and he thought that muscle contained the hypothetical "inogen" whose molecules had the excess oxygen that was used, by a process analogous to fermentation, for the liberation of energy during muscular activity. (encyclopedia.com)
- The net energy costs of the leg kick, arm stroke and whole stroke of the crawl were determined and formulas for the calculation of oxygen requirement derived. (nzdl.org)
- To establish the energy cost of competitive field hockey, nine international hockey players wore a modified Sport Tester PE3000 telemetric heart rate monitor during matchplay and also completed a laboratory based incremental treadmill test to establish maximal oxygen uptake VO2max The heart rate data from competition were compared with heart rate and oxygen uptake data measured in the laboratory. (nzdl.org)
- PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. (sportdocbox.com)
- 1 Physiology of Oxygen Transport PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial I was told that there would be no math! (sportdocbox.com)
- In this self-study tutorial, we will go over the basic physics of oxygen transport and delivery. (sportdocbox.com)
- the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water , carbon dioxide and ATP (energy). (wikia.org)
- To study how RYGB affects the physiology of energy balance, we developed a rat model of this procedure. (nih.gov)
- The papers explore the physiology and biochemistry of animal adaptation and ecology and cover topics ranging from amino acid transport and metabolism during osmotic shock to the role of organic compounds in osmoregulation in plants and animals. (elsevier.com)
- Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. (bls.gov)
- Study physical principles of living cells or organisms and their electrical or mechanical energy, applying methods and knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, or biology. (onetonline.org)
- The disc/endplate organ culture is regarded as a good model to study nucleus pulposus (NP) biology due to its precise controllability over external stimuli and its retention of native structural integrity [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
- Furthermore, TRPA1 is also sensitive to noxious cold and mechanical stimuli ( 15 , 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Animals either lacking TRPA1 expression or treated with TRPA1 antagonists show reduced channel responses and nociceptive behavior upon exposure to cold or mechanical stimuli ( 21 , 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 3. Linda Harkness, Odense, Denmark, Studies on Derivation, Characterisation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to the Osteogenic Lineages. (ectsoc.org)
- In the present study, global expression profiling of short noncoding RNAs, in particular miRNAs and snoRNAs, was carried out in sodium fluoride (NaF) treated human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to understand their possible role in the development of fluorosis. (hindawi.com)
- The radiofrequency and infrared light energy precisely heats and treats the skin to reduce or shrink the size of the fat cells and chambers. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
- This tutorial will concentrate on how some of these biomolecules are used to provide energy to cells and will provide an overview of the basic rules that govern energy transformations. (psu.edu)
- In this study, we chose human liver-derived hepatoma cells (HepG2) to carry out our research. (springer.com)
- Creatine phosphate stores energy so ATP can be rapidly regenerated within the muscle cells from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate ions, allowing for sustained powerful contractions that last between 5-7 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
- Remarkably, our study showed that mechanical cell-cell interactions alone are sufficient for accounting for the development of V. cholerae biofilms up to a few thousand cells. (nature.com)
- Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. (genetics.org)
- In addition to acting as a sensor for energy and nutrients, AMPK has been suggested to play a role in regulating neuronal functions ( 6 ), including pain sensation ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In clinical studies, 85 percent of the areas treated showed a circumferential reduction in thighs for at least 1 centimeter. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
- These pre-clinical results, in association with several clinical studies, suggest a potential effectiveness of ESWT for tendinopathy treatment. (frontiersin.org)
- In this manuscript the rational of mechanical stimulations and the clinical studies on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) and PEMF will be discussed. (frontiersin.org)
- Melatonin has protective effects and was shown to improve tinnitus in clinical studies. (lifeextension.com)
- In clinical studies, patients report an average reduction of 1 inch post treatment. (rwwc.com)
- Coordinate adaptation of myocyte metabolism and function is fundamental to survival of the stressed heart, but the mechanisms for this coordination remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
- 7. Vagelis Rinotas, Vari, Greece, Study of RANKL-mediated pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models and development of new therapeutic approaches. (ectsoc.org)
- To further characterize the mechanisms underlying bang sensitivity in Drosophila and to test the hypothesis that these seizure phenotypes are due to metabolic disruption, we have characterized a new bang-sensitive mutant and performed additional analysis of previously studied mutants. (genetics.org)
- Develop new methods to study the mechanisms of biological processes. (onetonline.org)
- A large number of studies have exposed many mechanisms of the illnesses. (chemweb.com)
- It is comprised of four different mechanisms: infrared light energy, bi-polar radiofrequency, negative pressure and mechanical massage. (torontoweightlossclinic.ca)
- Background: Previous cell culture and animal in vivo studies indicate the obvious effects of mechanical compression on disc cell biology. (medsci.org)
- Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on food intake, diet cycling and calorie absorption. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of local high-intensity vibration (HLV, f = 300 Hz) on muscle performance and blood hormone concentrations in healthy young men. (jove.com)
- However, its overall effects on energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism involved in cardioprotection require further investigation. (ebscohost.com)
- Studies in animals have shown both positive and negative effects. (drugs.com)
- This study compared the effects of six warm-up modalities on peak power output (PPO) during the high-pull exercise. (galileo-training.com)
- Purpose: In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. (galileo-training.com)
- Adaptive effects caused by mechanical acoustic vibrations on the neuromuscular system are widely described. (westhartfordchiropractic.com)
- We study the effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 levels on biomineralization, growth and energy metabolism of three common bivalve species. (uncc.edu)
- Energy metabolism as a tool to assess interactive effects of multiple stressors in marine organisms. (uncc.edu)
- In our study, we hypothesized that not all of these effects are equally important, and that perhaps mechanical cell-cell interactions could be dominant in shaping the architectural development of biofilms. (nature.com)
- Sometimes long-term studies on side effects are missing. (aasraw.com)
- Recent Studies on Omega-3 Fatty Acid Effects in Canine Species. (purinaproclub.com)
- It has been suggested that the muscle atrophy, obesity, and sublesional osteoporosis (SLOP) that occurs after SCI is due in part to the loss of voluntary control of the skeletal muscles in the lower extremities, impaired energy metabolism below the level of the lesion, and cessation of sufficient mechanical strain on bone. (uwaterloo.ca)
- Besides, intestinal Ca++ absorption, energy metabolism, and the volume of skeletal muscles improved as a result of moderate exercise . (termedia.pl)
- 3. Ana Maria Rodrigues, Lisbon, Portugal, Linking Wnt pathway with bone mineralization, mechanical properties and fracture risk in osteoporosis. (ectsoc.org)
- 7. Tobias Thiele, Berlin, Germany, Investigation of the influence of age to adaptive response of bone mice tibiae to in vivo mechanical loading. (ectsoc.org)
- Regarding bone metabolism, physical activity is also important to stimulate bone growth and help maintain and restore adequate bone mineral density (BMD), both in pathological and non-pathological conditions, supporting the regeneration of bone tissue. (termedia.pl)
- Therefore, mechanical signals generated by exercise can prevent a reduction in the musculoskeletal system, and exercise- related improvement in cortical thickness can be effective in increasing the bone mass of bone structure sites, especially the trabecular and cortical sites . (termedia.pl)
- In addition to WAT and BAT, bone inherent in studying a tissue so diffuse and difficult to access. (deepdyve.com)
- Associations among disease conditions, bone mineral density, and prevalent vertebral deformities in men and women 50 years of age and older: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. (intramed.net)
- Association between bone mineral density and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies. (intramed.net)
- Diabetes is associated independently of body composition with BMD and bone volume in older white and black men and women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. (intramed.net)
- Chemoheterotrophic Energy Processing A Quick Recap Respiration Glycolysis Mitochondria* *-if they are present Fermentation The Citric Acid Cycle What happens: Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytoplasm Intermembrane Space Final Accounting Matrix Remember Redox? (prezi.com)
- Magnesium is required as a catalyst for many intracellular enzymatic reactions, particularly those relating to glycolysis, energy metabolism, and ion transport. (aappublications.org)
- In metazoans, transition from fetal to adult heart is accompanied by a switch in energy metabolism-glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation. (nih.gov)
- This exploratory/developmental FOA will provide support for early and conceptual stages of project development including development of appropriate strategies and models to study the interactions between the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS/CNS) and the DCS. (nih.gov)
- Central muscle fatigue manifests as an overall sense of energy deprivation, and peripheral muscle weakness manifests as a local, muscle-specific inability to do work. (wikipedia.org)
- Our study shows that reduction of blood flow due to a peripheral stenosis results in a prolongation of PCr time constants, decreased PCr and pH level as well as increased Pi level during exercise. (qxmd.com)
- High-energy phosphate metabolism during incremental calf exercise in patients with unilaterally symptomatic peripheral arterial disease measured by phosphor 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (qxmd.com)
- For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in response to physical exercise, dietary protein or anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 or testosterone ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In the San Antonio Heart Study ( 77 ), patients with insulin resistance had a 2.5-times increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those without insulin resistance. (physiology.org)
- METHODS: Eighteen healthy young men participated in each of the three trials of the study: rest, exercise with placebo, and exercise with fermented milk. (biomedsearch.com)
- We subjected flies to long-term partial sleep deprivation via two different methods: a mechanical stimulus and a light stimulus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Study of the theories and applications of infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy in relation to the importance of these spectroscopic methods in the analysis of chemical systems. (gettysburg.edu)
- Digestion and absorption of key macromolecules Chemical and mechanical digestion and absorption of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. (southampton.ac.uk)
- During photosynthesis, photoautotrophs (e.g., plants) convert the energy found in sunlight into chemical energy via a series of anabolic reactions that result in the production of carbohydrates, including starch. (psu.edu)
- Chemoheterotrophs (e.g., humans) eat starch and break it down via a series of catabolic reactions to obtain the stored chemical energy. (psu.edu)
- Before we discuss how these chemical reactions are used to move energy around the biosphere (and why), we need to define energy. (psu.edu)
- anoxygenic photosynthesis will be considered and well as how the growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means. (studiesabroad.com)
- Louis Pasteur held that the yeast cell's need for chemical energy could be satisfied either by oxidation of sugar or by its chemical cleavage. (encyclopedia.com)
- VelaShape is a body contouring procedure that uses radiofrequency and infrared light energy to smooth the skin's surface to noticeably reduce cellulite and circumference of the treated area. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
- Eliminate cellulite and improve your overall figure with Cellulite Reduction and Body Contouring Services from DermaCenter™ , an exclusive provider of the revolutionary VelaShape III™ elos™ system, a non-invasive procedure that uses a combination of bi-polar radiofrequency, infrared light energy, vacuum and mechanical massage to visibly smooth the look and feel of your body . (rwwc.com)
- This is prospective study to assess the pharmacodynamics (t>MIC) of 4.5 g every 6 h of piperacillin/tazobactam in patients with early phase of severe sepsis/septic shock following administ. (bioportfolio.com)
- The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, HIV/aids, and obesity on the prevalence and readmission rate of perianal abscess. (diva-portal.org)
- The aim of this study was to assess postural changes following breast augmentation by studying body position, orientation through space, and center of pressure. (jove.com)
- Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
- Study of the various classes of organic compounds, including substitutions in the aromatic nucleus, cyclic compounds, and natural products such as amino acids, carbohydrates and peptides. (gettysburg.edu)
- They may study evolution in plants and animals, nerve cell communication, or how proteins work. (careeronestop.org)
- In Compared to WAT and BAT, knowledge of BMAT formation contrast, BAT expresses thermogenic proteins (e.g. uncoupling and function is extremely limited, despite BMAT being identi- protein 1, UCP1) that allow it to dissipate energy through the fied over a century ago. (deepdyve.com)