Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.UruguayFood Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.

Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (1/4316)

Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury.  (+info)

The determination of hemoglobin and myoglogin residues as a parameter for testing heat exposure in back bacon. (2/4316)

The use of an extraction of the heme pigments hemoglobin and myoglobin as a test for the heat exposure of back bacon was investigated by treating back bacon at varying temperatures of 50-70 degrees C and times of two to 180 minutes and observing the effect on the absorbance of heme pigment residue after nitrite oxidation. Absorbance at 409 nm was used in place of the more usual 540 nm to provide greater sensitivity in the detection of heme. A decrease in residual heme pigments was time-dependent, particularly at lower temperatures. In view of this factor and the complex nature of the heat exposure of a large block of back bacon, the application of this test would require a calibration of each process. Alternatively, limits to the amounts of heme pigment residue could be set. The heme pigment test is useful in its simplicity and overcomes difficulties associated with the coagulation and enzyme tests.  (+info)

Augmentation of killing of Escherichia coli O157 by combinations of lactate, ethanol, and low-pH conditions. (3/4316)

The acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be overcome by addition of lactate, ethanol, or a combination of the two agents. Killing can be increased by as much as 4 log units in the first 5 min of incubation at pH 3 even for the most acid-tolerant isolates. Exponential-phase, habituated, and stationary-phase cells are all sensitive to incubation with lactate and ethanol. Killing correlates with disruption of the capacity for pH homeostasis. Habituated and stationary-phase cells can partially offset the effects of the lowering of cytoplasmic pH.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (4/4316)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Injection site survey in Canadian-fed cattle: spring 1997. (5/4316)

A 2nd injection site survey was conducted during the spring of 1997 in Canadian-fed beef. The prevalence of lesions was 13.3% in top butts, 23.1% in blades, 9.1% in eye of rounds, 7.5% in outside rounds, and 1.4% in inside rounds. Losses were $8.05/head processed or $17 million annually.  (+info)

Evaluation of life-cycle herd efficiency in cow-calf systems of beef production. (6/4316)

A deterministic beef efficiency model (BEM) was used to evaluate life-cycle herd efficiency (LCHE) in cow-calf beef production systems using four breed groups of beef cattle. The breed groups were Beef Synthetic #1 (SY1), Beef Synthetic #2 (SY2), Dairy Synthetic (DS), and purebred Hereford (HE). The LCHE was defined over the lifetime of the herd as the ratio of total output (lean meat equivalent) to total input (feed equivalent). Breed differences in LCHE were predicted with the larger/slower maturing DS being most efficient at each age of herd disposal and reproductive rate. This was mainly because, at any average age at culling, the dams of DS breed group were less mature and so had been carrying relatively lower maintenance loads for shorter periods and positively influencing LCHE. Higher LCHE was predicted with improvement in reproductive performance if there were no associated extra costs. However, this declined markedly if there was a delay in marketing of offspring. As average age at culling increased from 4 to 6 yr, efficiency declined sharply, but it began to recover beyond this age in most breed groups. We concluded that the slower maturing DS breed group may be more efficient on a herd basis in cow-calf systems and that improvements in reproductive rate not associated with extra costs improve life-cycle efficiency. Culling cows soon after their replacements are produced seems efficient.  (+info)

Structural changes in intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese black cattle: effect of marbling on beef tenderization. (7/4316)

We investigated changes in structures and mechanical properties of the intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese Black steers, using the cell maceration method for scanning electron microscopy. During the early fattening period, from 9 to 20 mo of age, collagen fibrils of the endomysium in longissimus muscle associated more closely with each other, and collagen fibers in the perimysium increased in thickness and their wavy pattern became more regular. These changes were closely related to the increase in mechanical strength of the intramuscular connective tissue and resulted in a toughening of the beef during the period. The shear force value of longissimus muscle decreased after 20 mo of age, concomitantly with the rapid increase in the crude fat content. Scanning electron micrographs of the longissimus muscle dissected from 32-mo-old steers clearly showed that the adipose tissues were formed between muscle fiber bundles, that the honeycomb structure of endomysia was partially broken, and that the perimysium separated into thinner collagen fibers. In semitendinosus muscle, in which the crude fat content was lower (P<.05) than that in longissimus muscle, the structure of the intramuscular connective tissue remained rigid at 32 mo of age. The shear force value of the muscle increased even in the late fattening period, from 20 to 32 mo of age. Thus, the development of adipose tissues in longissimus muscle appears to disorganize the structure of the intramuscular connective tissue and contributes to tenderization of highly marbled beef from Japanese Black cattle during the late fattening period.  (+info)

Accuracy of application of USDA beef quality and yield grades using the traditional system and the proposed seven-grade yield grade system. (8/4316)

Beef carcasses (n = 5,542) were evaluated by three USDA on-line graders and compared with the computed expert USDA quality (QG) and yield grades (YG) during 8-h shifts at a major beef-processing facility for a 2-wk period to evaluate the accuracy of applying USDA QG and YG within the traditional five-grade and the proposed seven-grade (segregating YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B) YG systems. Quality grade distribution of the carcasses was 1.1% Prime, 50.0% Choice, 43.8% Select, and 5.1% No-Roll. Accuracy of applying QG was not affected (P>.05) by changing from the five-grade (91.5%) to either the seven-grade system, when determining only QG (94.3%), or the seven-grade system, when determining QG and YG (95.0%). Calculated expert YG successfully segregated carcasses into their respective YG, but on-line graders could not differentiate between YG 4 and 5 in the seven-grade systems. The application of YG in the five-grade system was more accurate (P<.05) than either of the seven-grade systems. A trend existed for on-line graders to undergrade carcasses as the numerical YG increased. Total accuracy of applying YG decreased by 19.4 to 21.8% when switching from the five-grade to the seven-grade system. The segmentation of USDA YG 2 and 3 into YG 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B resulted in a decrease in the ability of on-line graders to accurately apply the YG.  (+info)

  • Meat hanging is a culinary process , used in beef aging , that improves the flavor of meats by allowing the natural enzymes in the meat to break down the tissue through dry aging. (
  • Meat has been hung and dry aged throughout history after butchers discovered that this method makes beef more tender and flavorful than meat eaten immediately after slaughter and butchering. (
  • Meat hanging experienced a surge of popularity in the 1980s though, and dry aged beef continues to be sold in high-end restaurants around the world. (
  • The process of meat hanging involves hanging the meat (usually beef) in a controlled environment. (
  • Eating meat does make it a little easier to obtain these nutrients, but the negative aspects of beef and other cultivated red meats, I believe, outweigh the positive, especially when meat is eaten at all regularly. (
  • We will call this "beef," and most of our discussion refers to this flesh of the cattle, because that is the commonly consumed meat, though in some cultures lamb or pork is more common. (
  • If eating meat, it is wise to eat more of the leaner cuts, such as flank or round steak, rump or chuck roasts, lean ground beef or stew meat, veal cutlets, or sirloin steaks, at the higher end. (
  • Another red meat consumed fairly commonly, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, lamb is similar to beef in its nutrient makeup and high protein content, and is said biblically to be the closest to human flesh. (
  • Eating processed meats like bacon and hot dogs causes bowel cancer, while eating red meat (including beef and veal, pork, goat and lamb) probably is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • If the meat consumption is the cause of the arthritis, I suspect it's due to the type of high Omega-6 grain fed beef widely available for the past few decades. (
  • A significant increase in risk of colorectal cancer associated with red meat, beef and fried meat was observed. (
  • The main source of red meat provided by the researchers was beef, while chicken served as the main white meat protein. (
  • Bologna is a semisolid meat product made from one or more livestock sources, most commonly beef or pork, and may contain poultry meat. (
  • The "red meats" are probably the most controversial of the food categories It is very clear that an excess of meat in the diet can cause all kinds of problems from the high amounts of fat and sodium, and likely from excess protein as well. (
  • But many doctors and other people believe that they have to eat red meats for a balanced diet?that without the protein and iron from meat, they will be undernourished. (
  • They all provide a high amount of complete protein, as these muscle meats are very close in makeup to human protein. (
  • Besides the protein, fat, and calories in the meats, there are many other nutrients. (
  • If you have problems with cholesterol or if you have a family history of cholesterol or heart disease, then it is best to consume less of both red and white meats and instead substitute "beans, lentils, higher protein grains like quinoa, and soy-based products like tofu and tempeh," she said. (
  • Red meat gets its color from myoglobin, a protein which is helps the body utilize oxygen more efficiently in aerobic respiration. (
  • Helping to lose weight when lean red meat is eaten on a high-protein diet. (
  • That's because the acid byproduct required to digest the significant amount of protein in red meat can have a negative impact on bones and joints. (
  • Up to 3.5% non-meat binders and extenders (such as nonfat dry milk, cereal, or dried whole milk) or 2% isolated soy protein may be used, but must be shown in the ingredients statement on the product's label by its common name. (
  • LUNCHEON MEAT TULIP (made in Denmark) is not made of 70% of meat as expected (base on country standard), but contains 18% of pork meat, 39% of chicken mechanically separated meat, 18% of pork mechanically separated meat. (
  • Mechanically Separated" means that the meat product contains more than 150 milligrams of calcium per 100 grams of product, whereas a product that falls below this threshold can list the ingredient as "pork trimmings" or "ground pork", for example. (
  • 84.3-93.2%) with increasing slaughter weight, which, however, had little effect on primal cuts meat yield. (
  • It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing slaughter weight increased the volume of meat, but had little effect on meat yield. (
  • However, in other regions, pigs are still harvested at lighter weights, and the optimal slaughter weight relative to cut yield and meat quality has not been determined yet. (
  • After slaughter the meat remains dark until it is cut and exposed to oxygen in the air when it becomes bright red. (
  • In Guatemala , a lunch meat is a traditional dish eaten in November. (
  • The study, funded by the Swedish Cancer Foundation and Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, found that for each 50 grams of processed meat eaten every day - equivalent to a sausage or two rashers of bacon - there was a 19 per cent rise in the risk of pancreatic cancer compared to those who ate no meat. (
  • In one cohort study , scientists studied 11,000 people, 57 percent of whom were omnivores (meat eaters) and the other 43 percent were vegetarians. (
  • Yet in this study, researchers found the overall death rates were cut in half for both health-conscious meat eaters and for vegetarians, as compared to the average person eating a western-style, processed food diet. (
  • In Commonwealth countries, luncheon meat specifically refers to products that can include mechanically reclaimed meat and offal . (
  • And because meat products can be some of the most resource intensive to produce, eating less - and more sustainably raised - meat can reduce the impact of the conventional meat industry on our land, water, air and climate. (
  • This increased risk persisted after controlling for total energy, total meat and total fat intake. (
  • On the other hand, total meat and total fat intake were not longer significant. (
  • Instead, you can cut back on your intake of red meat, be more cautious about which cuts of meat you consume and prepare your meat in healthy ways. (
  • The recommended intake of red meat varies according to which source you look at, but the World Cancer Research Fund suggests limiting the amount of red meat you eat to no more than 17 ounces a week. (
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the weight and composition of cuts, and the meat quality of pigs of a genotype selected for high lean production slaughtered between 100 and 145kg live weight. (
  • For example, the muscles in the meat continue to use the oxygen that is in the proteins of the blood. (
  • The study, led by scientists at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) - the research arm of UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland - surprised the researchers with the discovery that consuming high levels of red meat or white poultry resulted in higher blood cholesterol levels than consuming a comparable amount of plant proteins. (
  • Non-meat proteins such as vegetables, dairy, and legumes, including beans, show the best cholesterol benefit, according to the new study published Tuesday in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition . (
  • When meat is cooked the proteins denature making the meat firmer. (
  • Although many experts attempt to steer individuals away from eating red meat, this type of food does provide a few health benefits for the body that should not be overlooked. (
  • According to The Independent, about one in six cases of food poisoning are caused by red meat. (
  • WHO recommendations also include eating diets higher in whole grains and vegetables, in addition to limiting red and processed meats, because of evidence that dietary fiber protects against cancer. (
  • Then there are all the confounding factors, such as people eating high meat diets often eating low fruit/veggie amounts. (
  • In most other deli meats, the source animal is somewhat apparent through the texture and flavor of the meat (think roast turkey or ham). (
  • This type of meat comes from muscles that get lots of use as turkeys spend their time walking around being turkeys. (
  • Many people should be more cautious about preparing and eating this type of meat since it has a higher risk of causing this illness. (
  • The cow-steer-cattle family is what most people think when we say "meat. (
  • Sodium is also found in larger amounts than in other foods, but if meat is unsalted, it is not very high. (
  • Most pre-sliced lunch meats are higher in fat , nitrates , and sodium than those that are sliced to order, as a larger exposed surface requires stronger preservatives. (
  • A Group 2a classification means there is strong evidence from studies in animals to label red meat as probably cancer-causing, combined with limited evidence from human studies that also shows eating red meat to be positively associated with developing bowel cancer in the colon or rectum. (
  • Luckily, the WHO's ruling comes on the heels of a growing trend toward eating less and better meat in America. (
  • I guess I have to start eating red meat a little more. (
  • so she went back to eating meat and can play the piano again. (
  • Although a 19 per cent increase in pancreatic cancer risk from eating processed meat may seem high - it is an increase on top of a comparatively small risk of developing pancreatic cancer. (
  • For some, there are very real ethical concerns about eating meat. (
  • Or is eating meat the key to longevity, as it seemed to be for the Plains Indians who lived on buffalo and had the highest number of centenarians in history? (
  • They certainly aren't eating small to moderate amounts of grass-fed or organic meat along with a pile of colorful fruits and veggies. (
  • There may be other effects from eating red meat that contribute to cardiovascular disease, said the University of California, San Francisco researchers. (
  • Although further evidence is needed to prove this link, this reputable study has caused many women to think twice about eating red meat regularly. (
  • That has led many researchers to believe that eating too much red meat may increase the risk for this disease. (
  • Many of the negative effects caused by red meat have scared people away from eating it. (
  • Some camps rail against the saturated fat and cholesterol found in meat, or say that meat is inflammatory , or that it contributes to cancer or type 2 diabetes . (
  • But the results were notable, as they indicated that restricting meat altogether, whether red or white, is more advisable for lowering blood cholesterol levels than previously thought. (
  • Therefore, using standard LDL cholesterol levels as the measure of cardiovascular risk may lead to overestimating that risk for both higher meat and saturated fat intakes, as standard LDL cholesterol tests may primarily reflect levels of larger LDL particles. (
  • Meanwhile, the effects of white and red meats on participants' cholesterol levels were identical when saturated fat levels were equivalent. (
  • Many cuts of red meat contain high amounts of cholesterol, which can certainly lead to negative health impacts over time. (
  • Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered between 100 and 150kg live weight were evaluated. (
  • The richer and fattier meats also tend to have the richer flavor, as it is the fats, especially the saturated ones, that tend to add flavor to these foods. (
  • The higher-grade meats are usually fattened on special foods just before they are slaughtered to make them more flavorful and tender, as well as higher priced. (
  • Many of the studies demonizing meat use subjects who are smokers, drink too much, eat way too much sugar and processed foods, eat very little fruits and veggies, and do not exercise. (
  • Furthermore, the price of hung meat is compounded because of the high chance of the meat spoiling. (
  • A study published in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism , found that consuming high levels of red meat (defined as two or more ounces every day) more than doubled the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, compared to individuals who ate less than one ounce of red meat each day. (
  • Dietitians have assumed that the generally high saturated fat content of red meat contributes to cardiovascular disease risk, yet no one has adequately tested this theory, according to the researchers. (
  • Although this appears to contradict one of the health benefits of red meat, it's important to note that certain cuts of this meat are high in saturated fat, which can lead to weight gain. (
  • Through AMR, the bone is to remain intact while meat is scraped, shaved, or forced off through a sieve at high pressure. (
  • A prospective study following 448,568 people across Europe showed a positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, due to cardiovascular diseases and cancer . (
  • Next time you sit down to enjoy your holiday meal, have confidence that you know why your meat choice tastes delicious. (
  • The meat of pigs slaughtered at heavier weights showed more intense red color and the same intramuscular fat content as lighter pigs, while tenderness was slightly affected. (
  • Processed meat was classified as Group 1, carcinogenic to humans - the strongest possible designation, like tobacco and asbestos. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recently stated processed meat and bacon are carcinogenic and red meat is most likely, as well. (
  • But why do these different types of meat exist, and what underlies these differences? (