Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial: Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features may include HEADACHE; VOMITING; HEMIPARESIS; and impaired mental function.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Echo-Planar Imaging: A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
fMRI brain scanning has been used to measure pain, giving good correlations with self-reported pain. Hedonic adaptation means ... A scale with corresponding faces depicting various levels of pain is shown to the patient and they select one. Patients who ... 2Fjournal.pone.0024124 Towards a Physiology-Based Measure of Pain: Patterns of Human Brain Activity Distinguish Painful from ... 10.observation gait posture r.o.m palpation aggravating factor relieving factor tenderness 11.treatment Does the patient show ...
... uses SPECT scans, a type of brain-imaging technology, to measure neural activity through blood flow. It has a ... brains. A retrospective study released by Amen in 2010 showed that "regional cerebral blood flow, as measured by SPECT, ... Amen Clinics uses SPECT scans to measure blood flow and activity patterns in the brain. The company also uses diagnostics such ... As of 2014, Amen Clinics had a database of more than 100,000 functional brain scans. The subjects are from 111 countries with ...
A CT scan is the best test to look for bleeding in or around your brain. In some hospitals, a perfusion CT scan may be done to ... Angiogram: a test that looks at the blood vessels that feed the brain. An angiogram will show whether the blood vessel is ... Treatment goals include lifesaving interventions, supportive measures, and control of symptoms. Treatment depends on the ... In some hospitals, a perfusion MRI scan may be done to see where the blood is flowing and not flowing in your brain. ...
... but uses MRI as a scanning modality. MRI has the advantage of being better at detecting damage to the brain itself as a result ... Given that older studies show no difference in incidence between men and women, it has been suggested that the use of oral ... Evidence to support or refute the use of antiepileptic drugs as a preventive measure, however, is lacking. In 2004 the first ... which is located at the base of the brain. Clinton's thrombotic episode was discovered on an MRI scan done for follow-up of a ...
fMRI measures blood flow in the brain. Areas with higher blood flow as shown on fMRI scans are said to be activated. This is ... During this task, patients brains are fMRI scanned. These results can then be compared to fMRI data of the same patients when ... Positron emission tomography is another method used to study brain activity. Two areas of the brain that are important in ... When people are shown images of body parts, the extrastriate body area is activated. The temporoparietal junction is involved ...
PET scan of the brain of a person with AD showing a loss of function in the temporal lobe ... Measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease is showing promise as a diagnostic indicator. ... "Brain. 132 (Pt 8): 2048-57. doi:10.1093/brain/awp123. PMC 2714061. PMID 19460794.. ... Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and the brain of a person with Alzheimer's (right). Characteristics that separate the ...
Left: CT scan of normal brain; Right: Schiavo's 2002 CT scan provided by Ronald Cranford, showing loss of brain tissue. The ... The court determined that Schiavo would not have wished to continue life-prolonging measures,[4] and on April 24, 2001, her ... CAT scan) was performed, which showed severe cerebral atrophy. An EEG showed no measurable brain activity. The five physicians ... The five doctors examined Terri Schiavo's medical records, brain scans, the videos, and Terri herself. Drs. Cranford, Greer, ...
These measures show little benefit five years later.[16] Attempting to prevent schizophrenia in the pre-onset phase with anti- ... The effects of CRT may be seen on fMRI scans of the brain. ... Brain wiring. The human brain has 100 billion neurons; each one ... brain tissue development was replicated in three dimensions by scientists cloning a human "mini-brain" using stem cells. This ... The brain cannot tell them apart from normal sounds that are heard. This is not yet fully understood by science. ...
Berglund conducted a study in which MRIs were used to measure the volume and shapes of the brain. She also used PET scans to ... It has been shown to influence proaptotic proteins so that they increase neuronal cell death in certain brain regions. Another ... Brain wiring comparisons of homosexuals and persons of the opposite sex show that homosexuals may be born with a predisposition ... other parts of the brain are similar between homosexuals and persons of the opposite gender as shown through PET and MRI scans ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning has been used to measure pain, and correlates well with self-reported pain ... In The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution, biologist Richard Dawkins addresses the question of why pain should ... Towards a Physiology-Based Measure of Pain: Patterns of Human Brain Activity Distinguish Painful from Non-Painful Thermal ... Phantom pain is pain felt in a part of the body that has been amputated, or from which the brain no longer receives signals. It ...
They were told to lie to a computer asking questions while they underwent a brain scan only when the question would reveal ... Critiques of this technique point out that fMRI does not actually measure lying, only the increased brain activity that occurs ... His studies showed that the inferior and superior prefrontal and anterior cingulate gyri and the parietal cortex, showed ... He has also studied the brain effects of packaging and advertising and how infants' cuteness motivates caretaking in adults. He ...
This time, instead of Lorelei, it is the marionettes' brains they attempt to scan, but a security measure within the maiden ... Instead, he chooses to try to show affection to them equally, without singling any of them out. While the girls feel sorry for ... Doctor Hess and a member of the Xian government had used the opportunity to scan Lorelei's brain for information, although they ... In January 1995 a twelve-episode audio drama series called SM Girls Saber Marionette R aired on the radio show Nowanchatte Say ...
... as fMRI offer a measure of the activation of certain brain areas in response to cognitive tasks engaged in during the scanning ... In the rat brain, single-whisker touch has been shown to elicit BOLD signals from the somatosensory cortex.[32] ... This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other ... MRI brain scans use a strong, permanent, static magnetic field to align nuclei in the brain region being studied. Another ...
During scanning, participants were tested twice for their memory on either the movie details or context in which the movie was ... shown. These two test times allowed for the acquisition of brain activity "maps" during and after post-hypnotic amnesia had ... Recall amnesia can then be measured by the amount of accurate tasks and activities the subject is able to remember. Recognition ... Charcot showed that if an individual (through post-hypnotic suggestion) self-suggested that they had a psychological trauma, ...
CT scan of the brain showing subarachnoid hemorrhage as a white area in the center and stretching into the sulci to either side ... A protocol referred to as "triple H" is often used as a measure to treat vasospasm when it causes symptoms; this is the use of ... People whose CT scan shows a large hematoma, depressed level of consciousness, or focal neurologic signs may benefit from ... The modality of choice is computed tomography (CT scan), without contrast, of the brain. This has a high sensitivity and will ...
The overall brain anatomy was reconstructed using the scan. The reconstruction showed that the regions associated with vision ... Paul measured some of the inner primary feathers, finding rachises 1.25-1.4 mm (0.049-0.055 in) across. Despite these ... which had a crocodile-like anatomy of the brain and inner ear. Newer research shows that while the Archaeopteryx brain was more ... scientists analysing a detailed CT scan of the braincase of the London Archaeopteryx concluded that its brain was significantly ...
Hyperintensities refer to areas of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human brain or that ... WMH volume, calculated as a potential diagnostic measure, has been shown to correlate to certain cognitive factors. ... Brain. 139 (Pt 4): 1164-1179. doi:10.1093/brain/aww008. PMID 26912649. Kempton, Matthew J.; Geddes, JR; Ettinger, U; Williams, ... Studies suggest that a combination of MTA and severe WMH showed more than a fourfold increase in the frequency of mild ...
Rapid CT scan and other diagnostic measures are used to determine proper treatment, which may include both medication and ... The tissue surrounding a bleed is often less dense than the rest of the brain because of edema, and therefore shows up darker ... Causes include brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors. The largest risk factors for spontaneous ... Wu H, Zhang Z, Hu X, Zhao R, Song Y, Ban X, Qi J, Wang J (2010). "Dynamic changes of inflammatory markers in brain after ...
The brain scans showed that the area of the brain that is triggered when someone has math anxiety overlaps the same area of the ... Other tests are often given to measure different dimensionalities of math anxiety, such as the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics ... After using brain scans, scholars confirmed that the anticipation or the thought of solving math actually causes math anxiety. ... The results showed that women who were trained to approach rather than avoid math showed a positive implicit attitude towards ...
As people grow older, it has been shown that white matter integrity in the brain generally decreases as the natural process of ... Bialystok, Craik, Fischer, Ware, and Schweizer analyzed and measured brain atrophy in both monolingual and bilingual patients ... diagnosed with AD using computed tomography (CT) scans with the logic that bilingual patients, when matched with monolingual ... Results supported this notion and found that the bilingual patients with AD did, in fact, show a greater level of brain atrophy ...
... , Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in ... This may be the case even if the injury is quite severe, though these may show up days after the injury. Hemorrhages may be ... Measures to avoid swelling include prevention of hypotension (low blood pressure), hyponatremia (insufficient sodium), and ... multiple petechial hemorrhages are not always visible using current imaging techniques like CT and MRI scans. ...
Recent research has shown that there is a strong link between genetic pathways that cause brain develop and mutations in that ... Prior to diagnoses that used MRI scanning as a way to confirm brain overgrowth, cases of megalencephaly were diagnosed by ... autopsy in which the physical brain was measured and weighed. Future research is targeted at further understanding mutations ... Studies have shown that the protein is primarily active during early development and is believed to have a role in brain ...
In most cases the procedure started with the medical team taking a number of CT scan X-ray images of the brain of the patient. ... These studies showed that the caudal part of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a more important function in cognitive ... The study measured the excitability of motor cortex, as well as intracortical inhibition in OCD patients and a control of ... Upon the correct insertion of the holder into the brain tissue, air was injected and more scan images were taken. Then, after ...
Comparison of brain fingerprinting with polygraphy showed mixed results consistent with "a mix of proven techniques and ... Giridharadas, Anand (2008-09-15). "India's use of brain scans in court dismays critics". New York Times. Lakshmanan, A.R. (July ... The technique consists of the measuring and recording a person's electrical brainwaves and their brain response. ... brain fingerprinting' a breakthrough or a sham?". The Verge. Rosenfeld, J. P. (2005). "Brain fingerprinting: A critical ...
According to Thomson, "Portions of the right hemisphere, extended left brain sites, or both have been shown to be recruited to ... scan to confirm the presence of a brain injury and to identify its precise location." In circumstances where a person is ... A comprehensive aphasia assessment includes both formal and informal measures. Formal assessments: Boston Diagnostic Aphasia ... This has a direct effect on the amount of oxygen and nutrients being able to supply the brain, which causes brain cells to die ...
Whole-body PET scan using 18F-FDG. The normal brain and kidneys are labeled, and radioactive urine from breakdown of the FDG is ... What is actually measured indirectly is the flow of blood to different parts of the brain, which is, in general, believed to be ... Research has shown that Bayesian methods that involve a Poisson likelihood function and an appropriate prior probability (e.g ... For brain imaging, registration of CT, MRI and PET scans may be accomplished without the need for an integrated PET-CT or PET- ...
... , ... showed a 48% reduction. Single factor analysis showed that among gender, age of seizure onset, disease duration, EEG pattern ... scan was performed. All the pictures were reconstructed for previously acquired 1.5T MRI (T1 sagittal image, 1 mm slices; T2 ... and depression status were measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), ...
Head CT scan. A head computed tomography (CT) scan uses many x-rays to create pictures of the head, including the skull, brain ... Infection of the brain can be fatal. In this slide, ameba are shown in a sample of brain tissue. Ameba represent a serious ... An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain. ... Infection of the brain can be fatal. In this slide, ameba are shown in a sample of brain tissue. Ameba represent a serious ...
Disease progression, as measured by brain scans, slowed significantly. Blood work showed an elevation of "suppressor" cells ... And new brain lesions showed up on scans, indicating that the disease continued to advance. Amy tried another drug called beta ... Ova began showing up in his stool, indicating that his body now hosted living, breeding parasites. When he tapered off his ... In Jorge Llamass clinic, I riffled through several months of tests showing that Aglietti, my hookworm donor, didnt have H.I.V ...
A Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed multiple brain lesions. A biopsy specimen from the occipital lobe was collected and sent ... The objects of interest shown in the Figures measured 10 - 25 µm in diameter. What is your diagnosis? Based on what criteria? ... Images of structures shown in Figures A, B and C were observed by the pathologist on hematoxylin-and-eosin (H&E) stained ...
Neuroimagery (CT scan, brain MRI).. Secondary Outcome Measures: *Evaluate the efficacy of intracerebral administration of a ... Show more We will be updating this site in phases. This allows us to move faster and to deliver better services. Show less ... Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn. Brain Diseases, Metabolic. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Primary Outcome Measures: *Evaluate the tolerance of the intracerebral administration of a single dose of AAVrh.10cuARSA [ Time ...
The first scan is a magnetic resonance imaging scan to show a full picture of the brain. The second and third scans are PET ... Primary Outcome Measures : *To determine effect of CRH stimulation on 18F-FDG uptake in high-resolution PET-imaging of ACTH- ... The second PET scan will be done more than 24 hours but less than 14 days after the first PET scan. The second PET scan will be ... Effects of Hormone Stimulation on Brain Scans for Cushing s Disease. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
... a drug that clears amyloid plaque from the brain, halting the disease. ... Results were measured using brain scans on 856 early-stage Alzheimers patients.. ... New Alzheimers Drug Shows Major Promise. The first phase of clinical trials failed, but new results are called encouraging. by ... Unlike phase one results in December 2017, which showed disappointing results after 12 months, this phase - which lasted 18 ...
In the experiment researchers scanned the brains of the heterosexual ...,Brain,Scan,Shows,What,Beauty,is,Worth,medicine,medical ... 17 (HealthDay News) -- New brain-scan research is prov...Researchers at Duke University Medical Center found that specific area ... medical device used to measure lung function for a ... Breaking Medicine Technology:. [0] EpiVax Launches Precision Cancer ... Draining away brains toxic protein to stop Alzheimers. 2. Vision restoration therapy shown to improve brain activity in brain ...
University of Pittsburgh study shows that changes in brain function seen on functional MRI scan can be measured by ... University of Pittsburgh study shows that changes in brain function seen on functional MRI scan can be measured by ... fMRI is one of the few brain scanning tools that can show brain activity, not just the anatomy. Traditional brain scanning ... In recent years, research has shown that until a concussed brain is completely healed, the brain may be vulnerable to further ...
Whilst lying in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, which can be used to measure activity in the brain, the children ... Home Brain and Nerves Brain scans show children with ADHD have faulty off-switch for mind-wandering ... By studying the brain scans, the researchers were able to show that typically developing children switched off their DMN ... Brain scans show children with ADHD have faulty off-switch for mind-wandering. ...
... of abnormal cells that start in the brain. ... A primary brain tumor is a group (mass) ... CT scan of the head. *EEG (to measure the electrical activity of the brain) ... Examination of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) (may show cancerous cells). *MRI of the head ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, the membranes ...
... as a measure of brain activity.. Overall, the study found, children with autism showed distinct differences in the mesolimbic ... Using MRI brain scans, researchers found that kids with autism showed differences in the structure and function of a brain ... The researchers scanned children who were ages 7 to 13. And its possible, Supekar said, that the brain circuit did not develop ... If thats the case, it would raise another possibility, Supekar said: Doctors may be able to use MRI brain scans to see whether ...
A single scan measured the brain in fine detail to reveal damaged areas. By comparing these images to a healthy persons, ... Results showed that participants with the most brain damage were much more likely to develop thinking problems. The analysis ... Advanced MRI brain scan can predict stroke-related dementia. Advanced MRI brain scan can predict stroke-related dementia. ... A study has found that an advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scan analysis in patients with stroke-related, small ...
However, the scans showed unusual patterns of brain activity in the frontal lobe. ... While their brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the former players and 60 healthy ... Ex-football players show profound brain problems. Reuters, London. Fri, Oct 18, 2013 - Page 20. ... Scientists have found "profound abnormalities" in scans of brain activity in a group of retired football players, adding to ...
Emergency Ct scan of the brain showed general edema. he was transferred to another hospital facility for treatment. On the ... 180/min and his BP could not be measured. Hypotoneness of his extremities was noted. HIs pupils showed no abnormalities and his ... "assess that it is possible that the child has some kind of sepsis that has lead to severe edema of the brain." No results were ... "glucosis was 0.6." Intensive care treatment was reported, "liquor" showed no abnormalities. Growth of Staphylococcul aureus was ...
True Love Shows Up On Brain Scans. Reference Sources 130. February 11, 2010 ... Arthur Aron, a social psychologist at Stony Brook University in New York, has done brain scans on people newly in love and ... Bianca Acevedo, postdoctoral researcher at UC Santa Barbara, looked at brain scans of couples claiming to be madly in love ... In satisfied couples, says Acevedo, oxytocin and vasopressin have been shown to activate parts of the brain that are associated ...
... measure its intensity and tell whether a drug was relieving it. Though the research is in its early stages, it opens the door ... scientists reported Wednesday that they were able to see pain on brain scans and, for the first time, ... Brain signatures showed their pain was being relieved both times in proportion to how much drug was in their systems. ... Doctors use brain scans to see and measure pain. Published April 11, 2013. Associated Press ...
Tests showed i had really low dopamine levels,. How did they measure dopamine? Like in a urine sample? Blood? Brain scan?. If ... How did they measure dopamine? Like in a urine sample? Blood? Brain scan?. If the hospital went to those lengths to test you, ... Tests showed i had really low dopamine levels, They gave me 2x 54 & 2x 36 mg.. I wasnt even overstimulant, It felt asif i took ...
Studies conducted on adolescents and young adults show significant differences between the two age groups in the brain region ... All the while, they were hooked to a functional-MRI that measures blood flow throughout the brain. ... When the volunteers received their rewards, the scans showed activation of another brain region, and there was no difference ... Abuse and Alcoholism used brain scans to test whether the developing teen-age brain is any different from the mature brain of ...
An assessment of your tumor using scans of the brain. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) will be used to look at and evaluate the ... Primary Outcome Measures : *To determine if RAD001 can either shrink or slow the growth of a low-grade glioma [ Time Frame: ... If these tests show that you are eligible to participate in the research study, you will begin the study treatment. If you do ... Uncontrolled brain or leptomeningeal metastases, including patients who continue to require glucocorticoids for brain or ...
Brain scans of healthy adults showing low (top) and high (lower) levels of beta-amyloid protein. ... In the new study, researchers measured levels of beta-amyloid protein in the brains of 137 cognitively healthy adults between ... so data on middle-aged adults is critically important to understanding the transition from a healthy brain to a diseased brain. ... Please enter the two words shown above:. Help Too illegible? Get two new words. Please enter the words you see in the box, in ...
Normal brain CT scan. *Unlikely to survive for the next 24 hours in the opinion of the ICU Consultant or Consultant ... October 2020 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure) Current Primary Outcome Measures (submitted: May 3, 2019) ... Traumatic Brain Injury Associated Radiological DVT Incidence and Significance Study Official Title Traumatic Brain Injury ... Traumatic Brain Injury Associated Radiological DVT Incidence and Significance Study (TARDIS). The safety and scientific ...
To measure the effects of ghrelin on hypothalamic neuronal activation, MEMRI scans were performed on mice receiving ... Relative positions of the transverse MRI slices within the mouse brain obtained during MEMRI scanning. The corresponding ROIs ... data not shown), nor was there a significant difference in food intake or respiratory exchange ratio (data not shown). No ... 1993) Rapid brain uptake of manganese(II) across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 61:509-517. ...
... scans. PET scans measure the amount of brain plaques as well as overall brain activity, such as brain metabolism. MRI scans ... Two Parents with Alzheimers Disease? Disease May Show up Decades Early on Brain Scans. ... "Studies show that by the time people come in for a diagnosis, there may be a large amount of irreversible brain damage already ... People with both parents who had Alzheimers disease showed more severe abnormalities in brain volume, metabolism and five to ...
Demonstrates learning as an active process and shows the PET scan as an effective method of measuring brain function.. Author(s ... Hydrocephalus, a childhood disorder of excess fluid in the brain, illustrates brain plasticity - the brains amazing ability to ... Understanding the Brain Through Epilepsy. In the midst of a young boys epileptic seizure, Dr. Fritz Dreifuss describes what is ... built onto the skeletal framework in several layers; the ones shown here are those directly under the skin. Facial muscles are ...
  • The new study looks at a nerve protein called "neurofilament light chain" (NFL), which is shed into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord when nerve cells and fibers are damaged. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Previous studies have suggested that elevated levels of amyloid protein in the spinal fluid are a marker of the disease, for example, but this measure alone isn't enough, Dickerson says, because some people have naturally higher levels of the protein but no Alzheimer's. (time.com)
  • Brain Scan Shows What Beauty is Worth ( Research reveals how people rate attr. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Lymphomas that begin in the brain in people with a weakened immune system are sometimes linked to infection by the Epstein-Barr virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That circuit, located deep within the brain, helps you take pleasure in social interaction -- something that people with autism struggle with, the study authors explained. (webmd.com)
  • The new study suggests that, due to brain wiring, those interactions just do not feel as rewarding to people with autism. (webmd.com)
  • Arthur Aron, a social psychologist at Stony Brook University in New York, has done brain scans on people newly in love and found that after that first magical meeting or perfect first date, a complex system in the brain is activated that is essentially 'the same thing that happens when a person takes cocaine. (preventdisease.com)
  • This image created by Tor Wager of the University of Colorado, Boulder shows regions of the "neurologic pain signature," a standard map that can be applied to individual people who may be experiencing pain. (foxnews.com)
  • The scan, approved for use in people aged 6 to 17 years, is meant to be used as a part of a complete medical and psychological exam. (webmd.com)
  • The patterns of the scans are identical to what's seen at autopsy in other people (with CTE)," like Seau, Duerson and Easterling, he said. (cnn.com)
  • July 2, 2014 The less older people sleep, the faster their brains age, according a new study. (seniorjournal.com)
  • The National Institute of Mental Health found that the certain sections of the brain in people with ADHD mature slower than those without ADHD. (healthline.com)
  • Even though certain sections of the brain are associated with ADHD behaviors, how the parts of the brain communicate with each another may also be important in people with this condition. (healthline.com)
  • It is shown that people with ADHD tend to have a higher brain wave ratio between the two common brain waves - theta and beta - compared to people without ADHD. (healthline.com)
  • Elderly people with higher levels of certain vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids in their blood score better on mental acuity tests than those who eat junk food, a study released Wednesday showed. (newsmax.com)
  • The study, carried out among 104 people at an average age of 87, specifically measured a wide range of blood nutrient levels instead of basing results on food questionnaires, which are less precise and less reliable. (newsmax.com)
  • Study co-author Gene Bowman of the Oregon Health and Science University added while results needed to be confirmed, "it is very exciting to think that people could potentially stop their brains from shrinking and keep them sharp by adjusting their diet. (newsmax.com)
  • Small vessel disease (SVD) is a very common neurological disease in older people that reduces blood flow to the deep white matter connections of the brain, damaging and eventually killing the brain cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • It also is used to evaluate people who are having problems associated with brain function. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • They came to their conclusions after studying more than 80 people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and comparing the results of blood tests with results of MRI scans and other assessments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some estimates, based on research that was done before MRI scans were introduced to diagnose MS, suggest that there might be around 2.5 million people worldwide with MS, including an estimated 300,000-400,000 in the U.S. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Earlier studies have shown that people in the early stages of Alzheimer's show a similar pattern of low glucose uptake in these brain regions. (alzinfo.org)
  • In fact, about 30% of people over age 65 will show high levels of amyloid, not all related to Alzheimer's. (time.com)
  • The longer the people with alcohol use disorders had abstained from drinking, however, the more the cerebellar abnormalities disappeared, suggesting brain recovery and benefits of alcoholism treatment in smokers. (news-medical.net)
  • Some people think the introduction of this new law is a "tough" measure. (bmj.com)
  • Amen Clinics has scanned 50,000 people at an estimated cost of $170 million according to Daniel Amen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of this part of the brain is primarily responsible for causing the sometimes bizarre behavior of new couples, which is linked to motivation and achieving goals: excessive energy, losing sleep, euphoric feelings and, occasionally, anxiety and obsession when they're separated from their objet d'amour. (preventdisease.com)
  • Explains the importance of the frontal lobe in human functioning, and covers brain function, diagnostic assessment, cognitive function, evolution, and comparative behavior. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We found (the tau) in their brains, it lit up," said Dr. Gary Small, professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and lead author of the study, published Tuesday in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (cnn.com)
  • While this study was small, it shows how important specific brain circuits can be in modulating inflammation," says Davidson, director of the affective neuroscience laboratory and the Waisman Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior. (redorbit.com)
  • Whitman's intuition about himself-that something in his brain was changing his behavior-was spot-on. (theatlantic.com)
  • Next, they measured the rat's blood flow in the hippocampus and sensory motor cortex with an MRI brain scan and tested their behavior in learning a maze. (innovations-report.com)
  • They are starting to understand how early life experiences get translated into changes in the brain and behavior. (dana.org)
  • WEDNESDAY Feb. 17 (HealthDay News) -- New brain-scan research is prov. (bio-medicine.org)
  • WEDNESDAY, Feb. 17 (HealthDay News) -- New brain-scan research is providing insight into how you decide what things are worth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An explosion of scientific research over the past decade has taught us more about mild traumatic brain injury or concussion than we have ever known," noted Dr. Lovell, "including the knowledge that mismanagement of even seemingly mild concussions can lead to serious consequences in young athletes. (upmc.com)
  • In recent years, research has shown that until a concussed brain is completely healed, the brain may be vulnerable to further injury, which has led to published studies that have raised public awareness and significantly changed the way sports concussions are managed. (upmc.com)
  • On the other hand, he said, there is animal research suggesting the brain differences might be the cause: If you disrupt the mesolimbic reward pathway in lab mice, they become less social with each other. (webmd.com)
  • To begin with, a great deal of research shows that doing novel, exciting things together boosts marital happiness. (preventdisease.com)
  • Independent experts say the research shows a way to measure objectively what is now one of life's most subjective experiences. (foxnews.com)
  • They made a huge breakthrough in thinking about brain patterns,' said Dr. David Shurtleff, acting deputy director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, which helped sponsor the research. (foxnews.com)
  • It's really what seems to be a true measure of the experience that the patient's having,' and it gives a number to pain severity that can guide care, said one expert with no role in the studies, Dr. Costantino Iadecola, director of the Brain and Mind Research Institute at Weill Cornell Medical College. (foxnews.com)
  • James Bjork and colleagues found that as adults worked to make money in a research task, their brains experienced an increase in blood flow and volume in the nucleus accumbens, a region deep in the middle of the brain. (baltimoresun.com)
  • If these tests show that you are eligible to participate in the research study, you will begin the study treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Research in animals doesn't always translate to humans, so we don't know for sure if this means the same thing happens in human brains. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After a while it gets old and not so fulfilling to take the brain out when (an athlete) is dead," said Bailes, a neurosurgeon and director of the Brain Injury Research Institute, which focuses on the study of traumatic brain injuries and their prevention. (cnn.com)
  • Most research on how the brain controls movement has been based on examining how diseases can impair motor skills," said Dr Ed Roberts, from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London, who led the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A research team led by Dr. David Vaillancourt at the University of Florida examined how these 3 diseases affect brain regions that are critical for movement and balance. (nih.gov)
  • Read on to see what current research and science says about brain scans and ADHD. (healthline.com)
  • But tests to measure these changes are available only in a research setting, and insurance typically doesn't cover them. (medpagetoday.com)
  • I base this claim on research from the past decade showing that rapid bursts of spikes trigger the opening of specialised synaptic receptors, altering the responsiveness of neurons to subsequent spikes. (wordpress.com)
  • Tau Pet imaging, which measures the burden of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, is only used in research. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In 2008 a research team from Germany published a paper in the journal Cerebral Cortex, reporting that they had found an accurate method for measuring endorphins before and after exercise. (asics.com)
  • Meanwhile, a collaborative research team of psychologists and engineers at Dartmouth University has developed a machine learning algorithm that measures understanding from brain scan data. (gigazine.net)
  • In order to find out what is happening in the brain of a person who has a deep understanding of the problem, the research team is a student who is an engineering / physics specialty who belongs to Dartmouth University as a subject. (gigazine.net)
  • As a result of the research, it was found that the seniors unconsciously judge that 'the force is applied obliquely' and 'this is the force only in the vertical direction' when the photograph of the object is shown. (gigazine.net)
  • Brain scans are an essential tool in brain research and medicine which helps understand and identify issues or disorders in various areas of the brain. (emotiv.com)
  • This confocal micrograph shows stage V-VI oocytes (800-1000 micron diameter) of an African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), a model organism used in cell and developmental biology research. (livescience.com)
  • Taken in the course of research into how cancer cells move and spread, this Wellcome honoree shows cancer cells traveling through spaces a tenth the width of a human hair. (livescience.com)
  • There's never been a better time to be a yogi, as research now suggests that specific types of yoga may help "age-proof" the brain. (yogitimes.com)
  • Research presented the Society for Neuroscience's annual meeting in Washington, DC , sheds some light on some of those translation mechanisms-and may help to define critical periods of development that we could one day act upon to get abnormally developing brain circuits back on track. (dana.org)
  • Research by Dylan Gee and colleagues at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) suggests that the presence of a devoted caregiver may help bolster the brain circuits involved in emotional regulation, potentially preventing those problems. (dana.org)
  • In this article, we explain the imaging technology currently available to diagnose TBI-as well as the ongoing research on risk factors, and the short- and long-term consequences of brain injuries. (lww.com)
  • Despite years of research into traumatic brain injury (TBI), the tests currently available to neurologists, emergency physicians, and other experts can't reliably identify who has sustained a TBI after a blow to the head, and who has not. (lww.com)
  • This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future. (innovations-report.com)
  • Women who are pregnant or nursing should not undergo a PET scan. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Topiwala also pointed out there might have been "selection bias" in the sample - individuals had to get from London to Oxford in order to undergo the MRI scans and then spend an hour in a brain scanning machine and undergo other memory tests - which individuals who were alcohol dependent or had suffered brain damage from alcohol use might be less likely to do. (pbs.org)
  • Not only did clearing the plaques seem to halt the disease progression, the drug also appeared to offer "hints" of improved cognitive function on memory tests and other measures. (aarp.org)
  • A big quest in neuroscience is to find tests or scans that can help diagnose ailments with mental and physical components such as pain, depression and PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder. (foxnews.com)
  • Besides the heat tests, they had scans while being shown a picture of their former partners and then a picture of a good friend. (foxnews.com)
  • Tests showed i had really low dopamine levels, They gave me 2x 54 & 2x 36 mg. (addforums.com)
  • Blood tests, including tests to measure any effects of your disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We found that this high-amyloid group showed deficits in cognitive performance even though the individuals were well-educated and scored normally on our standard tests of cognition," said Dr. Karen Rodrigue, a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Vital Longevity and lead author of the study. (utdallas.edu)
  • These are tests that show images of the brain. (chkd.org)
  • Glucose homeostasis and adiposity were determined by glucose tolerance tests and EchoMRI, lipid species were measured by quantitative lipidomics, and biochemical and molecular alterations were assessed by western blotting, quantitative PCR and ELISAs. (springer.com)
  • Co-author Dr. Randel Swanson, a Penn specialist in brain injury rehabilitation, said "there's no question that something happened," but imaging tests can't determine what it was. (keloland.com)
  • The tests revealed that women who were entering or who had undergone menopause had markedly lower levels of glucose metabolism in several critical brain regions than those who were premenopausal. (alzinfo.org)
  • But combining amyloid tests with brain scans that check for the Alzheimer's brain signature could be an effective screen to identify those at highest risk of developing the condition. (time.com)
  • Compulsory brain scans and genetic tests for boxers-or should boxing be banned? (bmj.com)
  • The Victorian government is also considering the introduction of compulsory genetic tests that indicate a predisposition to brain damage. (bmj.com)
  • The nerve fibers there tended to be thinner, and there were signs of weaker connections among brain cells. (webmd.com)
  • They then took brain samples from genetically modified mice and looked to see what effect ethanol had on AGRP nerve cells from the hypothalamus of the brain. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each brain region is composed of grey matter, consisting of the main bodies of nerve cells, and white matter, which is mainly made up of bundles of fibres that carry signals from one region to another. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It records the type and number of brain waves that nerve cells give off each second. (healthline.com)
  • We showed that the size of the tumor didn't affect the function of the nerve," says Blakeley. (medindia.net)
  • Instead of analyzing the brain chemicals typically targeted in MRS, he examined changes in three chemicals that are elevated in nerve tissues under inflammatory or oxidative stresses-the kinds of conditions induced by HIV. (amfar.org)
  • If that brain is moved quickly enough, it can disrupt the signals between neurons," explains Jeffrey Kutcher, M.D., member of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), director of Michigan Neurosport, and associate professor of neurology at the University of Michigan. (lww.com)
  • To better understand this link, Elizabeth Cox and colleagues at Yale University wanted to look at whether physical and emotional abuse influenced the development of the prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain responsible for emotional regulation and self-control. (dana.org)
  • Gee focused on the circuit connecting the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, the region of the brain responsible for the "fight or flight" response. (dana.org)
  • In MS, immune attacks destroy the myelin sheath that protects the nerves, resulting in disruption to the electrical signals that they carry to and from the brain and the rest of the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Alle performed rat studies which showed that rat axons consume only a third as much energy as squid axons, and it is likely that human nerves are closer to rats in messaging efficiency. (neurosciencemarketing.com)
  • Just as railway switches must be flipped to allow trains to pass, synaptic weights must be reset before brain signals can follow one path through a neural circuit instead other possible paths. (wordpress.com)
  • And if information is realised in the brain at the level of circuits, not just neurons, it is no wonder that listening to spikes in single neurons has not allowed us to crack the neural code. (wordpress.com)
  • Chadwick and colleagues published a study last month in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which, for the first time, reveals where and how conceptual similarity is represented in the brain and why this produces the DRM effect, giving new insight into the neural basis of conceptual knowledge. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But until now, nobody knew exactly what brain circuits were involved in these seemingly intertwined emotional and immune events or how the circuits might influence the severity of an acute asthma response. (redorbit.com)
  • In CT scans it is often difficult to decide where the edges of the SVD are, making it difficult to estimate the severity of the disease, explains Dr Bentley. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Dr Bentley added: "Current methods to diagnose the disease through CT or MRI scans can be effective, but it can be difficult for doctors to diagnose the severity of the disease by the human eye. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The athletes wore special helmets with sensors that measured the number and severity of head impacts. (npr.org)
  • Preliminary analyses also showed that smaller cerebellar volumes were related to greater smoking severity, and that the observed cerebellar volume abnormalities were associated with lower intelligence. (news-medical.net)
  • If that's the case, it would raise another possibility, Supekar said: Doctors may be able to use MRI brain scans to see whether a child's therapy is having an effect. (webmd.com)
  • This delay occurs mostly in the frontal lobe, the part of the brain that is responsible for impulse control, concentration, attention, and planning. (healthline.com)
  • Even though the degeneration mostly occurs in the cortical which pertains to the frontal lobes of the brain atrophy is still occurring all over the cortex. (smore.com)
  • The software identified and measured a marker of SVD, and then gave a score indicating how severe the disease was ranging from mild to severe. (imperial.ac.uk)