Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Respiratory Tract DiseasesPulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Bronchial DiseasesInspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Adrenal Cortex HormonesChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.United StatesWeldingRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Tasmania: An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Mice, Inbred C57BLRespiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)MiningExercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Great BritainAir Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Spirometry is used to measure lung function. The total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume ... Smoke in the lungs causes them to harden and become less elastic, which prevents the lungs from expanding or shrinking as they ... In order for the lungs to expel air the diaphragm relaxes, which pushes up on the lungs. The air then flows through the trachea ... Another big factor in the elasticity of the lungs is smoking because of the residue left behind in the lungs from the smoking. ...
Lower airway obstruction can be measured using spirometry. A decreased FEV1/FVC ratio (versus the normal of about 80%) is ... which prevents air from diffusing into the pulmonary arteries because of some kind of blockage in the lungs). Diseases that ... cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. ...
Measurement of transpulmonary pressure assists in spirometry in availing for calculation of static lung compliance. John B. ... Transpulmonary pressure can be measured by placing pressure transducers. The alveolar pressure is estimated by measuring the ... For a given lung volume the transpulmonary pressure is equal and opposite to the elastic recoil pressure of the lung. The ... Lung volume at any given pressure during inhalation is less than the lung volume at any given pressure during exhalation. ...
Spirometry the determination of maximum airflow at a given lung volume as measured by breathing into a dedicated machine; this ... lung volumes, and diffusion capacity, the latter a measure of lung oxygen absorptive area Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar ... Percussion of the lung fields for dullness or hyper-resonance. Auscultation (with a stethoscope) of the lung fields for ... He believed that the blood must have passed through the pulmonary artery, through the lungs, and back into the heart to be ...
This is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters which cannot be measured by spirometry. Volumes that include the residual ... The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or ... Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on ... In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in ...
Measuring pulmonary mechanics assesses the ability of the lungs to move huge volumes of air quickly through the airways to ... The measurements taken by the spirometry device are used to generate a pneumotachograph that can help to assess lung conditions ... There are four lung volumes and four lung capacities. A lung's capacity consists of two or more lung volumes. The lung volumes ... The helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes uses a closed, rebreathing circuit. This technique is based on the ...
Pulmonary reserve is measured by spirometry. If there is no evidence of undue shortness of breath or diffuse parenchymal lung ... Parts of the lung that are particularly damaged by emphysema are removed, allowing the remaining, relatively good lung to ... Lobectomy (removal of a lobe of the lung) Sublobar resection (removal of part of lobe of the lung) Segmentectomy (removal of an ... and lungs (lung disease). In most countries, cardiac surgery (involving the heart and the great vessels) and general thoracic ...
Exhaled volumes are measured by a pulmonary function test or simple spirometry, leading to an elevated residual volume and a ... On arising from a deep depth, these air-trapped areas of lung expand. This places great pressure on the lung tissue which can ... In the classic presentation, the lung will appear normal at inspiration, but on exhalation, the diseased portions of the lung ... Air trapping represents poorly aerated lung, but on its own is clinically benign. It is a common problem for smokers who dive. ...
This is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters which cannot be measured by spirometry. Volumes that include the residual ... while others are synthesized in the lungs and released into the blood when lung tissue is stretched. The lungs activate one ... The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or ... Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on ...
It cannot be estimated through spirometry, since it includes the residual volume. In order to measure RV precisely, one would ... because the lungs are more compliant and the equilibrium between the inward recoil of the lungs and outward recoil of the chest ... Lung Volumes and Forced Ventilatory Flows. Eur Respir J, Vol 6, Suppl 16, pp. 5-40, 1993. H. Hedenström, P. Malmberg, K. ... At FRC, the opposing elastic recoil forces of the lungs and chest wall are in equilibrium and there is no exertion by the ...
Other lung function tests include spirometry, measuring the amount (volume) and flow of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. ... Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung ... These fixed size lungs are called "circulatory lungs", as distinct from the "bellows-type lungs" found in most other animals. ... Some types of chronic lung diseases are classified as restrictive lung disease, because of a restriction in the amount of lung ...
Pulmonary reserve is measured by spirometry. If there is no evidence of undue shortness of breath or diffuse parenchymal lung ... Lung surgery. Main article: Lung surgery. A pleurectomy is a surgical procedure in which part of the pleura is removed. ... Lung volume reduction surgery. Lung volume reduction surgery, or LVRS, can improve the quality of life for certain COPD ... Lung cancer surgery. Not all lung cancers are suitable for surgery. The stage, location and cell type are important ...
Patients will have their lung capacity and natural breathing cycle measured so that a comfortable breath-hold capacity can be ... With this technique, consistent lung inflation levels are achieved in patients, as judged by both spirometry and verification ... "Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: The potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density ... Spirometry based designs are known as active breathing coordinator (ABC) DIBH systems. ABC utilises a mouth piece for the ...
... vision screening and tonometry and operate bio-instrumentation for spirometry (measuring lung function), electrocardiography ( ... Employers use results of the testing to implement protective measures and health plans for their employees so that early signs ... In the US, employers must provide preventative measures and protection for employees who experience 85 dB or more, over an 8- ... Any changes observed can be evaluated rapidly allowing employers to intervene and take preventative measures to protect their ...
A frequently used test for lung function for divers is spirometry, which measures the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of ... Spirometry is an important tool used for generating pneumotachographs, which are helpful in assessing conditions such as asthma ... Sometimes only peak expiratory flow (PEF) is measured, which uses a much simpler apparatus, but is still useful to give an ... Some cancers, such as lung cancer would be an absolute contraindication. Like asthma, the traditional medical response to ...
Other lung function tests include spirometry, measuring the amount (volume) and flow of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. ... Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the thoracic cavity of the chest. The right lung ... The left lung (left) and right lung (right). The lobes of the lungs can be seen, and the central root of the lung is also ... These fixed size lungs are called "circulatory lungs", as distinct from the "bellows-type lungs" found in most other animals.[ ...
This can be measured with breathing devices such as a peak flow meter or by spirometry. The term COPD includes the conditions ... Spirometry, a measurement of lung function, can provide an assessment of the severity, reversibility, and variability of ... A chest x-ray is often ordered to look for hyperinflation and rule out other lung conditions but the lung damage of COPD is not ... Severe emphysema has been treated with lung volume reduction surgery, with some success in carefully chosen cases. Lung ...
Sirolimus is an mTOR inhibitor that stabilizes lung function and improves some measures of life in LAM patients. It is approved ... Spirometry revealed obstructive changes in about 57% of patients and normal results in 34%. Restriction, defined as a total ... Lung destruction in LAM is a consequence of diffuse infiltration by neoplastic smooth muscle-like cells that invade all lung ... An FDA-approved drug for treatment of LAM, sirolimus, is available for stabilization of lung function decline. Lung transplant ...
Predicted peak expiratory flow in normal adults using Wright-scale Godfrey S, Kamburoff PL, Naim JL (1970). "Spirometry, lung ... who produced the first meter specifically designed to measure this index of lung function. Since the original design of ... It measures the airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of obstruction in the airways. Peak flow readings are higher ... It is classically reduced in obstructive lung disorders such as asthma. Due to the wide range of 'normal' values and the high ...
Spirometry is recommended to aid in diagnosis and management. It is the single best test for asthma. If the FEV1 measured by ... Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C ... Spirometry is then used to confirm the diagnosis. In children under the age of six the diagnosis is more difficult as they are ... Sputum may be produced from the lung by coughing but is often hard to bring up. During recovery from an attack, it may appear ...
... (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). It measures lung ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can be measured with a plethysmograph or dilution ... Spirometry generates pneumotachographs, which are charts that plot the volume and flow of air coming in and out of the lungs ... Other complementary lung functions tests include plethysmography and nitrogen washout. The most common parameters measured in ...
... pulmonary function testing using spirometry). In addition, Clinical Physiologists measure movements, velocities, and metabolic ... lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. Testing methods include evaluation of electrical activity (e.g. ...
... involvement of the lung and therefore patients being investigated for sarcoid should have serum immunoglobulins measured to ... Both obstructive and restrictive patterns on spirometry have been reported. The differential diagnosis includes infection, ... Many centres screen for the development of GLILD (and other lung complications) using regular lung function tests and CT scans ... Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a lung complication of common variable immunodeficiency ...
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured serially before spirometry and at 1-wk intervals. Spirometry was performed pre- and 5, ... Peripheral lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of lung GSH. Values were compared with nutritional status and lung parameters. ... Background: The lung disease of cystic fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction and an over abundance of ... Thirty-five lung cancer patients remained on study at six weeks. Overall compliance was not different between treatment arms ( ...
... medical imaging of the lungs (such as a chest X-ray or CT/CAT scan), spirometry, electrocardiography and echocardiography may ... Formal criteria for diagnosis of OHS are: Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (a measure of obesity, obtained by taking one's weight ... the tightening of small blood vessels in the lung to create an optimal distribution of blood through the lung. Persistently low ... Echo- and electrocardiography may also show strain on the right side of the heart caused by OHS, and spirometry may show a ...
... (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). It measures lung ... lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... Total lung capacity (TLC). Total lung capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air present in the lungs ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can be measured with a plethysmograph or dilution ...
... a test that measures lung function in pulmonary fibrosis, asthma and COPD. It involves inhaling and exhaling to check air flow. ... A pulmonary function test known as spirometry measures the rate of air flow in and out of the lungs, and a persons estimated ... Key spirometry air flow measurements include:. *Forced vital capacity (FVC) - This is a measurement of lung size, in liters. It ... Spirometry tests can be used to help diagnose a number of lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
Baseline spirometry. Lung function was measured by dynamic spirometry (MasterScreen Pneumo, Erich Jaeger GmbH, Germany) using ... 22 Body size is an indirect measure of lung size and can thus influence lung function parameters. Lung size can also be related ... Methods: The feasibility of measuring lung function was examined in 652 children aged 3-6 years using dynamic spirometry with ... 1 Spirometry is also a central method of measuring outcome in respiratory epidemiology. The most commonly used test of lung ...
p,Lung function tests, or pulmonary function or breathing tests, can show how well your lungs and airways are working, help ... Spirometry testing. Spirometry is a test of lung function that measures the amount of air breathed in and out using a device ... Spirometry is a test of lung function that measures the amount of air breathed in and out. Children older than 7 years are ... Lung function testing in children. Peak expiratory flow tests and spirometry are the main lung function tests done in children ...
... is a rare lung disease that causes scar tissue to grow inside your lungs. Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, ... Spirometry. You blow as hard as you can into a mouthpiece attached to a device called a spirometer. It measures how well your ... Lung Transplants for IPF. Some people with IPF can get a lung transplant. Doctors usually recommend it if your IPF is severe or ... If you fit the criteria for a lung transplant, your doctor will put you on a waiting list for a lung from a donor. After your ...
Spirometry, which means "the measuring of breath," is a routinely used clinical pulmonary function test. It measures the amount ... Spirometry is one of two NHANES 2007-8 components on respiratory health sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... Spirometry First Test Status. English Text: Spirometry First Test Status (Baseline Spirometry). Target: Both males and females ... Spirometry First Test Comment. English Text: Spirometry First Test Comment (Baseline Spirometry). Target: Both males and ...
What spirometry measures Spirometry is all about measuring the lung mechanics - how the volume in the lung empties. This is a ... Spirometry is a simple way to get an objective measure of a complex process. In the lungs, expanded alveoli (which are ... Measuring the volume of the forced expiratory air is a way to determine the limits of the lung mechanics. This is measured by a ... The remaining lung volumes shown above cannot be measured on a simple spirometer. It requires laboratory lung function ...
Spirometry Measures. *HRCT scan of the chest to image lungs. 150. All. 5 Years to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT00450918. 05-2997 ... Change from baseline in lung function on the spirometry. 100. All. up to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT02704455. BCHlung005. May ... Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance in Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease. *Mycobacteria, Atypical ...
Spirometry Measures. *HRCT scan of the chest to image lungs. 150. All. 5 Years to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT00450918. RDCRN ... Change from baseline in lung function on the spirometry. 100. All. up to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT02704455. BCHlung005. May ... Long-term Lung Function and Disease Progression in Children With Early Onset Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Lung Disease. * ... Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) measured by high speed video microscopy. *Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) measured by interferometry ...
... to do a spirometry test to get to know their lung capacity. Spirometry is one type of pulmonary function test that measures how ... A spirometry measures your lung capacity, is very simple and doesnt hurt. ... Once a lung disease is diagnosed, spirometry tests can monitor changes in lung function over time. ... Spirometry is most often used to diagnose and monitor lung problems, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ...
Asthma lung function. Spirometry measures how well & how quickly you can fill & empty your lungs. When asthma is present you ... What is spirometry with bronchodilators and what info does it tell you? ... may not be able to empty your lungs as fast as usual. This is easily recorded using a spirometer. After the initial test you ... Spirometry: Spirometry is a test performed used to evaluate for lung disease. It measures flow of air over time. It helps in ...
Here is how lungs work as the center of your breathing, the path a full breath takes in your body, and a 3-D model of lung ... The lungs are the main part of your respiratory system. ... Spirometry. This test measures the air flow into your lungs. It ... Lung scars typically result from an injury to the lung. In most cases, lung scars dont require removal or other treatment. ... See your doctor if you experience severe lung symptoms. According to the American Lung Association, warning signs of lung ...
Learn more about COPD diagnosis, as well as tests such as spirometry and the electrocardiogram. Also find out how to prepare, ... This easy, painless test measures lung function and capacity.. To perform this test, youll exhale as forcefully as possible ... Spirometry is an important test for your lung health. Learn what to expect from the test and how to interpret your results. ... Spirometry results help determine which type of lung disease you have and its severity. The results can be interpreted ...
... a peak flow meter is used to monitor symptom management at home while spirometry is used to measure lung function. ... While they both measure the amount of air your lungs can force out, ... Peak flow and spirometry seem to have similar functions. ... While they both measure the amount of air your lungs can force ... What Is Spirometry?. Your doctor uses a spirometer to measure your lung function. This instrument measures how well your lungs ...
Spirometry. Spirometry is a lung function test. It measures the amount of air you breathe out (exhale). It also measures how ... It may be used in the diagnosis of many lung conditions. Spirometry is recommended for people with asthma. The results of this ... This includes your nose, throat, chest, and lungs. Your provider will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. He or she may ...
COPD is a pulmonary disorder caused by obstructions in the airways of the lungs leading to breathing problems. Learn about COPD ... COPD Diagnosis: Spirometry Breath Test. Spirometry is a test that measures how much air you can move in and out of your lungs ... A lung transplant is typically performed in patients with very severe COPD. During a lung transplant, the damaged lung is ... How Does COPD Affect the Lungs?. Damage to the lung tissue over time causes physical changes in the lungs and the airways ...
Spirometry measures a persons lung function. The individual blows into a handheld device that records how much air they can ... www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/learn-about-copd/how-serious-is-copd.html. Munari, A. B., Gulart ... What is the link between FEV1 and COPD? FEV1 is a measurement used to stage and diagnose lung diseases. It measures the amount ... The test measures how quickly a person can empty the air from their lungs. ...
The AAAAI is the steward of several asthma measures originally developed by the PCPI Foundation and National Committee for ... Clinical quality measures play an increasingly important role in evaluating the quality of care provided to patients. ... Lung Function/Spirometry Evaluation. Joint Task Force on Quality and Performance Measurement developed measure sets. Allergen ... Drug Allergy Measures Set. Rhinitis Measures Set (under review). Urticaria Measures Set. For the 2016 PQRS program (Physician ...
Lower airway obstruction can be measured using spirometry. A decreased FEV1/FVC ratio (versus the normal of about 80%) is ... which prevents air from diffusing into the pulmonary arteries because of some kind of blockage in the lungs). Diseases that ... cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. ...
It aims to help diagnose lung cancer an earlier stage when treatment may be more successful. ... The NHS Lung Health Check is service that will be offered in some parts of England. ... It also measures how quickly you breathe. This test is called spirometry. It can be used to diagnose other lung conditions. ... Should I go for my lung health check?. Understanding what the benefits and harms of the lung health check and lung screening ...
FVC was assessed via spirometry. A positive change from baseline in FVC indicates improvement in lung function. ... Outcome Measures Go to Top of Page Participant Flow Baseline Characteristics Outcome Measures Adverse Events Limitations and ... FVC was assessed via spirometry. A positive change from baseline in FVC indicates improvement in lung function. ... Standardized Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) was measured with spirometry conducted according to internationally ...
Spirometry: A test that measures lung function. Breathing abilities are typically estimated based on the maximum amount of air ... A spirometer measures lung function and is used to monitor. changes in a person with ALSs functional abilities ... EMG measures the abilities of these muscles in response to these signals to trigger contraction. These tests help rule out ... ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R): A rating scale that measure changes including breathing, speaking, sleeping, ...
Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) is the most widely used measure for monitoring lung function decline. The ... Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2010: 14(7):796-805External. .. * ACOEM Position Statement. Spirometry in the Occupational Health Setting ... To keep longitudinal spirometry data use SPIROLA and the Create Empty Database function. Alternatively, read spirometry data ... The user should be familiar with spirometry basics . For computerized spirometry, we recommend using SPIROLA software. ...
Peak flow tests measure how well your lungs push out air. Although they are less accurate than spirometry, they can be a good ... Spirometry. This simple breathing test measures how much air you blow out and how fast. Its often used to know the amount of ... Some measure how well your lungs work. Others can tell if youre allergic to mold, pollen, or other things. ... Lung Function Tests. These asthma tests see how well your lungs work. Some of the most common used to diagnose asthma include: ...
The lungs and airways of children with asthma become inflamed, interfering with daily activities. Some children can have ... Another lung function test is brochoprovocation. Using spirometry, this test measures how your lungs react to certain ... Spirometry measures how much air your child can exhale and how quickly. Your child might have lung function tests at rest, ... Lung function tests (spirometry). Doctors diagnose asthma with the same tests used to identify the disease in adults. ...
BronchodilatorDiagnosisEmphysemaAirflowExhaleObstructive lung diInhaled and exhaledAirwayShortness of breTestsObstructionSacsPerform spirometryRestrictive or obstructiveTake a spirometry testPulmonary fibrosisTest called spirometryChestReference values for spirometryIrritantsCarbon dioxideBronchial tubesInterpreting spirometry dataPerson's lung functionAssessRespiratory systemDisordersMeasurementsPeak expiDiffusion capacityEvaluateAirways of the lungsListen to your lungsAmount of air breathedForced vital caMucusElasticity of the lungsTreatmentsMouthpieceSerial spirometryRepeat spirometryChronic bronchitisTissue thickens and becomesSeverityDamage the lungsType of pulmonaryResultsExpiratory vital capacity
- Your doctor may give you a bronchodilator medicine to open your lungs after an initial round of spirometry. (pulmonaryfibrosisnews.com)
- Then a selected subsample of participants whose Baseline 1st Test Spirometry results showed a FEV1/FVC ratio below the lower limit of normal and/or below 70% were asked to repeat spirometry after inhaling a β2-adrenergic bronchodilator medication to open up their airways. (cdc.gov)
- Second test post bronchodilator spirometry studies had not been performed in previous NHANES surveys. (cdc.gov)
- The participant's baseline spirometry results were evaluated by a computerized algorithm and examinees with an FEV1/FVC% less than the Lower Limit of Normal (LLN) determined for his or her age, sex, weight, height, and race/ethnicity, or those who had a FEV1/FVC% less than 70% were considered eligible for bronchodilator testing. (cdc.gov)
- This test combines spirometry with the use of a bronchodilator , which is medicine to help open up your airways. (healthline.com)
- Then, after about 15 minutes, you'll take a dose of bronchodilator medication and repeat the spirometry test. (healthline.com)
- This measures how much the bronchodilator helps your lungs by reversing the problem. (medhelp.org)
- The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation defined by pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry in health checkup. (go.jp)
- Post-bronchodilator spirometry was conducted for participants with airflow limitation in a town-wide health checkup for residents aged 40 years and older in Hisayama, a town in the western part of Japan. (go.jp)
- A total of 2,232 participants underwent pre-bronchodilator spirometry. (go.jp)
- 70%, completed post-bronchodilator spirometry. (go.jp)
- Lung function tests can help in the diagnosis of respiratory (breathing) conditions, work out how severe a condition is, and help monitor the response to treatments. (mydr.com.au)
- Can you tell me how spirometry aid in their diagnosis? (healthtap.com)
- It may be used in the diagnosis of many lung conditions. (rochester.edu)
- Lung cancer nurse specialist present at diagnosis (England only). (nice.org.uk)
- This can result in faster and more accurate diagnosis, so we can help you heal or manage a lung issue. (henryford.com)
- Spirometry and bronchoprovocation studies can confirm a diagnosis. (henryford.com)
- Emphysema is a disease of the lung. (rxlist.com)
- In emphysema, the alveoli (small air sacs in the lungs that facilitate the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen) are damaged and die. (rxlist.com)
- The symptoms of pulmonary emphysema may look like other lung conditions or health problems. (uhhospitals.org)
- Emphysema is a lung disease that results from destruction of lung tissue and irreversible enlargement of the alveoli (air sacs) that deliver oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. (healthcentral.com)
- According to the American Lung Association, more than 3.1 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with emphysema. (healthcentral.com)
- Prolonged exposure to lung irritants, such as industrial fumes and dust, and living in areas with poor air quality are other factors associated with the development of emphysema. (healthcentral.com)
- A chest x-ray or CT scan will likely be required to demonstrate the lung damage that distinguishes emphysema from other forms of lung disease. (healthcentral.com)
- Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic lung condition. (ahealthyme.com)
- Spirometry measures airflow. (medlineplus.gov)
- Peak Airflow This test involves breathing into a peak-flow meter, a small, handheld device that measures the maximum force of air you can blow out. (everydayhealth.com)
- Peak expiratory flow (PEF): unlike the above which measure air volume, this measures how fast you can forcibly breathe out, in other words the maximum speed of airflow during expiration. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
- In spirometry, airflow can be assessed as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), while lung volume can be assessed as forced vital capacity (FVC). (go.jp)
- They say one common error happens when the machine measures the zero level or no airflow incorrectly. (bio-medicine.org)
- It measures the amount and speed of air that a person can exhale after taking in the deepest possible breath. (cdc.gov)
- Because spirometry requires you to exhale forcefully, it's not recommended for someone who has recently had a heart attack or heart surgery . (healthline.com)
- It measures the amount of air you breathe out (exhale). (rochester.edu)
- It also measures how quickly you can completely exhale. (rochester.edu)
- Spirometry measures how much air your child can exhale and how quickly. (mayoclinic.org)
- In smokers the inability to exhale fully is due to the loss of elasticity in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
- Using this information, a calculation called the FEV1/FVC ratio may then be done to determine the total amount of air you can exhale from your lungs during the first second of forced exhalation. (verywellhealth.com)
- Fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide tests measure how much nitric oxide is in the air you exhale. (nih.gov)
- This device measures the amount of air you're able to exhale and inhale, as well as how fast you can blow the air out. (everydayhealth.com)
- These include how much air you can exhale, how much air you can breathe in and out in 1 minute, and the amount of air left in your lungs after a normal exhale. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- This is the amount of air that remains in your lungs after you exhale as much as you can. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- This test measures the amount of air you can hold in your lungs and the amount of air that remains after you exhale (breathe out) as much as you can. (medlineplus.gov)
- The minimum volume of air that is contained in the lungs after a complete exhale is the residual volume. (impulseadventure.com)
- This takes its name from the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) who created it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Some physiological factors are having non-perfuse but ventilated alveoli, such as a pulmonary embolism or smoking, excessive ventilation of the alveoli, brought on in relation to perfusion, in people with chronic obstructive lung disease, and "shunt dead space," which is a mistake between the left to right lung that moves the higher CO2 concentrations in the venous blood into the arterial side. (wikipedia.org)
- Although there are a number of systems to choose from when it comes to interpreting the readings from your spirometry test, the table below is the method recommended by the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). (verywellhealth.com)
- Patients at greater risk of obstructive lung disease should be considered for more aggressive management. (imperial.ac.uk)
- The evaluation based on the sample of healthy non-smokers from northern Sweden show that the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden reference values are valid. (diva-portal.org)
- Lung volumes are used to determine the presence of restrictive or obstructive lung disease. (conemaugh.org)
- It measures how much air that is inhaled and exhaled and how fast it is exhaled. (google.com)
- It measures lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
- The difference in the amount of gas inhaled and exhaled measures how effectively gas travels from the lungs into the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Spirometry testing gives information about the size of the lungs and the degree of airway narrowing. (mydr.com.au)
- Exercise challenge test - where spirometry is done before and after exercising (e.g. using an exercise bike, walking or running on a treadmill or climbing stairs), to see if exercise triggers airway narrowing. (mydr.com.au)
- It is different from airway restriction (which prevents air from diffusing into the pulmonary arteries because of some kind of blockage in the lungs). (wikipedia.org)
- Lower airway obstruction can be measured using spirometry. (wikipedia.org)
- Actual volume of the lung including the volume of the conducting airway. (wikipedia.org)
- CT can show details like the width of airways in the lungs and the thickness of airway walls. (uhhospitals.org)
- During the procedure, controlled heat is delivered to the lungs airway walls to reduce excess smooth muscle and limits the muscles ability to constrict the airways, helping you breathe better. (swedishhospital.com)
- The researchers then measured their airway resistance using a number of tests, including a spirometry test. (eurekalert.org)
- Spirometry is just one of the tests used to diagnose pulmonary fibrosis (PF). (pulmonaryfibrosisnews.com)
- Lung function tests, also called pulmonary function tests or breathing tests, are tests that can be done to find out how well your lungs and airways are working. (mydr.com.au)
- Lung function tests can be done in adults and in children older than about 7 years. (mydr.com.au)
- What are the different types of lung function tests? (mydr.com.au)
- Different types of lung function tests may be recommended by your general practitioner (GP) , respiratory physician (specialist in conditions affecting the airways and lungs) or paediatrician (specialist in children's health), depending on your age and condition. (mydr.com.au)
- Other tests available at respiratory departments in teaching hospitals include exercise testing, bronchial provocation tests (see below) and lung volume measurements. (mydr.com.au)
- Your doctor will use a stethoscope to listen to both heart and lung sounds and may order some or all of the following tests. (healthline.com)
- Once a lung disease is diagnosed, spirometry tests can monitor changes in lung function over time. (who.int)
- Before making a final decision, the quality of the baseline and final spirometry tests should be evaluated, and if needed spirometry should be repeated. (cdc.gov)
- Peak flow tests measure how well your lungs push out air. (webmd.com)
- Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath ) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). (wikipedia.org)
- These tests help measure the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. (uhhospitals.org)
- Spirometry is one of the simplest, most common tests. (uhhospitals.org)
- FVC is the basic manoeuvre in spirometry tests. (priory.com)
- Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure breathing and how well the lungs are functioning. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pulmonary function tests are machine assessments of the performance of the lungs, measuring basic function and volume. (stanford.edu)
- Spirometry: tests done at every clinic visit to determine the vital capacity of the lungs. (stanford.edu)
- Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are used to assess various aspects of your lung function. (verywellhealth.com)
- Your doctor will use pulmonary function tests to check how your lungs are working. (nih.gov)
- Bronchoprovocation tests measure how your airways react to specific exposures. (nih.gov)
- These tests help to measure the lungs' ability to move air in and out of your lungs. (rochester.edu)
- The respiratory therapist will do spirometry tests, if you are old enough, that show how your lungs are functioning. (stanford.edu)
- Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) or Lung Function Tests give your doctor important information about the amount of air the lungs can hold and how forcefully you can empty air from the lungs. (lung.org)
- Spirometry is the commonest form of lung function tests. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
- We also provide lung function tests for people receiving some types of cardiology (heart) care. (henryford.com)
- To figure out why, your doctor may ask you to take the following tests to examine your lungs. (anthem.com)
- These tests include spirometry, lung volume tests and diffusing capacity tests. (anthem.com)
- Your doctor may also order other tests to help diagnose your lung disorders. (upstate.edu)
- There are many different tests that help your doctor gather information about your lungs and your breathing. (anthem.com)
- Lung function tests include a variety of tests that check how well the lungs work. (lung.org)
- Lung function tests check how well your lungs work. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- The tests can find lung problems, measure how serious they are, and check to see how well treatment for a lung disease is working. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Lung function results are measured directly in some tests and are calculated in others. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- These tests let you know how well gases are being absorbed into your blood from your lungs. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Exercise stress tests look at how exercise affects your lungs. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Have you do breathing tests, including spirometry , to find out how well your lungs work. (rexhealth.com)
- At the Exercise Physiology Lab at Boston Children's Hospital, we use exercise tests - such as running on a treadmill - to predict how your or your child's heart and lungs respond to exercise or other physical activities. (childrenshospital.org)
- Most clinical tests done by pediatric cardiologists (other than exercise tests), assess the heart and lungs when a patient is at rest. (childrenshospital.org)
- Although valuable, these tests may not predict how a patient's heart and lungs will respond to exercise, or measure the patient's true capacity to perform physical activities. (childrenshospital.org)
- Lung function tests, also known as pulmonary function tests, or PFTs, are a group of tests that check to see if your lungs are working right. (medlineplus.gov)
- There are several types of lung tests. (medlineplus.gov)
- Below are the steps for the most common types of lung function tests. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pulmonary function tests measure lung capacity to take in and release air, and how much oxygen is in the blood. (conemaugh.org)
- They are used to diagnose airways obstruction, assess its severity and prognosis, delineate risk factors ( e.g . pre-operative assessment), detect early lung disease, and monitor for normal lung growth and lung function decline. (ersjournals.com)
- The expiratory phase is the one more commonly used to measure obstruction and restriction within the lungs. (priory.com)
- Children older than 7 years are usually able to perform spirometry. (mydr.com.au)
- Because you need to be able to follow instructions and coordinate your breathing, most experts agree that children cannot properly perform spirometry until they are at least about 6 or 7 years old. (mydr.com.au)
- At The London Clinic, our team of doctors perform spirometry to determine how well your lungs are working. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
- They are also used to assess other conditions that affect breathing, including lung scarring and illnesses that affect the chest or breathing muscles. (mydr.com.au)
- The lungs are surrounded by your sternum (chest bone) and ribcage on the front and the vertebrae (backbones) on the back. (healthline.com)
- This bony cage helps to protect the lungs and other organs in your chest. (healthline.com)
- Any type of X-ray that your doctor chooses will give a picture of the structures inside your chest , including your heart, lungs, and blood vessels. (healthline.com)
- Abnormal results usually mean that you may have chest or lung disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- For people who have had known exposure to asbestos the usual approach is for their doctor to check them periodically with a thorough examine, chest x-ray, and spirometry testing. (medhelp.org)
- Eventually these changes will show up on a chest x-ray and spirometry. (medhelp.org)
- Unfortunately, a chest X-ray is not a good test for examining lung disease. (anthem.com)
- Other therapies include incentive spirometry and chest physiotherapy. (upstate.edu)
- Radiologists use a CT scan-guided lung biopsy to guide a needle through the chest wall and into the lung nodule to obtain and examine tissue. (lung.org)
- A thoracotomy is a surgical procedure in which a cut is made between the ribs to see and reach the lungs or other organs in the chest or thorax. (lung.org)
- Have had recent surgery on your eyes, chest, or belly, or if you have had a collapsed lung. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Depending on the results of the spirometry test, the doctor may order a chest X-ray to rule out other conditions. (humana.com)
- The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). (kidskonnect.com)
- The lobes are made of sponge-like tissue that is surrounded by a membrane called pleura, which separates the lungs from the chest wall. (kidskonnect.com)
- These cells "eat" germs and irritants before they can cause an infection in your lungs. (healthline.com)
- Such damage is initiated by smoking or other lung irritants, which lead to the destruction of lung tissue. (healthcentral.com)
- In order to keep your lungs healthy try to avoid exposure to irritants as much as feasibly possible. (medhelp.org)
- An arterial blood gas test will measure the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood. (healthline.com)
- This weakened compliance or elasticity of the lungs means that oxygen cannot get to the air spaces where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the lung. (rxlist.com)
- Arterial blood gas measures levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and can be used to determine if oxygen therapy is needed. (healthcentral.com)
- An arterial blood gases test will show how well your lungs are getting oxygen into your blood and carbon dioxide out of your blood. (anthem.com)
- How well your lungs put oxygen into and remove carbon dioxide from your blood. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Blood test that measures the levels of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide levels in the blood. (conemaugh.org)
- This test evaluates the ability of the lungs to move oxygen in and carbon dioxide out of the blood. (conemaugh.org)
- Measures how well gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide move from the lungs to the blood and back to the lungs. (conemaugh.org)
- Spirometry is performed to assess lung function. (healthtap.com)
- Spirometry is a common test used to assess lung and pulmonary function. (google.com)
- Spirometry can also be used to assess how well you are responding to treatment for one of these conditions. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
- We have developed a novel approach to assess hepatic oxidative stress by measuring glutathione synthesis rate with in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (ncl.ac.uk)
- We reexamined the current hypothesis using helium-3 ((3)He) magnetic resonance (MR) to assess alveolar size noninvasively between 7 and 21 years, during which lung volume nearly quadruples. (nih.gov)
- Our pulmonary function and exercise lab acts as the testing lab for many UCDHS sponsored clinical research studies for new medications and treatments for lung disease and other chronic disorders. (ucdavis.edu)
- Interstitial lung disease is the name for a group of more than 200 ongoing (chronic) lung disorders. (ahealthyme.com)
- The consensus seems to be that short term exposure to asbestos, even if severe, isn't a very high risk factor for developing future lung disease or disorders. (medhelp.org)
- Air flow rates are measurements of the amount of air passing through the lungs in a specific period. (pulmonaryfibrosisnews.com)
- Comparing the spirometry measurements with previous measurements on a test subject is the most valuable information that can be gained from a spirometry test. (personneltoday.com)
- These measurements help physicians determine if your lung function is normal or abnormal. (henryford.com)
- Peak expiratory flow can be measured using a peak flow meter (also called a peak expiratory flow meter ) which is a small, hand-held, portable device. (mydr.com.au)
- The maximum speed at which you empty your lungs is called the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) . (healthline.com)
- Peak flow, which measures the peak expiratory flow, captures the largest flow that can be maintained for 10 milliseconds starting from the full inflation of the lungs. (ehow.co.uk)
- Peak Expiratory Flow records the greatest flow that can be sustained for 10 milliseconds on forced expiration starting from full inflation of the lungs. (priory.com)
- To measure diffusion capacity , you breathe a harmless gas, called a tracer gas, for a very short time, often for only one breath. (medlineplus.gov)
- what does diffusion capacity of the lungs for CO measure? (brainscape.com)
- Your exhaled carbon monoxide concentration will be compared to the inhaled concentration of carbon monoxide and the result is used to calculate your diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) . (verywellhealth.com)
- You may have spirometry and diffusion capacity testing. (henryford.com)
- Spirometry and diffusion capacity testing help your doctor set a baseline for your care. (henryford.com)
- Spirometry is a test performed used to evaluate for lung disease. (healthtap.com)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum vitamin D level in asthmatics with different phenotypes and to determine its associations with lung function, IgE, eosinophil count and body mass index (BMI). (mdpi.com)
- Bronchoscopy helps to evaluate and diagnose lung problems, check blockages, take out samples of tissue or fluid, and help remove a foreign body. (ahealthyme.com)
- Methacholine challenge test (also known as bronchoprovocation test) is performed to evaluate how "reactive" or "responsive" your lungs are to things in the environment. (lung.org)
- Spirometry readings are taken to evaluate lung function before, during, and after you inhale the substance. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained reference values on a contemporary sample from south-western Sweden, and to compare them to the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference values. (diva-portal.org)
- A spirometry test may help evaluate your lung function so you can determine your treatment options, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. (humana.com)
- Spirometry is a test of lung function that measures the amount of air breathed in and out. (mydr.com.au)
- Spirometry measures the amount of air breathed and the speed at which it is blown out. (stanford.edu)
- Patients breathe through a snorkel-like mouthpiece that is connected to a special computer to measure the amount of air breathed in and out during exercise. (childrenshospital.org)
- The most commonly used test of lung function is spirometry, especially a set of 3-5 forced vital capacity (FVC) manoeuvres, from which the forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ) and FVC are measured. (bmj.com)
- The total volume of air exhaled from your lungs is called the forced vital capacity (FVC). (healthline.com)
- Spirometry instruments are used to measure the entire forced vital capacity (FVC) of your lungs over a span of time. (ehow.co.uk)
- FVC: (forced vital capacity) This measures the volume of air that is blown out in a single maximum exhaled breath. (stanford.edu)
- Forced vital capacity (FVC), shuttle walk test, DTPA scan and prednisolone dose were measured before and 8 weeks post-treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Spirometry typically measures the maximal volume of air forcibly exhaled from the point of maximal inhalation (forced vital capacity, FVC) and the volume of air exhaled during the first second of the FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- If you have a respiratory illness, your lungs may make too much mucus. (healthline.com)
- Damage to the lung tissue over time causes physical changes in the lungs and the airways become clogged with thick mucus. (rxlist.com)
- The lung tissue thickens and becomes less elastic, and the lungs produce more mucus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Examples of this pattern include Cystic Fibrosis, which causes excess mucus production and damage to the lung tissue. (priory.com)
- A peak flow meter is a small instrument that measures the level of air flowing out of the lungs as you blow quickly and forcefully into the mouthpiece. (ehow.co.uk)
- This test measures lung function by having the patient blow through a special mouthpiece that is connected to a computer. (childrenshospital.org)
- As with a spirometry test, you'll wear a nose clip and place your lips around a mouthpiece connected to a machine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor uses your spirometry results to figure out what your lung function is. (ehow.co.uk)
- If your results show you are at higher risk of lung cancer, you will be offered lung cancer screening. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- You will hear from the Lung Health Check team within 2 weeks about the results of your CT scan. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- It results in permanent holes in the tissues of the lower lungs. (uhhospitals.org)
- RESULTS: Lung clearance index was more abnormal in PCD patients with microtubular defects (median 10.24) than those with dynein arm defects (median 8.3, p = 0.004) or normal ultrastructure (median 7.63, p = 0.0004). (imperial.ac.uk)
- Test results are reported as a lung clearance index (LCI). (adventisthealthcare.com)
- The results are used to identify lung problems that might affect a patient's ability to exercise. (childrenshospital.org)
- If any of your lung function test results were not normal, it may mean you have a lung disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, the results were inconsistent and no specific work exposure showed more clear associations to change in lung function. (bmj.com)
- The results were inconsistent across varying study design and different exposure measures and outcomes. (bmj.com)