Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Respiratory Tract DiseasesRespiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Thoracoplasty: Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Bronchospirometry: Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Gas PoisoningBody Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.WeldingAtropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Coal MiningExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Scleroderma, Diffuse: A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Bronchial DiseasesCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Pleural DiseasesAsbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.United StatesTextile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Barotrauma: Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.EthersOzone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.MiningBudesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Several studies have been made to measure and predict vital capacity. An online calculator exists that will compute the ... Vital capacity increases with height and decreases with age. Formulas to estimate vital capacity are: v c f e m a l e = ( 21.78 ... Lung volumes are directly measured, whereas lung capacities are inferred from volumes. The vital capacity can be used to help ... predicted vital capacity based on these references given a patient's, age, height and sex. "Vital Capacity". Family Practice ...
... that pirfenidone significantly reduced IPF disease progression as measured by change in percent predicted forced vital capacity ... In study 004, pirfenidone reduced decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.001). Mean change in FVC at week 72 was -8.0% (SD ... Pirfenidone 1800 or 1200 mg/day reduced the mean decline in vital capacity from baseline to week 52 compared with placebo. ... The CAPACITY (004 & 006) studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trials in eleven countries across ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
... which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his spirometer could measure only volume, not airflow. ... This is typically based on the FEV1 expressed as a percentage of the predicted "normal" for the person's age, gender, height, ... and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a single large breath. ... A number of measures have been taken to reduce the likelihood that workers in at-risk industries-such as coal mining, ...
The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume can be measured directly with a spirometer ... Dec 1986). "Accuracy of measured and predicted residual lung volume on body density measurement". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 18 (6 ... Forced vital capacity: the determination of the vital capacity from a maximally forced expiratory effort. ... Inspiratory capacity: the sum of IRV and TV. IVC. Inspiratory vital capacity: the maximum volume of air inhaled from the point ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
... which allowed the measurement of vital capacity of the lungs. However, his spirometer could measure only volume, not airflow. ... of predicted. People with COPD also exhibit a decrease in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) due to ... and the forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a single large breath. ... In those who smoke, stopping smoking is the only measure shown to slow down the worsening of COPD. Even at a late stage ...
The most common parameters measured in spirometry are Vital capacity (VC), Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory ... Predicted normal values for FEV1 can be calculated online and depend on age, sex, height, mass and ethnicity as well as the ... of vital capacity and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio in relation to clinical and physiological parameters in asthmatic ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can be measured with a plethysmograph or dilution ...
The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume can be measured directly with a spirometer ... Dec 1986). "Accuracy of measured and predicted residual lung volume on body density measurement". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 18 (6 ... or as a proportion of vital capacity (0.24 for men and 0.28 for women) or in relation to height and age ((0.0275* Age [Years]+ ... A greater lung capacity is sought by people such as athletes, freedivers, singers, and wind-instrument players. A stronger and ...
The most common parameters measured in spirometry are Vital capacity (VC), Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory ... A derived value of FEV1% is FEV1% predicted, which is defined as FEV1% of the patient divided by the average FEV1% in the ... Forced vital capacity (FVC). Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out after full ... Slow vital capacity (SVC). Slow vital capacity (SVC) is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly after slow maximum ...
meters) + 0.016 X Age (yrs.) - 2.003 Residual volume may also be estimated as a proportion of vital capacity (0.24 for men and ... Residual volume can be measured by gas dilution procedures or estimated from a person's age and height: Inches: RV-Est(Men) = ... Wilmore, J. H. (1969). "The use of actual predicted and constant residual volumes in the assessment of body composition by ... is a technique for measuring the mass per unit volume of a living person's body. It is a direct application of Archimedes' ...
Lung allocation score
There are various ways to predict, measure, or calculate capillary pressure relationships in the oil and gas industry. These ... Its measurements are utilized to predict reservoir fluid saturations and cap-rock seal capacity, and for assessing relative ... Capillary pressure plays a vital role in extracting sub-surface hydrocarbons (such as petroleum or natural gas) from underneath ... A glass vial measures the amount of fluid as it is being expelled, and these readings result in a curve that relates rotation ...
Deep inspiration breath-hold
Patients will have their lung capacity and natural breathing cycle measured so that a comfortable breath-hold capacity can be ... At this point the patient is at approximately 100% vital capacity, and simulation, verification, and treatment take place ... There is currently no clear selection criteria to predict which patients will benefit most from the DIBH technique, other than ...
... thus doctors and medical researchers can measure TSH levels to predict hypothyroidism. If interested, a good explanation of ... Commonly known, the CNS is vital to the communication and response transmissions between the brain and all of the body parts ... Due to dysfunction in this system such things as cognitive functioning and attention capacity are impeded, resulting in a poor ... The mother's alcoholic drinking levels during mid pregnancy were measured via self-report measures (a questionnaire). In this ...
Digital divide in Germany
Economic growth is based on Germany's productive capacity, measured by the difference of gross national product in a year and ... Market researcher, Marketline, predicts a compound annual growth rate of 5.5 percent between 2016 and 2019. While Germany's ICT ... Information access is a vital source for a societies' economic equality, social mobility, political affiliations, economic ... Availability and accessibility of education and technology in rural and peripheral areas in Germany measure to be limited ...
Rowers are interested in both absolute values of VO2 max and in lung capacity, and the fact that they are measured in similar ... 3rd edition) Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-88011-438-7 VO2 max faq If all goes to plan, big future predicted for junior ... be regularly assessed and utilized as a clinical vital sign. This statement was based on mounting evidence that lower fitness ... Cardiac output, pulmonary diffusion capacity, oxygen carrying capacity, and other peripheral limitations like muscle diffusion ...
The first may be referred to as facility location (with the special case of site selection) while the latter to as capacity ... Green Logistics describes all attempts to measure and minimize the ecological impact of logistics activities. This includes all ... Now the construction logistics emerged as vital part of construction. In the past few years construction logistics has emerged ... Supply chain management in military logistics often deals with a number of variables in predicting cost, deterioration, ...
Financial management for IT services
Capacity management are charged with planning and controlling the IT capacity requirements of the organisation. Changes in ... It is vital that financial management for IT is involved in the change management process so that the ongoing analysis of costs ... Additionally, budgeting allows an organization to compare actual costs with previously predicted costs in order to improve the ... and analyze IT performance and value measures for all services, vendors, and customers, as well as perform root cause and ...
... a decrease in the vital capacity by one third from maximum recorded, liver enlargement, and bilateral ankle swelling. Minor ... It is often measured in the number of pillows required to lie comfortably, and in orthopnea, the patient may resort to sleeping ... Overall around 2% of adults have heart failure and in those over the age of 65, this increases to 6-10%. Rates are predicted to ... Various measures are often used to assess the progress of patients being treated for heart failure. These include fluid balance ...
... deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity. Exercise may improve ... However, it is hard to predict what course the disease will take for a given individual. Age is the best predictor of disease ... In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures ... Dopamine-related activity in the basal ganglia can be directly measured with PET and SPECT scans. A finding of reduced dopamine ...
... deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity. Exercise may ... Global burden of Parkinson's disease, measured in disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 no data ... On the other hand, a disease pattern mainly characterized by tremor as opposed to rigidity predicts an improved survival. ... In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures ...
ALS Functional Rating Scale - Revised
... it is more useful to compare various indicators including vital capacity (FVC%) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) to ... measuring disease progression and also for researchers when selecting patients for a study and measuring the potential effects ... Elamin, Marwa; Bede, Peter; Montuschi, Anna; Pender, Niall; Chio, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla (2015-06-01). "Predicting prognosis ... King's system relies on the clinical spread of disease as a measure of progression while Milano-Torino Staging (MiToS) utilizes ...
... medical monitors allow medical staff to measure a patient's medical state. Monitors may measure patient vital signs and other ... The buckling capacity is the capacity of the element to withstand the propensity to buckle. Its capacity depends upon its ... predict, and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures, to ... The design of a column must check the axial capacity of the element, and the buckling capacity. ...
After American entry into the war, late, in 1941, the U.S. 8th Air Force began to develop a daylight bombing capacity using ... Many books and articles predicted a fearful prospect for any future war, paced by political fears such as those expressed by ... and only barely saved the B-17 bomber that would soon be vital. The equally important B-24 first flew in 1939. Both aircraft ... results of which were soon measured in the number of square miles destroyed. The air raids on Japan had withered the nation's ...
Preventative measures. Regularly pruning the branches of the fruit trees will allow insecticide to reach the insides of ... Therefore, it is critical to predict the time of emergence of the moths in the spring to minimize damages to the crops. ... Such limited mobility is not because they are incapable of long-distance flight; they have the capacity to travel up to several ... Larvae in diapause do not spin cocoons but rather enter a stage of decreased metabolism and vital activity. Once the ...
Friendly behaviours are predicted to be met with friendly behaviours, and hostile behaviours are predicted to be reciprocated ... By recording the number of mounting attempts between rival foundresses as a measure of dominance, researchers found that when ... The hormone model of dominance and reproductive capacity has also been demonstrated in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus ... Former research suggests that primer pheromones secreted by the queen cause direct suppression of these vital reproductive ...
Instead the models predict how greenhouse gases will interact with radiative transfer and other physical processes. Warming or ... A concept related to adaptation is adaptive capacity, which is the ability of a system (human, natural or managed) to adjust to ... In small islands and mega deltas, inundation as a result of sea level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure and ... Dissolved CO2 increases ocean acidity, measured by lower pH values. Between 1750 and 2000, surface-ocean pH has decreased by ≈ ...
The existence of IMR helps solve the inadequacies of the other vital statistic systems for global health as most of the vital ... These struggles force stress on families[clarification needed], and make them take drastic measures[clarification needed] in ... World historical and predicted infant mortality rates per 1,000 births (1950-2050) UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.. Years. ... Changes in the infant mortality rate reflect social and technical capacities[clarification needed] of a nation's population.[14 ...
Such models predict widely differing and often chaotic predator-prey population dynamics. The presence of refuge ... Eggs and nestlings are particularly vulnerable to predation, so birds take measures to protect their nests. Where birds ... In the absence of predators, the population of a species can grow exponentially until it approaches the carrying capacity of ... The predators were thus demonstrated to be of vital importance in the ecosystem. ...
Regional effects of global warming
Other climate models predict "a doubling of the number of anomalously dry years [in the Sahel] by the end of the century". ... In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water ... Radiative forcing is a measure of the effect of natural and human activities on the climate. Different forcing scenarios ... Global warming has the capacity to alter both precipitation and temperature, resulting in significant changes to ice cover. ...
... lung vital capacity, bone density and intra-ocular pressure; however if any other medical problems were detected, neither the ... were measured; and blood and urine samples were taken. These samples were preserved so that it was possible to later extract ... predicted it "will provide scientists with extraordinary information" and "grow into a unique resource for future generations ... they could in theory predict which Icelandic women had a high risk of getting breast cancer. However the data had been ...
Internet of things
Others are turning to the concept of predictive interaction of devices, "where collected data is used to predict and trigger ... These constraints often make them unable to directly use basic security measures such as implementing firewalls or using strong ... Toward intelligent vital signs monitoring in hospital wards". Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. 89: 61-69. doi:10.1016/j. ... and its capacity to integrate new actors. At the overall stage (full open loop) it will likely be seen as a chaotic environment ...
Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage
With the largest of capturing capacity, IL-CCS is currently the largest BECCS project in the world. ... And by the end of the century, the deployment ranges from 720 Mt to 7500 Mt CO2per year, while most of the models predict the ... Measures of respondents perceptions suggest that the public associate BECCS with a balance of both positive and negative ... Recognising CCS technologies as an emission reduction tool is vital for the implementation of such plants as there is no other ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
... measures of lung function such as vital capacity and inspiratory pressure diminish. In respiratory-onset ALS, this may occur ... When the lifetime risk of developing ALS was used to predict the number of expected cases, soccer players were no more likely ... There is some evidence that a PEG tube should be inserted before vital capacity drops below 50% of expected, as a low vital ... The criteria are "scores of at least 2 points on all 12 items of ALSFRS-R, forced vital capacity of 80% or more, definite or ...
Barrett, D (1983). "Early Recollections as Predictors of Self Disclosure and Interpersonal Style". Journal of Individual ... Even with this measure, cued recall is only useful for bringing to mind memories formed several months after the introduction ... younger children also have great memory capacity. Infants can remember the actions of sequences, the objects used to produce ... As the hippocampus is known to be vital to memory processes, there are obvious implications for childhood amnesia. Animal ...
... such measures would also be difficult to enforce and might be unpopular. When small numbers of people are infected, ... Other studies have attempted to predict the costs of a pandemic as serious as the 1918 Spanish flu on the U.S. economy, where ... better quality and surge capacity. Research on a universal influenza A vaccine, targeted against the external domain of ... "Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918-20 pandemic: a ...
Some measure of discretion must have existed in the determining of the outcome of an ordeal by hot iron but result of the cold ... vital to military success, was appreciated even if it was taken for granted and features only incidentally in the sources. ... who had the capacity not merely to interfere in Northumbrian affairs, but also to block a line of communication between Dublin ... and in 1066 there was nothing to predict that the effects of William's conquest would be any greater or more lasting than those ...
The information capacity is estimated at 500,000 bits per second (for more information on bits, see information theory) without ... The electroretinogram is used to non-invasively measure the retina's electrical activity, which is affected by certain diseases ... The photoreceptor layer must be embedded in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which performs at least seven vital functions ... "Outer Retinal Layers as Predictors of Vision Loss". Retrieved 7 April 2018.. ...
"The action of caffeine on the capacity for muscular work" Journal of Physiology 36: 33-47: 1907. ... "vital fluid", including trees and flasks of water. The subjects were unable to do so. The commission went on to examine claims ... which are fairly trivial to measure. Analysts are allowed to work with all the energy and decay data, but are forbidden from ...
United States Department of Homeland Security
Surge Capacity Force. The Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act directs the DHS Secretary to designate employees ... The scope of our mission is broad, challenging, and vital to the security of the Nation ... Thank you for your partnership and ... Congress ultimately passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 without the union-friendly measures, and President Bush signed the ... PREDICT datasets and the DETER testbed), Department of Defense and HSARPA exercises (Livewire and Determined Promise), and ...
Scientific opinion on climate change
Adger, W.N.; et al., Ch 17: Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. , in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007 ... "Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Retrieved 2018-08-18. Multiple ... The AMA believes that measures which mitigate climate change will also benefit public health. Reducing GHGs should therefore be ... Certain climate simulation models predict that the warming trend will continue, as reported through NAS, AGU, AAAS and AMS. ...
It might predict the outcome of an experiment in a laboratory setting or the observation of a phenomenon in nature. The ... rational] inquiry of every type, fully carried out, has the vital power of self-correction and of growth. This is a property so ... That is, a scientific quantity is described or defined by how it is measured, as opposed to some more vague, inexact or " ... that humans have the capacity to perceive reality accurately, and that rational explanations exist for elements of the real ...
Automatic identification system
In practice, the capacity of the system is nearly unlimited, allowing for a great number of ships to be accommodated at the ... AISSat-1 is a nano-satellite, measuring only 20×20×20 cm, with an AIS receiver made by Kongsberg Seatex. It weighs 6 kilograms ... released an API that delivers S-AIS data enhanced with machine learning (Vessels and Predict) backed by its 40+ constellation ... Timing is vital to the proper synchronization and slot mapping (transmission scheduling) for a Class A unit. Therefore, every ...
The salt spray test is a measure of material endurance or resistance to corrosion, particularly if the material will be used ... sea spray can also bring vital nutrients to these habitats. For example, one study showed that sea spray in Wales, UK delivers ... and slightly alter the capacity for SSAs to form CCN (17). Even small changes in SSA levels can affect the global radiation ... biology and physics to predict future ocean and atmospheric variability. ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome
The functional capacity of individuals with CFS varies greatly. Some persons with CFS lead relatively normal lives; others ... Organizations adopting these or similar measures included the Canadian Blood Services, the New Zealand Blood Service, ... Biological factors such as CD4 and CD8 activation and liver inflammation are predictors of sub-acute fatigue, but not CFS. ... and that it is vital that further biomedical research be undertaken to help discover a cause and more effective forms of ...
But Businesses Dependent on Cheap Water and Power Fear the Added Expense and Predict Job Losses". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved ... Benson, Frank W. (June 1908). A Pamphlet Containing All Measures ... State of Oregon - via Google Books.. ... Celilo Falls, located east of the modern city of The Dalles, was a vital hub for trade and the interaction of different ... give it tremendous capacity for hydroelectricity generation. In comparison, the Mississippi drops less than 0.65 feet per mile ...
The curves show typical decrement in lung vital capacity when breathing oxygen. Lambertsen concluded in 1987 that 0.5 bar could ... but it is impossible to predict with any reliability whether or when toxicity symptoms will occur. Many nitrox-capable ... Evidence of decline in lung function as measured by pulmonary function testing can occur as quickly as 24 hours of continuous ... vital capacity) and changes in expiratory function and lung elasticity. Tests in animals have indicated a variation in ...
National Vital Statistics Reports Archived 20 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum. ... When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks ... "Accuracy of single progesterone test to predict early pregnancy outcome in women with pain or bleeding: meta-analysis of ...
... is the application of disciplined analytics that predict consumer behaviour at the micro-market level and ... Revenue management techniques measure customer responsiveness to promotions in order to strike a balance between volume growth ... Supply chain management (SCM) is a vital process in many companies today and several are integrating this process with a ... When focused on controlling inventory, revenue management is mainly concerned with how best to price or allocate capacity. ...
Colony collapse disorder
When a collapsed colony is found, store the equipment where you can use preventive measures to ensure that bees will not have ... vital to sustain natural habitats there in addition to their value for human societies (to sustain food resources). Where ... various physio-pathological traits may serve as biomarkers for colony health as well as predict CCD status. Bees of collapsing ... while other plants are only dependent on honeybees to enhance their capacity to produce better and healthier fruits. Honeybees ...
Ocean storage of carbon dioxide
The neutralization of CaCO3, or balancing the concentration of CaCO3 on the seafloor, land and in the ocean, can be measured on ... The ocean is an enormous carbon sink with the capacity to hold thousands more gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide. Ocean ... Although the long-term effects are the most relevant to understand, they are also the most difficult to predict accurately due ... Iron is a trace element in ocean and its presence is vital for photosynthesis in plants, and in particular phytoplanktons, as ...
A set of vital signs are recorded, a peripheral IV line is placed, and pre-operative medications (antibiotics, sedatives, etc ... Assessment of older patients before elective surgery can accurately predict the patients' recovery trajectories. One ... Emergency surgery is surgery which must be done promptly to save life, limb, or functional capacity. ... "requiring measures to improve… emergency obstetric services". Article 12.2d of the ICESCR stipulates the need for "the ...
Muscular performance was assessed by whole leg isokinetic cycle testing, measuring peak power and 30-s work capacity. ... It is conceivable that the priority of the immune system for the survival of the host has drawn to this vital area the ever- ... meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research indicates that higher levels of total cysteine in plasma may predict a ... Primary outcome was functional exercise capacity measured using the validated 6-min walk test. ...
Net neutrality in the United States
He argues that it is impossible to predict all outcomes, and although some might be bad, it is not a good idea to put such ... The measure was denounced by net neutrality advocates as a capitulation to telecommunication companies such as allowing them to ... promoting the wide-spread development of high-capacity broadband internet access, and increasing the availability and quality ... "These 2 Charts From Comcast Show Why Net Neutrality Is Vital". The Consumerist. Retrieved February 28, 2015 ...
While not independently valuable as a food source, the stingray's capacity to damage shell fishing grounds ... Kolmann, M. A.; Crofts, S. B.; Dean, M. N.; Summers, A. P.; Lovejoy, N. R. (13 November 2015). "Morphology does not predict ... but seldom life-threatening unless the stinger pierces a vital area. The barb usually breaks off in the wound, and surgery ... The ruler measures cm.. Stingrays are not usually aggressive and attack humans only when provoked, such as if a ray is ...
Klitzing K von, Burgin D: Parental capacities for triadic relationships during pregnancy: Early predictors of children's ... This epidemiological indicator is recognized as a very important measure of the level of health care in a country because it is ... Adequate food consumption at an early age is vital for an infant's development. From birth to four months, infants should ... A lack of attachment or a seriously disrupted capacity for attachment could potentially amount to serious disorders.[citation ...
Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity | BioEd Online
Students investigate their own vital lung capacities - the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs in a single breath ... To measure vital lung capacity, each student will inhale deeply and then blow out all the air he or she can through the tubing ... Ask students to predict how much air they will be able to blow out of their lungs. ... Do large people have larger vital lung capacities? How does exercise affect vital lung capacity? How might the vital lung ...
A Study to Assess the Efficacy of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol (FF/VI) Inhalation Powder 100/25 mcg Once Daily Compared With...
Subject with a measured post-albuterol (salbutamol) FEV1/forced vital capacity(FVC) ratio of ,=0.70 at Screening. ... Subjects with a measured post-albuterol (salbutamol) FEV1 ,=70% of predicted normal values. ... Secondary Outcome Measures : *Time to Onset on Treatment Day 1 [ Time Frame: Baseline and Day 1 ]. Time to onset on Treatment ... FEV1 is a measure of lung function and is defined as the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled in one second. The ...
Safety and Tolerability of WVE-210201 in Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Stable pulmonary and cardiac function as measured by:. *Reproducible percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥50% ... Primary Outcome Measures : *Safety: Number of patients with adverse events (AEs) [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Day 85 (end of study) ] ... Secondary Outcome Measures : *Pharmacokinetics (PK): Maximum observed concentration (Cmax) [ Time Frame: Day 1, Day 2, and Day ... Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ,55% in patients ,10 years of age and ,45% in patients ≥10 years of age, as measured ...
Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Lung Disease Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Secondary Outcome Measures : *Determine whether anti-MAA antibody concentrations predict abnormalities in forced vital capacity ... Pulmonary function abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC measured in Liters) and decline in this parameter at 1 year ... To determine whether anti-MAA antibody concentrations predict pulmonary function abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC), ... Pulmonary function abnormalities in diffusion lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO measured as mL/min/mmHg) and decline in ...
Regular Physical Exercise in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Slow Vital Capacity (SVC). [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline SVC at 12 months ]. The Participant`s SVC measured as liters / ... Measured by liters in absolute value and percent predicted value. Lung function will be measured at each of the three times ... Measured by liters in absolute value and percent predicted value. Lung function will be measured at each of the three times ... Lung function - Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline FVC at 12 months ]. Performed by use of ...
Dietary intake and function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Are they associated? | EurekAlert! Science News
In ALS, Respiratory Measure Predicts Pace of Disease | ALZFORUM
Correlation between Forced Vital Capacity and Slow Vital Capacity for the assessment of respiratory involvement in Amyotrophic ... Slow vital capacity (SVC), a measure of respiratory function, declines more quickly in ALS patients who are older or have ... The most common, forced vital capacity (FVC), measures the volume of air expelled from the lungs during a quick, forceful ... They pointed to other reports that vital capacity measures often do not decline significantly until patients are in dire ...
Vital capacity - Wikipedia
Several studies have been made to measure and predict vital capacity. An online calculator exists that will compute the ... Vital capacity increases with height and decreases with age. Formulas to estimate vital capacity are: v c f e m a l e = ( 21.78 ... Lung volumes are directly measured, whereas lung capacities are inferred from volumes. The vital capacity can be used to help ... predicted vital capacity based on these references given a patients, age, height and sex. "Vital Capacity". Family Practice ...
Profile | Innovation, Impact and Business | University of Exeter
Percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC); ventilation dependency; mobility; 6 min walk test (6MWT); muscle strength and ... Given the heterogeneity in outcome measures and reporting methods, meta-analysis was not undertaken for HRQL. In five out of 20 ... Percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC); ventilation dependency; mobility; 6 min walk test (6MWT); muscle strength and ... Percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC); ventilation dependency; mobility; 6 min walk test (6MWT); muscle strength and ...
John W. Day, MD, PhD | Stanford Medicine Profiles
... were measured. Results: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, 100% of subjects) showed a mean 47.8 ± 22% predicted (ICC 0.98). Brooke ... Forced vital capacity percent predicted (FVC% predicted) declined significantly only after 2 years. However, Brooke and Egen ... upright forced vital capacity decrease ≥15% predicted, or Gross Motor Function Measure-88 decrease ≥8 percentage points). ... Forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFr), maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were performed and ...
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine
... were measured. Results: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, 100% of subjects) showed a mean 47.8 22% predicted (ICC 0.98). Brooke upper ... Forced vital capacity percent predicted (FVC% predicted) declined significantly only after 2 years. However, Brooke and Egen ... upright forced vital capacity decrease ?15% predicted, or Gross Motor Function Measure-88 decrease ?8 percentage points). ... Forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFr), maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were performed and ...
Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity | BioEd Online
... in which students learn about their own vital lung capacities: the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs in a ... They also will discover that people have different vital lung capacities. They will predict, model, observe and measure, graph ... In this activity, students will make a lungometer to measure their vital lung capacity (the amount of air that can be forced ... Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity. Author(s): Nancy Moreno, PhD, Barbara Tharp, MS, and Judith Dresden, MS. ...
Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity | BioEd Online
... in which students learn about their own vital lung capacities: the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs in a ... to measure their own vital lung capacity. They will predict, model, observe and measure, graph, and draw conclusions based on ... Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity. Author(s): Nancy Moreno, PhD, Barbara Tharp, MS, and Judith Dresden, MS. ... Lungometer: Vital Lung Capacity. This activity uses guided inquiry to illustrate that our lungs can hold much more air than we ...
Lung Function Tests
Result as predicted for age, height, sex, weight, or race. Forced vital capacity (FVC) ... Carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (also called DLCO). This test measures how well your lungs transfer a small amount of carbon ... Body plethysmography may be used to measure:. *Total lung capacity (TLC). This is the total amount of air your lungs can hold. ... It measures how much and how quickly you can move air out of your lungs. You breathe into a mouthpiece attached to a machine ...
Clinical Trials Register
Respiratory muscle function as measured by forced vital capacity. (FVC)% predicted. 3) Safety and tolerability of SRP-4045 and ... Vital signs. • Physical examination findings. 4) • Change from Baseline at Week 144 (Week 48 of the OL period) in. 6MWT. • ... FVC% predicted. 3) Review and evaluation of:. • AEs, SAEs, deaths, and discontinuations due to AEs. • Laboratory testing ... FVC% predicted. 5) Review and evaluation of:. • AEs, SAEs, deaths, and discontinuations due to AEs. • Laboratory testing ...
Emerging Drugs for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - CADTH Issues in Emerging Health Technologies - NCBI Bookshelf
6MWT = six-minute walk test; DMD = Duchenne muscular dystrophy; FVC%p = forced vital capacity per cent predicted. ... Change in respiratory function was measured as peak expiratory flow as percentage predicted (PEF%p). Patients self-assessed ... Secondary: Change from baseline in forced vital capacity and inspiratory flow reserve at week 78. Currently recruiting ... Outcomes Measured in Trials. Ambulation. The outcome measures for trials involving drugs aimed at prolonging ambulation in ...
Risk Factors for Mortality and Cardiopulmonary Hospitalization in Systemic Sclerosis Patients At Risk for Pulmonary...
... predicted or ratio of % forced vital capacity/%DLCO , 1.6, measured by pulmonary function testing. Baseline clinical measures ... predicted, or (2) forced vital capacity (FVC) %predicted/DLCO %predicted ratio , 1.6, or (3) estimated systolic pulmonary ... predicted FVC. Although abnormal baseline PFT did not predict risk for cardiopulmonary hospitalization, a drop in % predicted ... Outcome measures for heart involvement in systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology 2008;47:v51-3. ...
Time-Action Profile of Inhaled Insulin in Comparison With Subcutaneously Injected Insulin Lispro and Regular Human Insulin |...
FEV1-to-forced vital capacity ratio ,0.80) as measured in a standing position using a Spirovit SP-200 (Schiller AG, Baar, ... All subjects had normal lung function (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] ,80% of predicted normal value; ... Mean pharmacodynamic summary measures of 6 mg INH, subcutaneous injection of 18 U RHI, and subcutaneous injection of 18 U ILP ... Mean pharmacokinetic summary measures after inhalation of 6 mg INH or subcutaneous injection of 18 U RHI on two different study ...
Tirasemtiv in Patients With ALS - Cedars-Sinai
FEV1, per cent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. The total duration of the ... per cent predicted forced vital capacity and body mass index. There were no significant differences in levels of white cell ... Finally, measuring levels of host inflammatory markers may not provide an accurate prediction of future clinical outcome. A ... The two groups were prospectively matched by per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV1). Patients co- ...
Effect of salmeterol on the ventilatory response to exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | European Respiratory...
... vital capacity; % pred: per cent predicted. *: p,0.05 versus placebo. ... measured at rest, a standardised time (3.4±0.5 min) during exercise and end-exercise). At a standardised time (vertical arrow) ... of the forced vital capacity has been exhaled at their respective lung volumes anchored to total lung capacity; each of these ... DL,CO: single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ...
Health-related quality of life as predictor for mortality in patients treated with long-term mechanical ventilation |...
... questionnaire is a specific measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients treated with long-term mechanical ... PaCO2 and forced vital capacity (FVC), but without subgroup analyses for the different diagnosis group . Other measures of ... Why and how SRI predicts mortality. Previous studies using patient-reported measures other than SRI have also reported an ... The time in months from study inclusion in 2008 (when baseline SRI was measured) until death was used as a measure of event- ...
1991 - Older age, impaired lung or renal function, anemia, and decreased total serum protein predicted shortened...
... lower forced vital capacity (, 80% of predicted with hemoglobin , 14 gm/dL or forced vital capacity , 65% with hemoglobin ≤ 14 ... Main outcome measures. Outcome was determined on 133 variables. Information was collected from patients, their relatives, ... gm/dL, P, 0.001) and reduced carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (≤ 50% of predicted, P = 0.01); higher blood urea nitrogen (, ... Several variables predicted shortened survival in systemic sclerosis: older age, impaired lung or renal function, anemia, and ...
Pulmonary function and CT biomarkers as risk factors for cardiovascular events in male lung cancer screening participants -...
... predicted) and FEV1 divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV1/FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery ... Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV1% ... predicted, 1.000 (95% CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV1/FVC, 1.014 (95% CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95% CI 1.024- ...
Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up ... RESULTS-At baseline, adults with diabetes had significantly lower predicted FVC (96 vs. 103%, P , 0.001) and predicted FEV1 (92 ... FVC, forced vital capacity. Impaired lung function has attracted growing interest as a potential complication of diabetes (1-10 ... Yeh HC, Punjabi NM, Wang NY, Pankow JS, Duncan BB, Brancati FL: Vital capacity as a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes: the ...
EP0564803A1 - Use of aminoacids for improving the quality of sleep and treating sleep disorders - Google Patents
Vital capacity was 1.1 liter (predicted 3.8), forced expiratory volume .81 liter (predicted 2.7). ... To measure ETCO₂ a length of thin tubing was inserted about 1 cm into the nostril of the patient and the other end was ... The patients vital capacity had increased to 1.17 1 and her FEV1 had increased to 0181 1/sec. Feelings of lightheadedness and ... The increase in vital capacity and FEV1 demonstrates that the Branchamine has improved the patients sleep apnea. ...
Sanofi's investigational enzyme replacement therapy shows clinically meaningful improvement in critical manifestations of late...
Avalglucosidase alfa showed a 2.4-point improvement in percent-predicted forced vital capacity, an important measure of ... The trial primary endpoint evaluated the change in respiratory muscle function using percent-predicted forced vital capacity ( ... as measured by well-established standard Pompe disease outcome measures," said John Reed, M.D., Ph.D., Global Head of Research ... Maximum Expiratory Pressure (% predicted). 2.39 (4.00). 5.00 (4.20). -2.61 (-14.22, 9.00). Hand-held dynamometry Composite ...
11 Respiratory Diseases | Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes | The National Academies Press
The most common measurements of lung function include forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEF25-75 percent, ... it becomes necessary to measure intermediate outcomes that may predict a disease state. The intermediate outcomes most relevant ... forced vital capacity; GOLD Stages 1-4 = Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages of COPD (1 = mild, 2 = ... 1) C5, measured by the number of coughs following a capsaicin challenge.. (2) Secondary analysis with non-nicotine e-cigarette ...
FEV1ObstructivePrimary endpointForced expiraEndpointFunctionAirflow obstructionHeight and sexObstructionProgressionLitersMortalityMmHgClinically0.001SurvivalOutcome measureDeclineLungsSlow vital capacityTidal volumeAmerican College of RSignificantlyChronicPatient's6MWTResidualBaseline to weekGlobal assessmentsSerumBiomarkersCoronaryPercentagesLungometerMRSSPeak expiCarbonCalculateLung volumesDiffusionConcentrations
- To determine whether anti-MAA antibody concentrations predict pulmonary function abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and diffusion lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and decline in these parameters at 1 year follow-up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Outcomes included percent-predicted one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1%), forced vital capacity (FVC%), and the FEV1/FVC ratio. (cdc.gov)
- Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV1% predicted, 1.000 (95% CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV1/FVC, 1.014 (95% CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95% CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. (rug.nl)
- Those include the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) - that is, the amount of air exhaled forcefully in one second - over forced vital capacity (FVC) - or the full amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled in a complete breath. (eurekalert.org)
- Though there has been some progress with case based or hospital based interventions (such as improvements in exercise capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and health related quality of life, fewer admissions to hospital and acute exacerbations, and lower all cause mortality),6 7 8 9 10 the efficacy of such efforts are limited in the prevention of COPD among the general population in China. (scarygirl.com)
- The Vitalograph asma-1™ is a simple home use electronic respiratory monitor that measures PEF and FEV1 and may be integrated with smart phone or tablet for ePRO data collection. (healthcare4all.co.uk)
- The lung monitor measures FEV1, FEV6 & the ratio with electronic and hard copy reports. (healthcare4all.co.uk)
- Higher exposure to NO X (per interquartile range of 7.43 μg/m 3 ) was also associated with lower percent forced vital capacity (FVC) and percent predicted forced expiration volume in 1 s (FEV1) (B -2.30, 95% CI -4.55 to − 0.05 and B -2.73, 95%CI -5.21 to − 0.25 respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
- A cross-sectional study in Argentina children (aged 6 to 12 years) living near petrochemical industry had a lower lung function (13% FEV1 percent predicted) and significant more asthma (24.8% vs 10.1%), asthma exacerbations (6.7 vs 2.9 per year) and respiratory symptoms (average 24.4% vs 14.0%) compared to children in a semirural region [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Postbronchodilator spirometric parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ), and ratio of FEV 1 /FVC (FEV 1 %), were used to classify disease severity according to global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria. (dovepress.com)
- FVC) in predicting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related hospitalization and mortality? (bmj.com)
- Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (le.ac.uk)
- Andrews and colleagues set out to determine whether SVC could be used to predict ALS progression, and ultimately serve as a primary endpoint. (alzforum.org)
- The trial primary endpoint evaluated the change in respiratory muscle function using percent-predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) in the upright position. (globenewswire.com)
- The primary endpoint was also measured for superiority. (globenewswire.com)
- Slow vital capacity, a measure of respiratory function, predicted the rate of disease progression in ALS patients, suggesting the test could be used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. (alzforum.org)
- The primary endpoint of the study was to demonstrate the effect of 14-day once-daily Ultibro Breezhaler treatment on left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LV-EDV) as measured by MRI. (novartis.com)
- The two groups (both n=20) were well matched for per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second, per cent predicted forced vital capacity and body mass index. (ersjournals.com)
- Forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC(%), and total lung capacity (TLC) were obtained. (acpjc.org)
- Patients with very low compliance had significantly smaller lung volumes (forced expiratory volume at 1 second, FVC, TLC) and lower diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide when compared with patients with normal compliance. (ovid.com)
- We partitioned airway obstruction into components of air trapping [indicated by forced vital capacity (FVC)] and airflow limitation [indicated by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))/FVC]. (nih.gov)
- Secondary endpoints included effects on lung function parameters as measured by residual volume (RVol), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC). (novartis.com)
- The following variables were measured: vital capacity, forced vital capacity, one-second forced expiratory volume, peak expiratory flow, and maximal expiratory flow at 25%, 50% of expiratory vital capacity. (koreamed.org)
- Results After adjusting for confounders, the subjects with exposure to household solid fuel had a 1.3% (95% CI 0.57 to 2.02) decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) percent predicted and 3.5% (95% CI 2.74 to 4.18) decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted, respectively. (bmj.com)
- Many recent studies use SVC as a secondary endpoint or exploratory measure, she said. (alzforum.org)
- A key secondary endpoint in the trial measured mobility with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). (globenewswire.com)
- ACR CRISS has received provisional endorsement by the American College of Rheumatology as an outcome measure for interventional trials in diffuse cutaneous SSc and its use as the primary efficacy endpoint in our Phase 3 study was recommended by the study's Steering Committee. (nasdaq.com)
- Pulmonary function abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC measured in Liters) and decline in this parameter at 1 year follow-up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- and respiratory function was measured using the percentage of predicted force vital capacity (FVC). (eurekalert.org)
- Rate of decline on a single test of respiratory function predicted how quickly respiratory failure would occur in ALS patients, and how long they would survive. (alzforum.org)
- Slow vital capacity (SVC), a measure of respiratory function, declines more quickly in ALS patients who are older or have advanced disease. (alzforum.org)
- Different measures of respiratory function are used to gauge respiratory strength as the disease progresses. (alzforum.org)
- Lung function results are measured directly in some tests and are calculated in others. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- 1.6, measured by pulmonary function testing. (jrheum.org)
- Various exercise responses as a function of exercise time during constant-load exercise at 75% of each patient's maximum work-rate: a) ventilation ( V ' E ), b) inspiratory capacity (IC), c) respiratory frequency ( f R ), d) tidal volume ( V T ), e) cardiac frequency ( f c ), and f) arterial oxygen saturation ( S a,O 2 ). (ersjournals.com)
- Patients treated with avalglucosidase alfa had a 2.4-point greater improvement in percent-predicted FVC compared to patients treated with standard of care (95% CI, -0.13 / 4.99), a numerical improvement in respiratory function that surpassed the study-designed measure of non-inferiority (p=0.0074). (globenewswire.com)
- and normal pulmonary function as FEV 1 /FVC(%) ≥ 70 and FVC or TLC ≥ 80% predicted. (acpjc.org)
- Lung function tests were measured on 120/154 (77.9%) children at 11 years of age. (nih.gov)
- The researchers explained that respiratory function can be measured in several ways, one of which is the forced vital capacity (FVC) which is the total amount of air that can be exhaled by the lungs after a deep inspiration. (news-medical.net)
- This study presents an analysis pipeline for measuring parameters of diaphragmatic motion from dynamic MRI and its application to investigate MRI measures of respiratory function in both healthy controls and non-ambulant DMD boys. (frontiersin.org)
- MRI measures of pulmonary function were reduced in DMD, controlling for height differences between the groups: at maximal inhalation, the maximum CSA and the total distance of motion of the diaphragm were 45% and 37% smaller. (frontiersin.org)
- Dynamic MRI measures of thoracic muscle and pulmonary function are, therefore, believed to detect meaningful differences between healthy controls and DMD and may be sensitive to changes in function over relatively short periods of follow-up in non-ambulant boys with DMD. (frontiersin.org)
- Subset analysis was performed based on available pulmonary function tests and divided into groups by forced vital capacity (FVC). (nih.gov)
- Its basic use is to measure ventilatory function - the dynamic volumes of the lungs and the maximal rates of the flow. (differencebetween.net)
- All of these measures are used to determine the measurement of a ventilatory function. (differencebetween.net)
- To assess the effects of exercise on measures of function, strength, and exercise capacity in ambulatory SMA patients. (iospress.com)
- Slow vital capacity (SVC), a measure of respiratory function, declined by 1.50% predicted/month for the no-NIV cohort (MN-166 and placebo subjects combined) from Baseline to Month 6, which is below rates observed historically in other ALS studies. (cnbc.com)
- Yuichi Iwaki, MD, PhD, President and Chief Executive Officer of MediciNova, Inc., commented, "We are very pleased with the encouraging interim data, particularly the slow vital capacity and NIV utilization data which may indicate that MN-166 has potential to improve respiratory function in ALS patients. (cnbc.com)
- Arm span length is related to standing height and has been studied as a substitute for current standing height for predicting lung function parameters. (dovepress.com)
- Disease severity increased in 39.6% (42/106) of subjects using arm span length over current standing height for predicted lung function. (dovepress.com)
- Their pulmonary function was measured using Pony spirometer and breathing exercises were advised, which were done thrice a day for 6 weeks and reviewed. (scribd.com)
- At the end of 6 weeks pulmonary function was measure and values obtained were compared with the baseline values. (scribd.com)
- Patients treated with eteplirsen in Study 201/202 experienced significantly less deterioration of respiratory muscle function than natural history would predict," said Douglas Ingram, Sarepta's president and chief executive officer. (globenewswire.com)
- Forced vital capacity (FVC) is a very important pulmonary function measurement that is used to evaluate a wide range of lung diseases. (verywellhealth.com)
- 6) Predicted values of pulmonary function test and correlation coefficients to the parameters were generally higher in boys than those of girls. (koreamed.org)
- Very simply it is a lung function test to measure how fast you can exhale. (healthcare4all.co.uk)
- Measures of pulmonary function provide important clinical tools for evaluating lung disease and its progression. (plos.org)
- In over 50,000 study participants of European descent, we applied a recently developed joint meta-analysis method to simultaneously test associations of gene and gene-by-smoking interactions in relation to two major clinical measures of pulmonary function. (plos.org)
- Lung function is unlike respiratory symptoms an objective measure of respiratory health. (biomedcentral.com)
Height and sex1
- Forced vital capacity will be reported as both a number in liters for an absolute value and on a linear graph to chart the dynamics of your exhalation. (verywellhealth.com)
- FVC was the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out after full inspiration in the upright position, measured in liters. (anzctr.org.au)
- NCHS collects physician office-visit data in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, emergency department and hospital outpatient department data in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, hospitalization data in the National Hospital Discharge Survey, and death data in the Mortality Component of the National Vital Statistics System. (cdc.gov)
- A 10% decline in FVC in an individual IPF patient is considered clinically meaningful and strongly predicts mortality. (benzinga.com)
- The two mortality analyses were pre-specified for both the ASCEND study and the pooled population of the ASCEND study and the previous Phase 3 CAPACITY studies through 52 weeks. (benzinga.com)
- Due to the relatively low overall mortality rate in patient populations in the time frames studied in a single IPF study such as ASCEND, pooled analyses of ASCEND and CAPACITY data provide more statistical power and a more precise estimate of the treatment effect of pirfenidone on mortality. (benzinga.com)
- These measures also predict other morbidities and mortality in the general population - . (prolekare.cz)
- In the November 27 JAMA Neurology, researchers led by Jinsy Andrews at Columbia University in New York reported that slow vital capacity (SVC)-the amount of air expelled from the lungs during a slow, gentle breath-correlated with clinically meaningful events such as use of assisted ventilation, tracheostomy, and ultimately, death. (alzforum.org)
- SVC is clearly a more sensitive measure, and now the findings suggest it is also a clinically meaningful one, she said. (alzforum.org)
- Total white cell and differential counts, sputum neutrophil elastase (NE), interleukin (IL)‐8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)‐α, plasma IL‐6 and NE/α 1 ‐antitrypsin complexes, serum C‐reactive protein, and urine TNF receptor 1 were all measured in clinically stable patients 4-6 weeks following completion of intravenous antibiotic therapy. (ersjournals.com)
- A statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in pulmonary decline as measured by forced vital capacity percent predicted (FVC%p) was observed for eteplirsen-treated patients as compared to natural history data published in the scientific literature. (globenewswire.com)
- The magnitude of the treatment effect of pirfenidone was measured by comparing the proportion of patients in the pirfenidone and placebo groups experiencing either a clinically meaningful change in FVC, or death. (benzinga.com)
- The primary outcome measure was improved fitness as assessed by change in blood lactate concentration at the end of an identical constant work rate for both arm and leg ergometric testing. (bmj.com)
- The primary outcome measure was distance walked during the six-minute walk test (6MWT). (iospress.com)
- For each outcome measure, we used linear mixed-effects models to calculate the difference at group level between the start of therapy and 7 years of ERT. (springer.com)
- SVC decline correlates with slippage in other respiratory measures, time to tracheostomy, and even death. (alzforum.org)
- They found that while 80 percent of people with average SVC decline of 1.23 percentage points per month were predicted to survive for 63 weeks, 80 percent of those who declined by 2.73 or 4.23 percentage points per month were predicted to survive for 57 or 52 weeks, respectively. (alzforum.org)
- Average decline in FVC % predicted from baseline to week 48 was 2.85 in the pamrevlumab arm as compared to an average decline of 7.17 in the placebo arm, an absolute difference of 4.33. (corporate-ir.net)
- The rate of decline in the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score, a measure of functional impairment, from Baseline to Month 6 for the MN-166 and placebo subjects combined is below rates observed historically in other ALS studies. (cnbc.com)
- Students gauge their own vital lung capacity-the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs in a single breath. (bioedonline.org)
- The maximum amount of air that can be blown out of the lungs after taking a deep breath is known as vital lung capacity. (bioedonline.org)
- Some diseases reduce the lungs' vital capacity. (bioedonline.org)
- Ask students to predict how much air they will be able to blow out of their lungs. (bioedonline.org)
- The most common, forced vital capacity (FVC), measures the volume of air expelled from the lungs during a quick, forceful breath. (alzforum.org)
- Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
- In this activity, students will make a lungometer to measure their vital lung capacity (the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs in a single breath). (bioedonline.org)
- Students will learn that the maximum amount of air that can be blown out of the lungs after taking a deep breath is known as vital lung capacity, and they will build a "Lungometer" to measure their own vital lung capacity. (bioedonline.org)
- People differ in vital lung capacity (the amount of air they can blow out of their lungs). (bioedonline.org)
- It measures how much and how quickly you can move air out of your lungs. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Gas diffusion tests measure the amount of oxygen and other gases that move through the lungs' air sacs ( alveoli ) per minute. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- This test measures how well your lungs transfer a small amount of carbon monoxide (CO) into the blood. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- Forced vital capacity, or FVC, is defined as the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. (verywellhealth.com)
- By this stage the development of the lungs and heart is complete, and apart from a mild degree of restricted lung capacity, individuals with adolescent-onset scoliosis rarely encounter breathing problems during pregnancy or as they get older. (sauk.org.uk)
- A useful way to assess lung size is to measure vital capacity with a simple blowing test - this measures the total amount of air that can be actively expelled from the lungs after taking in maximum breath. (sauk.org.uk)
- This test measures how efficiently the lungs, and specifically the alveoli (air sacs), are taking in oxygen. (alpha1canada.ca)
Slow vital capacity3
- One of these is vital capacity - the highest level of air volume a device can exhale or inspire during a forced vital capacity (FVC) or a slow vital capacity (VC) maneuver. (differencebetween.net)
- Two types of blows are done: the first is the "relaxed" slow vital capacity (VC), followed by forced vital capacity (FVC). (differencebetween.net)
- the first is the "relaxed" and slow vital capacity (VC), followed by forced vital capacity (FVC). (differencebetween.net)
- Tidal volume selection during mechanical ventilation utilizes dogmatic formulas that only consider a patient's predicted body weight (PBW). (ovid.com)
- In this study, we investigate whether forced vital capacity (FVC) (1) correlates better to total lung capacity (TLC) than PBW, (2) predicts low pulmonary compliance, and (3) provides an alternative method for tidal volume selection. (ovid.com)
American College of R1
- Treatment effect of EHP-101 compared to placebo as measured by the American College of Rheumatology composite response index in diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis - The ACR CRISS exponential algorithm determines the predicted probability of improvement from baseline, incorporating change in modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) % predicted, physician and patient global assessments, and Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (S-HAQ-DI). (anzctr.org.au)
- 25-75% of occupation in the pesticide factory was significantly correlated with abnormal respiratory measures. (who.int)
- The subgroup of patients who showed increases in the work load equal to or greater than 5 w also exhibited significantly greater improvements in inspiratory capacity (0.29 l). (scielo.br)
- Also presented were results from a pre-specified preliminary analysis evaluating percent-predicted FVC and 6MWT in those patients who switched (switch patients) at 49 weeks from standard of care to avalglucosidase alfa for the open-label extension period of the trial. (globenewswire.com)
- Due to sequential enrollment, preliminary analysis results at the time of data presentation were available at 97 weeks for 20 out of 49 switch patients for percent-predicted FVC, and 21 out of 49 switch patients for 6MWT. (globenewswire.com)
Baseline to week1
- The ACR CRISS score is calculated from weighted changes from baseline in five core outcome measures commonly used to evaluate treatment effect in trials for SSc: mRSS, Health Assessment Questionnaire - Disability Index (HAQ-DI), forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted, and patient and physician global assessments of health related to SSc. (nasdaq.com)
- Alternatively, you may conduct the activity as a demonstration, or let each student measure his or her vital lung capacity on a lungometer that you have made. (bioedonline.org)
- Make a lungometer and demonstrate your vital lung capacity to the class. (bioedonline.org)
- Allow students to calculate their vital lung capacities as shown on the "Lungometer Data Sheet. (bioedonline.org)
- After adjustment for confounders higher exposure to PM 2.5 and NO X (per interquartile range of 0.56 and 7.43 μg/m 3 respectively) was associated with lower percent predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF) (B -2.80%, 95%CI -5.05% to − 0.55% and B -3.67%, 95%CI -6.93% to − 0.42% respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
- Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an inherently quantitative imaging technique that measures the diffusivities of water molecules in tissue. (spie.org)
- Spherical harmonic series truncated to a certain degree is used in recent studies to describe the measured non-Gaussian Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) profile. (spie.org)
- To determine whether anti-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct antibody concentrations predict CT changes consistent with RA-lung involvement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Determine whether anti-MAA antibody concentrations predict abnormalities in forced vital capacity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Oxidative stress was investigated by measuring the concentrations of circulating lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyls (protein oxidation). (mendeley.com)