The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.


aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa?  (+info)

Seroepidemiological evaluation of 1989-91 mass vaccination campaigns against measles, in Italy. (2/1483)

In 1989-91 anti-measles vaccination campaigns were conducted in several Italian regions to vaccinate all children aged between 13 months and 10-12 years without a history of measles or measles vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate serological status after the mass vaccination campaigns. In 1994, capillary blood samples were collected from randomly selected children, aged 2-14 years, living in 13 local health units. Antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Blood spot samples were analysed for 4114 (75.6%) of 5440 selected children. Among the 835 that reported measles before 1990, 806 (96.5%) were immune and of the 2798 vaccinated, 2665 (95.2%) were immune. The Edmoston-Zagreb (E-Z) strain vaccine was associated with a lower level of immunity than the Schwarz (SW) strain. A history of measles identified almost all immune children. Vaccination with the SW strain conferred persistent immunity (at least 5 years) in 98% of vaccinees. The strategy was able to unite natural and induced immunity.  (+info)

Characterization of a new genotype of measles virus detected in China and England. (3/1483)

We report the co-circulation of a new lineage of measles virus (MV) and an Edmonston-like (Ed-like) genotype of MV in China during 1995-7. Sequence analysis of 25 strains was performed on a 282 nucleotides (nt) region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, a 450-nt region of the haemagglutinin (H) gene and a 152-nt region of the matrix (M) gene by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons obtained from clinical specimens. The entire H gene was sequenced from two strains. The results showed that 24/25 Chinese strains belonged to a new genogroup and were distinct from the vaccine strains used in China and the UK, and also from MV strains previously described in Europe, Africa and the USA. The remaining strain was Ed-like. Two strains of the new genotype (IV) and one of the Ed-like genotype were also detected in the UK in 1996.  (+info)

Requirements for measles virus induction of RANTES chemokine in human astrocytoma-derived U373 cells. (4/1483)

Interferons and chemokines play a critical role in regulating the host response to viral infection. Measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, induces RANTES expression by astrocytes. We have examined the mechanism of this induction in U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma. RANTES was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by measles virus infection. Inhibition of receptor binding by the anti-CD46 antibody TRA-2.10 and of virus-membrane fusion by the tripeptide X-Phe-Phe-Gly reduced RANTES expression. Formalin-inactivated virus, which can bind but not fuse, and extensively UV-irradiated virus, which can bind and fuse, were both ineffective. Therefore, virus binding to the cellular receptor CD46 and subsequent membrane fusion were necessary, but not sufficient, to induce RANTES. UV irradiation of virus for less than 10 min proportionally inhibited viral transcription and RANTES expression. RANTES induction was decreased in infected cells treated with ribavirin, which inhibits measles virus transcription. However, RANTES mRNA was superinduced by measles virus in the presence of cycloheximide. These data suggest that partial transcription of the viral genome is sufficient and necessary for RANTES induction, whereas viral protein synthesis and replication are not required. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that RANTES was induced through transient expression of the measles virus nucleocapsid gene but not by measles genes encoding P or L proteins or by leader RNA in A549 cells. Thus, transcription of specific portions of measles virus RNA, such as the nucleocapsid gene, appears able to generate the specific signaling required to induce RANTES gene expression.  (+info)

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (5/1483)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Events following the infections of enucleate cells with measles virus. (6/1483)

The development of measles virus (Edmonston) and SSPE measles virus (Horta-Barbosa) has been examined in enucleate BSC 1 cells. New antigen synthesis in measles virus infected enucleate cells has been demonstrated by fluorescent antibody, by the formation of extensive syncytia from enucleate cells alone and by analysis of polypeptide formation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All polypeptides formed in nucleate cells were also present in enucleate cells but the amount synthesized was reduced to around 20% of that in nucleate cells. There was also a significant reduction in the amount of antigen detected by fluorescent antibody in enucleate as compared to nucleate preparations. Examination of RNA synthesis in infected enucleate cells revealed only a marginal increase in acid-insoluble material. Titration of the output of infectious virus from enucleate cells infected at both 37 and 31 degrees C indicated a consistent reduction of almost two log units compared to nucleate cells. That the enucleate cells were capable of replicating input genome at these times was demonstrated by the successful growth of respiratory syncytial virus, both at 37 and 31 degrees C. SSPE measles virus grew to higher yield in nucleate BSC 1 than measles virus but there was again a reduction of more than two log units in enucleate cells. All polypeptides synthesized in SSPE infected nucleate cells were apparent in enucleate cells.  (+info)

The genome nucleotide sequence of a contemporary wild strain of measles virus and its comparison with the classical Edmonston strain genome. (7/1483)

The only complete genome nucleotide sequences of measles virus (MeV) reported to date have been for the Edmonston (Ed) strain and derivatives, which were isolated decades ago, passaged extensively under laboratory conditions, and appeared to be nonpathogenic. Partial sequencing of many other strains has identified >/=15 genotypes. Most recent isolates, including those typically pathogenic, belong to genotypes distinct from the Edmonston type. Therefore, the sequence of Ed and related strains may not be representative of those of pathological measles circulating at that or any time in human populations. Taking into account these issues as well as the fact that so many studies have been based upon Ed-related strains, we have sequenced the entire genome of a recently isolated pathogenic strain, 9301B. Between this recent isolate and the classical Ed strain, there were 465 nucleotide differences (2.93%) and 114 amino acid differences (2.19%). Computation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions in open reading frames as well as direct comparisons of noncoding regions of each gene and extracistronic regulatory regions clearly revealed the regions where changes have been permissible and nonpermissible. Notably, considerable nonsynonymous substitutions appeared to be permissible for the P frame to maintain a high degree of sequence conservation for the overlapping C frame. However, the cause and the effect were largely unclear for any substitution, indicating that there is a considerable gap between the two strains that cannot be filled. The sequence reported here would be useful as a reference of contemporary wild-type MeV.  (+info)

Enhanced measles virus cDNA rescue and gene expression after heat shock. (8/1483)

Rescue of negative-stranded RNA viruses from full-length genomic cDNA clones is an essential technology for genetic analysis of this class of viruses. Using this technology in our studies of measles virus (MV), we found that the efficiency of the measles virus rescue procedure (F. Radecke et al., EMBO J. 14:5773-5784, 1995) could be improved by modifying the procedure in two ways. First, we found that coculture of transfected 293-3-46 cells with a monolayer of Vero cells increased the number of virus-producing cultures about 20-fold. Second, we determined that heat shock treatment increased the average number of transfected cultures that produced virus another two- to threefold. In addition, heat shock increased the number of plaques produced by positive cultures. The effect of heat shock on rescue led us to test the effect on transient expression from an MV minireplicon. Heat shock increased the level of reporter gene expression when either minireplicon DNA or RNA was used regardless of whether complementation was provided by cotransfection with expression plasmids or infection with MV helper virus. In addition, we found that MV minireplicon gene expression could be stimulated by cotransfection with an Hsp72 expression plasmid, indicating that hsp72 likely plays a role in the effect of heat shock.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic therapy of disseminated myeloma in passively immunized mice using measles virus-infected cell carriers. AU - Liu, Chunsheng. AU - Russell, Stephen J.. AU - Peng, Kah Whye. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Multiple myeloma (MM) is bone marrow plasma cell malignancy. A clinical trial utilizing intravenous administration of oncolytic measles virus (MV) encoding the human sodium-iodide symporter (MV-NIS) is ongoing in myeloma patients. However, intravenously administered MV-NIS is rapidly neutralized by antiviral antibodies. Because myeloma cell lines retain bone marrow tropism, they may be ideal as carriers for delivery of MV-NIS to myeloma deposits. A disseminated human myeloma (KAS 6/1) model was established. Biodistribution of MM1, a myeloma cell line, was determined after intravenous infusion. MM1 cells were found in the spine, femurs, and mandibles of tumor-bearing mice. Lethally irradiated MM1 cells remained susceptible to measles infection and transferred MV to KAS 6/1 ...
Upon the addition of antibody to measles virus, measles virus antigens expressed on the surface of infected cells can be modulated from the cells membrane in vitro. Removal of measles virus antigens from the surface of cells occurs relatively rapidly and is accompanied by a parallel reduction in the ability of antibody and complement to lyse these cells. Modulation of surface viral antigens can occur in the absence of cap formation and is fully reversible once measles virus antibodies are removed from culture medium. Protracted exposure of acutely infected cells to measles virus antibodies results in a population of cells that exhibit normal cytomorphology and growth behavior. These cells continue to express measles virus antigens internally, but not at the cell surface, and are refractory to immune lysis. Once antiviral antibody is removed, measles virus antigens again appear on the cell surface, giant cell and syncytial formation occur, and cell death follows. These observations may explain ...
We report a case of monozygotic twins whose mother was infected with measles at 19 weeks gestation. One of the twins died in utero at 32 weeks gestation. The placenta of the stillbirth showed massive fibrin deposition, and some residual trophoblasts contained many inclusion bodies positive for measles virus antigen. Fetal organs and cells other than a few splenic lymphocytes showed no evidence of measles virus infection. The placenta of the surviving infant showed focal intervillous fibrin deposits, and only a few syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for measles virus antigen. At present, 7 months after the delivery, the surviving infant has not developed any sign of measles virus infection. Postpartum course of the mother has been uneventful, although high titers of serum anti-measles virus IgM persisted for 6 months after delivery. This case is informative in the following respects: the villous trophoblasts had diagnostic inclusion bodies and ultrastructural evidence of measles virus infection, the
Analysis of urine specimens by using reverse transcriptase-PCR was evaluated as a rapid assay to identify individuals infected with measles virus. For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15-month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases.. ...
295009710 - EP 1015886 A1 2000-07-05 - DETECTION OF MEASLES VIRUS-SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES - [origin: WO9912038A1] The present invention relates to a method for the identification of measles virus specific antibody in a sample comprising contacting a sample suspected of containing measles virus specific antibody with a measles virus specific glycoprotein recombinantly produced in mammalian cells using a high expression system; and detecting the presence or absence of said measles virus specific antibody in said sample. Preferably, the expression system is based on a togavirus expression system, more preferred on an alphavirus expression system, and most preferred on a Semliki Forest virus expression system. Additionally, the present invention relates to a kit comprising said recombinantly produced glycoproteins. The method of the present invention allows an easy and reliable assay of the immune status of the human with respect to the present or past infection with measles virus.[origin: WO9912038A1] The
For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15- month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases. View Abstract. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncolytic measles virus strains as novel anticancer agents. AU - Msaouel, Pavlos. AU - Opyrchal, Mateusz. AU - Domingo Musibay, Evidio. AU - Galanis, Evanthia. N1 - Funding Information: The authors are supported by grants from the National Institutes of Heath National Cancer Institute (NIH/NICI) R01 CA154348, R01 CA136547, P50 CA136393 and P50 CA108961. The authors state no conflict of interest and have received no payment in preparation of this manuscript. Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Introduction: Replication-competent oncolytic measles virus (MV) strains preferentially infect and destroy a wide variety of cancer tissues. Clinical translation of engineered attenuated MV vaccine derivatives is demonstrating the therapeutic potential and negligible pathogenicity of these strains in humans. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the mechanisms of MV tumor selectivity and cytopathic activity as well as the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of CD8+ lymphocytes in control and clearance of measles virus infection of rhesus monkeys. AU - Permar, Sallie R.. AU - Klumpp, Sherry A.. AU - Mansfield, Keith G.. AU - Kim, Woong Ki. AU - Gorgone, Darci A.. AU - Lifton, Michelle A.. AU - Williams, Kenneth C.. AU - Schmitz, Jörn E.. AU - Reimann, Keith A.. AU - Axthelm, Michael K.. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Griffin, Diane E.. AU - Letvin, Norman L.. PY - 2003/4. Y1 - 2003/4. N2 - The creation of an improved vaccine for global measles control will require an understanding of the immune mechanisms of measles virus containment. To assess the role of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in measles virus clearance, rhesus monkeys were depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes by monoclonal anti-CD8 antibody infusion and challenged with wild-type measles virus. The CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted animals exhibited a more extensive rash, higher viral loads at the peak of virus replication, and a longer duration of viremia than did the control ...
Zhang X., Lu G., Qi J., Li Y., He Y., Xu X., Shi J., Zhang C.W., Yan J., Gao G.F.. Measles virus is a major public health concern worldwide. Three measles virus cell receptors have been identified so far, and the structures of the first two in complex with measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) have been reported. Nectin-4 is the most recently identified receptor in epithelial cells, and its binding mode to MV-H remains elusive. In this study, we solved the structure of the membrane-distal domain of human nectin-4 in complex with MV-H. The structure shows that nectin-4 binds the MV-H β4-β5 groove exclusively via its N-terminal IgV domain; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The binding site in MV-H for nectin-4 also overlaps extensively with those of the other two receptors. Finally, a hydrophobic pocket centered in the β4-β5 groove is involved in binding to all three identified measles virus receptors, representing a potential target for antiviral drugs.. Nat. ...
Yilla, M.; Hickman, C.; McGrew, M.; Meade, E.; Bellini, W.J., 2003: Edmonston measles virus prevents increased cell surface expression of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class II proteins in human peripheral monocytes
Measles remains a leading cause of death worldwide among children because it suppresses immune function. The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins (P, V, and C) that interfere with innate immunity, controlling STAT1, STAT2, mda5, and perhaps other key regulators of immune function. We identified here three residues in the shared domain of the P and V proteins-tyrosine 110, valine 112, and histidine 115-that function to retain STAT1 in the cytoplasm and inhibit interferon transcription. This information was used to generate a recombinant measles virus unable to antagonize STAT1 function (STAT1-blind MV) differing only in these three residues from a wild-type strain of well-defined virulence. This virus was used to assess the relevance of P and V interactions with STAT1 for virulence in primates. When a group of six rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was inoculated intranasally with STAT1-blind MV, viremia was short-lived, and the skin rash and other clinical signs observed with wild-type MV were
Summary Treatment of measles virus-infected cells with cycloheximide results in a three-fold increase of 3H-uridine incorporation into the 12 to 36S mRNA species and in the inhibition of genomic 50S RNA synthesis. Consistent with these observations was the finding of a build-up of polyribosomes but an absence of nucleocapsids in the infected cells. These results suggest that measles virus RNA replication, but not transcription, is dependent upon active protein synthesis.
The advent of live-attenuated vaccines against measles virus during the 1960ies changed the circulation dynamics of the virus. Earlier the virus was indigenous to countries worldwide, but now it is mediated by a limited number of evolutionary lineages causing sporadic outbreaks/epidemics of measles or circulating in geographically restricted endemic areas of Africa, Asia and Europe. We expect that the evolutionary dynamics of measles virus has changed from a situation where a variety of genomic variants co-circulates in an epidemic with relatively high probabilities of co-infection of the individual to a situation where a co-infection with strains from evolutionary different lineages is unlikely. We performed an analysis of the partial sequences of the hemagglutinin gene of 18 measles virus strains collected in Denmark between 1965 and 1983 where vaccination was first initiated in 1987. The results were compared with those obtained with strains collected from other parts of the world after the
We investigated the presence of the measles virus genome in order to identify asymptomatic infections in the adult population. Bone-marrow aspirates were obtained from 179 patients, 20-96 years of age, for the diagnosis of malignant diseases (29 with malignant lymphoma, 28 with acute leukaemia, 21 with myelodysplastic syndrome, five with multiple myeloma and 96 with other diseases). The measles virus genome was detected in 17 (9·5%) of 179 individuals by RT-PCR and 28 (15·6%) through hybridization. The genomes detected in bone marrow were all in the same cluster, D5, the strain circulating during the study period, and no evidence of persistent infection was obtained. We conclude that asymptomatic infections of measles virus are common in adults and the presence of the measles virus genome would not be related to the pathogenesis of illness.
Twenty-eight outbreaks in six regions and two major cities in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with the collection of 207 venous blood and/or oral fluid samples. Measles diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles-specific IgM and/or detection of measles virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 176 suspected cases tested for specific measles IgM, 142 (81%) were IgM positive. Suspected cases in vaccinated children were much less likely to be laboratory confirmed than in unvaccinated children (42% vs. 83%, P , 0.0001). Of 197 samples analyzed by RT-PCR measles virus genome was detected in 84 (43%). A total of 58 wild-type measles viruses were characterized by nucleic acid sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes. Two recognized genotypes (D4 and 133) were identified. Each outbreak comprised only a single genotype and outbreaks of each genotype tended to occur in distinct geographical locations. 133 was first observed in 2002, and has now been the ...
Measles virus, a paramyxovirus of the Morbillivirus genus, is responsible for an acute childhood illness that infects over 40 million people and leads to the deaths of more than 1 million people annually (C. J. Murray and A. D. Lopez, Lancet 349:1269-1276, 1997). Measles virus infection is characterized by virus-induced immune suppression that creates susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus can inhibit cytokine responses by direct interference with host STAT protein-dependent signaling systems. Expression of the measles V protein prevents alpha, beta, and gamma interferon-induced transcriptional responses. Furthermore, it can interfere with signaling by interleukin-6 and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, v-Src. Affinity purification demonstrates that the measles V protein associates with cellular STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, and IRF9, as well as several unidentified partners. Mechanistic studies indicate that while the measles V protein does not interfere with ...
Measles virus is highly contagious. The probability of contracting the virus from an infected individual is greater than 90 percent, unless the person in question has been previously infected early in life or been vaccinated. Despite current efforts to eradicate measles, local outbreaks occur occasionally due to insufficient vaccine coverage in the general population. Germany currently lags behind the rest of Europe in its efforts to eradicate measles. In 2017, the number of measles infections in Germany increased three-fold compared to 2016, and a total of 929 cases were reported in 2017.. Measles virus, like the highly infectious canine distemper virus used in this study, belongs to the genus Morbillivirus. It is known that during infection and replication the virus interacts with the infected host using two different receptors on host cells. Measles virus first uses a receptor on immune cells during infection, replicates at this location, and then later uses a second receptor on cells in the ...
Looking for measles virus? Find out information about measles virus. or , highly contagious disease of young children, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals... Explanation of measles virus
TY - JOUR. T1 - X-ray crystallographic analysis of measles virus hemagglutinin.. AU - Hashiguchi, Takao. AU - Maenaka, Katsumi. AU - Yanagi, Yusuke. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - X-ray crystallographic analyses, together with nuclear magnetic resonance, have revealed three-dimensional structures of many important viral proteins, thereby allowing us to better understand the interactions between viral and host cell molecules. In this review, we summarize the recently determined crystal structure of the measles virus (MV) attachment protein hemagglutinin. Based on this structural information, we also discuss how the MV hemagglutinin interacts with various cellular receptors and why MV vaccines have been effective for many years without inducing escape mutant viruses. Other topics discussed are a putative MV receptor present on polarized epithelial cells and the protein expression system using a cultured human cell line 293SGnTI(-), which is suitable for X-ray crystallographic analyses.. AB - X-ray ...
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In response to the need for prompt differentiation between vaccine reactions and wild-type measles virus infection cases, laboratories have been developing methods that do not require sequencing of N-450. A method targeting a region on the hemagglutinin gene has been described and tested with a small number of vaccine and wild-type specimens or isolates (15). Here, we describe the development and validation of a measles virus genotype A-specific RT-qPCR, MeVA RT-qPCR, that targets the N gene of MeV. This assay produces rapid results and is capable of high throughput. The MeVA RT-qPCR was thoroughly tested at three global reference laboratories. Two RT-qPCR platforms and over 300 samples were included in the evaluation. Overall, our data show very high (99.5%) specificity for the A genotype, albeit with lower (94%) sensitivity than the standard MeV RT-qPCR (16). Because of the lower sensitivity, the MeVA RT-qPCR is intended to be used as a tool for rapid detection of genotype A sequences and not ...
Virus: Infectious cell culture supernatant containing Measles virus genotype B3 strain MVi/Rome.ITA/7.18/1 [B3]. This Measles virus strain MVi/Rome.ITA/7.18/1 [B3] is preserved under Viral Storage Medium -80C and is Mycoplasma free. To confirm its identity the virus has been sequenced. (Virus)
Targeting specific areas of the measles virus polymerase, a protein complex that copies the viral genome, can effectively fight the measles virus and be used as an approach to developing new antiviral drugs to treat the serious infectious disease, according to a study by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University published in PLoS Pathogens.. Measles is a highly contagious virus that can lead to serious health complications and death. It begins with a fever, cough, runny nose and red eyes followed by a rash of tiny, red spots that starts at the head and spreads to the rest of the body. Although declared eliminated in the United States in 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says the U.S. is experiencing the greatest number of measles cases reported since the early 1990s.. While an effective vaccine exists, there has been a steady decline in the number of people being vaccinated against the measles virus. Most new cases were among unvaccinated ...
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To gain insight into immunological changes during measles virus infection, we examined gene expression in blood mononuclear cells from children with acute measles and children in the
Measles Virus Infection Negatively Affects Host Immune Status New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth and titers of preexisting antibodies to a wide variety of pathogens SOURCE Science. November 1, 2019 V.366 N.6465 P.599-606. Mina MJ1,2,3, Kula T4,2, Leng Y4, Li M2, de Vries RD5, Knip M6,7, Siljander H6,7, Rewers M8, Choy DF9,…
Although measles is a monotypic virus, 22 genotypes of wild-type virus are recognized; many genotypes have been associated with endemic circulation of measles virus in certain geographic regions or have been documented in connection with an outbreak or epidemic in an area [4, 5]. The measles vaccine virus strains belong to genotype A and can be distinguished from wild-type virus of the same genotype by means of sequence analysis [6 -8]. Analyses of measles virus sequences in brain tissue samples obtained from patients with SSPE have identified only wild-type measles virus, and the virus genotypes identified have been consistent with the genotype of measles virus that circulated in the area where the patients lived and to which the patients had been exposed ⩽10 years before the onset of symptoms of SSPE [6, 9 -13]. Genetic studies have supported epidemiologic evidence that measles vaccine virus does not cause SSPE [6, 14, 15]. In cases of SSPE that developed in children or adults who had no ...
Although virus isolation can be used to diagnose measles virus infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. Furthermore, viral culture is neither sensitive nor specific, and it increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel contacting this virus. Serological detection of measles virus infection is not sensitive. In some cases, measles virus can be detected by PCR in oral fluids well before the onset of IgM antibody (Oliveira et al., 2003). The ability to detect measles virus by real time PCR in a wide variety of sample types such as urine, oral fluid and CSF not only simplifies sample acquisition procedures, but also offers multiple perspectives on the diseases progression. ...
Be careful not to be attacked by the measles virus,Measles is caused by a measles virus common respiratory infectious disease, which is a highly infectious disease, the winter season is high
To determine what measles virus genotype(s) circulated in Uganda after strategic interventions aimed at controlling/eliminating measles, we examined samples obtained during 2006-2009 and found only genotype B3.1, which had not been previously detected. Kenya was the likely source, but other countries cannot be excluded ...
Measles Virus Used to Wipe Out Cancer Researchers are cautiously optimistic about an experimental cancer treatment that uses a modified measles virus to target and kill cancerous cells. Two out of six multiple myeloma patients who were treated with extremely high doses of the engineered viruses responded to the treatment, with one appearing to enter…
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We demonstrated here in tissue culture that wild-type MV-infected human T lymphocytes are drastically impaired in their capacity to migrate through endothelial cell barriers. MV infection enhanced the adhesion of T cells to endothelial cells, and the subsequent close cell contact frequently mediated infection of the endothelial cells. The enhanced adhesion of leukocytes obviously allowed the first steps of transendothelial migration, including the formation of transmigratory cups, to take place; however, it may also be the reason why completion of the process is inhibited. Interestingly, the interaction of UV-inactivated MV with leukocytes did not inhibit transendothelial migration. This indicates that the impairment of cytoskeletal rearrangement, polarization, CD3 clustering, and cell spreading of T cells, as described earlier for a time scale of 2 h after virus-cell interaction (27), is only transient. In addition, MV infection did not strongly affect diapedesis per se. However, the capacity ...
Using peroxidase immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to localize viral antigen and RNA, we studied autopsy tissues from 20 cases of acute fatal human measles (including seven patients with acute encephalomyelitis) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 patients with acute, nonfata …
Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxovirus. Measles virus differes from other members of the family in that it lacks neuraminidase. There is only one measles serotype, so recovery from natural infection confers lifelong immunity. Measles is one of five childhood exanthems, the others being rubella, varicella, roseola and fifth disease. Humans are the only known host for measles virus.. Epidemiology Measles is one of the most contagious human diseases. Vaccination has reduced the global incidence of measles, yet the World Health Organization reports there are still 45 million cases annually and 1.2 million deaths.. Transmission The principal mode of transmission is via large droplets of infected respiratory secretions inhaled during face-to-face exposure with coughing and sneezing individuals. This occurs during the catarrhal stage of the disease.. Pathogenesis Natural infection is initiated when measles virus reaches epithelial cells in the respiratory ...
Among infectious agents, measles virus (MV) remains a scourge responsible for 1 million deaths per year and is a leading cause of childhood deaths in developing countries. Although MV infection itself is not commonly lethal, MV-induced suppression of the immune system results in a greatly increased susceptibility to opportunistic bacterial infections that are largely responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Despite its clinical importance, the underlying mechanisms of MV-induced immunosuppression remain unresolved. To begin to understand the basis of increased susceptibility to bacterial infections during MV infection, we inoculated transgenic mice expressing the MV receptor, CD46, with MV and Listeria monocytogenes. We found that MV-infected mice were more susceptible to infection with Listeria and that this corresponded with significantly decreased numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the spleen and substantial defects in IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. ...
Measles virus Large RNA Polymerase, 0.1 mg. |p class=db_paraghraph|Measles, also known as rubeola, caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.
Previous evidence for immune amnesia has been based on mathematical models and population-level studies according to Dr. Michael Mina, assistant professor of epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the primary author of the study released this week in Science. The new studies are the first to show any of the real biology that helps explain the population-level effects, he says.. Understanding how this happens has really been a burning question, says Dr. Duane Wesemann of Harvard Medical School. Wesemann authored an article in Science Immunology explaining the significance of both studies; he was not involved in either. These two papers complement each other in an interesting way, and they both provide clues to help answer how measles causes immune damage. The two studies used blood samples collected from 77 unvaccinated children in an Orthodox Protestant community in the Netherlands, before and after the children contracted the measles virus during a local ...
Neutralizing antibodies directed against measles virus (MV) surface glycoproteins prevent viral attachment and entry through the natural receptors. in humans. At a concentration of 10 g/ml MAb 20H6 exhibited a dominant protective effect and prevented MAb CL55-mediated enhancement of MV contamination and virus-mediated fusion. These results indicate that neutralization capacity of the H-specific IgG determines the balance between antibody enhancement and protection against MV contamination in microglial cells. NAP protein (MV-s-NAP) (Iankov et al., 2011) were amplified on Vero cells. Viral stocks were prepared using repeated freezing-thawing procedure and computer virus titer was decided in both plaque-forming models (PFU) or tissue culture IKK-2 inhibitor VIII infectious doses 50% (TCID50) per ml (Iankov et al., 2011). MV encoding human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) (Dingli et al., 2004) was purified as previously described (Langfield et al., 2011). Plasmids PCG-H and PCG-F encoding the H or ...
Two hallmarks of measles virus (MV) infection are the ability of the virus to cause immunosuppression and the resultant enhanced susceptibility of the infected host to microbial insults. We investigated the effect of MV infection on the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce IL-12 via toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. When infected with MV, transgenic mice which expressed human SLAM receptor on their DCs were defective in the selective synthesis of IL-12 in DCs in response to stimulation of TLR4 signaling, but not to engagements of TLR2, 3, 7 or 9. MV suppressed TLR4-mediated IL-12 induction in DCs even in the presence of co-stimulation with another ligand for TLR2, 3, 7, or 9. While MV V and C proteins were not responsible for IL-12 inhibition, interaction of MV hemagglutinin with human SLAM facilitated the suppression. These results suggest that MV, by altering DC function, renders them unresponsive to secondary pathogens via TLR4 ...
Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible as the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers) these epitopes may type the dimer-dimer user interface and among the two epitopes could also connect to the F proteins. The neutralization systems of antibodies that acknowledge these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F connections or preventing the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. in the FAC grouped family luciferase [61]. The D3 trojan gets the genome from the wild-type IC323 stress (genotype D3) [28 62 The A trojan gets the genome from the wild-type IC323 stress aside from the H gene that was produced from the Edmonston vaccine stress (genotype A) [28]. The D3/Q391R trojan is normally a mutant D3 trojan using the Q391R mutation in the H proteins [28]. The A/E235G trojan is normally a mutant A trojan using the E235G mutation in the H proteins [28]. 8.3 MAbs ...
This real-time TaqMan-MGB RT-PCR protocol aimed to amplify measles virus (MeV) strains and not other viruses.Michael Lyon and Mitchell Finger designed the assay in 2009 using Primer...
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There are many viruses related to measles virus circulating in other animals that are not far from being able to infect human cells.
Read Comparative investigation of the long non-coding M-F genome region of wild-type and vaccine measles viruses, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - TBK1 mediates critical effects of measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) on pagetic osteoclast formation. AU - Sun, Quanhong. AU - Sammut, Bénédicte. AU - Wang, Feng Ming. AU - Kurihara, Noriyoshi. AU - Windle, Jolene J.. AU - Roodman, G. David. AU - Galson, Deborah L.. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Pagets disease of bone (PDB) is characterized by abnormal osteoclasts with unique characteristics that include increased sensitivity of osteoclast progenitors to 1,25(OH)2D3, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and TNF-α; increased osteoclast numbers; and increased expression of IL-6 and several transcription factors. We recently reported that measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) plays a key role in the development of these abnormal osteoclasts. MVNP can induce the pagetic osteoclast phenotype in vitro and in vivo in TRAP-MVNP transgenic mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MVNP generates pagetic osteoclasts have not been determined. TANK-binding ...
Looking for online definition of measles virus in the Medical Dictionary? measles virus explanation free. What is measles virus? Meaning of measles virus medical term. What does measles virus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measles virus and the nervous system. AU - Griffin, Diane. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Measles is a highly contagious viral disease caused by an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus in the Paramyxovirus family. Measles is associated with three different types of neurologic complications: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). ADEM is a monophasic autoimmune demyelinating disease that has an incidence of 1:1000 and occurs primarily in children over the age of 4 years. Disease onset is acute and usually occurs within days to weeks after measles. Pathology is characterized by perivenular inflammation and demyelination. MIBE is due to progressive measles virus infection of the nervous system and occurs in immune-compromised individuals who are unable to clear virus after infection. Disease onset is subacute and usually fatal. Pathology shows nuclear and cytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies ...
A new study has found wild-type measles virus in tissues from patients...Because persons have apparently contracted SSPE without ever knowingly...Brain tissue specimens from 11 patients suspected of having SSPE were ...The researchers discovered wild-type measles virus in brain tissues fr...The fact that 12 SSPE patients identified in the study had measles bet...,New,study,shows,measles,immunization,may,prevent,fatal,brain,infection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV), is a common infection in children. MeV is a member of the genus Morbillivirus and is most closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV), which is a pathogen of cattle. MeV is thought to have evolved in an environment where cattle and humans lived in close proximity. Understanding the evolutionary history of MeV could answer questions related to divergence times of MeV and RPV. We investigated divergence times using relaxed clock Bayesian phylogenetics. Our estimates reveal that MeV had an evolutionary rate of 6.0 - 6.5 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. It was concluded that the divergence time of the most recent common ancestor of current MeV was the early 20th century. And, divergence between MeV and RPV occurred around the 11th to 12th centuries. The result was unexpected because emergence of MeV was previously considered to have occurred in the prehistoric age. MeV may have originated from virus of non-human species and caused emerging infectious diseases around the
Herein we report the outbreak of measles caused by the genotype D8 measles virus (MeV) for the first time in Jiangsu province in China, which was possibly imported by a foreign student from Laos. Throat swab specimens were collected and used to isolate the virus. A 634-bp fragment of the N gene and 1854-bp fragment of H gene were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequenced, respectively. Phylogenetic results indicated that they belonged to genotype D8 MeV. Further epidemiological investigation showed that adults with D8 MeV infection had not been vaccinated against measles. In China, almost all cases of D8 genotype MeV infection occurred in patients with no previous measles vaccination. Therefore, it is necessary to offer measles vaccination for adults who are immunized.. Countries all over the world have adopted goals for measles elimination by or before 2020.1 Toward that end, China government implemented measles supplementary immunization activity in the whole country in 2010, and ...
Neon Nettle - Warning Issued in the US as Deadly Measles Virus Spreads Through Airports - Government health official warn parents to get children vaccinated
What is Measles?. Measles is a vaccine-preventable, highly communicable (easy to spread) disease caused by the measles virus. The reason why measles is so contagious is because the virus is easily spread through the air, by coughing and sneezing, as well as direct contact with an infected person [1]. The incubation period (time from exposure to first symptom) for measles is about 10 days. The characteristic measles rash appears within about 14 days following exposure. Individuals with measles are infectious from approximately 4 days before rash onset until 4 days after the rash appears. According to the CDC Measles is so contagious that if one person has it, 90% of the people close to that person who are not immune will also become infectious [3]. Consequently, anyone who has not had measles or been successfully immunized is susceptible to the disease. About 30% of measles cases result in complications, such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and ear infections [1,2].. Re-Emergence of Measles in the ...
İstanbul Üniversitesi İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi 1Pediatri Uzmanı, 2Pediatri Yardımcı Doçenti, 3Pediatri Doçenti, 4Pediatri Profesörü Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system in children and young adults. The disease has a gradual progressive course leading to death within one to three years. Most patients have a history of natural measles infection before two years of age. We report a case of SSPE at 14 months of age who had been treated with standard immunoglobulin as a consequence of congenital measles virus infection. Anahtar Kelimeler : subakut sklerozan panensefalit, konjenital kızamık, immünglobülin, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, congenital measles, immunoglobulin ...
Measles is a very contagious disease caused by a virus that grows in the cells in the back of the throat and lungs. The symptoms of measles generally begin about 7-14 days after a person is infected, and typically include a blotchy rash (usually begins on a persons face at the hairline and spreads down to the feet), fever, cough, runny nose, red and watery eyes, feeling run down and achy, and tiny white spots with bluish-white centers found inside the mouth. Measles photos can be found on the CDC website.. Measles spreads when a person infected with the measles virus breathes, coughs, or sneezes. People can catch measles just by being in a room where an infected person has been, even up to 2 hours after that person is gone. Almost everyone who has not been vaccinated will get measles if they are exposed to the measles virus.. Measles can be very serious and can cause complications including blindness, encephalitis (brain swelling that could result in deafness or mental retardation), severe ...
A nation-wide measles outbreak occurred in 1988 in Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to define the protective titre of measles neutralising (NT) antibody. Paired sera collected in 1987 and 1988 were available from 190 individuals born in 1984 who had participated in an annual hepatitis B immunisation follow-up from 1986 to 1991. Measles NT titres were quantified using a standardised neutralisation enzyme immunoassay. Measles infection was defined as a greater than or equal to4-fold rise in NT titre or seroconversion between paired sera. Symptomatic measles infection was ascribed to individuals who had measles infection and who reported measles-like symptoms between 1987 and 1988. Results demonstrated a dose-response relationship between pre-exposure NT titres and protection against measles infection. 47 of 48 individuals with measles infection in 1988 had preexposure NT titres less than or equal to1,017 mlU/ml; all 12 symptomatic cases had pre-exposure NT titres less than or ...
In a previous study we demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be used as a vector to express a soluble protein in mammalian cells. Here we have generated VSV recombinants that express four different membrane proteins: the cellular CD4 protein, a CD4-G hybrid protein containing the ectodomain of CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the VSV glycoprotein (G), the measles virus hemagglutinin, or the measles virus fusion protein. The proteins were expressed at levels ranging from 23-62% that of VSV G protein and all were transported to the cell surface. In addition we found that all four proteins were incorporated into the membrane envelope of VSV along with the VSV G protein. The levels of incorporation of these proteins varied from 6-31% of that observed for VSV G. These results suggest that many different membrane proteins may be co-incorporated quite efficiently with VSV G protein into budding VSV virus particles and that specific signals are not required for this ...
Eliminate the disease from the U.S. with sufficient and ongoing vaccination efforts.. This year there have been more reported cases of measles in the United States than in any year in recent memory. Wasnt measles eliminated from the United States in 2000? If so, why are we seeing so many cases this year?. The reason is that measles is still quite common in other parts of the world. The measles outbreaks this year happened because non-immune persons contracted measles infection while traveling abroad, and then spread measles to others when they returned to the U.S. Measles is a virus that causes a fever illness associated with rash, and may infect other organs, such as the lungs (pneumonia) and brain (encephalitis), sometimes leading to death.. Measles is very contagious. It infects up to 90 percent of non-immune people who come in contact with it. The measles virus can remain suspended in the air for two hours after an infected person leaves a room, infecting others without direct ...
Measles is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the measles virus. The disease is also called rubeola. Measles causes fever, runny nose, cough and a rash all over the body. About one out of 10 children with measles also gets an ear infection, and up to one out of 20 gets pneumonia. For every 1,000 children who get measles, one or two will die. Adults can also get measles especially if they are not vaccinated. Children under 5 years of age and adults over 20 are at higher risk for measles complications including pneumonia, and a higher risk of hospitalization and death from measles than school aged children and adolescents. Other rash-causing diseases often confused with measles include roseola (roseola infantum) and rubella (German measles).. ...
These times include the period when the individual was at the location and two hours after. Measles virus can remain in the air for up to two hours after someone infectious with measles leaves the area. Anyone who was at these locations during the times listed could have been exposed to measles. What to do if you were in a location of potential measles exposure Most people in our area have immunity to the measles through vaccination, so the risk to the general public is low. However anyone who was in the locations of potential exposure to measles around the times listed below should: • Find out if you have been vaccinated for measles or have had measles previously. Make sure you are up-to-date with the recommended number of measles (MMR) vaccinations. • Call a healthcare provider promptly if you develop an illness with fever or illness with an unexplained rash. To avoid possibly spreading measles to others, do not go to a clinic or hospital without calling first to tell them you want to be ...
Last month there was a measles outbreak in the Waikato, with students at both Fairfield College and Morrinsville College reported as having contracted the disease. The outbreak now appears to have spread to the South Island after a teenager, who recently visited Hamilton, also contracted the disease.. Measles is highly contagious; however it is also easily preventable. Two doses of the measles vaccine, MMR, will provide protection for you and your family. Anyone, from babies through to adults, who are not fully immunised are at risk of contracting the virus. Adults born prior to 1969 are less at risk as they were probably exposed to measles as a child and therefore have a natural immunity. Those with low immune systems are at a higher risk.. The measles virus is easily spread through the air by breathing, sneezing and coughing. You will not necessarily be aware that you have contracted the disease until you feel sick, however you will be infectious for 5 days before and 5 day after the symptoms ...
We investigated the genetic diversity of measles virus (MV) in Nigeria (2004-2005) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (2002-2006). Genotype B3 strains circulating in Kinshasa, DRC, in 2002-2003 were fully replaced by genotype B2 in 2004 at the end of the second Congo war. In Nigeria (2004-2005), two genetic clusters of genotype B3, both of which were most closely related to 1 variant from 1998, were identified. Longitudinal analysis of MV strain diversity in Nigeria suggested that only a few of the previously described 1997-1998 variants had continued to circulate, but this finding was concomitant with a rapid restoration of genetic diversity, probably caused by low vaccination coverage and high birth rates. In contrast, the relatively low genetic diversity of MV in DRC and the genotype replacement in Kinshasa reflect a notable improvement in local measles control ...
Following the RTS,S malaria vaccine, which showed only partial protection with short-term memory, there is strong support to develop second-generation malaria vaccines that yield higher efficacy with longer duration. The use of replicating viral vectors to deliver subunit vaccines is of great interest due to their capacity to induce efficient cellular immune responses and long-term memory. The measles vaccine virus offers an efficient and safe live viral vector that could easily be implemented in the field. Here, we produced recombinant measles viruses (rMV) expressing malaria gold standard circumsporozoïte antigen (CS) of Plasmodium berghei (Pb) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) to test proof of concept of this delivery strategy. Immunization with rMV expressing PbCS or PfCS induced high antibody responses in mice that did not decrease for at least 22 weeks post-prime, as well as rapid development of cellular immune responses. The observed long-term memory response is key for development of ...
The MMR vaccine has been linked to autism, Crohns disease, inflammatory bowel disease[142,143] and other serious chronic stomach problems[144], epilepsy, brain damage including meningitis[145,146], cerebral palsy, pancreatitis[147] and diabetes mellitus[148-150], encephalopathy, encephalitis[151,152], hearing and vision problems, arthritis, behavioural and learning problems, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, Guillain-Barre syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), leukaemia, multiple sclerosis, and death.. There is evidence that in cases of immune deficiency that viruses continue to persist in the body[143,153-155]. The measles virus is known to persist in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE)[156] and multiple sclerosis[157]. Since the introduction of measles vaccines, vaccine-associated SSPE has increased in the USA. Furthermore patients with B or T-cell immunodeficiencies have ...
Measles is once again capturing headlines in the United States. Even though only a small portion of the U.S. population is susceptible, international travel, vaccine refusal or delay, and rare vaccine failures combined with high social contacts allow the highly infectious measles virus to infect susceptible individuals of all ages (1). The story of an unvaccinated child or adolescent contracting measles while traveling abroad and transmitting the virus to others upon return to the United States has been repeated many times in recent years. The 2014-2015 Disneyland-associated outbreak has captured public attention because infants too young to receive the vaccine and children with true medical contraindications to vaccination became infected (2). In addition, Disneyland employees contracted measles and possibly contributed to disease transmission. In 2014, there were 23 measles outbreaks and more than 644 cases of measles (2). More outbreaks owing to vaccine refusal will undoubtedly occur because ...
Northern Voices Online reports, Public Health officials are actually trying to figure out as to how the woman was exposed to measles. Although her immunization status has not been disclosed, Toronto Public Health spokesperson Jennifer Veenboer said, Were continuing to investigate all aspects of this latest case as we have been with all the other cases.. The measles virus causes a fever, rash, cough, red watery eyes and a runny nose. The red rash starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Most people with measles are sick for up to 10 days and then recover completely. Symptoms are more severe for infants and adults. Measles can lead to ear infections, lung infection (pneumonia), an infection of the brain (encephalitis), and death. Pregnant women with measles can have premature delivery and miscarriages. Measles does not cause birth defects.. Measles is easily spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes, spreading droplets that contain the virus into the air. Less commonly, ...
measles; ; Measles is a serious illness caused by a virus and it is very contagious - very easily spread to other people. It is usually spread by droplets (through coughing, sneezing, runny nose, or runny eyes). Children in Australia are immunised against measles at 12 and 18 months. (There is more about this in the Childhood Immunisation Program on the SA Health website). A child or adult who has not been immunised is very likely .to catch it if exposed to a person who has measles. Measles has been brought into Australia by international travellers, and could spread easily among people who have not been immunised.. Measles is not just one of the things that children catch and get over. Children often get very sick with measles and they can have serious health problems and even die. Adults can also become very unwell if they get measles.. ...
Measles is one of the most contagious diseases ever known. It causes death and disability among young children across the world. When someone has measles almost everyone they come into contact with will catch measles too - unless they are immunised. Because measles is so infectious lots of people can become ill with measles very quickly, this is called an epidemic.. Measles is a disease that can make you very ill and weak, cause you to lose your sight and may even kill you, especially if you havent had enough food to grow strong. When children are malnourished or weak measles is even more dangerous. Measles can make children vulnerable to other diseases, like diarrhoea, ear and eye infections, respiratory illnesses, and these may cause disabilities including blindness or death.. ...
Why was measles considered an obligatory illness for a child? What is the danger of measles for a child? Are there guarantees against serious complications? Under what conditions can measles be defeated?. Disease of unique spread - this is what measles was called by the largest Soviet epidemiologist L. V. Gromashevsky. Precisely because susceptibility to measles is almost one hundred percent, few have managed to avoid this infection in childhood. So there was an idea that every child should transfer measles, What should not be avoided, the parents thought. And did not seek to protect the child from measles. In ancient times, there was even a custom: if one child fell ill in a family, healthy people were put to bed next to him in order to get off at once.. Against the background of other deadly infections that were widespread at that time, measles might perhaps have seemed harmless. But it does not always end happily. According to world statistics, in the 60s of our century every year on ...
Dr. David Brownstein in his blog tells a story of Measles that should ease parents fears.. From 1969-1974, the Brady Bunch ran weekly as a sitcom. I watched every episode and can still recall most of them. The Brady Principle refers to the episode where all six Brady kids became ill with the measles. What happened to the Brady kids? They stayed home from school, played Monopoly, and Alice cooked for them, and they recovered from the measles infection.. During the episode, Marsha Brady stated, If you have to get sick, sure cant beat the measles. The Brady Principle would indicate that measles is not a dangerous disease for most who become ill from it. When I was a child, measles was treated as an illness similar to chickenpox; most children became ill with these childhood diseases and most recovered uneventfully. Back then, measles and chickenpox were not feared illnesses in the U.S.. Back to the Bradys. The good news for the Brady kids, and the Somali children, is that they will have ...
Background: Measles is a highly contagious virus that lives in the nose and throat mucus of an infected person. It can spread to others through coughing and sneezing. Measles can live for up to 2 hours in an airspace where the infected person coughed or sneezed. Measles is so contagious that if one person has it 90% of the people close to that person who are not immune will become infected. Infected individuals can spread measles to others from 4 days before through 4 days after the rash appears. Measles infection is a vaccine-preventable illness.. The average incubation period for measles is 10-12 days (range: 7-21 days) from the date of the initial exposure until early signs and symptoms appear.. · Early signs and symptoms of measles starts with fever (as high as 105°F) and malaise associated with cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red/watery eyes), colloquially the three Cs ...
State Health Officials are now investigating six measles cases among unvaccinated people in Ellis County. The Texas Department of State Health Services is advising health care providers in the area to take precautions and consider measles as a possible diagnosis in patients with a fever and rash in addition to a cough, runny nose or conjunctivitis. The highly contagious nature of measles means its possible more cases will occur in the community. People involved in the outbreak have connections to Waxahachie and Midlothian.. DSHS first notified the public on Friday of possible measles exposures after a contagious person attended the ShowBiz Cinemas in Waxahachie on Tuesday, Jan. 9. Five additional cases have been reported since; none of them are connected to the movie theater. People who went to the theater on that day should continue to monitor themselves for measles symptoms through Jan. 30.. It usually takes about two weeks from the time someone is exposed to the measles virus for a rash to ...
The extremely high risk for measles among infants whose mothers developed measles after delivery occurred because these mothers had no maternal antibody to transfer during pregnancy. Lennon and Black1 found that 4.6% of women born after 1959 had no detectable antibody for measles, compared with 1.3% of older women. An increased proportion of infants who lack maternal antibody at birth may be one cause of increased measles susceptibility among infants of mothers born after 1963. Infants who receive no maternal antibody are susceptible to measles from birth until they are vaccinated or infected with the measles virus.. Our study has several limitations. The medium-sized dataset was sufficient to demonstrate the effect of maternal year of birth, while controlling for important potentially confounding variables, but there were not enough infants to perform subgroup analyses, such as determining the effect of the maternal year of birth in different age groups of infants. In addition, because we were ...
We have analyzed the suitability and potential of Oral Fluid (OF) to substitute serum in estimating measles IgG antibodies, during community surveys, by comparing the Optical Density (OD) of measles IgG antibodies in OF and serum of 100 apparently asymptomatic children. IgG antibody status was determined using commercially available . Measles IgG Capture ELISA. Sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 90.6% Concordance of 89%, coefficient of correlation r is equal to 0.97 (Karl Pearsons) and rho is equal to 0.86 (Spearmans), was found between OD value of OF and serum. The study emphasizes the potential of OF to surrogate serum in estimating Measles IgG antibody among children. The OF collection is advantageous over blood as it is painless. It is suitable for non-technical staff, easy to transport and less bio-hazardous ...
What is Breaking Out? Measles is a highly contagious virus that lives in the nose and throat mucus of an infected person. It can spread to others through coughing and sneezing. Measles virus can live for up to two hours in an airspace where the infected person coughed or sneezed. If other people breathe the contaminated air or touch the infected surface, then touch their eyes, noses, or mouths, they can become infected. Measles is so contagious that if one person has it, 90% of the people close to that person who are not immune will also become infected.. Measles starts with fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat. Its followed by a rash that spreads over the body. Infected people can spread measles to others from four days before through four days after the rash appears.. Particularly in malnourished children and people with reduced immunity, measles can cause serious complications, such as pneumonia (infection of the lungs) and encephalitis (swelling of the brain). Very rarely, ...
These photos of measles and people with measles show the measles skin rash, koplik spots, and the measles virus under a microscope.
The effect on growth in Papua New Guinea wasnt positive.. What other evidence is there, besides the fact that we know that folks with measles need a lot of extra energy while they are recovering from their infection, so likely dont have a lot leftover for a growth spurt?. Theres the fact that precocious puberty can be a complication of some infections, including measles. What happens if your child has precocious or early puberty? An early growth spurt? Yes, actually, but then they stop growing earlier than they should and they end up being shorter than their genetic potential.. Some more indirect evidence against any kind of extra growth spurt from a natural measles infection is that the mean height of young adults today, most of whom were vaccinated and didnt have measles, isnt that different from those measured in the 1960s and early 1970s.. ...
Fortunately, most people in this region have been vaccinated. When a person has been vaccinated as recommended, the vaccine is up to 97 percent effective in preventing measles. Most people at risk in the current outbreak are those who have not been vaccinated. Those who have been vaccinated or have had the measles earlier in their lives are generally not at risk.. If you think you or your child might have symptoms of measles call your doctor right away, especially if you have been exposed to someone with active measles. Your doctor will let you know if you need to come in for a visit. Measles is very contagious, which means you could give it to someone, even in a waiting room. Its important before you go in, to tell your doctor or other medical professional, that you have symptoms of measles. They will give you instructions for what to do so you do not spread it further.. Stay home if you have the measles. Dont go to school, work, to the store or to other peoples homes. Dont have visitors to ...
On the darkest day of 2018, the winter solstice, we at the Center for Vaccine Research at the University of Pittsburgh tweeted, with despair, a report in the Guardian that measles cases in Europe reached the highest number in 20 years.. Why was this a cause for concern? Europe is far away from the United States, and as some people apparently believe, measles is a benign, childhood disease that causes a bit of a rash, a dribbling nose, and a few spots, right? What was all the fuss about?. Well, as George Santayana said, Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Collective amnesia about the virulence of this disease has driven us to forget that measles virus has killed tens of millions of infants throughout history. Now, with several ongoing outbreaks across our own country, this unnecessary threat is back.. See also: Anti-Vaccine Hotspot Near Portland Declares Emergency as Measles Cases Rise. Measles is a highly contagious and sometimes deadly disease that spreads like ...
Define hemorrhagic measles. hemorrhagic measles synonyms, hemorrhagic measles pronunciation, hemorrhagic measles translation, English dictionary definition of hemorrhagic measles. n. See black measles
Measles is a disease caused by the highly infectious measles virus (MeV) that results in both viremia and lymphopenia. Lymphocyte counts recover shortly after the disappearance of measles-associated rash, but immunosuppression can persist for months to years after infection, resulting in increased incidence of secondary infections. Animal models and in vitro studies have proposed various immunological factors underlying this prolonged immune impairment, but the precise mechanisms operating in humans are unknown. Using B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing of human peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after MeV infection, we identified two immunological consequences from measles underlying immunosuppression: (i) incomplete reconstitution of the naïve B cell pool leading to immunological immaturity and (ii) compromised immune memory to previously encountered pathogens due to depletion of previously expanded B memory clones. Using a surrogate model of measles in ferrets, we investigated the clinical ...
Pfaller, Christian (2010): Subversion of Toll-like receptor 7/9 signaling by Measles Virus - V holds the key. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy ...
The Ministry of Health wishes to advise members of the public that there are no local or imported cases of measles in the country. As stated by the Health Minister, Dr. Christopher Tufton in responding to queries in parliament on Tuesday, April 23, there was a patient treated recently at a local private hospital for complications thought to be as a result of a recent measles infection experienced before visiting Jamaica. At the time of stay in Jamaica, the person was several days out of the infectious period for measles. After investigations, the Public Health Department concluded that neither the patient nor relatives were having measles. Precautions were taken however to ensure that all whom came in contact with the patient were immunized against measles even while the investigation was being conducted.. Jamaica has a robust surveillance system in place for fever and rash and all cases are reported within 24 hours, while suspected measles are reported immediately. The Ministry of Health does ...
On that FB thread about dropping vaccination rates in New Zealand, one commenter proudly proclaimed that she and her four children had all had measles. Over in a week, no problems, stop yer whining. Well, lovely for her - and if the illness indeed lasted only a week per person then they were lucky; 7-10 days is the norm for uncomplicated measles. But measles infection carries a range of costs and risks, about which she seemed blissfully ignorant. Or couldnt care less; on that thread, it was hard to tell sometimes. If a child comes down with measles, someone has to stay home (or pay someone else to stay home) and care for them, for a week or more. For many families, thats quite a financial burden. If any individual comes down with measles, theres a taxpayer cost, because their contacts need to be traced, checked, asked to quarantine themselves if infected. If that individual develops any of the severe complications of measles (and the risks of that are much greater than the risks associated with
In a recent Israeli study, exposure to measles virus was shown to be associated with an increased risk for Crohns disease [3]. In addition, measles virus (including vaccine-strain virus) has been amplified and sequenced from intestinal tissues of children with inflammatory bowel disease [4]. However, in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease, it is likely that it is the pattern of exposure to measles that is more important than exposure per se. Of interest in the Davis study, therefore, was the observation of an association between age at exposure to an MCV (excluding MMR) and the type of inflammatory bowel disease that develops [1]. This observation is entirely consistent with previously reported data, and supports a role for atypical measles virus infection in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Such a claim should not be made lightly, and therefore it is worth reviewing the background to this thesis, that has been described in detail elsewhere [5]-[7]. Age at exposure to natural ...
In the past few years, several endemic outbreaks of measles have been recognised, not only in children but also in adults, with severe and, occasionally, even fatal complications, possibly due to delayed diagnosis of the disease in adult medicine and decreasing vaccination rates. Furthermore, the treatment consists of supportive measures only. We present a case of severe measles pneumonitis in a 42-year-old man, a travel returnee, proven by direct virus isolation with PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CT findings and pulmonary function testing revealed features of obstructive bronchiolitis; the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids. He fully recovered, and lung function measurement returned to normal values. We conclude that acute measles can present as obstructive bronchiolitis and may be successfully treated with corticosteroids. ...
Scientists in the United States have found that measles causes long-term damage to the immune system, leaving people vulnerable to other infections.. The study published online on Thursday in the journal Science showed that the measles virus cancels part of the immune systems memory in both humans and ferrets.. An analysis of blood from 77 unvaccinated children before and after a measles outbreak swept through their Netherlands community revealed that the virus eliminated between 11 and 73 percent of the childrens protective antibodies, including those from influenza to herpesvirus to bacteria that cause pneumonia and skin infections.. Those antibodies are the blood proteins that remember past encounters with viruses and help the body avoid repeat infections. Without those antibodies, children lose much of their immune defenses and become vulnerable to viruses theyve already met and conquered.. The study was published simultaneously with a paper by a separate team in Science Immunology that ...
Measles infections are climbing rapidly, and public health experts are sounding the alarm. Heres what to know about why measles infections are increasing.
Measles can be distressing for those with the infection and can cause serious complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).. Queensland Health recommends anyone born during or since 1966, who has not had two documented doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine or had proven measles, should visit their family doctor to get vaccinated for measles. The vaccine is free for anyone who requires it.. We encourage people to check if they need to be vaccinated against measles, Dr Smith said.. The initial symptoms of measles include fever, lethargy, runny nose, moist cough and sore and red eyes. This is followed a few days later by a blotchy red rash. The rash often starts on the face then becomes widespread.. Symptoms usually start around 10 days after infection but sometimes longer. Anyone who develops measles-like symptoms should isolate themselves from school, work and social activities and seek medical advice.. Its very important to call the medical practice ...
What do measles look like? Both the common (red) measles and german measles have similar looking rashes. In spite of the similar names they are caused by different viruses. Detailed description of the measles rash and measles pictures included. Measles is sometimes misspelled as measels.
Measles is a very serious disease. About one out of 10 children with measles also gets an ear infection, and up to one out of 20 gets pneumonia. One or two out of 1,000 die from measles complications. Measles can also cause pregnant woman to miscarry or give birth prematurely. Complications from measles are very common among children younger than five and adults older than 20.. Measles spreads so easily that anyone who is exposed to it and is not immune (for example, someone who has not been vaccinated) will probably get the disease.. ...
Looking for hemorrhagic measles? Find out information about hemorrhagic measles. A grave variety of measles with a hemorrhagic eruption and severe constitutional symptoms. Also known as black measles Explanation of hemorrhagic measles
Naim, Hussein Y. (2015-01-01). "Measles virus". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 11 (1): 21-26. doi:10.4161/hv.34298. ISSN ... Viruses of the taxon Ebolavirus, which causes Ebola virus disease, are thought to have a natural reservoir in bats or other ... measles) is transmitted from an infected human host to a susceptible host as they are transmitted by respiration through ... animals exposed to the virus. Environmental reservoirs include living and non-living reservoirs that harbor infectious ...
Thomas C. Peebles, 89, American physician, isolated the measles virus.[106]. *Willi Railo, 69, Norwegian sports psychologist.[ ... Thomas C. Peebles Dies at 89; Identified Measles Virus". The New York Times.. ... "Robert M. Chanock, MD: A living legend in the war against viruses". 9 (3): 258-269. doi:10.1016/S1045-1870(98)80040-X ...
... the number of reported cases is declining since the introduction of the measles vaccine-eradication of the measles virus ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y (2000). "SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus". Nature. 406 (6798): 893-7 ... to measles virus (MV) depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150: role of Toll stimulators in ... "Measles virus infects and suppresses proliferation of T lymphocytes from transgenic mice bearing human signaling lymphocytic ... virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein binding. ...
100,000 for proof of the existence of the measles virus and the determination of its diameter.[3] Lanka claims the measles are ... the biologist Stefan Lanka had promised to anyone who could provide information about the size of measles virus. This award was ... Measles Virus tried at Court : David Bardens vs. Stefan Lanka , case documentation at 15 May 2015. ... Lanka: measles proven to exist, but anti-vaxxer Lanka keeps his money". January 23, 2017. Archived from the original on July 1 ...
Gershone, Anne (2011). "Measles Virus (Rubeola)". Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases ... Measles was also a difficulty, as it is highly contagious and can have an incubation period of ten days or longer. Diseases ...
... measles morbillivirus, chickenpox virus; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza virus, enterovirus, norovirus and less commonly ... The influenza virus is spread easily in the Northern Hemisphere winter due to climate conditions which favour the ... Transmission likely often starts with inhalation of the infectious agent (eg the SARS-CoV-2 virus for COVID-19) and is expected ... If the relative humidity goes below 35% RH, there is more virus with infectious potential in the air. Environmental factors ...
Measles] virus habitat is humans. "habitat". Unabridged. Random House. "Habitat". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. ...
Colf, LA; Juo, ZS; Garcia, KC (December 2007). "Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin". Nature Structural & Molecular ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase can be found in a variety of paramyxoviruses including mumps virus, human parainfluenza virus 3, ... Yuan P, Thompson TB, Wurzburg BA, Paterson RG, Lamb RA, Jardetzky TS (2005). "Structural studies of the parainfluenza virus 5 ... This Pfam entry also matches measles hemagglutinin (cd15467), which has a "dead" neuraminidase part repurposed as a receptor ...
Infectious Disease Modeling: Measles Virus. *Model-Builder: Interactive (GUI-based) software to build, simulate, and analyze ...
Associated viral infections include respiratory syncytial virus, canine distemper virus, and the measles virus. However, recent ... Baslé MF, Fournier JG, Rozenblatt S, Rebel A, Bouteille M (May 1986). "Measles virus RNA detected in Paget disease bone tissue ... April 2008). "Failure to detect measles virus ribonucleic acid in bone cells from patients with Paget's disease". J. Clin. ... January 2002). "Sequence analysis of measles virus nucleocapsid transcripts in patients with Paget's disease". J. Bone Miner. ...
... like measles). Ribonucleic acid of the measles virus has been found in stapes footplate in most patients with otosclerosis. ... Also there is mounting evidence that measles virus is present within the otosclerotic foci, implicating an infectious etiology ... Niedermeyer, H.P.; Arnold, W. (2008). "Otosclerosis and Measles Virus - Association or Causation?". ORL. 70 (1): 63-70. doi: ... Populations that have been vaccinated against measles had a significant reduction in otosclerosis. While the disease is ...
"Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the 11th and 12th Centuries". Virology. 7: 52-55. doi: ... Scholars have suspected it to have been either smallpox[1] or measles.[2][3] The plague may have claimed the life of a Roman ... 270) were outbreaks of two different diseases, one of smallpox and one of measles but not necessarily in that order. The severe ...
Katz, S L (2009). "John F. Enders and measles virus vaccine--a reminiscence". Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (Germany) 329: 3- ...
... which is taken to include live attenuated measles vaccine virus, measles virus, mumps vaccine virus and rubella vaccine virus, ... They reported finding 99% of the samples contained no trace of the measles virus, and the samples that did contain the virus ... In 1993, Wakefield attracted professional attention when he published reports in which he concluded that measles virus might ... April 1993). "Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease". J. Med. Virol. 39 (4): 345-53. doi:10.1002/ ...
August 2002). "Measles virus RNA in tonsils of asymptomatic children". J Paediatr Child Health. 38 (4): 424-5. doi:10.1046/j. ... measles viruses Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) ... Pegtel DM, Middeldorp J, Thorley-Lawson DA (November 2004). "Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Ex Vivo Tonsil Epithelial Cell ... cayetanensis Dengue virus Dientamoeba fragilis Entamoeba histolytica enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Epstein-Barr virus Group ...
The encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), group B ... Therefore, a vaccine made of the Edmonston strain of measles virus could treat the medulloblastoma. Such a vaccine has already ... Dörig RE, Marcil A, Richardson CD (September 1994). "CD46, a primate-specific receptor for measles virus". Trends Microbiol. 2 ... "Treatment of medulloblastoma with a modified measles virus". Neuro Oncol. 12 (10): 1034-1042. doi:10.1093/neuonc/noq057. PMC ...
Katz, S. L. (2009). "John F. Enders and measles virus vaccine--a reminiscence". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine Measles vaccine Mumps vaccine Measles and rubella (MR) vaccine Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) ... Common examples of live attenuated vaccines are measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, and some influenza vaccines. Viruses may ... "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Quest for Better Vaccines against a Virus on the Rise". Vaccines. 8 (3): 451. doi:10.3390/ ...
Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 19, 3576-3585 ... Basis for selective incorporation of glycoproteins into influenza virus envelope. J. Virol. 67, 4831-4841 Measles Viruses with ... 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion. J. Virol. 76, ... Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant ...
... 1's A to I editing has been found in many viruses including measles virus, influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... Although ADAR1 has been seen in other viruses, it has only been studied extensively in a few; one of those is measles virus (MV ... Toth AM, Li Z, Cattaneo R, Samuel CE (October 2009). "RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced ... Cattaneo (21 October 1988). "Biased hypermutation and other genetic changes in defective measles viruses in human brain ...
Thomas C. Peebles (b. 1921), physician, isolated the measles virus. 19 July Gerson Goldhaber (b. 1924), particle physicist. ...
The drop in HIV virus levels may be due to a lack of target CD4+ T cells in which they replicate, or measles virus may ... Measles virus infection causes lymphopenia, a reduction in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes circulating in the blood. The low ... Bini Edmund; Perumalswami Ponni (2010). "Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among American Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus ... for instance between Avian sarcoma leukosis virus and Marek's disease virus (MDV) in domestic fowl.[citation needed] Both ...
Enders and his team went on to culture the measles virus. Dr. Judah Folkman published "Tumor angiogenesis: Therapeutic ... "achievement in the cultivation of the viruses poliomyelitis, mumps, and measles". Dr. Sidney Farber received the Lasker in 1966 ... the Boston Children's Hospital researcher and Nobel laureate who cultured poliovirus and the measles virus. Karp Family ... John Enders and his team were first to successfully culture the polio virus and were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ...
"Cell fusion induced by ERVWE1 or measles virus causes cellular senescence". Genes & Development. 27 (21): 2356-66. doi:10.1101/ ... Syncytin-1 has been shown to interfere with viral infection in-vitro by RDR interference group member spleen necrosis virus. ... Syncytin-1 shares many structural elements with class I retroviral glycoproteins (such as, Murine Leukemia Virus gp, and HIV ... Martinez I, Dornburg R (July 1995). "Mapping of receptor binding domains in the envelope protein of spleen necrosis virus". ...
... influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), adenovirus and measles virus. The other ... Hu L, Wang Z, Hu C, Liu X, Yao L, Li W, Qi Y (2005). "Inhibition of Measles virus multiplication in cell culture by RNA ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (June 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262 ...
Measles Virus and Its Biology (1978) Don't Believe A Word Of It (a memoir of his days in the Chin Hills) In 1948 he married Dr ... He discovered a link between the measles virus and multiple sclerosis. He was born on 10 March 1917 the son of Kenneth Fraser. ... Here he did a series of critical experiments on the influenza virus genome. In 1959 he moved from Aberdeen to Glasgow ...
Measles: A highly infectious condition which is caused by Measles virus. It most commonly presents in young children who have ... Kaposi Sarcoma is related to the Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) or Human Herpes Virus (HHV-8) viral infection (3). ... Each human herpes virus may present differently within the oral cavity. They are more likely to affect immunocompromised ... 6. Papillomas and warts/ verrucae They are caused by various strains of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) of which there are more ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... measles, and viral hepatitis among others.[104] ... "Ebola virus disease". Retrieved 28 May 2020.. *^ " ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, othersEdit. The role of SP in HIV-AIDS has been well-documented.[58] Doses of aprepitant ... "Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... Respiratory syncytial and related viruses appear to upregulate SP receptors, and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful ... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus,[54] as well as in cancer.[55][56] When assayed in the human, ...
Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio. For this ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ...
The study used a common cold virus to deliver a normal version of the gene called RPE65 directly into the eyes of affected ... measles, congenital nubella syndrome, vitamin A deficiency, or meningitis.[41] If left untreated during childhood, amblyopia is ...
Rubella (also known as German measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... The disease is named German measles because it has a similar red rash to measles and was first described in detail by German ... The virus usually enters the body through the nose or throat. Like most viruses living along the respiratory tract, it is ... The virus has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks during which it becomes established. Common symptoms are a red/pink rash, ...
When comparing the bacterial-caused atypical pneumonias with these caused by real viruses (excluding bacteria that were wrongly ... and measles. Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia ... Known viral causes of atypical pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza, ... viruses, fungi, and protozoa. In addition, this form of pneumonia is atypical in presentation with only moderate amounts of ...
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the technology to perform it.[25] ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
Some viruses, like smallpox, have only human hosts and appeared to have never occurred on the North American continent before ... First came epidemics of the childhood diseases of chicken pox, mumps, whooping cough, and, especially, measles. Operations in ... measles, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases. The depopulation occurred years before the European settlers arrived in the ...
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to humans this way. Various forms of the common cold and ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ... Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, ...
Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... Intracellular and cytoplasmic virus. *influenza. *mumps. *measles. *rhinovirus. yes. no. yes Intracellular bacteria. *Listeria ... Viruses[edit]. Type I interferons (IFN), secreted mainly by dendritic cells,[22] play a central role in antiviral host defense ... RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ...
10-fold increase in tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, 20-fold increase in chlamydia, 40-fold increase in ... One immediate consequence was a series of epidemics of European diseases such as measles, smallpox and tuberculosis. In the ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts. In these forms of ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm.[22][23] ... Like other pathogens, viruses use these methods of transmission to enter the body, but viruses differ in that they must also ...
In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... which are a major factor in other childhood diseases such as measles and pertussis, may also play a role in the flu. A ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed yet.[7] This virus has not been found ...
Virology (viruses, prions). *ඒඩ්ස් (AIDS). *ඉන්ෆ්ලුවෙන්සා (Influenza). *සරම්ප (Measles). *පෝලියෝ (Polio). *වසූරිය (Smallpox) ...
Talk:2013 Swansea measles epidemic. *Talk:2013-14 chikungunya outbreak. *Talk:2013-2014 Zika virus outbreaks in Oceania ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "" ...
Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ Hahn CM, Iwanowicz LR, Cornman RS, Conway CM, Winton JR, Blazer VS ( ... "Deciphering the Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis B Viruses by Means of a Family of Non-enveloped Fish Viruses". Cell Host & ...
Infective conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by a virus.[11] Bacterial infections, allergies, other irritants, and dryness ... Measles. Hidden categories: *CS1 French-language sources (fr). *All articles lacking reliable references ... caused by herpes simplex viruses, can be serious and requires treatment with aciclovir. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a ...
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... Mejias, Asuncion; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rosa; Peeples, Mark E.; Ramilo, Octavio (October 2019). "Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... "Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 430-9. doi:10.1128/CMR.11.3.430. PMC 88889. PMID ... "The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates" (PDF). The Lancet ...
8.0 8.1 Demicheli V. et al (2005). "Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 19 (4). ... It gives immunity to an infectious disease caused by a particular germ (bacteria or virus). For example, the flu vaccine makes ... When a person gets a live vaccine, their immune system learns to recognize and fight off that virus or bacteria. Then, if the ... In the 20th century, scientists created vaccines to protect people against diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella. In the ...
... measles and croup. Most bacteria and viruses usually induce throat irritation during the winter or autumn. It is a very serious ... The most common viruses that causes throat irritation include the common cold virus, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, ... Viruses are common causes of the common cold. Less often, bacteria may also cause pharyngitis. Both of these organisms enter ... There is no real treatment for throat irritation from a virus. If you have difficulty swallowing then one should drink liquids ...
Wasik, Bill; Murphy, Monica (2013). Rabid: A Cultural History of the World's Most Diabolical Virus. New York: Penguin Books. ... The primary cause is currently thought to be viruses.[57] The spread of flacherie could be accidental or hereditary. Hygiene ... Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected ... each inoculation using viruses that had been weakened for a shorter period of time.[92] Three months later he examined Meister ...
B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... B05.) Measles. *(B06.) Rubella (German measles). *(B07.) Viral warts *Verruca ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ... B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ...
There are many adjuvants, some of which are inorganic (such as alum), that also carry the potential to augment immunogenicity.[7][8] Two common salts include aluminium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts are the most commonly-used adjuvants in human vaccines. Their adjuvant activity was described in 1926.[9] The precise mechanism of alum action remains unclear but some insights have been gained. For instance, alum can trigger dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells to secrete interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an immune signal that promotes antibody production. Alum adheres to the cell's plasma membrane and rearranges certain lipids there. Spurred into action, the DC picks up the antigen and speeds to a lymph node, where it sticks tightly to a helper T cell and presumably induces an immune response. A second mechanism depends on alum killing immune cells at the injection site although researchers aren't sure exactly how alum kills these cells. It has been speculated that the dying ...
"Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea". Journal of ...
The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... Rotavirus antigens for parenteral delivery, such as the P2-VP8 candidate, can be expressed as virus-like particles prepared in ... Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. ... and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued ...
Measles virus. Ini ing ausan dang thin section (maimpis pangabangal) nung nu ya mepitna king adua ing virus. ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (-)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... Para kareng computer viruses, lawen ye ing Computer virus.. Para keng aliwang gamit, lawen ye ing Virus (disambiguation). ... Transmission electron micrograph ning Herpes virus antimong virus a makasuput (enveloped virus) a lupang ebun a piniritu king ...
2015-16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus. Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016[update]) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola ... "Democratic Republic of Congo: More measles vaccinations needed". Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International. Retrieved 16 ... 2018 Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection 1,743 (as of 21 July 2019[update]) Democratic Republic of the Congo & Uganda ... Mazan, Ryan; Gagnon, Alain; Desjardins, Bertrand (2009). "The Measles Epidemic of 1714-1715 in New France". Canadian Studies in ...
කුඩා ළමුන්ගේ ප්‍රතිශක්තිකරණ පද්ධතිය එන්නත් කිරීමකින් පසුව ඒ සදහා ප්‍රතිශක්තිකරණ ක්‍රියාවලීන් ඇති කිරීමට සමත් අන්දමට වර්ධනය වූ පසුව එන්නත් ලබාදීම මගින් රෝග සඳහා ආරක්ෂාව ලබාදිය හැකිය. අමතර එන්නත් වර්ග ලබාදීම මගින් පුර්ණ ප්‍රතිශක්තීකරණය ලබාදීමට පුළුවන. මෙමගින් සංකීර්ණ එන්නත් වැඩසටහනක් නිර්මාණය වුණි. ඇමරිකා එක්සත් ජනපදයෙහි ප්‍රතිශක්තීකරණ ක්‍රියාවලිය හා සම්බන්ධ උපදේශාත්මක ...
Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the ... Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbillivirus. Chinese physicians believe that medicinal herbs are effective in ... There is no RCT evidence for or against Chinese medicinal herbs as a treatment for measles. We hope high-quality, robust RCTs ... Child health , Infectious disease , Respiratory infections: measles, mumps, rubella. Child health , Lungs & airways , ...
The measles virus laboratory at CDC was formed in June 1989 in response to a resurgence of measles in the United States. ... The Measles Virus Laboratory provides serologic testing for measles as a national reference laboratory and provides technical ... The Measles Virus Laboratory acts both as a Regional Reference Laboratory within the laboratory network in the Region of the ... The Measles Virus Laboratory Team works closely with the Epidemiology Team to coordinate laboratory support for local and state ...
... viruses is an important component in outbreak investigations and for global surveillance of circulating wild-type measles ... Genetic characterization of measles viruses. Molecular epidemiology of measles viruses is an important component of outbreak ... Measles strain banks. In order to maintain reference stocks of viruses, two global Measles Strain Banks have been established. ... Measles viruses on throat swabs from measles patients use signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (CDw150) but not CD46 as a ...
A measles-like virus is being cited as a likely cause for the mass dolphin die-off thats been plaguing the U.S. East Coast ... East Coast Dolphin Deaths Linked to Measles-Like Virus. A measles-like virus is being cited as a likely cause for the mass ... A measles-like virus is being cited as a likely cause for the mass dolphin die-off thats been plaguing the U.S. East Coast ... And, though we know its spreading, theres no way to vaccinate dolphins against the spread of the virus. "[The die-off] would ...
HIV-positive children ill with measles may get a temporary respite from the virus that causes AIDS. Levels of HIV are ... Measles Measles is a viral infection with symptoms of fever,and rashes. Measles is prevented by vaccination and staying away ... HIV-positive children ill with measles may get a temporary respite from the virus that causes AIDS. Levels of HIV are ... Oral Health And AIDS Measles AIDS/HIV AIDS/HIV - Epidemiology AIDS/HIV - Clinical Features AIDS/HIV - Health Education AIDS/HIV ...
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against measles virus.. UytdeHaag FG1, van Binnendijk RS, Kenter MJ, Osterhaus AD. ...
The patient at the centre of a confirmed case of measles in Ottawa contracted the highly contagious infectious disease while ... Ottawa measles patient exposed to virus abroad. The patient at the centre of a confirmed case of measles in Ottawa contracted ... Measles virus does linger in the air for up to two hours after the infected person has left that airspace, but after two hours ... A previous version of this story said people could have been exposed to the measles virus at the clinic on March 28. Since then ...
... 250 passengers of a San Diego - Honolulu flight are searched by Hawaiian health ... The actual outbreak began in San Diego last month when a child contracted the virus during a family trip to Switzerland. After ... 250 passengers of a San Diego - Honolulu flight are searched by Hawaiian health officials on suspicion of measles infection. ...
... both of the twins were virtually free from measles virus infection despite the marked involvement of the placenta, and measles ... Fetal organs and cells other than a few splenic lymphocytes showed no evidence of measles virus infection. The placenta of the ... Postpartum course of the mother has been uneventful, although high titers of serum anti-measles virus IgM persisted for 6 ... At present, 7 months after the delivery, the surviving infant has not developed any sign of measles virus infection. ...
Australia was declared free of measles in 2014, yet this year alone 97 people have been diagnosed with the contagious viral ... Australia was declared free of measles in 2014, which means that there is no ongoing local transmission of measles within the ... meaning contagious people can spread the virus even before they have been diagnosed with measles. ... People aged in their 20s to early 50s are most likely to have only had one dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. ...
The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug ... Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo ... strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type. ... in measles virus-infected cells or individual measles virus ... But this is tricky for measles virus and other enveloped viruses such as RSV. Ke likens purified virus to a bucket of water ...
Measles virus vaccine definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... A vaccine containing live attenuated strains of measles virus prepared in chick embryo cell cultures and used to immunize ...
A new study has found that certain measles vaccine strain derivatives may offer effective treatment for prostate cancer ... Measles virus may offer prostate cancer treatment. January 22nd, 2009 - 2:41 pm ICT by ANI Tweet. ... Measles virus derivatives boon for prostate cancer - Jan 22, 2009. *Drug for rare childhood cancer may help prevent prostate ... These strains of measles virus are used as therapeutic agents against cancer that demonstrates no cross-resistance with ...
German measels, or Rubella to give it its correct name, is caused by the Rubella virus. Thankfully it is much less common now ...
Mutations and A/I hypermutations in measles virus persistent infections.. Cattaneo R1, Billeter MA. ...
N. Dhiman, R. M. Jacobson, and G. A. Poland, "Measles virus receptors: SLAM and CD46," Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 14, no ... C. L. Karp, M. Wysocka, L. M. Wahl et al., "Mechanism of suppression of cell-mediated immunity by measles virus," Science, vol ... Detection of Otosclerosis-Specific Measles Virus Receptor (Cd46) Protein Isoforms. Balázs Liktor,1 Péter Csomor,2 and Tamás ...
Detailed drug Information for measles virus vaccine, live Subcutaneous. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, ... Measles Prophylaxis Attenuvax, measles virus vaccine / mumps virus vaccine / rubella virus vaccine / varicella virus vaccine, ... Measles (also known as coughing measles, hard measles, morbilli, red measles, rubeola, and ten-day measles) is an infection ... Proper Use of measles virus vaccine, live. Dosing. The dose of measles virus vaccine, live will be different for different ...
... , 2nd ed. ... Report : hands-on training/workshop on the laboratory diagnosis of measles virus infection, Melbourne, Australia, 24-27 May ... Hands-on Training/Workshop on the Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles Virus Infection, Melbourne, Australia, 24-27 May 2005 : ... 2007)‎. Manual for the laboratory diagnosis of measles and rubella virus infection, 2nd ed. World Health Organization. https:// ...
Learn about the potential side effects of measles virus vaccine. Includes common and rare side effects information for ... Applies to measles virus vaccine: subcutaneous powder for injection. Local. Local side effects have included injection site ... Measles virus vaccine Side Effects. Medically reviewed by Last updated on March 26, 2020. ... Attenuvax (measles virus vaccine, live, attenuated)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA. ...
The measles virus is like an accident too - it can give you immune amnesia. Think of the measles like an accident you can ... "You get the robust immunity against measles virus without having to be infected with it, but it doesnt cause the immune damage ... New research illuminates how the measles virus may suppress the immune system after an infection. ... But what is it about the measles vaccine that seems to provide protection from more than just measles? The new studies ...
Measles Virus Vaccine Live) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... measles virus) Vaccine Live. DESCRIPTION. ATTENUVAX* (Measles Virus Vaccine Live) is a live virus vaccine for vaccination ... ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) , when reconstituted, is clear yellow.. Use With Other Vaccines ATTENUVAX (measles virus ... ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) is a sterile lyophilized preparation of a more attenuated line of measles virus derived ...
The measles virus is more harmful than scientists previously realized, making widespread vaccination even more important, ... In addition to the illness caused by the virus, a measles infection also takes a wrecking ball to the immune system. It ... Researchers found that those who survive measles gradually regain their previous immunity to other viruses and bacteria as they ... Measles makes your body forget how to fight other diseases. Two new studies highlight the importance of the measles, mumps and ...
... as well as in dissecting the role played by maternal antibodies to MV on the ability of the virus to enhance or abort the virus ... in PBLs from infants probably contributes to the morbidity and mortality observed in infants vaccinated with measles virus. ... Despite the development and use of an excellent live attenuated virus vaccine, over one million infants and children continue ... immunosuppression is dependent on the involvement of live virus and is dramatically more severe for PBLs obtained from newborns ...
... lab-engineered measles virus similar to the measles vaccine. In fact, the dose Erholtz received contained enough of the virus ... t fight off the virus before it has a chance to attack the cancer cells.. More of the highly concentrated measles virus is ... The measles virus worked with these multiple myeloma patients because they are already immune-deficient, meaning their bodies ... Amazing: Doctors say measles virus put womans cancer in remission. By Rob Mackay. ...
Measles virus (MV) causes acute respiratory disease, infects lymphocytes and multiple organs, and produces immune suppression ... Nectin 4 is the epithelial cell receptor for measles virus Trends Microbiol. 2012 Sep;20(9):429-39. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2012.05. ... Measles virus (MV) causes acute respiratory disease, infects lymphocytes and multiple organs, and produces immune suppression ... Coupled with recent observations made in MV-infected macaques, this discovery has led to a new paradigm for how the virus ...
The patients received a single intravenous dose of a measles virus (MV-NIS) that had been engineered to be selectively toxic to ... where she received 100 billion units of a specially engineered measles virus. ... It is not a new field; this is not the first patient to be successfully treated with a virus; but it does serve as the first ... It is an example of oncolytic virotherapy, therapy that uses a virus to infect and kill cancer cells while sparing normal ...
The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug ... Emory Health Sciences) Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, ... strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type.... ... Measles cases surpass 300 this year, CDC says. At least 314 cases of measles have been reported in the United States since ...
Measles viruscontains negative stranded RNA and is 150-300 nm in diameter. On its surface it has two membrane proteins - Fusion ... Measles virus Replication Outline:. Measles viruscontains negative stranded RNA and is 150-300 nm in diameter. On its surface ... Measles Virus Structure in 3D Virtual RealityFree Android 3.0+ app. By Amnim d.o.o. ... Measles Virus Game in 3D Virtual RealityFree Android 3.0+ app. By Amnim d.o.o. ...
2001) Measles viruses on throat swabs from measles patients use signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (CDw150) but not CD46 ... 2005) Long untranslated regions of the measles virus M and F genes control virus replication and cytopathogenicity. J Virol 79: ... 2016) Measles virus fusion protein: Structure, function and inhibition. Viruses 8:112. ... Morbilliviruses also include canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, dolphin ...
  • Detection of measles RNA in a clinical sample can provide laboratory confirmation of infection. (
  • Genotyping can also distinguish whether a person has wild-type measles virus infection, or a rash caused by a recent measles vaccination. (
  • It is important to note that genotyping information does not change the basic steps of public health investigations of measles, which include laboratory confirmation of measles infection, obtaining immunization histories for confirmed cases, identifying sources of infection, assessing potential for transmission and identifying contacts without presumptive evidence of immunity, classifying importation status, and obtaining specimens for viral isolation. (
  • Levels of HIV are suppressed while measles infection rages, the team found. (
  • Measles is a viral infection with symptoms of fever,and rashes. (
  • 250 passengers of a San Diego - Honolulu flight are searched by Hawaiian health officials on suspicion of measles infection. (
  • Fetal organs and cells other than a few splenic lymphocytes showed no evidence of measles virus infection. (
  • At present, 7 months after the delivery, the surviving infant has not developed any sign of measles virus infection. (
  • This case is informative in the following respects: the villous trophoblasts had diagnostic inclusion bodies and ultrastructural evidence of measles virus infection, the degree of viral involvement within the monochorionic placenta was uneven, both of the twins were virtually free from measles virus infection despite the marked involvement of the placenta, and measles virus infection had persisted in the monochorionic placenta for approximately 13 weeks. (
  • According to the NCIRS if you are not immune to the virus, through vaccination or past infection, the chance of becoming ill after being near someone with measles is 90 per cent . (
  • The province of Ontario continues to experience measles circulating virus strains and help identify potential sources virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in of infection ( 3 ). (
  • Measles Virus Vaccine Live is an immunizing agent used to prevent infection by the measles virus. (
  • Measles (also known as coughing measles, hard measles, morbilli, red measles, rubeola, and ten-day measles) is an infection that is easily spread from one person to another. (
  • Immunization against measles is usually not recommended for infants up to 12 months of age, unless the risk of their getting a measles infection is high. (
  • You can be considered to be immune to measles only if you received two doses of measles vaccine starting on or after your first birthday and have the medical record to prove it, if you have a doctor's diagnosis of a previous measles infection, or if you have had a blood test showing immunity to measles. (
  • New research illuminates how the measles virus may suppress the immune system after an infection. (
  • In addition to the illness caused by the virus, a measles infection also takes a wrecking ball to the immune system. (
  • Using a tool called VirScan that tracks antibodies, they found measles infection wiped out 11 to 73 percent of different antibodies that "remember" past encounters with germs and help the body avoid repeat bouts of influenza, herpes virus, pneumonia and skin infections. (
  • Human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) grafted onto mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID mice) to create hu-PBLS-SCID mice produce human IgG that is suppressed by MV infection, immunosuppression is dependent on the involvement of live virus and is dramatically more severe for PBLs obtained from newborns than PBLs from adults. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human-PBLS-SC1D mice. (
  • Mosier, D.E., Gulizia, R.J., Maclsaac, P.O., Corey, L. & Greenberg, P.O. Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection of SCID mice reconstituted with peripheral blood leukocytes from donors vaccinated with vaccinia gp160 and recombinant gp160. (
  • Measles virus (MeV) sometimes invades the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurodegenerative diseases several months/years after acute infection. (
  • MeV may establish, albeit rarely, persistent infection in the central nervous system, causing fatal and intractable neurodegenerative diseases such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles inclusion body encephalitis. (
  • Rinderpest virus of cattle was recently eradicated, and now that immunization against this virus has stopped, there are concerns that these animals will be susceptible to infection with PPRV or canine distemper virus. (
  • These sera presumably contain antibodies to measles virus, induced by vaccination or infection, which cross-react with PPRV proteins. (
  • While viruses generally use cellular receptors to trigger and spread infection in the body, measles virus uses one host protein to enter the host and another protein expressed at a strategic site to get out. (
  • Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with fever, respiratory involvement and symptoms, and a rash. (
  • Rubella (also known as German measles) is a serious infection that causes miscarriages, stillbirths, or birth defects in unborn babies when pregnant women get the disease. (
  • Use of this vaccine is not recommended for infants younger than 12 months of age, unless the risk of measles infection is high. (
  • Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV) infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. (
  • Borrow P, Tishon A, Oldstone MBA (1991) Infection of lymphocytes by a virus that aborts cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and establishes persistent infection. (
  • Esolen LM, Ward BJ, Moench TR, Griffin DE (1993) Infection of monocytes during measles. (
  • In situ immune responses in Crohn's disease: A comparison with acute and persistent measles virus infection. (
  • Ekbom A, Wakefield AJ, Zack M, Adami H-O: The role of perinatal measles infection in the etiology of Crohn's disease: A population based epidemiology study. (
  • One out of every 10 children who catch measles will also have an ear infection or pneumonia. (
  • On rare occasions, measles can also cause an infection of the brain that could lead to seizures, hearing loss, mental retardation, and even death. (
  • These strains of live viruses cause either mild or no symptoms of infection. (
  • Recent measles outbreaks in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia have emphasized the need for rapid differentiation of vaccine reactions ( 18 , 19 ) from reactions to infection with the wild-type virus. (
  • Second, although many human cell types are permissive for MV infection in vitro, in the presence of an intact immune system, virus replication after natural infection is limited to a few cell types in vivo. (
  • Animals infected intracerebrally with the JM strain of wild measles virus had only mild encephalitic changes but died of the visceral form of measles infection. (
  • What are the pathogenesis and clinical features of measles infection? (
  • Measles infection affects the entire body. (
  • Their results, published online by PNAS , suggest that this intrinsically disordered part plays an important role in infection by measles virus. (
  • Among oncolytic viruses, attenuated vaccine strains of MV show an interesting spontaneous tropism for infection and replication in tumor cells, and are now being evaluated for the treatment of several cancers. (
  • Some recent reports have claimed that persistent measles virus infection is involved in the aetiology or pathogenesis, or both, of Crohn's disease. (
  • 1-5 These observations led to the hypothesis that exposure to measles virus early in life, either during pregnancy, or as a consequence of postnatal infection by wild type measles virus or measles vaccination, predisposes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (
  • 22-24 If the latter observation is correct, it would not support the view of a persistent measles virus infection, but rather an immune reaction in the course of an acute infection. (
  • As summarised in table 1 , only acute measles with its various complications, measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), can be directly attributed to this morbillivirus infection at the present time. (
  • Evidence of measles virus infection in the other diseases listed in table 1 is circumstantial. (
  • Measles, or rubeola, also known as morbilli, is an infection disease that is caused by virus affecting human respiratory system. (
  • However measles is considered an endemic infection, thus it is present in society for a very long time - this fact means that some people may develop a certain resistance level to it. (
  • and var uh SEL uh VAHY ruhs vak SEEN) is a live vaccine to protect from an infection with measles (rubeola), mumps, rubella (German measles), and varicella (chickenpox) viruses. (
  • Its native binding to CD46 was purposefully retained to allow virus infection of tumor cells expressing this receptor. (
  • South Eastern Sydney Deputy Director of Public Health, Dr Vicky Sheppeard, said the locations no longer posed a risk of infection but urged anyone who may need a preventative measles jab to speak to their doctor. (
  • Persistent measles virus infection of the intestine: confirmation by immunogold electron microscopy. (
  • This study sought to investigate persistent measles virus infection of the intestine: a novel protocol for immunogold electron microscopy was developed using a polyclonal anti-measles nucleoprotein antibody on reprocessed, formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue sections. (
  • The techniques were validated using both measles infected vero cells and human tissues with established measles infection: these included brain affected by subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles appendicitis. (
  • This study provides the first direct confirmation of persistent measles virus infection of the intestine. (
  • A small percentage of measles vaccine recipients experience rash and fever 10 to 14 days following vaccination. (
  • Measles is prevented by vaccination and staying away from the infected individuals. (
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has been very rarely reported in children after measles vaccination. (
  • Some of these cases may have been due to unrecognized measles during the first year of life or possibly due to the measles vaccination. (
  • ATTENUVAX * (Measles Virus Vaccine Live) is a live virus vaccine for vaccination against measles ( rubeola ). (
  • ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) is indicated for vaccination against measles in persons 12 months of age or older. (
  • Local health authorities may recommend measles vaccination of infants between 6-12 months of age in outbreak situations. (
  • The discoveries have enormous and immediate public health implications, researchers and clinicians said, and underscore more than ever the importance of measles vaccination. (
  • In recent years, anti-vaccine misinformation has been one reason vaccination rates have plummeted and global measles cases have surged. (
  • Elledge and the Harvard investigators analyzed blood samples of 77 unvaccinated children before and two months after a 2013 measles outbreak in the Netherlands in a religiously conservative community opposed to vaccination. (
  • This mode of transmission explains why the virus spreads so quickly and how it resists worldwide vaccination programs to eradicate it. (
  • There has been an effective vaccine against the virus since the 1960s, but because of poor vaccination coverage in many developing countries the virus still remains a major problem. (
  • In addition, there may be special reasons why children between 6 months and 12 months of age also may require measles vaccination. (
  • Global measles incidence has dramatically decreased after the introduction of routine vaccination, but endemic circulation persists in many developing countries in Asia and Africa ( 10 , 12 ). (
  • To reduce measles mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) has renewed its effort for global measles control on the basis of enhanced vaccination and surveillance. (
  • Molecular epidemiology of measles virus (MV) has proven very useful for monitoring the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, for monitoring routes of transmission, and for proving local interruption of virus circulation ( 13 ). (
  • It is estimated that more than 4.5 million measles deaths have been prevented annually through implementation of the vaccination strategies developed by WHO and UNISEF ( Bellini and Rota, 2011 ). (
  • Limited data are available on detection of measles vaccine virus (MeVV) RNA in human subjects following vaccination. (
  • An important component of the public health response to a measles outbreak is vaccination of unimmunized contacts ( 8 ). (
  • Despite epidemiologic evidence to the contrary, claims of an association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and the development of autism have persisted. (
  • Not a single scientist, immunologist, infectious disease specialist or medical doctor has ever been able to establish a scientific foundation, not only for the vaccination of measles but any vaccination for infants, pregnant women, the elderly and even many adult subgroups. (
  • In the United States, children typically receive their mumps vaccination as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. (
  • The impact of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination on the natural history of each disease in the United States can be quantified by comparing the maximum number of measles, mumps, and rubella cases reported in a given year prior to vaccine use to the number of cases of each disease reported in 1995. (
  • Oncovita, founded by Director of the Viral Genomics and Vaccination Unit at Institut Pasteur, Dr. Frederic Tangy, focuses on the live-attenuated measles virus to develop powerful oncolytic drugs. (
  • If you happened to be at either business during the specific times listed you are being advised by the health department to monitor for any signs of measles and to check your vaccination records. (
  • 6 7 These claims prompted publication of several critical commentaries and responses and led to a case control study which did not support an association between measles virus vaccination and IBD. (
  • Such difference in rates is conditioned by vaccination that has been launched in 1963 in developed countries in order to prevent measles. (
  • Despite its rareness and vaccination, it's useful to be aware of measles symptoms. (
  • Insecurity in northeast Congo has hampered a measles vaccination drive and forced people to flee their homes, local responders said on Wednesday, complicating. (
  • A vaccine containing live attenuated strains of measles virus prepared in chick embryo cell cultures and used to immunize against measles. (
  • These strains of measles virus are used as therapeutic agents against cancer that demonstrates no cross-resistance with existing treatment approaches, and can therefore be combined with conventional treatment methods. (
  • Mori T: A simple method for genetic differentiation of the AIK-C vaccine strain from wild strains of measles virus. (
  • Attenuated strains of Measles Virus (MV) are now being used as oncolytic viruses in clinical trials to treat several types of cancer. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory operates within the Viral Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Branch (VVPDB), Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (
  • Methods and protocols for measles and rubella diagnosis and viral surveillance have been developed for the Laboratories in the WHO Global Laboratory Network. (
  • Wild-type measles viruses have been divided into eight clades containing 24 genotypes based on the nucleotide sequences of their hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes, which are the most variable genes in the viral genome. (
  • After the children recovered from their bouts with measles, viral levels went back up. (
  • Australia was declared free of measles in 2014, yet this year alone 97 people have been diagnosed with the contagious viral illness. (
  • An effective vaccine is available against measles virus, a highly infectious viral pathogen. (
  • Based on our preclinical results as well as the safety of measles derivatives in clinical trials against other tumour types, these viral strains could represent excellent candidates for clinical testing against advanced prostate cancer, including androgen resistant tumours, said Evanthia Galanis, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic, senior author of the study. (
  • After the virus binds to the host membrane, the viral plasma membrane fuses with the host membrane with the help of the Fusion protein. (
  • Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and "blinding" the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. (
  • The most apparent outward symptom of measles is a rash that begins on the face and moves downward, which usually appears three to seven days after other viral symptoms, like a fever, runny nose, irritability and red eyes/sensitivity to light. (
  • Measles is an acute viral disease associated both with immune suppression and development of life-long immunity. (
  • Clearance of measles virus (MeV) involves rapid elimination of infectious virus during the rash followed by slow elimination of viral RNA. (
  • The researchers harnessed the viral trait for attacking and commandeering cells, and then redirected the virus to attack diseased, rather than healthy cells. (
  • It enables researchers to grow retargeted measles virus on special "universal substrate cells" - while at the same time conserving the viral component for targeting and destroying tumors. (
  • Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. (
  • The virus also causes inhibition of IL-12 expression in dendritic cells, via H proteins on viral particles as well as N proteins from infected cells. (
  • Haga Y, Funakoshi O, Kuoe K, Kanazawa K, Nakajima H, Saito H, Murata Y, Munakata A, Yoshida Y: Absence of measles viral genomic sequence in intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease by nested polymerase chain reaction. (
  • The rationale for these studies was generated by experience with viral fusogenic membrane glycoproteins as cytotoxic genes and the recognition of the potential of replicating viruses in the treatment of human malignancy. (
  • A more compelling approach in this situation is the use of a vector or virus that is able to replicate within the tumor tissue, resulting in direct cell death through cytolysis or toxicity of viral proteins. (
  • Measles might be the viral equivalent of going to the gym. (
  • The development of novel antivirals that allow improved case management of severe measles and silence viral outbreaks is thus highly desirable. (
  • The licensing agreement between Oncovita and Institut Pasteur will allow the French biotech to develop, manufacture and commercialize therapies using the oncolytic measles viral platform. (
  • The licensed technology developed by Institut Pasteur is based on changes to the measles viral genome which increases the anti-tumor properties of the vaccine. (
  • The first is the fusion protein (F), which is responsible for the fusion of the virus to the host cell membranes, viral penetration, and the destruction of red blood cells. (
  • Thus, for example, in many virus-host systems, it has been shown that diagnosis based on morphology can be misleading as viral structures may resemble normal cellular elements. (
  • One of such viral diseases is measles, caused by rubeola virus. (
  • The history of this viral disease is rather long - it was developed from rinderpest virus (cattle plaque) in around twelfth century. (
  • Here we describe the development of a viral vector based on the Edmonston vaccine strain of measles virus targeted to integrin αvβ3, which is expressed abundantly on activated but not quiescent vascular endothelium. (
  • We displayed a disintegrin, M28L echistatin that binds with a high affinity to integrin αvβ3 on the COOH terminus of the viral attachment (H) protein and rescued the replication-competent recombinant virus by reverse genetics. (
  • A warning over a potential measles outbreak has been issued in Sydney after a woman was diagnosed with the viral disease. (
  • Measles, the highly contagious and previously eliminated viral illness, has been spreading in communities across the United States in recent weeks, with Washington declaring a state of emergency last week and New York reporting in 2018 its second largest outbreak over the past two decades. (
  • Early on, measles can look like many other viral illnesses, but the red blotchy rash that comes with it may help set it apart. (
  • For each genotype, a reference strain is designated for use in genetic analysis (phylogenetic analysis), usually the earliest known virus isolate of that group. (
  • The vaccine strain of measles virus can be distinguished from wild-type viruses by determination of the genotype from clinical samples or virus isolates. (
  • Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a verse and globally connected communities and the high unique strain of virus and no known association among pri- infectivity of the measles virus make maintenance of im- mary case-patients. (
  • Washington, Jan 22 (ANI): A new study has found that certain measles vaccine strain derivatives may offer effective treatment for prostate cancer patients. (
  • ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) is a sterile lyophilized preparation of a more attenuated line of measles virus derived from Enders' attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture. (
  • Priorix is a new investigational measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine containing the Schwarz measles strain, the RA 27/3 rubella strain and a new mumps strain RIT 4385. (
  • The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. (
  • The measles virus became the focus for this kind of research several years ago when the surprising finding was made that the measles strain used internationally for vaccinations has natural anticancer activity. (
  • The investigators anticipate that the intrapleural of the vaccine strain measles virus will enable the virus to specifically infect and kill cancer cells and spare, without damaging normal cells. (
  • Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for the intrapleural administration of a modified vaccine strain measles virus (MV) genetically engineered to produce human thyroidal sodium iodine symporter (NIS) (MV-NIS [oncolytic measles virus encoding thyroidal sodium iodide symporter])in patients with MPM. (
  • Rochester, Minn. January 21, 2009 A new study appearing in The Prostate has found that certain measles virus vaccine strain derivatives, including a strain known as MV-CEA, may prove to be an effective treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. (
  • Mayo Clinic Cancer Center scientists opened the new clinical study using a vaccine strain of the measles virus to attack recurrent glioblastoma multiforme -- a largely untreatable brain tumor. (
  • and (3) MERUVAX* II (Rubella Virus Vaccine Live), the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus grown in human diploid cell (WI-38) culture. (
  • The sequences obtained from the patients with Crohn's disease shared the characteristics with wild-strain virus. (
  • Kawashima H, Mori T, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Hata M, Nakayama T: Polymerase chain reaction detection of the hemagglutinin gene from an attenuated measles vaccine strain in the peripheral mononuclear cells of children with autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Derivatives of the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus (MV-Ed) are safe, live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines that have been used worldwide for more than 30 years. (
  • Intratumoral injection of both unmodified MV-Ed and a strain of MV-Ed genetically modified by the addition of a β-galactosidase reporter gene (MVlacZ) induced regression of large established human lymphoma xenografts, in contrast to control therapy with UV-inactivated virus, in which all tumors progressed. (
  • The strains in this cluster show close identity to a measles strain identified in the state of New York, USA. (
  • The virus strain was engineered and weakened in a lab, and then given in a dose strong enough to vaccinate 10 million people. (
  • Marmosets infected intracerebrally with the wild Edmonston strain of measles virus developed encephalitis, demonstrated histologically and by the fluorescent-antibody technique. (
  • Evolution of rubeola virus led to current epidemic strain of this virus that appeared in the beginning of twentieth century. (
  • Measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter or MV-NIS is an attenuated oncolytic Edmonston (Ed) strain of measles virus. (
  • MV-ERV grew to 10 6 plaque-forming units/mL, slightly lower than the parental Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV-Edm), but it selectively infected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing integrin αvβ3. (
  • These properties have later been confirmed using the Edmonston vaccine strain of measles viruses ( 9 - 12 ). (
  • A separate immunization is needed for that type of measles. (
  • Immunization against measles is recommended for everyone 12 to 15 months of age and older. (
  • This includes persons who may be immune to measles but who lack adequate documentation of immunity such as: (1) physician-diagnosed measles, (2) laboratory evidence of measles immunity, or (3) adequate immunization with live measles vaccine on or after the first birthday. (
  • For a disease as contagious as measles, a very high rate of immunization (about 95%) is required to provide successful herd immunity. (
  • Every time someone coughs, (the virus) floats around in the air, and if someone else breathes it in during the next couple of hours, they can get it,' said David Nelson, a field coordinator for the state's immunization program. (
  • While immunization against measles and rubella is recommended for all persons 12 months of age and older, it is especially important for women of childbearing age and persons traveling outside the U.S. (
  • The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends getting immunized for measles, though vaccinations are not mandatory for a child to enter school , notes the Public Health Agency. (
  • M-M-R* II (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live) is a live virus vaccine for immunization against measles (rubeola), mumps and rubella (German measles). (
  • Measles immunization is part of the MMR and MMRV vaccinations routinely administered to young children. (
  • Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva. (
  • Measles is caused by Rubeola virus, which belongs to the Paramyxovirus family. (
  • The virus that causes rubeola is called genus morbillivirus. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory Team works closely with the Epidemiology Team to coordinate laboratory support for local and state public health laboratories during outbreaks and investigations of suspected spread cases following an importation of measles. (
  • During outbreaks, measles vaccine is administered to help control the outbreak, and in these situations, vaccine reactions may be mistakenly classified as measles cases. (
  • There's something about the dynamics of measles we can't figure out,' said Dr. William Atkinson, who tracks measles outbreaks for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta. (
  • During measles outbreaks, it is important to be able to rapidly distinguish between measles cases and vaccine reactions to avoid unnecessary outbreak response measures such as case isolation and contact investigations. (
  • Endemic transmission of measles virus (MeV) was interrupted in the Americas in 2002 ( 1 ), but since then, importations of measles from areas of endemicity have caused frequent and sometimes large outbreaks ( 2 - 6 ) and a recent transitory suspension of the elimination status ( 7 ). (
  • We used throat and nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples from children admitted to Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital during measles outbreaks occurring March-August 2012. (
  • Currently, no therapeutics are available for case management of severe measles or the rapid silencing of local outbreaks. (
  • The CDC has confirmed that Measles cases in the U.S. have reached a record high as outbreaks continue to plague areas of the United States. (
  • With particular focus on the European countries of the current world, we can have an organized view of the natural course of measles outbreaks in the European region. (
  • There are several pieces of literature available illustrating the general spread and outbreaks of the measles disease in the European areas but an organized document with specific focus on a few primary landmarks of the European contingent are scarce. (
  • other regions which have been reported to be have harbored outbreaks of measles attacks include regions of the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. (
  • In the UK, with regard to it being a developed country, measles outbreaks have been contained successfully over the past 10 years. (
  • The latest report by the CIDSC states that a record of 1494 total cases of measles outbreaks in a variety of areas stretching from London to Hertfordshire and the South Midlands including areas of Wales have been reported. (
  • In the United States, people who are unvaccinated usually catch measles while traveling in other countries and then spread it to other unvaccinated people upon their return, which can start outbreaks, according to the CDC. (
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting," the authors of a 2010 study write in their abstract. (
  • Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Tharanga YakupitiyageUNITED NATIONS, May 1 2019 (IPS) Since the introduction of vaccines, diseases such as measles and polio were quickly becoming a thing of the past. (
  • The World Health Organization says reluctance toward vaccinations has played a major role in the resurgence of the virus, leading it to name vaccine hesitancy as one of its top 10 global health threats for 2019. (
  • The results of a retrospective case-controlled study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that measles vaccine has had the overall effect of protecting against SSPE by preventing measles with its greater risk of SSPE. (
  • At least 314 cases of measles have been reported in the United States since January 1, according to national numbers shared Monday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared measles eliminated from the United States . (
  • If someone who is not immune to the virus breathes the air or touches an infected surface, they can become infected, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • MV belongs to the genus Morbillivirus in the family of Paramyxoviridae that also includes other major human pathogens, such as mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the parainfluenza viruses. (
  • Paramyxoviruses also include, among others, mumps virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV), and emerging Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), members of the genus Henipavirus ( Lamb and Parks, 2007 ). (
  • Mumps virus causes fever, headache, and swollen glands, but more serious symptoms include hearing loss, and painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries. (
  • 12 The vaccine viruses are the same as those used in the manufacture of ATTENUVAX (Measles Virus Vaccine Live), MUMPSVAX (Mumps Virus Vaccine Live) and MERUVAX II (Rubella Virus Vaccine Live). (
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella are three common childhood diseases, caused by measles virus, mumps virus (paramyxoviruses), and rubella virus (togavirus), respectively, that may be associated with serious complications and/or death. (
  • City or state/province where the case of measles occurred. (
  • The patient at the centre of a confirmed case of measles in Ottawa contracted the highly contagious infectious disease while travelling abroad, the city's public health agency has confirmed. (
  • With the recent confirmation of a case of measles in Hamilton, Ont. (
  • Due to the virus's recent eradication, there are many doctors who have never seen a case of measles and are not able to diagnose it as easily, according to a recent article in The New York Times . (
  • Further, this model should be useful for accessing the potential immunosuppressive abilities of newly isolated field (wild-type) virus isolates and newly designed vaccines containing attenuated MV or subunit vaccines, as well as in dissecting the role played by maternal antibodies to MV on the ability of the virus to enhance or abort the virus-induced immunosuppression. (
  • Jane Stanton's life dramatically changed after contracting measles, and is calling for people to take-up all available vaccines. (
  • If you are to receive any other live virus vaccines within 1 or 3 months of receiving this vaccine. (
  • Measles vaccine is usually given as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines. (
  • Vaccines for measles are given at 12 months as part of a shot that includes measles, mumps and rubella, and a second dose at 18 months or four to six years of age. (
  • Measles vaccines have been in use since the 1960s with excellent safety and effectiveness profiles. (
  • Nervous system side effects have included measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), encephalopathy , subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), febrile convulsions, afebrile convulsions or seizures , ataxia, and ocular palsies. (
  • The risk of measles vaccine-associated serious neurological disorders is much smaller than the risk for encephalitis and encephalopathy due to natural measles. (
  • Recently, MeV-induced encephalitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children has become a great concern in high-HIV-prevalence countries. (
  • Marmosets inoculated with measles vaccine had no encephalitis and remained clinically well. (
  • For example, pneumonia and encephalitis are caused by measles. (
  • The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigor- measles herd immunity ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Researchers found that those who survive measles gradually regain their previous immunity to other viruses and bacteria as they get re-exposed to them. (
  • Black, F.L. Measles active and passive immunity in a worldwide perspective. (
  • This vaccine works by exposing your child to a small dose of the virus or a protein from the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. (
  • It is crucial that we have enough people vaccinated to create 'herd immunity' so that the virus cannot spread. (
  • Postpartum course of the mother has been uneventful, although high titers of serum anti-measles virus IgM persisted for 6 months after delivery. (
  • Our basic evidence on the relationship had been established by immunohistochemistry, using several commercial and specific experimental anti-measles antibodies in about 50% of our patients. (
  • Finally, anti-measles antibody titers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. (
  • Furthermore, there was no difference in anti-measles antibody titers between the autism and control groups. (
  • Then researchers gave her and five other multiple myeloma patients a dose of a highly concentrated, lab-engineered measles virus similar to the measles vaccine. (
  • The measles virus worked with these multiple myeloma patients because they are already immune-deficient, meaning their bodies can't fight off the virus before it has a chance to attack the cancer cells. (
  • The Mayo Clinic says its pursuit of oncolytic measles vaccine strains for cancer treatment is unique, growing from the most basic laboratory science to a sophisticated therapy being tested in several tumor types, including glioblastoma multiforme, recurrent ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma. (
  • She had an advanced case of multiple myeloma , a deadly cancer of the blood spread throughout her body and bone marrow, when researchers offered her a last-ditch resort - a massive dose of the measles. (
  • CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Remission of Disseminated Cancer After Systemic Oncolytic Virotherapy Active clinical trials for MV-NIS, National Cancer Institute Disseminated multiple myeloma with oncolytic measles virus discussion on Columbia University Professor Vincent Racaniello's "This week in virology" podcast. (
  • Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbillivirus . (
  • phocine distemper virus and cetacean morbillivirus of seals, dolphins, porpoises, and whales, and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). (
  • This virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid) core surrounded by an envelope studded with surface proteins haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein, which are used to attach to and penetrate a host cell. (
  • Measles virus (MV), the agent that causes measles, is an enveloped, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus , the family Paramyxoviridae ( Griffin, 2007 ). (
  • Measles virus (genus Morbillivirus , within the family Paramyxoviridae) possesses a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. (
  • Morbillivirus that causes measles has the same structure, only with higher activity of haemagglutinin and lower activity of neuraminidase. (
  • Morbillivirus has several species, including measles and rinderpest (cattle plaque). (
  • After completing initial diagnostic tests on more than two dozen animals from all affected states and consulting with disease experts, we have determined that the likely primary cause of this event is a virus called the cetacean morbillivirus, which is similar to measles in humans or canine distemper in dogs," the NOAA said in a statement. (
  • Measles virus is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus that belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. (
  • He did not have a rash at that point to lead me to suspect he had measles. (
  • These general symptoms start about four days before the rash develops, meaning contagious people can spread the virus even before they have been diagnosed with measles. (
  • Measles virus does not just cause a rash - it can kill, up to 100,000 people each year. (
  • Measles is most contagious just before rash onset and during the first few days after the rash appears. (
  • An infected person spreads the virus through coughs and sniffles that begin four days before rash and fever appear. (
  • Once the measles virus entered the Oakland Park preschool through the 1-year- old girl, 10 more children became infected, including the three whose rash prompted the investigation by health officials. (
  • Measles is a highly infectious itchy rash with a fever. (
  • Measles virus can cause minor symptoms such as skin rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, or mild fever. (
  • Rubella virus (also called German Measles) causes skin rash, mild fever, and joint pain. (
  • Measles is a serious disease that causes a high fever (temperature), runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis and a rash. (
  • Since approximately 5% of recipients of measles virus-containing vaccine experience rash and fever which may be indistinguishable from measles ( 9 ), it is very important to identify vaccine reactions to avoid unnecessary isolation of the patient, as well as the need for contact tracing and other labor-intensive public health interventions. (
  • It works by causing your body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus. (
  • It destroys up to half of the existing antibodies that protect against other viruses and bacteria, according to research published Thursday. (
  • No loss of antibodies was observed in children vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella. (
  • If a vaccinated child comes into contact with measles, mumps, rubella or varicella virus, the body is usually ready, and produces antibodies to destroy the virus. (
  • Evidence has been published in the medical literature that vaccinated persons can get measles because either they do not respond to the vaccine or the vaccine's efficacy wanes over time and vaccinated mothers do not transfer long lasting maternal antibodies to their infants to protect them in the first few months of life. (
  • In these studies, a single injection of the vaccine induced measles hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies in 95%, mumps neutralizing antibodies in 96%, and rubella HI antibodies in 99% of susceptible persons. (
  • Whereas one group found measles virus specific IgM antibodies in the majority of patients, others could not detect any immunological evidence of persistence of measles virus or any differences compared with control groups. (
  • Serological studies have revealed slightly higher or normal titres of measles virus antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis compared with controls. (
  • Sera against rinderpest virus contained HLI, HI, and NT antibodies against measles virus. (
  • NT antibodies against distemper virus were also found in these sera. (
  • Sera against distemper virus also displayed measles HLI antibody activity, but no measles virus-specific NT antibodies were detectable. (
  • Mumps primary antibody--applied to both mumps infected vero cells, and measles infected vero cells and tissues studied by immunoperoxidase, and measles antibody on mumps infected cells studied by immunoperoxidase and immunogold--were used as specificity controls: the primary antibodies identified their respective target antigen and there was no antibody cross reactivity. (
  • Measles is really contagious and it's spread through the air, so it's very easy for just one case to infect other people,' warned Dr. Robin Taylor, the city's associate medical officer of health, on Thursday. (
  • Not only does it leave a child vulnerable to a highly contagious disease, but also, for individuals who survive an initial measles attack, the virus increases their vulnerability to all kinds of other infections for months - possibly even years - after they recover. (
  • Measles virus (MV) still incites one of the most contagious infections of humankind. (
  • Measles virus (MeV), a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, is highly immunotropic and one of the most contagious pathogens. (
  • Laval Canada -- Measles virus is perhaps the most contagious virus in. (
  • Laval, Canada -- Measles virus is perhaps the most contagious virus in the world, affecting 10 million children worldwide each year and accounting for 120,000 deaths. (
  • Measles is highly contagious and vaccine preventable. (
  • When the measles spots popped up in an Oakland Park day care center, medical detectives quickly traced the path of how the highly contagious virus landed there. (
  • Measles is highly contagious. (
  • The virus is still active and contagious for up to 2 hours in the air or on infected surfaces. (
  • The virus is highly contagious for anyone who hasn't been immunised against measles. (
  • Measles virus (MV) causes acute respiratory disease, infects lymphocytes and multiple organs, and produces immune suppression leading to secondary infections. (
  • Measles is a common, acute disease caused by measles virus (MV), which is one of the most infectious viruses known. (
  • The reaction between measles and canine distemper viruses prepared in Vero cells and acute, convalescent and hyperimmune sera against these viruses and rinderpest virus were studied in neutralization (NT), neutralization-enhancement (NE), complement-fixation (CF), immunofluorescence, and immunodiffusion tests. (
  • Recently determined crystal structures of the MV-H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into paramyxovirus entry and the effectiveness of measles vaccine. (
  • The Measles Virus or Paramyxovirus is an enveloped, non-segmented RNA virus. (
  • More recently, Newcastle disease virus, an avian paramyxovirus, has also shown promising results in preclinical studies, 10-12 and clinical trials in human subjects have begun. (
  • In this study, we have investigated another human paramyxovirus, measles, as a potential antitumor agent for lymphoid malignancies. (
  • Although a live-attenuated vaccine protects against measles virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, the virus remains a principal cause of worldwide mortality and accounts for approximately 21 million cases and 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually. (
  • Measles virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, remains a principal cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, being responsible for approximately 300,000 to 400,000 deaths annually, despite the existence of a live-attenuated vaccine ( 8 , 50 ). (
  • Ribavirin, the only drug available for the treatment of some paramyxovirus infections ( 9 , 41 ), has been used experimentally for the treatment of measles, but with limited efficacy ( 2 ). (
  • The measles virus is a type of paramyxovirus. (
  • He said measles usually suppresses the immune system. (
  • Researchers said the children with both HIV and measles had higher than normal levels of CD8 T-cells, which are a measure of immune response. (
  • More research will be needed with a larger study group to fully understand how measles suppresses HIV and activates the immune system. (
  • The new studies published this week in the journals Science and Science Immunology provide substance to what has been the leading theory: Measles can damage the immune system by erasing the body's memory of previously encountered antigens. (
  • But after someone gets the measles, their immune system appears to forget some of what it has encountered, studies suggest. (
  • These two papers complement each other in an interesting way, and they both provide clues to help answer how measles causes immune damage. (
  • The Science Immunology study released Thursday investigated whether the character of the immune system changed after measles exposure. (
  • The researchers sequenced the genes of immune memory cells and found that after recovering from measles, the children's immune system had a different landscape of certain types of cells. (
  • The immune cells that normally would recognize new pathogens - they become restricted in their ability to respond" after recovering from measles, says Velislava Petrova of the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the lead author of the Science Immunology paper. (
  • Individuals planning travel outside the United States, if not immune , can acquire measles, mumps, or rubella and import these diseases into the United States. (
  • and if monovalent measles vaccine is not readily available, travelers should receive M-M-R II regardless of their immune status to mumps or rubella. (
  • Comprehensive coverage with the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine would prevent more than 120,000 deaths directly attributed to measles this year, and it could also "avert potentially hundreds of thousands of additional deaths attributable to the last damage to the immune system," the authors wrote. (
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, University of Amsterdam and their collaborators sequenced their antibody genes and found that specific immune memory cells were no longer in the blood of two children after measles illness, leaving them vulnerable against infectious diseases they had previously been protected against. (
  • The two studies "break open and elucidate the pathway of how a child becomes immune-compromised after measles, and it's pretty devastating," said Jennifer Lighter, a pediatric infectious disease physician and epidemiologist who helped lead the measles response at NYU Langone Medical Center and was not involved in either study. (
  • There's also some evidence to suggest, she says, that the virus is stimulating the patient's immune system, helping it recognize any recurring cancer cells and 'mop that up. (
  • People who are at risk for catching the virus are pregnant women, newborn babies, and anyone who has a weak immune system that keeps them from fighting infections. (
  • Such a virus would not necessarily cause disease in humans, as there are other barriers to overcome, such as the innate immune response. (
  • It it known if the other Morbilliviruses can produce immune amnesia in their host species, as measles virus does in humans? (
  • Peter Foster - while I am not aware of studies directly addressing long-term immune amnesia in these other viruses, the biology and pathogenesis of other animal morbilliviruses, particularly through binding of SLAM would suggest similar outcomes as measles in humans with regard to a potential immune amnesia. (
  • Measles is an enormous problem in developing countries, where infections often occur in very young children with immature immune systems, many of whom are also malnourished, which further impairs their immune response to the virus. (
  • Measles, caused by MeV, is the leading cause of death in children, particularly in developing countries, because of secondary bacterial or parasitic infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression ( Moss and Griffine, 2006 ). (
  • and concurrently pathogens, including viruses, have developed a variety of ingenious strategies to interfere with the immune defense mechanisms and hence promote their persistence at the individual or population level. (
  • Now researchers from the Institut de Virologie Molculaire et Structurale (IVMS) and the Outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Grenoble have obtained a detailed structural picture of a protein that allows the rabies virus to withstand the human immune response and survive and replicate in our cells. (
  • The protein ensures that on its way through the cell the virus RNA is not destroyed by the immune response of the host. (
  • There's also evidence that the virus stimulates the immune system, helping it recognize any recurring cancer cells and "mop them up. (
  • The efficacy of oncolytic viruses is mainly due to their capacity to infect and kill tumor cells, but it has also been demonstrated that their capacity to induce immunogenic cell death can activate an antitumor immune response. (
  • In addition, the data relating to the humoral immune reactions against measles virus in patients with Crohn's disease are controversial. (
  • In each of these diseases, measles virus can always be detected using a variety of laboratory tests, and humoral and cell mediated immune reactions against this agent correlate with disease progression. (
  • The real-time RT-PCR is more sensitive than endpoint RT-PCR assay for detection of measles RNA in clinical samples, while the endpoint assay is routinely used to amplify the region of the measles genome required to determine the genotype. (
  • In order to characterize the strains that may be present, we have carried out the detection of measles genomic RNA in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) in eight patients with Crohn's disease, three patients with ulcerative colitis, and nine children with autistic enterocolitis. (
  • Nakayama T, Mori T, Yamaguchi S, Sonoda S, Asamura S, Yamashita R, Takeuchi Y, Urano T: Detection of measles virus genome directly from clinical samples by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and genetic viability. (
  • This year saw the largest outbreak of measles in the U.S. since 1994, with 1,250 cases reported as of Oct. 3, largely driven by families choosing not to vaccinate their kids. (
  • The vast expanse of the area of Europe had witnessed an overall rise in the outbreak of measles since the year 2011. (
  • In Lyon, situated in the Rhone-Alpes area of France, the largest outbreak of measles was recorded in 2010 - 2011. (
  • The review authors found a large number of clinical studies providing evidence of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of measles. (
  • Supportive measures, such as antipyretics and fluids, are used for treatment of measles, because no specific antiviral therapy is available. (
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to measles virus vaccine, live or any other medicines. (
  • The first symptom of measles is fever. (
  • with the virus: a runny nose, cough, fever, and eventually progress into white spots on the inside of your mouth. (
  • Measles usually manifests as a combination of high fever, as high as 105 degrees Fahrenheit, along with what is known as the three Cs: cough, coryza (another word for runny nose), and conjunctivitis or pink eye, Sammons explained. (
  • Genotyping is used to confirm the origin of an outbreak and to exclude endemic circulation, but it is also the only way to distinguish vaccine strains from wild-type viruses. (
  • Likewise, Canada has not had endemic measles since 1998. (
  • MV sequence information from many (developing) countries with a persistently high measles incidence is limited. (
  • In California, the specifically high measles rate may also be due to the high numbers of travelers returning from the Philippines. (
  • According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, measles is a highly infectious disease spread by direct contact or secretions from an infected person's nose or mouth. (
  • Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, or otherwise known as varicella virus. (
  • If someone has been exposed and has signs consistent with measles, it is important that they stay isolated from others to prevent spreading the disease and call their health care provider," said Kris Ehresmann, director of infectious disease for MDH. (
  • Measles are an infectious disease caused by the Morbilivirus genus of viruses. (
  • A 49 year old woman from Minnesota, diagnosed with myeloma years ago and having gone through chemotherapy and a pair of stem cell transplants, facing the prospect of no remaining options, enrolled in a two-patient, proof-of-principle clinical trial at the Mayo Clinic, where she received 100 billion units of a specially engineered measles virus. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Mayo Clinic researchers stirred excitement on Thursday by saying they had treated a patient's blood cancer with a specially engineered measles virus, but even scientists involved in the work caution the response does not prove they have a cure. (
  • Measles virus genotyping can play an important role in tracking transmission pathways during outbreak investigations. (
  • Lastly, measles virus genotyping can help establish which foreign country may be the source of an imported U.S. case. (
  • Laboratory investigation, including virus identification and able disease database, the integrated Public Health Infor- genotyping, is also critical. (
  • A simple genotyping method based on multiplex PCR has been developed to discriminate between all active measles virus (MV) clades and genotypes (A, B3.1, B3.2, C2, D2-D9, G2-G3, and H1-H2). (
  • Makowka A , Gut W , Litwinska B , Santibanez S , Mankertz A . Genotyping of measles and rubella virus strains circulating in Poland in 2007. (
  • These novel findings emphasize the importance of genotyping all MeV detections and highlight the need for further work to assess whether persistent MeVV RNA represents viable virus and if transmission to close contacts can occur. (
  • Virus genotyping was based on the 450-nt coding sequence for the carboxyl terminus of nucleoprotein (N) of measles virus, as recommended by the World Health Organization ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • But two new studies illustrate how skipping the measles vaccine carries a double risk. (
  • That means people, especially children, who get measles become much more vulnerable to other germs that cause diseases such as pneumonia and influenza that they had previously been protected against. (
  • All of the paramyxoviruses are enveloped viruses that enclose a helical nucleocapsid composed of the negative-stranded ssRNA genome and nucleoprotein (N), along with the matrix protein (M), the phosphoprotein (P), and the large polymerase protein (L). In addition, MV has two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, fusion (F), and an attachment protein, hemagglutinin (H), on the surface. (
  • These assays targeted the nucleoprotein, fusion, and hemagglutinin genes of measles virus using previously published primer pairs with detection by SYBR green I. Our own real-time assay targeted the fusion gene using novel primers and an internal fluorescent probe. (
  • Nucleoprotein is vital for the rabies virus," says Rob Ruigrok, Head of the IVMS. (
  • Researchers of the IBS*, in collaboration with their colleagues of the UVHCI and the AFMB, report the first in situ observation of the intrinsically disordered domain of the nucleoprotein of measles virus. (
  • The amount of virus that's in the bloodstream really is the driver of how much gets into the tumors. (
  • Tests showed the virus helped shrink one woman's tumors, but they started growing again soon after. (
  • The virus goes where it's meant to go, and it destroys the tumors in a targeted way," concluded Russell. (
  • We have shown in the laboratory and in several animal models that measles virus strains can significantly shrink glioma tumors and prolong animal survival. (
  • But thanks to an altered version of the measles virus that reduced her tumors to nothing in just 36 hours, the 50-year-old mother is now in remission. (
  • The measles virus trial now has 400 patients on a wait list, all of them hoping to see their tumors disappear like Ertholz's did. (
  • A reevaluation of the arguments held against our thesis was carried out and further evidence for a relationship between the measles virus and additional solid tumors has been presented. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory provides serologic testing for measles as a national reference laboratory and provides technical assistance to state public health laboratories for the collection and shipment of clinical samples for molecular diagnostics and genetic analysis . (
  • More of the highly concentrated measles virus is being created now to be used in a larger clinical trial, Mayo Clinic researchers say. (
  • Clinical trials are currently under way using a modified measles virus. (
  • This phase I clinical trial investigates the side effects and the best dose of local (intrapleural measles virus therapy in treating patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). (
  • The results set the foundation for additional studies in preparation for using engineered measles strains in a clinical trial for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer. (
  • 7 All of these viruses have shown promise in preclinical studies, and clinical studies of some of the agents are now in progress. (
  • Clinical and demographic data for these 10 cases, virus isolation status, and GenBank accession numbers of the sequences are summarized in the Table . (
  • Some tolerance and efficacy clinical results obtained at the Mayo Clinic are also very promising with another measles virus, demonstrating its possible use to treat some cancers. (
  • Numerous RNA viruses (coxsackievirus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Measles Virus (MV), poliovirus, and reovirus) and DNA viruses (adenovirus and vaccinia virus) are now being evaluated in clinical trials against a wide range of malignancies [ 1 ]. (
  • Adenovirus H101 is now approved in China for the treatment of head and neck cancer, and several other oncolytic viruses, such as HSV, adenovirus, and reovirus have entered phase III clinical trials [ 1 ]. (
  • MV-NIS is the first targeted engineered virus therapy to have shown remission in published cancer clinical trials. (
  • There is no evidence of measles virus persistence in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with autism spectrum disorder. (
  • The human CD46 antigen is known to be the functional cellular receptor for Measles virus. (
  • Attenuvax (measles virus vaccine, live, attenuated). (
  • ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) , when reconstituted as directed, is clear yellow. (
  • Individuals first vaccinated with ATTENUVAX (measles virus vaccine live) at 12 months of age or older should be revaccinated with M-M-R* II (Measles, Mumps , and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live) prior to elementary school entry. (
  • People aged in their 20s to early 50s are most likely to have only had one dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. (
  • ROCHESTER, Minn. (CNN) -- A woman with an incurable cancer is now in remission, thanks, doctors say, to a highly concentrated dose of the measles virus. (
  • In a 2014 trial, a concentrated dose of the measles put a late-stage cancer patient into long-term remission. (
  • If someone is uncertain whether they have been fully vaccinated or if they can't obtain documented evidence, then they may be at higher risk of getting measles now," he said. (
  • U.S. health officials have documented 75 new cases of the measles in the past week. (
  • Since Jan. 1, there have been 129 recorded cases of the measles nationwide. (
  • The growth medium for measles is Medium 199 (a buffered salt solution containing vitamins and amino acids and supplemented with fetal bovine serum) containing SPGA (sucrose, phosphate , glutamate , and human albumin) as stabilizer and neomycin. (
  • The measles virus has two surface proteins responsible for binding and fusion to target cells: hemagglutinin (H) and membrane fusion protein (F). Multiple receptors have been identified to bind these surface proteins: CD46, SLAM, Nectin-4 and TLR. (
  • The second is the hemagglutinin protein (H), which helps in the absorption of the virus into cells. (
  • Measles hemagglutinin is a hemagglutinin produced by measles virus. (
  • Your child should avoid close contact with people at high risk for catching the varicella virus for 6 weeks after receiving this vaccine. (
  • The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is usually given only once when the child is between 12 months and 12 years old. (
  • Becoming infected with measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving this vaccine. (
  • The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in children. (
  • Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is for use in children between the ages of 12 months and 12 years old. (
  • Like any vaccine, the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person. (
  • Your child should not receive this vaccine if he or she is allergic to eggs, gelatin, or neomycin (Mycifradin, Neo-Fradin, Neo-Tab), or if the child has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella. (
  • ProQuad is a vaccine used to help protect people from getting measles, mumps, rubella (German measles) and chicken pox (varicella). (
  • ProQuad contains weakened strains of living measles, mumps, rubella and varicella viruses. (
  • Measles virus is a highly infectious, enveloped, pleomorphic virus. (
  • Preclinical Pharmacology and Toxicology of Intravenous MV-NIS, an Oncolytic Measles Virus Administered With or Without Cyclophosphamide Oncolytic measles virus encoding thyroidal sodium iodide symporter for squamous cell cancer of the head and neck radiovirotherapy. (
  • More than 7 million people are estimated to have been infected with measles in 2018, according to global health officials. (
  • Twenty-nine cases of the virus were reported in Canadain 2018. (
  • Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis. (
  • The measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46 or nectin-4. (
  • It is an example of oncolytic virotherapy , therapy that uses a virus to infect and kill cancer cells while sparing normal tissue. (
  • We were surprised by these findings, because we expected to see HIV replication increase, not decrease with measles," Dr. William Moss, who led the study, said. (
  • Virus entry into cells is, of course, not the entire replication cycle. (
  • Chinese herbal medicines are believed to be effective in alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of measles, and are widely used as the main or adjunctive therapy to treat measles in China and other countries. (
  • Despite different symptoms all of the diseases are caused by the same class of viruses that unlike most other living beings carry their genetic information on a single RNA molecule instead of a double strand of DNA. (
  • Measles also often causes a person to have cold-like symptoms. (
  • Anyone who develops symptoms of measles should phone their GP to ensure they don't wait alongside other patients before seeing their doctor. (
  • Symptoms or not, Sammons argues, we should all be concerned about measles. (
  • Please contact Dr. Paul Rota , Dr. Bettina Bankamp , or Dr. Carole Hickman for any questions related to specimens for virus isolation or genetic analysis, serology testing, or technical questions related to laboratory testing in general. (
  • Consult the Manual for the Laboratory Manual for the Laboratory-based Surveillance of Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome external icon . (
  • Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network support for elimination goals, 2010-2015. (
  • Real-time RT-PCR to detect measles RNA and endpoint RT-PCR to determine the genotype are performed at CDC and the four Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPD) Reference Centers (CA, MN, NY, and WI) of the American Public Health Laboratory Associations. (
  • Laboratorians are requested to consult with the CDC Measles Laboratory before reporting a new measles genotype. (
  • Morbilliviruses are responsible for measles in humans, rinderpest in cattle, and canine distemper in dogs, coyotes, wolves and seals. (