The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.


aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa?  (+info)

Seroepidemiological evaluation of 1989-91 mass vaccination campaigns against measles, in Italy. (2/1483)

In 1989-91 anti-measles vaccination campaigns were conducted in several Italian regions to vaccinate all children aged between 13 months and 10-12 years without a history of measles or measles vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate serological status after the mass vaccination campaigns. In 1994, capillary blood samples were collected from randomly selected children, aged 2-14 years, living in 13 local health units. Antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Blood spot samples were analysed for 4114 (75.6%) of 5440 selected children. Among the 835 that reported measles before 1990, 806 (96.5%) were immune and of the 2798 vaccinated, 2665 (95.2%) were immune. The Edmoston-Zagreb (E-Z) strain vaccine was associated with a lower level of immunity than the Schwarz (SW) strain. A history of measles identified almost all immune children. Vaccination with the SW strain conferred persistent immunity (at least 5 years) in 98% of vaccinees. The strategy was able to unite natural and induced immunity.  (+info)

Characterization of a new genotype of measles virus detected in China and England. (3/1483)

We report the co-circulation of a new lineage of measles virus (MV) and an Edmonston-like (Ed-like) genotype of MV in China during 1995-7. Sequence analysis of 25 strains was performed on a 282 nucleotides (nt) region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, a 450-nt region of the haemagglutinin (H) gene and a 152-nt region of the matrix (M) gene by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons obtained from clinical specimens. The entire H gene was sequenced from two strains. The results showed that 24/25 Chinese strains belonged to a new genogroup and were distinct from the vaccine strains used in China and the UK, and also from MV strains previously described in Europe, Africa and the USA. The remaining strain was Ed-like. Two strains of the new genotype (IV) and one of the Ed-like genotype were also detected in the UK in 1996.  (+info)

Requirements for measles virus induction of RANTES chemokine in human astrocytoma-derived U373 cells. (4/1483)

Interferons and chemokines play a critical role in regulating the host response to viral infection. Measles virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, induces RANTES expression by astrocytes. We have examined the mechanism of this induction in U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma. RANTES was induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner by measles virus infection. Inhibition of receptor binding by the anti-CD46 antibody TRA-2.10 and of virus-membrane fusion by the tripeptide X-Phe-Phe-Gly reduced RANTES expression. Formalin-inactivated virus, which can bind but not fuse, and extensively UV-irradiated virus, which can bind and fuse, were both ineffective. Therefore, virus binding to the cellular receptor CD46 and subsequent membrane fusion were necessary, but not sufficient, to induce RANTES. UV irradiation of virus for less than 10 min proportionally inhibited viral transcription and RANTES expression. RANTES induction was decreased in infected cells treated with ribavirin, which inhibits measles virus transcription. However, RANTES mRNA was superinduced by measles virus in the presence of cycloheximide. These data suggest that partial transcription of the viral genome is sufficient and necessary for RANTES induction, whereas viral protein synthesis and replication are not required. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that RANTES was induced through transient expression of the measles virus nucleocapsid gene but not by measles genes encoding P or L proteins or by leader RNA in A549 cells. Thus, transcription of specific portions of measles virus RNA, such as the nucleocapsid gene, appears able to generate the specific signaling required to induce RANTES gene expression.  (+info)

Structural and functional studies of the measles virus hemagglutinin: identification of a novel site required for CD46 interaction. (5/1483)

The entry of measles virus (MV) into human cells is mediated by the initial attachment of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) to the complement regulatory protein CD46. Two subdomains, one each within CD46 short consensus repeats (SCRs) 1 and 2, are responsible for this interaction. However, little is known about the regions within MV HA needed for a high-affinity CD46 interaction. To better define the HA-CD46 interaction, we took three approaches: chimeric domain swapping, peptide scanning, and alanine scanning mutagenesis. Chimeras of MV HA and the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) HA were generated and tested for cell surface expression and the ability to hemadsorb CD46+ red blood cells (RBC). Exchanges with the N terminus of RPV were tolerated as MV HA could be replaced with RPV HA up to amino-acid position 154. However, both larger swaps with RPV and a small RPV HA replacement at the C terminus aborted cell-surface expression. Peptide scanning with 51 overlapping peptides derived from three MV HA regions showed one peptide, corresponding to MV HA amino acids 468-487, blocked hemagglutination of African green monkey (AGM) RBCs and inhibited MV infection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) expressing human CD46. Alanine scanning mutants mapped sites on the MV HA that were not required for trafficking to the cell surface or function in hemagglutination as well as a novel site required for CD46 interaction, amino acids 473-477.  (+info)

Events following the infections of enucleate cells with measles virus. (6/1483)

The development of measles virus (Edmonston) and SSPE measles virus (Horta-Barbosa) has been examined in enucleate BSC 1 cells. New antigen synthesis in measles virus infected enucleate cells has been demonstrated by fluorescent antibody, by the formation of extensive syncytia from enucleate cells alone and by analysis of polypeptide formation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All polypeptides formed in nucleate cells were also present in enucleate cells but the amount synthesized was reduced to around 20% of that in nucleate cells. There was also a significant reduction in the amount of antigen detected by fluorescent antibody in enucleate as compared to nucleate preparations. Examination of RNA synthesis in infected enucleate cells revealed only a marginal increase in acid-insoluble material. Titration of the output of infectious virus from enucleate cells infected at both 37 and 31 degrees C indicated a consistent reduction of almost two log units compared to nucleate cells. That the enucleate cells were capable of replicating input genome at these times was demonstrated by the successful growth of respiratory syncytial virus, both at 37 and 31 degrees C. SSPE measles virus grew to higher yield in nucleate BSC 1 than measles virus but there was again a reduction of more than two log units in enucleate cells. All polypeptides synthesized in SSPE infected nucleate cells were apparent in enucleate cells.  (+info)

The genome nucleotide sequence of a contemporary wild strain of measles virus and its comparison with the classical Edmonston strain genome. (7/1483)

The only complete genome nucleotide sequences of measles virus (MeV) reported to date have been for the Edmonston (Ed) strain and derivatives, which were isolated decades ago, passaged extensively under laboratory conditions, and appeared to be nonpathogenic. Partial sequencing of many other strains has identified >/=15 genotypes. Most recent isolates, including those typically pathogenic, belong to genotypes distinct from the Edmonston type. Therefore, the sequence of Ed and related strains may not be representative of those of pathological measles circulating at that or any time in human populations. Taking into account these issues as well as the fact that so many studies have been based upon Ed-related strains, we have sequenced the entire genome of a recently isolated pathogenic strain, 9301B. Between this recent isolate and the classical Ed strain, there were 465 nucleotide differences (2.93%) and 114 amino acid differences (2.19%). Computation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions in open reading frames as well as direct comparisons of noncoding regions of each gene and extracistronic regulatory regions clearly revealed the regions where changes have been permissible and nonpermissible. Notably, considerable nonsynonymous substitutions appeared to be permissible for the P frame to maintain a high degree of sequence conservation for the overlapping C frame. However, the cause and the effect were largely unclear for any substitution, indicating that there is a considerable gap between the two strains that cannot be filled. The sequence reported here would be useful as a reference of contemporary wild-type MeV.  (+info)

Enhanced measles virus cDNA rescue and gene expression after heat shock. (8/1483)

Rescue of negative-stranded RNA viruses from full-length genomic cDNA clones is an essential technology for genetic analysis of this class of viruses. Using this technology in our studies of measles virus (MV), we found that the efficiency of the measles virus rescue procedure (F. Radecke et al., EMBO J. 14:5773-5784, 1995) could be improved by modifying the procedure in two ways. First, we found that coculture of transfected 293-3-46 cells with a monolayer of Vero cells increased the number of virus-producing cultures about 20-fold. Second, we determined that heat shock treatment increased the average number of transfected cultures that produced virus another two- to threefold. In addition, heat shock increased the number of plaques produced by positive cultures. The effect of heat shock on rescue led us to test the effect on transient expression from an MV minireplicon. Heat shock increased the level of reporter gene expression when either minireplicon DNA or RNA was used regardless of whether complementation was provided by cotransfection with expression plasmids or infection with MV helper virus. In addition, we found that MV minireplicon gene expression could be stimulated by cotransfection with an Hsp72 expression plasmid, indicating that hsp72 likely plays a role in the effect of heat shock.  (+info)

Measles is caused by a virus that is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva or mucus.

The symptoms of measles usually appear about 10-14 days after exposure to the virus, and may include:

* Fever
* Cough
* Runny nose
* Red, watery eyes
* Small white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)
* A rash that starts on the head and spreads to the rest of the body

Measles can be diagnosed through a physical examination, laboratory tests, or by observing the characteristic rash. There is no specific treatment for measles, but it can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and pain.

Complications of measles can include:

* Ear infections
* Pneumonia
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Seizures
* Death (rare)

Measles is highly contagious and can spread easily through schools, workplaces, and other communities. Vaccination is the best way to prevent measles, and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended for all children and adults who have not been previously infected with the virus or vaccinated.

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The word "SSPE" is an acronym for the disease name. It stands for "Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis."

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Mumps is typically diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and physical examination findings. Laboratory tests such as PCR or IgG antibody testing may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific treatment for mumps, but supportive care such as pain management and hydration may be provided to alleviate symptoms. Vaccines are available to prevent mumps, and they are most effective when given before exposure to the virus.

The medical field has a clear definition of mumps, which is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mumps as "a contagious viral infection that affects the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also provides guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mumps.

In conclusion, mumps is a viral infection that affects the salivary glands and can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious complications. The medical field has a clear definition of mumps, which is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Vaccines are available to prevent mumps, and they are most effective when given before exposure to the virus.

Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from

Encephalitis can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, encephalitis can lead to brain damage, coma, and even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens specific to the causative agent, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to look for inflammatory markers and/or bacteria or viruses in the CSF. Imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to visualize the brain and identify any areas of damage or inflammation.

Treatment of encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. Antiviral or antibacterial drugs may be used to target the specific causative agent, if identified. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) may be necessary to monitor and manage the patient's condition.

Prevention of encephalitis includes vaccination against certain viruses that can cause the condition, such as herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Additionally, avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other insects that can transmit viruses or bacteria that cause encephalitis, as well as practicing good hygiene and sanitation, can help reduce the risk of infection.

Overall, encephalitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate care, many patients with encephalitis can recover fully or partially, but some may experience long-term neurological complications or disability.

A type of encephalitis caused by a virus that inflames the brain and spinal cord, leading to fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death. Viral encephalitis is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito or tick, but can also be spread through contact with infected blood or organs. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and seizures, as well as antiviral medications in severe cases.

Synonyms: viral encephalitis

Antonyms: bacterial encephalitis

Similar term: meningitis

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

Distemper is a serious and highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, particularly puppies. It is caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV) and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and seizures.

The disease attacks the nervous system and can lead to permanent brain damage, paralysis, and even death. There is no cure for distemper, but supportive care such as intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and anti-seizure medications can help manage symptoms and improve the chances of survival.

Prevention is key, and vaccination against CDV is essential for all dogs, especially puppies. Good hygiene practices, such as avoiding contact with infected dogs and their secretions, can also help prevent the spread of the disease. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to increase the chances of survival for affected dogs.

In summary, distemper is a severe and potentially life-threatening viral disease that affects dogs, and prevention through vaccination and good hygiene practices is essential to protect against this disease.

Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:

1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.

Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.

Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.

Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.

... an Oncolytic Measles Virus Administered With or Without Cyclophosphamide Oncolytic measles virus encoding thyroidal sodium ... Measles virus encoding the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter or MV-NIS is an attenuated oncolytic Edmonston (Ed) strain ... "Update on the measles virus, a novel therapy for glioblastoma". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 22 August 2014. Remission of ... Dörig, R. E.; A. Marcil; A. Chopra; C. D. Richardson (1993-10-22). "The human CD46 molecule is a receptor for measles virus ( ...
Once the measles virus gets onto the mucosa, it infects the epithelial cells in the trachea or bronchi. Measles virus uses a ... Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus ... Laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or detection of measles virus ... Testing for the measles virus in suspected cases is important for public health efforts. Measles is not known to occur in other ...
Thomas C. Peebles Dies at 89; Identified Measles Virus". The New York Times. "Willi Railo er død" (in Norwegian). Archived from ... Thomas C. Peebles, 89, American physician, isolated the measles virus. Willi Railo, 69, Norwegian sports psychologist. Patrick ... Ligon, B. (January 1, 1998). "Robert M. Chanock, MD: A living legend in the war against viruses". Seminars in Pediatric ...
Gershone, Anne (2011). "Measles Virus (Rubeola)". Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases ... Measles was also a difficulty, as it is highly contagious and can have an incubation period of ten days or longer. Diseases ...
Common infections that spread by airborne transmission include SARS-CoV-2; measles morbillivirus, chickenpox virus; ... The influenza virus spreads easily in the Northern Hemisphere winter due to climate conditions that favour the infectiousness ... If the relative humidity goes below 35% RH, infectious virus stays longer in the air. The number of rainy days (more important ... The CDC recommends a minimum of 40% RH indoors to significantly reduce the infectivity of aerosolized virus. An ideal humidity ...
... is a hemagglutinin produced by measles virus. It attaches to CD46 using a dead neuraminidase domain. Pan ... encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins protects juvenile and infant rhesus macaques against measles virus ... Tahara M, Takeda M, Shirogane Y, Hashiguchi T, Ohno S, Yanagi Y (May 2008). "Measles virus infects both polarized epithelial ... v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Measles, Viral structural proteins, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
Measles] virus habitat is humans. "habitat". Unabridged (Online). n.d. "Habitat". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. ...
Colf, LA; Juo, ZS; Garcia, KC (December 2007). "Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin". Nature Structural & Molecular ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase can be found in a variety of paramyxoviruses including mumps virus, human parainfluenza virus 3, ... Yuan P, Thompson TB, Wurzburg BA, Paterson RG, Lamb RA, Jardetzky TS (2005). "Structural studies of the parainfluenza virus 5 ... This Pfam entry also matches measles hemagglutinin (cd15467), which has a "dead" neuraminidase part repurposed as a receptor ...
The measles vaccine was first introduced in 1963. In that year, the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus was turned into a ... Below is the list of measles-containing vaccines: Measles vaccine (standalone vaccine) Measles and rubella combined vaccine (MR ... A strain of measles virus isolated in 1954 by Dr. Thomas C. Peebles, instructor in pediatrics at Harvard, and Enders, formed ... Measles vaccine is based on a live but weakened strain of measles. It comes as a dried powder which is mixed with a specific ...
Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 19, 3576-3585 ... Basis for selective incorporation of glycoproteins into influenza virus envelope. J. Virol. 67, 4831-4841 Measles Viruses with ... 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion. J. Virol. 76, ... Oncolytic measles virus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas mount anti-tumor immune responses in vivo and target interferon resistant ...
... like measles). Ribonucleic acid of the measles virus has been found in stapes footplate in most patients with otosclerosis. ... Also there is mounting evidence that measles virus is present within the otosclerotic foci, implicating an infectious etiology ... Niedermeyer HP, Arnold W (2008). "Otosclerosis and measles virus - association or causation?". ORL; Journal for Oto-Rhino- ... Populations that have been vaccinated against measles had a significant reduction in otosclerosis. While the disease is ...
... which is taken to include live attenuated measles vaccine virus, measles virus, mumps vaccine virus and rubella vaccine virus, ... They reported finding 99% of the samples contained no trace of the measles virus, and the samples that did contain the virus ... In 1993, Wakefield attracted professional attention when he published reports in which he concluded that measles virus might ... April 1993). "Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease". J. Med. Virol. 39 (4): 345-53. doi:10.1002/ ...
Anlar, B; Ayhan, A; Hotta, H; Itoh, M; Engin, D; Barun, S; Koseoglu, O (August 2002). "Measles Virus RNA in Tonsils of ... measles viruses Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) ... Pegtel DM, Middeldorp J, Thorley-Lawson DA (November 2004). "Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Ex Vivo Tonsil Epithelial Cell ... cayetanensis Dengue virus Dientamoeba fragilis Entamoeba histolytica enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Epstein-Barr virus Group ...
The encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), group B ... Therefore, a vaccine made of the Edmonston strain of measles virus could treat the medulloblastoma. Such a vaccine has already ... Dörig RE, Marcil A, Richardson CD (September 1994). "CD46, a primate-specific receptor for measles virus". Trends Microbiol. 2 ... "Treatment of medulloblastoma with a modified measles virus". Neuro Oncol. 12 (10): 1034-1042. doi:10.1093/neuonc/noq057. PMC ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Measles virus. Wikispecies has information related to Measles morbillivirus. "Measles ... It is the cause of measles. Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. The virus ... Measles morbillivirus (MeV), also called measles virus (MV), is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped, non-segmented RNA ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6060-7. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Oshitani H (2010). "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus ...
Viruses utilizing this scheme included HIV, measles and herpes. Acidic fusion proteins such as those found on influenza are ... The first of these proteins to be studied were the viral fusion proteins, which allow an enveloped virus to insert its genetic ... Even the entry of pathogens can be governed by fusion, as many bilayer-coated viruses have dedicated fusion proteins to gain ... Rubin, R.J.; Chen, Y.D. (1990). "Diffusion and redistribution of lipid-like molecules between membranes in virus-cell and cell- ...
Katz, S. L. (2009). "John F. Enders and measles virus vaccine--a reminiscence". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine Measles vaccine Mumps vaccine Measles and rubella (MR) vaccine Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) ... Common examples of live attenuated vaccines are measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, and some influenza vaccines. Viruses may ... "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Quest for Better Vaccines against a Virus on the Rise". Vaccines. 8 (3): 451. doi:10.3390/ ...
Noticing two publications from Andrew Wakefield that explored the role of measles virus in Crohn's disease and inflammatory ... 1993). "Evidence of Persistent Measles Virus in Crohn's Disease". Journal of Medical Virology. 39 (4): 345-53. doi:10.1002/jmv. ... In May 2008, a British 17-year-old with an underlying immunodeficiency died of measles. In 2008 Europe also faced a measles ... "ADEM can be caused by natural measles, mumps, and rubella infections, as well as by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines." In ...
Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y (2000). "SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus". Nature. 406 (6798): 893-7 ... Hahm B, Arbour N, Naniche D, Homann D, Manchester M, Oldstone MB (2003). "Measles virus infects and suppresses proliferation of ... to measles virus (MV) depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150: role of Toll stimulators in ...
... 1's A to I editing has been found in many viruses including measles virus, influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... Although ADAR1 has been seen in other viruses, it has only been studied extensively in a few. Research on measles virus shows ... Toth AM, Li Z, Cattaneo R, Samuel CE (October 2009). "RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced ... November 1993). "Clonal expansion of hypermutated measles virus in a SSPE brain". Virology. 197 (1): 188-195. doi:10.1006/viro. ...
Thomas C. Peebles (b. 1921), physician, isolated the measles virus. 19 July Gerson Goldhaber (b. 1924), particle physicist. ...
Six publications were submitted that collectively demonstrated the existence of measles virus and its diameter; however they ... Spiegel Online, 12 March 2015 Germany court orders measles sceptic to pay 100,000 euros. BBC, 12 March 2015 Measles sceptic ... 100,000 for proof of the existence of the measles virus, specifically the determination of its diameter. Lanka claims the ... Lanka: measles proven to exist, but anti-vaxxer Lanka keeps his money". 23 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July ...
Acute measles encephalitis is another serious risk of measles virus infection. It typically occurs two days to one week after ... A person with measles encephalitis may become comatose, and death or brain injury may occur. The measles virus can deplete ... Analysis by the CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that ... of measles-related deaths. Possible consequences of measles virus infection include laryngotracheobronchitis, sensorineural ...
Enders and his team went on to culture the measles virus. Dr. Judah Folkman published "Tumor angiogenesis: Therapeutic ... "achievement in the cultivation of the viruses poliomyelitis, mumps, and measles". Dr. Sidney Farber received the Lasker in 1966 ... the Boston Children's Hospital researcher and Nobel laureate who cultured poliovirus and the measles virus. Karp Family ... John Enders and his team were first to successfully culture the polio virus and were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ...
"Cell fusion induced by ERVWE1 or measles virus causes cellular senescence". Genes & Development. 27 (21): 2356-66. doi:10.1101/ ... Lay summary in: Fox D (November 8, 2010). "The Insanity Virus". Discover. ERVW-1 on the Atlas of Genetics and Oncology (Genes ... Syncytin-1 has been shown to interfere with viral infection in-vitro by RDR interference group member spleen necrosis virus. ... Syncytin-1 shares many structural elements with class I retroviral glycoproteins (such as, Murine Leukemia Virus gp, and HIV ...
... influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), adenovirus and measles virus. The other ... Hu L, Wang Z, Hu C, Liu X, Yao L, Li W, Qi Y (2005). "Inhibition of Measles virus multiplication in cell culture by RNA ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (June 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262 ...
The measles virus appears to have fully diverged from the then-widespread rinderpest virus by the 12th century. A measles ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... The close similarities between measles virus, canine distemper virus and rinderpest virus have given rise to speculation that ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ...
Measles hemagglutinin: a hemagglutinin produced by the measles virus which encodes six structural proteins, of which, ... Encoding the Measles Virus Hemagglutinin and Fusion Proteins Protects Juvenile and Infant Rhesus Macaques against Measles Virus ... "Measles Virus Hemagglutinin: Structural Insights into Cell Entry and Measles Vaccine". Frontiers in Microbiology. 2: 247. doi: ... Mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase: a kind of hemagglutinin that the mumps virus (MuV) produces, which is the virus that causes ...
Measles Virus and Its Biology (1978) Don't Believe A Word Of It (a memoir of his days in the Chin Hills) In 1948 he married Dr ... He discovered a link between the measles virus and multiple sclerosis. He was born on 10 March 1917 the son of Kenneth Fraser. ... Here he did a series of critical experiments on the influenza virus genome. In 1959 he moved from Aberdeen to Glasgow ...
Gibbons, Ann (7 October 2020). "Newly discovered viruses suggest 'German measles' jumped from animals to humans". Science. doi: ... Ruhugu virus, scientific name Rubivirus ruteetense, is a species of virus in the genus Rubivirus. It was discovered in 2019 in ... In the fusion protein of the virus and two putative T cell epitopes in the capsid protein of the ruhugu virus the amino acid ... Ruhugu virus is closely related to Rubella virus and differs in only one amino acid in the protein it uses to get into host ...
Cook, Nigel (2013). "10.1 Introduction; the role of fomites in the virus transmission". Viruses in Food and Water: Risks, ... measles: vaccine available mumps: vaccine available chicken pox: vaccine available small pox bubonic plague: slim non-nil risk ... In these cases, the basic reproduction number of the virus, which is the average number of additional people that a single case ... A 2007 study showed that influenza virus was still active on stainless steel 24 hours after contamination. Though on hands it ...
Measles virus Mink enteritis virus, a species of parvovirus that infects mink and causes enteritis M1133 Medical Evacuation ...
A. F. Longeway was appointed to solve "the black measles problem" in Montana. He in turn enlisted his friend, Dr. Earl Strain ... the organism smaller than a bacterium and larger than a virus) that causes this disease. He and others characterized the basic ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever (or "black measles" because of its characteristic rash) was recognized in the early 1800s, and in ...
Three other diseases, measles, pneumonia, and diarrheal diseases, are also closely associated with poverty, and are often ... AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary modes of HIV ... These include measles, pertussis and polio. The largest three poverty-related diseases (PRDs) - AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis ... Borkow G, Bentwich Z (May 2002). "Host background immunity and human immunodeficiency virus protective vaccines, a major ...
... waning measles immunity in infants, and mumps activity in Ontario. She has served on several international committees related ... has also worked with researchers at SickKids to study the development of asthma following severe respiratory syncytial virus ... "Is Ontario prepared for the return of measles?". Funding Decisions Database. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. ... grant-funded study investigating Ontario's preparedness for the return of measles. She ...
... responsible for first isolating the measles virus, setting the stage for the development of a vaccine Judy Smith, nurse who ...
A Warthin-Finkeldey cell is a type of giant multinucleate cell found in hyperplastic lymph nodes early in the course of measles ... "Systemic lymphadenopathic histology in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive drug addicts without apparent acquired ...
Emerging Viruses. New York: Oxford University Press: 283-289. Henderson DA, Borio LL (2005) Bioterrorism: an overview. In ... 1967) Smallpox eradication and measles-control programs in West and Central Africa: Theoretical and practical approaches and ... measles, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough. Now targeted for eradication are poliomyelitis and Guinea Worm disease; after ... program to eliminate smallpox and control measles during a 5-year period in 18 contiguous countries in western and central ...
Engagements and topics undertaken by the GACVS have included the safety of vaccines for measles, influenza, human papilloma ... human papilloma virus, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and hepatitis B. In May 2020, during the global emergency of COVID-19 ... The GACVS has been involved in issues relating to vaccine hesitancy regarding several vaccines including vaccines for measles, ... virus, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and hepatitis B. In May 2020, as part the WHO's aim to coordinate global research on ...
See Furuse, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Oshitani, H. (2010). "Origin of the Measles Virus: Divergence from Rinderpest Virus Between the ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52): 52, doi: ... "Measles virus and rinderpest virus divergence dated to the sixth century BCE". Science. 368 (6497): 1367-1370. doi:10.1126/ ... Scholars generally believe the plague was smallpox, although measles has also been suggested. The plague may have claimed the ...
... influenza virus) that could cause a pandemic Several vaccine-controllable diseases are not on the list, including measles, ...
Diseases such as measles, whose causative viruses remain highly infectious in droplet nuclei, can be spread without personal ... "Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans". Current Opinion in Virology. Emerging viruses: intraspecies ... Virus entry/Environmental virology. 2 (1): 90-95. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2011.12.003. ISSN 1879-6257. PMC 3311988. PMID 22440971 ... The efficiency of transmission of specific viruses and bacteria depends both on the types of droplets and droplet nuclei they ...
Rinderpest is a virus of the Morbillivirus subgroup of the Paramyxovirus group, which also contains measles, influenza and ... Bliss provided general care and also performed research on the rinderpest virus. He remained in China throughout many ...
the Adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) Maguire, Albert M.; High, Katherine A.; Mingozzi, ... such as Ophtalmia neonatorum that happen during time of conception or intrauterine period Vitamin A deficiency Measles ... The delivery vector uses a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2). The procedure is a ...
Of the panel of human viruses studied, measles, influenza A, and parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3 were found in some of the studied ... In 2006, scientists noticed HPT of measles, rubella, and parainfluenza in the case of performing monkeys, who are "a common ... Schillaci, M. A.; Jones-Engel, L.; Engel, G. A.; Kyes, R. C. (2006). "Exposure to human respiratory viruses among urban ...
The virus reached Turkey in May 2009. A U.S. citizen, flying from the United States via Amsterdam was found to be suffering ... According to the recent 'WHO vaccine-preventable diseases: monitoring system' reported cases for Diphtheria were 0, Measles ... On 14 April 2020, the head of the Turkish Ministry of Health Fahrettin Koca announced that the spread of the virus in Turkey ... After a slow start, the virus spread rapidly in Turkey and the number of cases reached 12,316. First death confirmed on 24 ...
Rubella is also known as German Measles or three day measles, it is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Rubella is spread ... "About Measles". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 1 November 2020. "Transmission of Measles". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 1 November 2020. "Measles ( ... Measles is a respiratory disease caused by the virus of the same name, it normally grows in the cells that line the back of the ... The virus can live on surfaces for up to 2 hours after contaminated. There are several symptoms of measles, they can be blotchy ...
The T12 virus itself has not been placed into a taxon by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. It has a double- ... He also made a point to distinguish that this presentation had different characteristics from measles. It was redescribed by ... Research published in October 2020 has shown that infection of the bacterium by three viruses has led to stronger strains of ... Richardson, Holly (7 October 2020). "Scarlet fever is making a comeback after being infected with a toxic virus, researchers ...
"Prevention of Measles, Rubella, Congenital Rubella Syndrome, and Mumps, 2013". Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. ... In 1960 Maurice Hilleman of Merck Sharp & Dohme identified the SV40 virus, which was later shown to cause tumors in many ... Hilleman would later move to Merck where he would play a key role in the development of vaccines against measles, mumps, ... The first 20 years of licensed measles vaccination in the U.S. prevented an estimated 52 million cases of the disease, 17,400 ...
September 2005). "Rab9 GTPase is required for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, filoviruses, and measles ... virus". Journal of Virology. 79 (18): 11742-51. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.18.11742-11751.2005. PMC 1212642. PMID 16140752. Kerr MC, ...
"Difference in production of infectious wild-type measles and vaccine viruses in monocyte-derived dendritic cells". Virus Res. ... Many other viruses, such as the SARS virus, seem to use DC-SIGN to 'hitchhike' to its target cells. However, most work with ... This infection of dendritic cells by HIV explains one mechanism by which the virus could persist after prolonged HAART.[ ... Immature dendritic cells constantly sample the surrounding environment for pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. This is done ...
... spermatozoa Viruses - influenza, measles, varicella Organisms - parasites, microbes, zebrafish Liposomes - also micelles, lipid ... Kodevirions are FSL modified viruses. Several FSL Kode constructs have been used to label viruses to assist in their flow- ... They have also been used to modify the surface of viruses with the intention of targeting them to be used to attach tumors ( ... The process of modifying surfaces with FSL Kode constructs is known as "koding" and the resultant "koded" cells, viruses and ...
Known viral causes of atypical pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza, ... adenovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 and measles. Chest ... viruses, fungi, and protozoa. In addition, this form of pneumonia is atypical in presentation with only moderate amounts of ... and Legionella were not yet recognized as bacteria and instead considered viruses. Hence "atypical pneumonia" was also called " ...
Polio, measles, varicella-zoster, rubella, herpes simplex, maternal genital infections, Borna disease virus, and Toxoplasma ... including no evidence of herpes virus or T. gondii involvement in schizophrenia. There is some evidence for the role of ... a proximal cause of certain cases of schizophrenia is the interaction of the developing fetus with pathogens such as viruses, ...
"New York measles emergency declared in Brooklyn". BBC News. 2019-04-09. Retrieved 2021-05-12. "Mayor de Blasio, Health ... Goodman, J. David (August 4, 2020). "N.Y.C. Health Commissioner Resigns After Clashes With Mayor Over Virus". The New York ... "Amid measles outbreak, NYC health officials strive to promote vaccination, dispel myths". PBS NewsHour. 2019-04-10. Retrieved ... Barbot and de Blasio announced the end to the measles public health emergency on September 3, 2019. Barbot led New York City ...
As a result, indications of the diseases such as measles, mumps and parotid decreased in the country. Since 2006 Ministry of ... Parties signed an agreement on "Diagnosis of pregnant women against HepB and HIV viruses and prevention of newborn against HepB ...
The measles virus laboratory at CDC was formed in June 1989 in response to a resurgence of measles in the United States. ... The Measles Virus Laboratory provides serologic testing for measles as a national reference laboratory and provides technical ... The Measles Virus Laboratory acts both as a Regional Reference Laboratory within the laboratory network in the Region of the ... The Measles Virus Laboratory Team works closely with the Epidemiology Team to coordinate laboratory support for local and state ...
The role of extended and whole genome sequencing for tracking transmission of measles and rubella viruses: report from the ... Progress towards measles elimination in Nepal, 2007- 2014 = Progrès réalisés en vue déliminer la rougeole au Népal, 2007-2014 ... Browsing Journal Articles by Subject "Measles virus". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... étendu et complet pour suivre la transmission des virus rougeoleux et rubéoleux: rapport de la réunion du Réseau mondial de ...
This report underscores the need for systematic nationwide measles virus surveillance in India to identify all endemic virus ... Duraisamy R, Rota PA, Palani G, Elango V, Sambasivam M, Lowe L, Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in ... Virus genotyping was based on the 450-nt coding sequence for the carboxyl terminus of nucleoprotein (N) of measles virus, as ... Rota PA, Brown K, Mankertz A, Santibanez S, Shulga S, Muller CP, Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular ...
Viruses On The Move: Measles, Dengue, Chikungunya , Iris Ahronowitz, MD (53:43) ...
Characteristics of the measles virus The measles virus is a negative polarity RNAvirus which has a linear genome of... ... The measles virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Morbilivirusgenus. ... Characteristics of the measles virus. The measles virus is a negative polarity RNAvirus which has a linear genome of ... Measles virus and measles. The virus is highly infectious and is transmitted via droplets suspended in air. The virus then ...
Measles, also known as rubeola, is one of the most contagious infectious diseases, with at least a 90% secondary infection rate ... Measles virus vaccine. In the United States, the measles virus vaccine is routinely administered along with the mumps and ... Prevention or modification of measles in exposed susceptible individuals involves the administration of measles virus vaccine ... Measles virus is susceptible to ribavirin in vitro. Although ribavirin (either IV or aerosolized) has been used to treat ...
WC 580 88VR Measles virus iscom : WC 580 92CO Control del sarampion en Chile : WC 580 93CL Measles : WC 580 93EN L Enfant, la ... TextPublication details: 1988. Description: 135 pSubject(s): Dissertations, Academic , Measles vaccine , Measles virus -- ... Measles virus iscom : a candidate for subunit disease / door Petra de Vries. By: Vries, Petra deMaterial type: ... WC 580 81EP An Epidemiological study of measles in Kuwait 1968-1979 : WC 580 86VA Vaccinating against brain syndromes : ...
... the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases are working to improve the immunity of vaccines including the measles ... Measles Measles: What you need to know. Measles is a highly contagious disease, meaning it spreads easily. The trademark ... The measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the most effective around. It is 97% effective against the viruses when two ... Griffin and her team want to understand how people whove had measles are protected from the virus for the rest of their lives. ...
MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE. Live measles virus vaccine* available in the United States is prepared in chick embryo cell culture. The ... Measles vaccine is available in monovalent (measles only) form and in combinations: measles-rubella (MR) and measles-mumps- ... MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE. VACCINE USAGE. SIDE EFFECTS AND ADVERSE REACTIONS. PRECAUTIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS. MEASLES ... Official name: Measles Virus Vaccine, Live, Attentuated. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY. Barkin RM. Measles mortality. Analysis of the ...
Measles (also called Rubeola-(from rubeolus, Latin for reddish) ) is usually a disease of… ... Measles is usually a disease of childhood (3-10 years). ... Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the ... The name measles is derived from the Latin, misellus, meaning miserable. ... Structure of Measles Virus. Structure of Measles Virus. *Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family ...
The measles virus grabbed media attention with one patients amazing outcome. Dr. Russell and Dr. van Rhee hope to expand those ... cyclophosphamide in conjunction with the measles virus to buy the immune system more time and allow the measles virus to attack ... The measles virus grabbed media attention with one patients amazing outcome. Dr. Russell and Dr. van Rhee hope to expand those ... They will also be using imaging as a key tool to show where the measles virus is going inside of the body and how effective the ...
Measles in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [‎1]‎. Measles virus [‎3]‎. ...
And you can see Brazil, yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is mentioned; measles in Europe; Zika virus; and even the increase in ... So just about everywhere else in the world there isnt the same level of vaccination for measles. And so we see measles ... We have a question, someone asking about measles. He says, "When you were describing about measles, it sounded like a six-month ... So the measles notices that we have posted right now are all level one - just want to raise awareness. And then level two is ...
Parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) are paramyxoviruses of the order Mononegavirales, the family Paramyxoviridae, and the subfamily ... Morbillivirus - Measles virus and distemper virus. * Megamyxovirus - Hendra virus and Nipah virus ... Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses * Sections Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other ... encoded search term (Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) and Other Parainfluenza Viruses) and Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV ...
Exposure to H1 genotype measles virus at an international airport in Japan on 31 July 2016 results in a measles outbreak ... Exposure to H1 genotype measles virus at an international airport in Japan on 31 July 2016 results in a measles outbreak. ... After measles elimination was achieved in Japan in 2015, a measles outbreak occurred in 2016. We report on a cluster of five ... A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international ...
We aimed to evaluate patterns of measles virus transmission during this outbreak and the impact of control measures. METHODS:. ... 20 (43%) patients with wild-type measles virus had rash onset after vaccination. No fatalities or community spread were ... Measles virus transmission patterns and public health responses during Operation Allies Welcome: a descriptive epidemiological ... Measles virus transmission patterns and public health responses during Operation Allies We ...
The CD46 transmembrane domain is required for efficient formation of measles-virus-mediated syncytium」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまって ... The CD46 transmembrane domain is required for efficient formation of measles-virus-mediated syncytium. In: Biochemical Journal ... The CD46 transmembrane domain is required for efficient formation of measles-virus-mediated syncytium. Biochemical Journal. ... The CD46 transmembrane domain is required for efficient formation of measles-virus-mediated syncytium. / Seya
Measles vaccine expressing the secreted form of West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein induces protective immunity in squirrel ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in North America and caused numerous cases of human ... We first established experimental WNV infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). A high titer of virus was detected in ... This study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of a recombinant live attenuated measles vector to protect nonhuman ...
Congenital rubella is a condition that occurs in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. ... Rubella virus (German measles). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and ... Congenital rubella is a condition that occurs in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. ... Rubella (German measles). In Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap ...
... pathogenic mechanisms of measles virus; morbilliviruses; respiratory syncytial virus; coronavirus; vaccine design; vaccination ... Many approaches have been taken to design virus vaccines against negative strand viruses (NSV) to try and achieve this aim with ... Interests: pathogenic mechanisms of RNA viruses (morbilliviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus); recombinant ... Special Issue "Strategic Approaches to Vaccine Design against Negative Strand Virus Diseases 2.0". *Print Special Issue Flyer ...
Measles virus. Kateryna Kon/Shutterstock July 13, 2017 Whats behind the sudden rise in measles deaths in Europe?. Anita ... Measles virus. Design_Cells/Shutterstock March 29, 2019 Measles: should vaccinations be compulsory?. Tom Solomon, University of ... Measles in Samoa: how a small island nation found itself in the grips of an outbreak disaster. Katherine Gibney, The Peter ... If my measles shot was years ago, am I still protected? 5 questions answered. Eyal Amiel, University of Vermont ...
With the aim of vaccinating 2.5 million children against measles, a nationwide vaccination campaign is kicked off today. The ... "The campaign will contribute to the reduction of illness and death due to measles. The measles virus is highly infectious. It ... South Sudan launches a nationwide campaign to protect 2.5 million children against measles 04 February 2020. ... Mohamed Ag Ayoya, the UNICEF Representative in South Sudan: "We know how important herd immunity is to fight measles and ...
Categories: Measles virus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 154 ...
Language used to describe measles in the press has altered significantly over the last sixty years, a shift that reflects ... and measles tenacity. The measles virus outwitted vaccines six to forty percent of the time, reporters noted (Gaw 1989; San ... "Measles Virus Vanishing in U.S., CDC Says." Los Angeles Times, September 3. ... Measles began this period seen as an act of nature. But human action in the form of vaccination began to reconfigure measles ...
Viruses are a type of germ. Theyre very tiny, and when they get inside your body, they can make you sick. ... Viruses (say: VY-ruh-sez) can get inside the body and make a person sick. Viruses cause colds, chickenpox, measles, the flu, ... Antibiotics only work on bacteria, not viruses. So wash your hands often to help prevent the spread of viruses, especially ... Virus. Say: VY-rus. A virus is a very tiny type of germ. ...
... you can still catch the virus by spending just a few minutes there. Measles is the most contagious of all the viruses. All ... And in the whole of North and South America there are less cases of measles than in Switzerland. As it is a purely human virus ... Why is it that Switzerland is one of the last bastions in Europe of the measles virus? C-A. S.: Switzerland has ... The World Health Organization (WHO) had aimed to eliminate measles from Europe by 2010. But the persistent virus has resisted. ...
... measles - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... Stopping Viruses that Dont Respect Borders. CDCs Global ... Yet despite a safe and effective vaccine against measles and rubella, these deadly viruses continue to steal the health and ... Categories Archive, child health, immunization, infectious disease, measles. Tags immunization, infectious disease, measles, ... Measles: A Forgotten, but Formidable Foe. Since its inception, the CDC has played a major role in advancing the health security ...
And you can see Brazil, yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is mentioned; measles in Europe; Zika virus; and even the increase in ... So just about everywhere else in the world there isnt the same level of vaccination for measles. And so we see measles ... We have a question, someone asking about measles. He says, "When you were describing about measles, it sounded like a six-month ... So the measles notices that we have posted right now are all level one - just want to raise awareness. And then level two is ...
It is also possible to isolate the measles virus, but this effort often fails. Therefore, failure to isolate the virus is not ... The diagnosis can be confirmed by a laboratory test that detects antibodies to the measles virus. ... A diagnosis of measles based solely on clinical appearance could be erroneous, because a number of other exanthematous diseases ... Conventionally, the diagnosis of measles is made clinically on the basis of its signs and symptoms, which include a ...
  • A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak pe- munity within the Ontario population critical. (
  • People have described cases of measles as early as the seventh century. (
  • Before routine vaccination, there were approximately 3-4 million cases of measles and 500 deaths due to measles each year in the United States. (
  • A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from four public health units in the province during a two month- long outbreak period. (
  • These days vaccination coverage is wider and we don't notice cases of measles as much. (
  • And in the whole of North and South America there are less cases of measles than in Switzerland. (
  • The growing number of cases of measles has many people asking: Am I safe? (
  • Cases of measles are on the rise as a cohort of unvaccinated children grows up. (
  • In the past year, 3,300 cases of measles were reported in Europe. (
  • Following the implementation of a two-dose routine vaccination program against measles, Canada reported its last endemic case of measles in 1997, and had eliminated it in 1998. (
  • In 2015, a case of measles in a Disneyland visitor sparked an outbreak of one hundred forty-five cases in seven states. (
  • But one patient in 15 will have a case of measles that requires hospitalisation, often because of respiratory complications. (
  • Columbia, SC (WLTX) The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) received a report of a confirmed case of measles in a resident who lives in Georgetown County on Friday, August 10, from a local healthcare provider. (
  • This is the second confirmed case of measles in South Carolina since 1990. (
  • In the United States, the measles virus vaccine is routinely administered along with the mumps and rubella vaccines as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. (
  • One of the main reasons behind Dr. Griffin's work to improve vaccines is to stop potential complications that come with diseases like measles. (
  • Measles vaccine is available in monovalent (measles only) form and in combinations: measles-rubella (MR) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines. (
  • All vaccines containing measles antigen are recommended for use at about 15 months of age under routine conditions. (
  • What is the history of measles and vaccines? (
  • There were initially two types of vaccines developed against measles. (
  • Thimerosol-containing vaccines are associated with autism prevalence and measles-containing vaccines are associated with serious neurological disorders. (
  • Before vaccines against measles became widely available, the disease was a significant cause of death and disability worldwide, leading to approximately two and a half million deaths every year. (
  • The measles vaccine is one of the safest and most effective vaccines. (
  • They developed the vaccines by inserting genes for different forms of the coronavirus spike protein into the measles vaccine genome. (
  • Several experimental measles-based vaccines against other viruses are now being tested in clinical trials. (
  • Many approaches have been taken to design virus vaccines against negative strand viruses (NSV) to try and achieve this aim with some more successful than others. (
  • An effective MMR vaccine for measles is usually given in combination with vaccines for mumps and the less severe German measles, or rubella. (
  • However, it was not until 1963 that researchers first developed a vaccine to prevent measles. (
  • For these reasons, efforts to prevent measles have been extraordinary. (
  • Chapman says prevention is the key: "The best way to prevent measles and its spread is to get vaccinated. (
  • The best way to prevent measles is by vaccination. (
  • The disease caused by the virus is highly contagious and can be spread through airborne droplets from the breath of an infected animal. (
  • Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. (
  • Measles is a highly contagious viral illness that spreads easily from person to person, especially in those without previous vaccination. (
  • Measles is a highly contagious and sometimes deadly disease that spreads through coughing and sneezing. (
  • Measles was a leading, highly contagious childhood disease that once killed millions each year, wrote Times reporter Karen Kaplan. (
  • Measles virus is highly contagious and spreads through the air through coughing and sneezing. (
  • Measles is an acute viral respiratory illness and is highly contagious," said Dr. Linda Bell, DHEC's state epidemiologist. (
  • Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by the measles virus. (
  • Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network support for elimination goals, 2010-2015. (
  • Targeting specific areas of the measles virus polymerase, a protein complex that copies the viral genome, can effectively fight the measles virus and be used as an approach to developing new antiviral drugs to treat the serious infectious disease, according to a study by the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University published in PLoS Pathogens . (
  • We analysed the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with measles and used epidemiological information and whole- genome sequencing to track transmission pathways. (
  • Measles virus is a typical paramyxovirus (spherical enveloped particles that contain a non-segmented negative-strand RNA genome with a linear arrangement of genes). (
  • Region of the Americas had eliminated endemic transmission of measles. (
  • Travelers to areas where measles is endemic can bring measles back to the U.S., resulting in limited domestic transmission of measles," read a statement from California Department of Public Health. (
  • Most people with measles are sick for about a week. (
  • 47 people with measles ( attack rate 0·65 per 1000 evacuees) were reported in six US locations housing evacuees in four states. (
  • Most people with measles recover without complications within a week. (
  • Is measles contagious? (
  • What is the contagious period for measles? (
  • Well measles is one of the most contagious infectious diseases known. (
  • Measles is an extremely contagious illness transmitted through respiratory droplets and aerosolized particles that can remain in the air for up to two hours. (
  • This is particularly confounding, they note, since measles is one of the most easily prevented contagious illnesses. (
  • A person with measles can be contagious from up to 4 days before and after the rash appears. (
  • Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. (
  • 20 (43%) patients with wild-type measles virus had rash onset after vaccination . (
  • Although this vaccine was in use for nearly 4 years (1963 to 1967), it was abandoned when analysis indicated that it provided only short-lived immunity and it was found that formerly vaccinated children developed severe reactions called ''atypical measles'' after their immunity waned and they became infected with the wild-type measles virus (Centers for Disease Control, 1967). (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory operates within the Viral Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (VVPDB), Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (
  • Methods and protocols for measles and rubella diagnosis and viral surveillance have been developed for the Laboratories in the WHO Global Laboratory Network. (
  • Noriyoshi Kurihara, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, and a team of investigators led by David Roodman, M.D., Ph.D., used genetic engineering techniques to create a strain of mice in which the measles viral protein is produced in osteoclasts. (
  • Rubella is the scientific name used of German measles, a different viral illness. (
  • Ongoing increase in measles cases following importations, Japan, March 2014: times of challenge and opportunity. (
  • Switzerland has reported an alarming increase in measles cases this year. (
  • Steve Sierzega receives a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at the Rockland County Health Department in Pomona, N.Y., Wednesday, March 27, 2019. (
  • What has changed, Rutkowski said, is that Camp IHC often participates in inter-camp sports activities with more than 30 other camps within Wayne County, Pennsylvania, and this year the Wayne County Camping Alliance has required all participants in inter-camp sports to disclose whether they received their measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. (
  • Measles (rubeola) is often a severe disease, frequently complicated by middle ear infection or bronchopneumonia. (
  • Rubeola is the scientific name used for measles. (
  • People often confuse rubeola with rubella (German measles). (
  • The pathogen responsible for measles is the rubeola virus. (
  • The measles virus (rubeola virus, a paramyxovirus, genus Morbillivirus ) causes measles. (
  • Measles (also called Rubeola-( from rubeolus, Latin for reddish ) ) is usually a disease of childhood (aged 3-10 years) and is followed by life-long immunity. (
  • The province of Ontario continues to experience measles circulating virus strains and help identify potential sources virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in of infection ( 3 ). (
  • Our analysis focuses measles elimination status. (
  • These revised ACIP Measles Prevention recommendations represent an update of the previous recommendations (MMWR 1978;27:427-30, 435-7) to include current information about vaccine effectiveness and measles elimination efforts. (
  • After measles elimination was achieved in Japan in 2015, a measles outbreak occurred in 2016. (
  • Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Japan verified as achieving measles elimination. (
  • Guidelines on Verification of Measles Elimination in the Western Pacific Region 2013. (
  • So the elimination of measles is defined as the absence of endemic measles transmission in a defined geographic area for 12 months or more, in the presence of a well-performing surveillance system. (
  • As long as importations into an area where measles is eliminated are contained and do not turn into endemic or ongoing transmission again, then that area retains its elimination status. (
  • Shelley Deeks] In the province of Ontario, we continue to experience measles virus transmissions, despite the elimination of measles in the country. (
  • How can the elimination of measles be encouraged? (
  • It was considered eradicated in the United States in 2000, though 2014 saw a record-breaking number of confirmed cases: 610 according to the Centers for Disease Control, "the highest number of cases since measles elimination was documented in the U.S. in 2000," the CDC says on its website . (
  • This study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of a recombinant live attenuated measles vector to protect nonhuman primates from a heterologous infectious challenge. (
  • Development of a live attenuated measles vaccine began a new era in the prevention of this disease. (
  • Measles complications include ear infections , pneumonia , and encephalitis . (
  • The complications of measles that result in most deaths include pneumonia and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (
  • However, the titration was not always perfect, and in some children the disease was inadvertently prevented, and therefore, they were soon susceptible again, whereas other children developed nearly full-blown measles, with all the risks of serious morbidity and complications. (
  • For the vast majority of people measles represents a tiring but benign illness without complications which lasts about tendays. (
  • Results of 1 retrospective study in an isolated population suggest that measles infection in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased rate of congenital malformation. (
  • Measles vaccine produces a mild or inapparent, non-communicable infection. (
  • Patients with measles were defined as individuals with an acute febrile rash illness between Aug 29, 2021, and Nov 26, 2021, and either laboratory confirmation of infection or epidemiological link to a patient with measles with laboratory confirmation. (
  • Measles infection of the brain ( encephalitis ) can cause convulsions, mental retardation, and even death. (
  • While German measles is rarely fatal, it is dangerous in that infection of pregnant women causes birth defects and can cause miscarriage and fetal death. (
  • Respiratory epithelium appears to be the major site of virus binding and subsequent infection. (
  • However, for infants, people with immune deficiencies, and other vulnerable populations, the consequences of a measles infection can be severe. (
  • A high titer of virus was detected in plasma on day 2 after infection, and viremia persisted for 5 days. (
  • C-A. S. : Measles is a respiratory infection. (
  • One person in ten will have a non-serious complication of measles, such as secondary infection, beginning of pneumonia or ear infection. (
  • The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigor- measles herd immunity ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • More antibody production against a virus like measles means better immunity or protection. (
  • While that helps give them strong immunity from getting the virus again, it can also be dangerous. (
  • The consequence of this was a milder case of clinical measles and a resulting lifelong immunity. (
  • Ideally sterilising immunity should be achieved to prevent virus transmission to other individuals. (
  • Conventionally, the diagnosis of measles is made clinically on the basis of its signs and symptoms, which include a characteristic rash. (
  • A diagnosis of measles based solely on clinical appearance could be erroneous, because a number of other exanthematous diseases can resemble measles. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory Team works closely with the Epidemiology Team to coordinate laboratory support for local and state public health laboratories during outbreaks and investigations of suspected spread cases following an importation of measles. (
  • Each person not immunized against measles is at risk for measles and puts others at risk. (
  • As such, countries within the Americas are still at risk for measles importations. (
  • Sarah Gregory] Tell us about the outbreak of measles that prompted your study. (
  • Today, however, the United States and many other countries that had also eliminated the disease are experiencing concerning outbreaks of measles because of declines in measles vaccine coverage. (
  • How do you interpret the renewed outbreaks of measles after a stable period between 2000 and 2006? (
  • A virus causes measles , a potentially serious disease that spreads easily. (
  • What causes measles? (
  • An illustration of the virus which causes measles. (
  • Further discussion is included of atypical measles syndrome and of revaccination of prior recipients of killed measles virus vaccine. (
  • Atypical measles develops in some people who were given killed vaccine and subsequently infected with the measles virus. (
  • Genetic analysis of measles viruses isolated in the united states between 1989 and 2001: absence of an endemic genotype since 1994. (
  • generally due to an imported travel case from a region of the world where measles is still endemic, or circulating. (
  • Disney and other theme parks in California are international attractions and visitors come from many parts of the world, including those where measles is endemic. (
  • Other infections like bacterial pneumonia are quite common after measles,' Dr. Griffin adds. (
  • HPIV-3 is second only to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children. (
  • The second stage of measles is marked by a high temperature-sometimes as high as 103° F to 105° F-and the characteristic red blotchy rash. (
  • The initial symptoms of measles include fever, cough, and runny nose. (
  • Measles cases in Split-Dalmatia County (a Croatian tourist region), in May-July 2019: outbreak report and lessons learnt. (
  • In 2000, measles was declared to be eliminated in the United States, when no sustained transmission of the virus was seen in this country for more than 12 months. (
  • Though measles was declared eliminated in the U.S. in 2000, it is still common in other parts of the world. (
  • Intriguingly, all cases that were laboratory confirmed had a unique genotype, or DNA fingerprints, of the virus, which strongly suggested that they were all linked. (
  • Infectious vaccine-derived rubella viruses emerge, persist, and evolve in cutaneous granulomas of children with primary immunodeficiencies. (
  • Scientists funded in part by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases have demonstrated that mouse cells genetically altered with the measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) bear similarities to those cells found in people with Paget's disease of bone, suggesting a possible connection with the disease's development. (
  • Stacy shares her story about receiving 10 million doses - a seemingly lethal amount - of the measles virus to treat her multiple myeloma . (
  • He talks about where future research might be headed, are there other diseases that could be cured by using viruses and where did all those doses of measles vaccine come from? (
  • Cetacean morbillivirus exists within a family of viruses that cause human measles, canine distemper and related diseases among cats and ruminants, such as goats, sheep and camels. (
  • She's doing that by studying the measles virus, with help from NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (
  • Sarah Gregory] Today, I'm talking with Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, about a unique measles virus in Canada. (
  • Without renewed focus on measles vaccination efforts, the disease may rebound in full force, according to a new commentary in the New England Journal of Medicine by infectious diseases experts at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. (
  • But modern Americans no longer feared it because they "have no first-hand experience with measles or other dangerous diseases that used to be common. (
  • By researching antibody production against the measles virus, Dr. Griffin and her team want to see if they can identify which genes help make the antibodies better. (
  • To date, the doctors found that patients with an absence of the measles antibody and a low tumor burden responded the best to the treatment. (
  • Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a verse and globally connected communities and the high unique strain of virus and no known association among pri- infectivity of the measles virus make maintenance of im- mary case-patients. (
  • The vaccine virus strain has been attenuated beyond the level of the original Edmonston B strain and is therefore known as a further attenuated strain. (
  • The vaccine uses a live but weakened strain of the measles virus. (
  • With things like swine flu and then now with the measles outbreak, it's stepped it up a notch and has caused camps to really look at their protocols and then maybe make some amendments -- like for example whether or not you're going to accept exemptions to immunization. (
  • Congenital rubella is a condition that occurs in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. (
  • Congenital rubella occurs when the rubella virus in the mother affects the developing baby in the first 3 months of pregnancy. (
  • Measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome in Japan, as of March 2016. (
  • Most people who die of measles die of related infections, usually a month or two after having measles. (
  • Chimpanzees, macaques, squirrels, owls, and rhesus monkeys have been asymptomatically infected with HPIV-3 or HPIV-4, and only marmosets have developed symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) with HPIV-3 and Sendai virus. (
  • We describe an unusual measles outbreak that oc- of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's curred in Ontario, Canada, in 2015. (
  • Other terms describe measles. (
  • In this show they describe how the immune system, no matter how weak, mounts a response to the measles virus given and how they would like to use the predictable cyclophosphamide in conjunction with the measles virus to buy the immune system more time and allow the measles virus to attack more myeloma cells. (
  • The authors describe a case in which a single child with measles infected 23 other children in a pediatric oncology clinic, with a fatality rate of 21 percent. (
  • If vaccination rates continue to decline, measles outbreaks may become even more frequent, a prospect the authors describe as "alarming. (
  • Language used to describe measles in the press has altered significantly over the last sixty years, a shift that reflects changing perceptions of the disease within the medical community as well as broader changes in public health discourse. (
  • The virus in these droplets can remain active on surfaces for up to two hours. (
  • The virus is spread by coming in contact with these infected droplets. (
  • The component antigen was the virus inactivated by formalin and precipitated by alum. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory provides serologic testing for measles as a national reference laboratory and provides technical assistance to state public health laboratories for the collection and shipment of clinical specimens for molecular diagnostics and genetic analysis . (
  • As the incidence rate of measles declines, serologic confirmation becomes more important. (
  • The AESKULISA Measles Virus IgG serves for confirmation of a contact with the pathogen and supports in immune status determination. (
  • In 2015, though, the WHO estimated that there were about 134,000 measles deaths in that year around the world. (
  • Today, measles still causes more than 100,000 deaths globally each year. (
  • What's behind the sudden rise in measles deaths in Europe? (
  • Protection against measles has been assessed both by measuring serum antibodies and by evaluating clinical protection in epidemiologic studies. (
  • The proposed work for the MCRI is a collaboration between UAMS and the Mayo Clinic to treat 16 patients in a now-open clinical trial using a lower dose of the measles virus in combination with cyclophosphamide. (
  • Please contact Dr. Paul Rota , Dr. Bettina Bankamp , or Dr. Stephen Crooke for any questions related to specimens for virus isolation or genetic analysis, serology testing, or technical questions related to laboratory testing in general. (
  • The Measles Virus Laboratory acts both as a Regional Reference Laboratory within the laboratory network in the Region of the Americas (Pan American Health Organization) and as a Global Specialized Laboratory. (
  • Laboratory investigation, including virus identification and able disease database, the integrated Public Health Infor- genotyping, is also critical. (
  • Newcastle disease virus is a rubulavirus that infects poultry, penguins, and other birds and has been responsible for conjunctivitis in bird handlers and laboratory workers. (
  • The diagnosis can be confirmed by a laboratory test that detects antibodies to the measles virus. (
  • Nomenclature for describing the genetic characteristics of wild-type measles viruses (update). (
  • Measles antibodies develop in at least 95% of susceptible children vaccinated at about 15 months of age or older with the current further attentuated vaccine. (
  • The AESKULISA Measles Virus IgG is a qualitative and quantitative immunoassays for the demonstration of human IgG antibodies in serum or plasma directed against Measles Virus. (
  • It is 97% effective against the viruses when two doses are given. (
  • Vaccination with two doses of the measles-mumps-rubella, or MMR, vaccine provides the best protection against getting ill with measles. (
  • Measles illness during pregnancy increases fetal risk. (
  • These importations have resulted in outbreaks of the illness, particularly among populations or groups who aren't fully protected against measles through vaccination. (
  • Appendix: measles virus antigenome and protein consensus sequences. (
  • The modified measles virus acts as a vehicle to carry the gene for the spike protein into the body. (
  • If you get measles when you're 6, you're still immune to it at 85,' Dr. Griffin says. (
  • How does one become immune to measles? (
  • Anyone who has had measles is immune for life. (
  • This trains the immune system to neutralize the virus if it's encountered. (
  • This vaccine contains weakened or killed forms of the virus, which stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the virus as foreign. (
  • Therefore, the immune system can more easily identify and kill any of these viruses that it encounters in the future. (
  • Infected people have the measles virus in the mucus of their nose and throat. (
  • The viruses attach to the host cells through hemagglutinin, which specifically combines with neuraminic acid receptors in the host cells. (
  • During this time, the virus begins to multiply and infect the cells of the respiratory tract, eyes, and lymph nodes-increasing the levels of the virus in the blood stream. (
  • Measles virus is susceptible to ribavirin in vitro. (
  • Prevention or modification of measles in exposed susceptible individuals involves the administration of measles virus vaccine or human immunoglobulin (Ig). (
  • With the highly effective, safe measles vaccine now available, the degree of measles control that has been achieved in the United States has depended largely on the effectiveness of the continuing efforts to vaccinate all susceptible persons who can safely be vaccinated. (
  • In all situations where measles vaccine is to be used, a combination vaccine should be given if recipients are likely to be susceptible to rubella and/or mumps as well as to measles. (
  • When the virus hasn't circulated for a while, the number of people susceptible to catching it increases. (