Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Bone Diseases, MetabolicOsteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Pyridinium CompoundsFocal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Merkel Cells: Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Mice, Inbred C57BLTibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5: LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
... a process through which forces or other mechanical signals are converted to biochemical signals in cellular signaling. ... Mechanotransduction leading to bone remodeling involve the steps of mechanocoupling, biochemical coupling, signal transmission ... Duncan, RL; CH Turner (November 1995). "Mechanotransduction and the functional response of bone to mechanical strain". ... Upon sensing a load, osteocytes regulate bone remodeling by signaling to other cells with signaling molecules or direct contact ...
Ingber, Donald (May 2006). "Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again". FASEB Journal. 20 (7): 811- ... biological control as chemicals and genes and to investigate the molecular mechanism by which cells convert mechanical signals ... is a fundamental regulator of many cellular responses to mechanical cues. Ingber's tensegrity theory also led to the prediction ... Ingber is best known for his discovery of the role mechanical forces play in developmental control and in cancer formation, and ...
... and initiate intracellular signalling cascades that can alter cellular behaviours, and cells are known to assemble stress ... Both microfilaments and microtubules play major roles in mechanotransduction. In the actin cytoskeleton, mechanotransduction ... suggesting that stress fiber contractility may translate mechanical signals into biochemical cues. There are also a small ... Morphogenesis, at the cellular level, can be defined as giving shape to, or defining the architecture of a cell. The assembly ...
... changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration ... The basic mechanism of mechanotransduction involves converting mechanical signals into electrical or chemical signals. In this ... Mechanotransduction (mechano + transduction) is any of various mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical stimulus into ... Chondrocytes sense and convert the mechanical signals they receive into biochemical signals, which subsequently direct and ...
... and numerous other molecular structures and signaling molecules have been shown to contribute to cellular mechanotransduction. ... and organs that govern their mechanical stability, as well as mechanical signal transmission from the macroscale to the ... Tensegrity: the architectural basis of cellular mechanotransduction. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1997; 59:575-599. Ingber DE. Cellular ... the field is understanding mechanotransduction-the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals ...
This permeability of ion channels is the basis for the conversion of the mechanical stimulus into an electrical signal.. ... Ingber, D. E. (1997). "Tensegrity: The Architectural Basis of Cellular Mechanotransduction". Annual Review of Physiology. 59: ... In response to a mechanical stimulus, cellular sensors of force are proposed to be extracellular matrix molecules, cytoskeleton ... As the signal travels from photoreceptors to larger neurons, action potentials must be created for the signal to have enough ...
Manipulation of the acupuncture needle transmits a mechanical signal to connective tissue cells via mechanotransduction. By ... Cellular control of connective tissue matrix tension. J Cell Biochem. 2013 Aug; 114(8):1714-9. 3. Snapp RR, Goveia E, Peet L, ... Mechanical signaling through connective tissue: a mechanism for the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. FASEB J. 2001 Oct; 15(12 ... during needle rotation and needle manipulation transmits a mechanical signal to connective tissue cells via mechanotransduction ...
"Cellular mechanotransduction relies on tension-induced and chaperone-assisted autophagy". Current Biology. 23 (5): 430-5. doi: ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 17 (5): 775-785. doi:10.1089/ars.2011.4396.. *^ Russell RC, Tian Y, Yuan H, Park HW, Chang YY, ... Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage.[85] Mechanical injury to ... In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular ...
... is also a key technique for cellular agriculture, which aims to provide both new products and new ways of ... components to increase adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth and differentiation. Most cells derived ... "Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction". Nature. 474 (7350): 179-83. doi:10.1038/nature10137. PMID 21654799. "drug [email protected] ... "Engineering hepatocellular morphogenesis and function via ligand-presenting hydrogels with graded mechanical compliance". ...
"Cellular Mechanotransduction Relies on Tension-Induced and Chaperone-Assisted Autophagy". Curr Biol. 23 (5): 430-5. doi:10.1016 ... 2008). "The signaling adaptor p62 is an important NF-kappaB mediator in tumorigenesis". Cancer Cell. 13 (4): 343-54. doi: ... Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage.[76] Mechanical injury to ... In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular ...
Several mechanotransduction mechanisms have been proposed as reasons for the response of tenocytes to mechanical force that ... and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading. Blood vessels may be visualized within ... Tendinosis refers to non-inflammatory injury to the tendon at the cellular level. The degradation is caused by damage to ... The mechanical properties of tendons vary widely, as they are matched to the functional requirements of the tendon. The energy ...
Several mechanotransduction mechanisms have been proposed as reasons for the response of tenocytes to mechanical force that ... and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading.[13] ... Tendinosis refers to non-inflammatory injury to the tendon at the cellular level. The degradation is caused by damage to ... The mechanical properties of tendons vary widely, as they are matched to the functional requirements of the tendon. The energy ...
The multi-faceted role of the actin cap in cellular mechanosensation and mechanotransduction, in: Soft Matter. Vol. 9; 5516- ... In particular, he identified LINC complexes and the so-called perinuclear actin cap as key mediators of physical signaling ... 2011, D. Wirtz, K. Konstantopoulos, P.C. Searson, The physics of cancer: the role of physical interactions and mechanical ... "The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Invasive Metastatic Cancer" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-28. "Longrifles Cancer Seminar in ...
Mechanical stimulation of osteocytes results in opening of hemichannels to release PGE2 and ATP, among other biochemical ... Osteocytes generate an inhibitory signal that is passed through their cell processes to osteoblasts for recruitment to enable ... Osteocyte apoptosis is thought to be related to decreased mechanotransduction, which possibly leads to the development of ... the cell produces a volume of extracellular matrix three times its own cellular volume, which results in 70% volume reduction ...
"Cellular mechanotransduction relies on tension-induced and chaperone-assisted autophagy". Current Biology. 23 (5): 430-5. doi: ... Meakin SO, MacDonald JI, Gryz EA, Kubu CJ, Verdi JM (April 1999). "The signaling adapter FRS-2 competes with Shc for binding to ... BAG3 is able to stimulate the expression of cytoskeleton proteins in response to mechanical tension by activating the ... Palmer, Douglas (Nov 2, 2015). "Cish actively silences TCR signaling in CD8+ T cells to maintain tumor tolerance". J Exp Med. ...
In this way, the mechanical sound signal is converted into an electrical nerve signal. Repolarization of hair cells is done in ... Through mechanotransduction, hair cells detect movement in their environment.[1] In mammals, the auditory hair cells are ... Outer hair cells are functional even after cellular stores of ATP are depleted.[10] ... This mechanical response to electrical signals is termed somatic electromotility[10] and drives oscillations in the cell's ...
In this way, the mechanical sound signal is converted into an electrical nerve signal. Repolarization of hair cells is done in ... Through mechanotransduction, hair cells detect movement in their environment. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located ... the cellular basis of the cochlear amplifier". The Journal of Physiology. 388 (1): 323-347. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1987.sp016617 ... This mechanical response to electrical signals is termed somatic electromotility and drives oscillations in the cell's length, ...
The organ of Corti is also capable of modulating the auditory signal. The outer hair cells (OHCs) can amplify the signal ... It is the auricle and middle ear that act as mechanical transformers and amplifiers so that the sound waves end up with ... The structure evolved from the basilar papilla and is crucial for mechanotransduction in mammals. The organ of Corti is located ... ISBN 978-0-87893-609-0. Ashmore, Jonathan Felix (1987). "A fast motile response in guinea-pig outer hair cells: the cellular ...
This leads to changes in signal transduction and downstream cellular responses. Cell signaling is a product of both the ... The stronger mechanical feedback would pull the cell towards the stiffer region and cause a bias in directional movement and ... Wang, N; Butler, JP; Ingber, DE (21 May 1993). "Mechanotransduction across the cell surface and through the cytoskeleton". ... The site of cellular contact with the extracellular matrix is the focal adhesion, a large, dynamic protein complex that ...
"Tenocyte responses to mechanical loading in vivo: a role for local insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling in early tendinosis ... This up regulation results in proliferation at the cellular level and remodelling of the tendon matrix. The clinical ... which is prescribed for rehabilitation because tissue repair is driven by the physiological process of mechanotransduction. ... Mechanotherapy was defined in 1890 as "the employment of mechanical means for the cure of disease". Mechanotherapy employs ...
He is a CUNY Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering at The City College of New York. He is ... "Mechanotransduction and Flow Across the Endothelial Glycocalyx," PNAS 100(13): 7988-7995 (2003). Hu, X., Weinbaum, S., "A New ... Cellular Biology 2002 Elected National Academy of Sciences 2002 Elected Institute of Medicine 2007 Woodruff Lecturer, Georgia ... the role of the endothelial glycocalyx in initiating intracellular signaling, microvascular fluid exchange, endothelial ...
The specific functionality of ILRs in plants is not well characterized but in addition to mechanical signaling transduction, ... Integrin-like receptors are found in mollusk and have a part in the spreading of hemocytes to damaged locations in the cellular ... Lynch, Timothy M.; Lintilhac, Philip M.; Domozych, David (1998-03-01). "Mechanotransduction molecules in the plant gravisensory ... The majority of this information is received through mechanical signals which include touch, sound, and gravity. Therefore, the ...
... which are translated by mechanotransduction to changes at cellular and genetic levels. Vasculogenesis is the formation of early ... and regulating many cell signalling factors. Mechanotransduction may act either by positive or negative feedback loops, which ... However, mechanical cues provided by the heart's first contractions are still necessary for complete remodelling. The first ... The mechanotransduction of these physical cues to endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the vascular wall can also trigger the ...
Allochiria Cell signalling Golgi tendon organ Haptic communication Haptic perception Muscle spindle Molecular cellular ... as input to the mechanical reflexes of the body. Fine touch (or discriminative touch) is a sensory modality that allows a ... Nonlinear Stochastic Mechanotransduction Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle". IEEE Transactions on Haptics. 8 (1): 102-113. doi: ... Proske, U; Gandevia, SC (Oct 2012). "The proprioceptive senses: their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement ...
Channels exhibit mechanical sensitivity as a general property. However, mechanical stress affects various types of channels in ... MSCs function as mechanotransducers capable of generating both electrical and ion flux signals as a response to external or ... Patel A, Sharif-Naeini R, Folgering JR, Bichet D, Duprat F, Honoré E (2010). "Canonical TRP channels and mechanotransduction: ... cellular, and pharmacological stimulants, including membrane stretch, heat, pH change, calcium flux, and protein kinases. ...
Using Sherrington's system, physiologists and anatomists search for specialised nerve endings that transmit mechanical data on ... Further studies have shown that the cellular mechanism of proprioception in plants involves myosin and actin, and seems to ... "NompC TRP Channel Required for Vertebrate Sensory Hair Cell Mechanotransduction". Science. 301 (5629): 96-99. Bibcode:2003Sci ... "Muscle spindle signals combine with the sense of effort to indicate limb position". The Journal of Physiology. 568 (Pt 3): ...
Transmission of mechanical stimuli through the actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid long-distance ... mechanotransduction in cells; however, a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of this transmission and the physical facto ... Mechanotransduction, Cellular / physiology*. Models, Theoretical. Stress Fibers / metabolism*. Stress, Mechanical*. Viscosity. ... Dynamics of Mechanical Signal Transmission through Prestressed Stress Fibers Alternate Title:Mechanical Signaling through ...
A possible biological mechanism is through mechanotransduction cellular signaling. One potential mechanotransduction pathway by ... Macrophage phenotype has been shown to respond to mechanical stimulus. ... Rac2 is a key downstream regulator of mechanotransduction in macrophages and transition of M1 to M2 macrophages11. M2 ...
Such mechanotransduction can occur at multiple cellular locations including the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus. ... Moreover, the ECM functions as a reservoir of pro-fibrotic signaling molecules that can be released upon mechanical stress. We ... here review the current status of knowledge of mechanotransduction signaling pathways in cardiac fibroblasts that culminate in ... They are activated by the disease-associated changes in mechanical properties of the heart, including stretch and increased ...
3. Signalling transduction in mechanobiology. Mechanical signals can regulate cellular functions in two modes, transmission and ... 2008); the latter can convert the mechanical signals into biochemical signals. Mechanotransduction from extracellular stimuli ... how cells perceive the mechanical stimuli and transmit them into cellular biochemical signals. ... 2006 Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again. FASEB J. 20, 811-827. (doi:10.1096/fj.05-5424rev). ...
Cellular mechanotransduction. Tissue Engineering. Hydrogels. Email [email protected] Office 315 Rhodes Engineering Research ... Bioreactors for mechanical stimulation. Mechanical characterization of engineered tissue. Hydrogel-based smart tissue adhesive ... Intracellular signal transduction pathways. Bone-marrow stem cell differentiation under pressure. Mechanically guided ... Cellular mechanotransduction of hydrostatic pressure. Mechanosensitive ion channels of bladder urothelial cells. ...
The success of eccentric exercise for the treatment of tendinopathy is an excellent example of mechanotransduction at work. The ... Mechanotransduction pathways modulate diverse cellular functions. Physiologic effects result from intracellular signaling of ... Mechanical signals activate the MAPK cascade, leading to down-regulation of RANK ligand (RANKL) expression and the formation of ... In response to mechanical stimuli, integrin and calcium signaling pathways converge on MAPK cascade, where Ca2+ regulation of ...
Li, C., & Xu, Q. (2000). Mechanical stress-initiated signal transductions in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cellular signalling ... Martineau, L. C., & Gardiner, P. F. (2001). Insight into skeletal muscle mechanotransduction: MAPK activation is quantitatively ... Next, its important that you consistently increase the amount of mechanical stress that you place on the muscle. Mechanical ... Factors such as mechanical and metabolic stress or simple training frequency are essential for growth but not applied in the ...
This ability is achieved at the cellular level by converting mechanical stimulation into biochemical signals (i.e., ... mechanotransduction). Whereas physiological mechanical stress helps to maintain vascular structure and function, pathologic or ... aberrant stress may impair cellular mechano-signaling, and initiate or augment cellular processes which drive disease. Recent ... In SVSM, OxLDL promoted proliferation partially via IGF1 signaling, activated NF-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol signaling ...
This ability is achieved at the cellular level by converting mechanical stimulation into biochemical signals (i.e., ... mechanotransduction). Whereas physiological mechanical stress helps to maintain vascular structure and function, pathologic or ... aberrant stress may impair cellular mechano-signaling, and initiate or augment cellular processes which drive disease. Recent ... In SVSM, OxLDL promoted proliferation partially via IGF1 signaling, activated NF-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol signaling ...
Cell Signaling. Sensing Cellular Chloride. *L. Bryan Ray. Control of the concentration of chloride ions is critical for the ... This work shows that the nucleus undergoes dynamic changes in mechanical properties and chromatin structure as cells transition ... It is proposed that this auxeticity may be important for cell mechanotransduction. ... Piala et al. reveal the molecular basis of a cellular calcium sensor that enables such regulation. Chloride ions are moved ...
Mechanisms of mechanical signaling in development and disease. J Cell Sci. 124:9-18.. Janmey, P.A., R.G. Wells, R.K. Assoian, ... Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again. FASEB J. 20:811-827.. Jun, J.I., and L.F. Lau. 2010. The ... Mechanisms of mechanical signaling in development and disease. J Cell Sci. 124:9-18.. Janmey, P.A., R.G. Wells, R.K. Assoian, ... Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 15:802-812.. Ingber, D.E. 2006. Cellular ...
Crosstalk in mechanotransduction. Cells are subject to mechanical stresses that are either external (from the ECM) or internal ... body of evidence supports the idea that there is a crucial role for the mechanical aspects of integrin signaling in cellular ... Matthews, B. D., Overby, D. R., Mannix, R. and Ingber, D. E. (2006). Cellular adaptation to mechanical stress: role of ... Mammoto, A., Mammoto, T. and Ingber, D. E. (2008). Rho signaling and mechanical control of vascular development. Curr. Opin. ...
We propose that mechanical modulation, in combination with traditional soluble and insoluble factors, provides a key avenue to ... biology is modulated in vitro by mechanical cues within the magnitudes observed in vivo. In some cases, these cues are ... these findings highlight the importance of studying glia under conditions that better approximate in vivo mechanical cues. ... these findings highlight the importance of studying glia under conditions that better approximate in vivo mechanical cues. ...
Investigation of Cellular Mechanotransduction Mechanism::Mechanical Properties of Primary Cilia [in Japanese] Do Tien-Dung , ... The signal transduction mechanism via the actin cytoskeleton is conside … The Proceedings of Mechanical Engineering Congress, ... Visualization of mechanical stimulation and cellular response in an ,i,in vitro,/i, vascular model [in Japanese] Hashimoto ... p,Mechanotransduction is a well-known mechanism by which cells may sense the surrounding mechanical environment and convert the ...
One of the challenges to overcoming barriers to cancer cure is the effect of cellular mechanotransduction. Mechanical forces ... EGF receptor signaling is essential for k-ras oncogene-driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cell 2012;22:318-30. ... De novo fatty acid synthesis at the mitotic exit is required to complete cellular division. Cell Cycle 2014;13:859-68. ... At the heart of this cellular immunity-suppressing pathway are the PD-1 receptor and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. This pathway ...
Anabolism: low mechanical signals strengthen long bones. Nature 2001; 412 (6847): 603-4PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Mechanotransduction in human bone: in vitro cellular physiology that underpins bone changes with exercise. Sports Med 2008; 38 ... Molecular pathways mediating mechanical signaling in bone. Gene 2006; 367: 1-16PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Low-level, high-frequency mechanical signals enhance musculoskeletal development of young women with low BMD. J Bone Miner Res ...
This system transduces mechanical forces into cellular sensory signals via a mechanism that detects the individual messages. ... The mechanotransduction process also involves communicating the message from the cells that detected the signal onto other ... method involves converting the mechanical signal into a biochemistry-based reaction for the purpose of influencing a cellular ... which then create larger assemblages of cellular masses. These cell-cell connections respond to mechanical forces by recruiting ...
... have been shown to recruit calcium-signaling cascades common to chondrogenesis. Here we document the effects of specified PEMF ... At the cellular level the transduction of mechanical signals (mechanotransduction) involves their conversion into biochemical ... DeLise, A. M., Fischer, L. & Tuan, R. S. Cellular interactions and signaling in cartilage development. Osteoarthritis Cartilage ... which has been broadly implicated in cellular mechanotransduction23, 44. We show that brief and single exposures to low ...
... external mechanical forces, and fluid shear) into intracellular signalling to regulate cellular behaviours. While microfluidic ... Mechanotransduction is known as the cellular mechanism converting insoluble biophysical signals in the local cellular ... Mechanotransduction is known as the cellular mechanism converting insoluble biophysical signals in the local cellular ... rigidity, external mechanical forces, and fluid shear) into intracellular signalling to regulate cellular behaviours. While ...
... enabling cells to respond to mechanical cues in the environment through biochemical signals that dictate downstream cellular ... 53 Mechanotransduction is the ability of cells to respond to mechanical stimuli through biochemical signals.50 These stimuli ... acting as a mechanical transducer of mechanical force into TGF-β mediated biochemical signals.64 Furthermore, TGF-β has been ... Tendon mechanotransduction and signaling pathways. The coordination of cell growth and proliferation with the production of the ...
"The lab conducts research in the field of mechanobiology and mechanotransduction, which is the transfer of a mechanical signal ... or load to a cellular response," says Hawkins.. Hawkins specifically works on modeling the physical effects of the ... Mechanical engineering major Jamar Hawkins 18 has a strong interest in biomechanics and bioengineering. A hard-working and ... local cell stretching device to study how mechanical forces regulate cell behaviors," says Sun. Hawkins is co-author of a book ...
An analyzer receives the output signal of the acoustic receiver and provides an indication of at least one of stress and injury ... in the soft tissue based on the output signal. ... by the acoustic transmitter and generates an output signal ... In response to mechanical stresses, protective reactions of the nervous and soft tissue systems mobilize instantaneously, but ... Many cellular processes are altered or affected, including transmembrane receptors which participate in pain generation. ...
... hypothesized that the sedimentation of amyloplasts within root cap cells is the primary event in the plant gravisensory-signal ... Lynch TM, Lintilhac PM (1997) Mechanical signals in plant development: a new method for single cell studies. Dev Biol 181: 246- ... Ingber DE, Dike L, Hansen L, Karp S, Liley H, Manitos A, McNamee H, Mooney D, Plopper G, Sims J, Wang N (1994) Cellular ... Statolith sedimentation, with its ability to generate weighty mechanical signals, is a legitimate means for organisms to ...
... local distortion in the cell surface appears to be common to mechanisms of cellular mechanotransduction. Moreover, mechanical ... It is probable that mechanical and physical signals sensed by the microbe may be integrated with other environmental signals ... However, limited information is available regarding how mechanical signals, such as pressure or mechanical force delivered to a ... The role of Fur as a global regulator of a variety of cellular functions in response to an environmental signal (in addition to ...
... mechanotransduction and signaling in response to soluble factors, which - in turn - regulate overall cellular function in ways ... the coupling between mechanical forces and solute transport might be another important means by which mechanical signals can be ... 3D cellular phenomena in development, tissue homeostasis and disease are conducted by adhesive, mechanical and chemical cues ... Mechanotransduction. It has become widely appreciated that mechanical forces are ever-present between cells and their ...
  • Oligodendrocyte and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) biology is modulated in vitro by mechanical cues within the magnitudes observed in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that mechanical modulation, in combination with traditional soluble and insoluble factors, provides a key avenue to address these challenges in cell production and in vitro analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currently, she is a post-doc researcher in the 3B's Research Group, focusing on magnetic force-based technologies, mechanotransduction, and dynamic environments as means to increase the functionality of tendon tissue engineered substitutes in vitro and post implantation. (rsc.org)
  • Using both in vitro and in vivo models, the current study aimed to characterize the role of TRPV4 in annulus fibrosus (AF) cell mechanotransduction. (uwo.ca)
  • This hypothesis is supported by in vitro studies, in which cardiac myocytes cultured on collagen or laminin-coated deformable membranes, display hypertrophic responses when exposed to mechanical stretch [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dynamics of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed stress fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We develop a model of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed viscoelastic actin stress fibers that directly connect the cell surface to the nucleus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The analysis considers both temporally stationary and oscillatory mechanical signals and accounts for cytosolic drag on the stress fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To elucidate the physical parameters that govern mechanical signal transmission, we initially focus on the highly simplified case of a single stress fiber. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results demonstrate that the dynamics of mechanical signal transmission depend on whether the applied force leads to transverse or axial motion of the stress fiber. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanical signal transmission is significantly delayed by stress fiber material viscosity, while cytosolic damping becomes important only for longer stress fibers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For simple networks of stress fibers, mechanical signals are transmitted rapidly to the nucleus when the fibers are oriented largely orthogonal to the applied force, whereas the presence of fibers parallel to the applied force slows down mechanical signal transmission significantly. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Factors such as mechanical and metabolic stress or simple training frequency are essential for growth but not applied in the same manner as they would be for other body parts. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • Next, it's important that you consistently increase the amount of mechanical stress that you place on the muscle. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • Mechanical stress is essentially the physical force that is being applied to the muscle when you attempt to contract it against a weight. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • Typically, mechanical stress becomes relevant as weight increases or sets are taken very close to failure 3,4,5 . (muscleandstrength.com)
  • Recent research suggests that metabolic stress, and other related factors like cellular swelling, may play an integral role in the muscle increasing in size over time. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • While mechanical stress is important, it's possible that metabolic stress is also important 6,7,8 . (muscleandstrength.com)
  • When materials become denser with such mechanical stress, they are termed auxetic. (sciencemag.org)
  • An analyzer receives the output signal of the acoustic receiver and provides an indication of at least one of stress and injury in the soft tissue based on the output signal. (google.com)
  • an analyzer coupled to said acoustic receiver and programmed to detect abnormalities in anatomical soft tissue by detecting the response of the soft tissue to acoustic energy by receiving to the output signal of said acoustic receiver and providing an indication signal of at least one of stress and injury in said soft tissue based on said output signal of said acoustic receiver. (google.com)
  • an analyzer coupled to said acoustic receiver to receive the output signal of said acoustic receiver and to provide an indication signal of at least one of stress and injury in said soft tissue based on said output signal of said acoustic wherein said analyzer is coupled to said acoustic receiver and comprises means for eliminating direct effects of the excitation acoustic energy on said acoustic receiver. (google.com)
  • found that mechanical stress activated reactive oxygen species production and Ca 2+ influx to decrease sclerostin abundance in cultured osteocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Blood vessels are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli such as shear stress due to flow and pulsatile stretch. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the mechanisms underlying channel activation in response to mechanical stress remain incompletely understood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • however, the mechanism(s) by which shear stress acting on the luminal cell surface is converted to specific cellular responses is unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • It was also shown that shear stress differentially regulates JNK and ERK by signaling that involves PTx-insensitive G protein-dependent and G i2 -dependent pathways, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent reports indicate that the activities of PTKs in cardiac myocytes, platelets, and ECs are increased by mechanical stimuli such as cyclic stretch and shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ratio signal is the trace with error bars on the primary axis and the shear stress is the square wave shown on the secondary axis. (nih.gov)
  • The calcium signal then decreased exponentially even though shear stress remained elevated (Fig. 2C). (nih.gov)
  • During the 10-min "resting" period when shear stress was back to zero, the calcium signal generally recovered back toward the initial baseline, often falling below the initial basal level (Fig. 2, A-C). When a second identical shear stimulus was applied after the resting period (Fig. 2C), the magnitude of the second peak (0.79 ± 0.02) was significantly lower than the first. (nih.gov)
  • In keeping with the rapidly developing fields of mechanobiology and regenerative medicine, Biorheology aims to include studies of the rheological aspects of these fields by focusing on the dynamics of mechanical stress formation and the response of biological materials at the molecular and cellular level resulting from fluid-solid interactions. (iospress.com)
  • ATMIN is dispensable for DSBs-induced ATM signalling, but ATM activation following hypotonic stress is mediated by ATMIN. (europa.eu)
  • Dentinal fluid dynamics evoked by various stimuli to exposed dentin cause mechanical stress to the structures underlying dentin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, the method involves converting the mechanical signal into a biochemistry-based reaction for the purpose of influencing a cellular behavior, such as turning on a gene to produce a specific protein. (educationviews.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrated that NOX2-ROS elicited Ca 2+ signals that activated the kinase CaMKII to decrease the abundance of sclerostin protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, brachyury expression in Nematostella vectensis via mechanotransduction depends on β-catenin, a key protein with a conserved dual role in cell-cell adhesion and in gene regulation following a signaling cascade. (phys.org)
  • These transduction elements rely on energy exchanges at rates too rapid to involve enzymatic intermediates and are believed to involve direct interactions in protein assemblies driven solely by mechanical energy. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the identification of the Yorkie-homologues YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1) as nuclear relays of mechanical signals exerted by ECM rigidity and cell shape. (nih.gov)
  • c.617G>A), a cell surface receptor that mediates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, which is recognized for its chondro/osteogenic-induction potential. (upenn.edu)
  • We previously showed increased BMP signaling in Acvr1R206H/+ MEFs as measured by phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8) protein levels in the presence or absence of BMP ligand. (upenn.edu)
  • The expression of HIF-1α, COX-2, PGE2, VEGF, COL1A2, collagen and ALPL, and the RANKL/OPG ratios at the mRNA/protein levels during PDL-fibroblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis were significantly elevated by mechanical loading irrespective of the oxygen supply, whereas hypoxic conditions had no significant additional effects. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We identified a magnitude-dependent increase in MMP-13 and TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels in response to mechanical strains corresponding to 6%, 12%, and 18% elongation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In response to mechanical loading of bone tissue, osteoblasts exhibit changes in enzymatic activity and in protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0 to 24 hours) exhibited a significant temporal and force-dependent reduction in Notch 3 receptor expression, concomitant with a significant reduction in Epstein Barr virus latency C promoter-binding factor-1/recombination signal-binding protein of the Jκ immunoglobulin gene-dependent Notch target gene promoter activity and mRNA levels when compared with unstrained controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • The decrease in Notch signaling was Gi-protein- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Disruption in the mechanobiologic response of the tenocyte creates a vicious cycle of suboptimal ECM production, in turn leading to further changes in mechanical signals transmitted to the tenocyte and propagating degenerative tissue production throughout the tendon (figure 16.8). (humankinetics.com)
  • An acoustic receiver receives responsive acoustic energy generated by the soft tissue in response to the excitation acoustic energy transmitted by the acoustic transmitter and generates an output signal representative of the response of the soft tissue to the excitation acoustic energy. (google.com)
  • Mechanobiology is an emerging scientific field that explores how physical factors, such as forces and mechanics, influence biological systems at the molecular, cellular and tissue level. (scielo.org.za)
  • The question then arose: How does the mechanical environment influence tissue generation? (scielo.org.za)
  • A cellular perspective to bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the state of the art. (utsa.edu)
  • Through this study, we will develop a mechanogenetic toolkit that provides a deeper understanding of mechanotransduction design principles and enables controllable force-based signaling for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. (bu.edu)
  • A malignant cell first resides in breast tissue, then likely travels to the bone, brain, liver, or lung, each of which has a distinct mechanical and biochemical profile. (umass.edu)
  • From the prospective of the author the information in this paper concentrates on that acquired over the last decade on changes at the cellular and molecular levels in aging muscle tissue as present day molecular genetics and proteomics methods have provided us with tools for studying the age-related muscle growth, adaptation, and repair. (hindawi.com)
  • Several specific thrusts of the current research program include: microscale cardiovascular tissue engineering, BioMEMS for stem/progenitor cell niche engineering, microengineered platforms for cell-matrix mechanobiology, and mechanical regulation of cancer cell invasion and collective cell migration. (openwetware.org)
  • While many people will be genetically predisposed to a given disease, the mechanical properties of the tissue or cellular environment can also contribute to disease progression or its onset. (mechanobio.info)
  • Mechanical strain plays a significant role in the regulation of bone matrix turnover, which is mediated in part by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dr. Kim has also served as reviewer for many high-profiled journals including Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, Biomaterials, Integrative Biology, Lab on a Chip, Nature, Science Signaling, and Tissue Engineering. (openwetware.org)
  • Embryonic development is fundamentally a mechanical process ( 1 ), as are the morphogenetic events that occur during tissue regeneration and diseases such as cancer. (pnas.org)
  • A cascade of subsequently biological reactions through the routine of cellular mechanotransduction within the aneurysm tissue determine the development of aneurysms. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • This talk will describe a variety of experimental approaches we have employed in our experimental tissue mechanics research group to understand better the micro-to-nano scale structures of each of these primary junctions and how these structures relate to their specific mechanical function. (abc11.nz)
  • Transduction of biomechanical stimuli leads to activation of cellular signaling mechanisms that ultimately lead to adaptive, and sometimes maladaptive, changes in cell and tissue fate. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this regard, understanding the function of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, which are fundamental determinants of Ca 2+ signaling, is critical to uncovering mechanisms of mechanotransduction during cell migration and, consequently, in pathologies closely linked to it, such as cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is the first study to demonstrate that primary cilia are essential organelles for cartilage mechanotransduction, as well as identifying a novel role for primary cilia not previously reported in any other cell type, namely cilia-mediated control of ATP reception. (ox.ac.uk)
  • β-Catenin-dependent mechanotransduction dates back to the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). (phys.org)
  • While biomechanical factors are important regulators of IVD homeostasis, mechanical loading also contribute to the onset of IVD degeneration. (uwo.ca)
  • Our laboratory has developed a variety of techniques to measure these signals within 3D scaffolds to better understand the mechanisms of cell behavior. (utsa.edu)
  • We are pleased to announce Cold Spring Harbor Asia conference on Dynamics of Cellular Behavior During Development and Disease which will be held in Suzhou, China, located approximately 60 miles west of Shanghai. (csh-asia.org)
  • We design and fabricate most of our own tools and sensors and are interested in the reliable manufacture and operation of micromachined sensors and actuators in harsh environments, measuring nanoscale mechanical behavior, and the analysis, design, and control of integrated electro-mechanical systems. (stanford.edu)
  • He received the B.S. from POSTECH in 1998, the M.S. degree from Seoul National University in 2000, in Mechanical Engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in Biomedical Engineering from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 2010. (openwetware.org)
  • Dr Clarke has a background in Mechanical (Biomedical) Engineering and Neuroscience. (abc11.nz)
  • Recent advances using magnetic nanomaterials for regenerative medicine applications include the incorporation of magnetic biomaterials within 3D scaffolds resulting in mechanoresponsive systems with unprecedented properties and the use of nanomagnetic actuators to control cell signaling. (rsc.org)
  • In this minireview, we provide a brief outlook on the tenogenic signaling pathways which are most associated with the conversion of mechanical input into biochemical signals, the novel bio-magnetic approaches which can activate these pathways, and the efforts to translate magnetic biomaterials into regenerative platforms for tendon repair. (rsc.org)