Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Parotitis: INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Rubulavirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Hemadsorption: A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.HN Protein: Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.DNA Virus InfectionsImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
These missing symptoms resemble that of measles and mumps, which some, mostly Russian and Chinese, believe is a clear sign of ... independent labs concluded these claims to be premature since the SARS virus is a coronavirus,[3][4][5] whereas measles and ... mumps are paramyxoviruses.[6][7] The primary differences between a coronavirus and a parmyxovirus are in their structures and ... first publicized his claim that the SARS coronavirus is a synthesis of measles and mumps. According to Kolesnikov, this ...
... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Newcastle disease virus Family Pneumoviridae - includes ... highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses. RNA viruses ... virus Extra small virus Jingmen tick virus Le Blanc virus Nesidiocoris tenuis virus 1 Nylanderia fulva virus 1 Orsay virus ... Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus ( ...
... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ... "The polymerase of negative-stranded RNA viruses". Current Opinion in Virology. Virus structure and function / Emerging viruses ... A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles, mumps, rabies, and influenza. Lassa virus ( ... Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus ( ...
... and California encephalitis viruses; polio, coxsackie, echo, mumps, measles, influenza and rabies, as well as diseases caused ... structure and characteristics]". Nihon Rinsho. 55 (4): 777-82. PMID 9103870. Advances in Virus Research, Volume 55, Karl ... Those causing slow virus infection include measles virus, rubella and JC viruses, and retroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic ... A neurotropic virus is a virus that is capable of infecting nerve cells. A neurotropic virus is said to be neuroinvasive if it ...
... along with influenza virus, measles, mumps and rabies. Group VI: viruses possess single-stranded RNA viruses that replicate ... In addition, viral structures are often difficult to determine under the microscope. Classifying viruses according to their ... and foot-and-mouth virus), SARS virus, hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, and rubella virus. Group V: viruses possess ... Viruses that cause chickenpox and herpes are found here. Group II: viruses possess single-stranded DNA. Group III: viruses ...
These include mumps, measles, which caused around 733,000 deaths in 2000, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is the ... The genomic structure of both viruses is that of a typical paramyxovirus. In the past few decades, paramyxoviruses have been ... Another virus in this family is Anaconda paramyxovirus. Bank vole virus, Mossman virus and Nariva virus are three paramyxovirus ... Diseases associated with this negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus family include measles, mumps, and respiratory tract ...
... measles, mumps and rubella.[195] Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen ... Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures that are unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Measles, mumps, tuberculosis, influenza, and venereal diseases also caused high fatalities among the Stó:lō population. Soon ... There are two main theories for how the smallpox virus first reached the Stó:lō in late 1782. The first is that the disease ... Because they are distinct from any other structures anywhere else in the region, the people who made them may not have been ... Little is known about the mounds, which appear to be burial mounds and which contain timber structures to sustain the weight of ...
Hepatis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and ... Structure[edit]. Viruses in Hepadnaviridae are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 symmetry. The diameter is around ... A new virus has been described in fish - White sucker hepatitis B virus.[3] This is the first hepadnavirus described from fish ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ Hahn CM, Iwanowicz LR, Cornman RS, Conway CM, Winton JR, Blazer VS ( ...
The mumps vaccine is a component of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR). The mumps vaccine, specifically, is 88% ... Overtime, however, viruses accumulate genetic mutations which can impact the 3d structure of viral proteins. If these mutations ... The cause of breakthrough mumps is not currently completely understood. Evolution of the virus (antigenic drift) is thought to ... effective at preventing mumps. Individuals with breakthrough cases of mumps have fewer serious complications from the ...
A common example of this practice are titers drawn to demonstrate serologic immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), ... The structure of the hinge regions (region 6 in the diagram) contributes to the unique biological properties of each of the ... By binding many kinds of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, IgG protects the body from infection. It does this ... Janeway Immunobiology - The structure of a typical antibody (IgG) A booklet with everything you wanted to know about IgG ...
1972-The rubella vaccine is combined with the measles and mumps vaccines to form the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. ... 2001-Scientists solved the crystal structure of the glycoprotein shell of the Semliki Forest virus. 2005-2006-Large epidemic of ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ... encephalitis virus Eilat virus Everglades virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus ...
Vaccines for polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox are currently made in cell cultures. Due to the H5N1 pandemic ... fungal or bacterial origin as hosts for the growth and replication of the virus. Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses ... There are a variety of platforms used to facilitate the growth of three-dimensional cellular structures including scaffold ... Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); causes AIDS La Crosse virus Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Measles Mumps St. ... infection of an adjacent bony structure (e.g. mastoiditis), skull fracture, or abscess formation. The majority of people that ... other viruses can also cause viral meningitis. For instance, West Nile virus, mumps, measles, herpes simplex types I and II, ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Viral Meningitis is mostly caused by an infectious agent that has colonized somewhere ...
... in viruses (i.e., measles, mumps, or parainfluenza) is used for stability and generation of protein variants. Viral ... arising from the fact that it behaves as if it is G both in translation and when forming secondary structures. These effects ... RNA editing has been observed in some tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, or miRNA molecules of eukaryotes and their viruses, archaea, and ... Curran, J., Boeck, R., and Kolakofsky, D. (1991). "The Sendai virus P gene expresses both an essential protein and an inhibitor ...
... measles, mumps and rubella.[194] Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[195] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen ... Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures that are unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
... measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more. Private institutions might ... allowing biomedical researchers to understand the structure and function of viruses, major advances in the techniques for ... other viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus and adenoviruses can cause them too. Rhinoviruses also ... The final stage in the life cycle of a virus is the release of completed viruses from the host cell, and this step has also ...
... measles, mumps and rubella. Smallpox infections have been eradicated. Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral ... video lecture Viruses - an Open Access journal 3D virus structures in EM Data Bank (EMDB) Virus-Host DB database related to ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Some viruses that infect Archaea have complex structures that are unrelated to any other form of virus, with a wide variety of ...
Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a ... Scientists are now trying to develop synthetic vaccines by reconstructing the outside structure of a virus, this will help ... Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid. The live ... The twentieth century saw the introduction of several successful vaccines, including those against diphtheria, measles, mumps, ...
"NMR structure of a biologically active peptide containing the RNA-binding domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat". ... Structure[edit]. The basic region of HIV-Tat protein is suggested to form an alpha helix. The basic region is involved in RNA ( ... Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... Tat acts by binding to an RNA stem-loop structure, the trans-activating response element (TAR), found at the 5′ ends of nascent ...
... and mumps (1967, Hilleman, Merck) The United States incidences of rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, measles, and mumps all ... In 1960 Maurice Hilleman of Merck Sharp & Dohme identified the SV40 virus, which was later shown to cause tumors in many ... The development of synthetic chemical methods allowed scientists to systematically vary the structure of chemical substances, ... Hilleman would later move to Merck where he would play a key role in the development of vaccines against measles, mumps, ...
Over 30% of childhood hearing loss is caused by diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, meningitis and ear infections. These ... also called German measles) syndrome, can cause deafness in newborns several varieties of herpes viruses that cause other ... inner ear or cochlea and related structures) or there is something wrong with the neural portion of the process, meaning the ... The World Health Organization also recommends immunization against measles, mumps, and meningitis, efforts to prevent premature ...
A herpes type virus is believed to be the most common cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The herpes virus lays dormant ... which is dependent on the mechanical structure of the basilar membrane and its surrounding structures. The second mechanism is ... Mumps(epidemic parotitis) may result in profound sensorineural hearing loss (90 dB or more), unilaterally (one ear) or ... bilaterally (both ears). Measles may result in auditory nerve damage but more commonly gives a conductive hearing loss or very ...
Repeated outbreaks of Old World infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox (to which they had no natural ... Genetic diversity and population structure in the American land mass using DNA micro-satellite markers (genotype) sampled from ... mumps, yellow fever and pertussis, which were chronic in Eurasia. This transfer of disease between the Old and New Worlds was ... colonists had the knowledge and technology to attempt biological warfare with the smallpox virus. They well understood the ...
... measles, mumps and rubella. Vaccines are available to prevent over fourteen viral infections of humans and more are used to ... Viruses vary in shape from the simple helical and icosahedral to more complex structures. Viruses range in size from 20 to 300 ... When a virus infects a cell, the virus forces it to make thousands more viruses. It does this by making the cell copy the ... The escape hypothesis does not explain the structures of virus particles. The coevolution, or virus-first hypothesis, ...
Delneste Y, Beauvillain C, Jeannin P (January 2007). "[Innate immunity: structure and function of TLRs]". Médecine/Sciences. 23 ...
Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM. NatStructMolBiol. 2011;18(2):135-41. ... NDV and Mumps (MuV) attachment protein stalk regions [40], (iii) PIV5 HN and F do not assemble intracellularly [46, 50, 51], ( ... Structure of measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its epithelial receptor nectin-4. NatStructMolBiol. 2013;20(1):67-72. ... Navaratnarajah CK, Kumar S, Generous A, pte-Sengupta S, Mateo M, Cattaneo R. The measles virus hemagglutinin stalk: structures ...
Similarly, mumps and measles used to be more common causes of viral meningitis, however due to widespread use of the MMR ... because in healthy individuals our bodies are usually good at clearing the virus. The same is true when the virus is affecting ... What are the secondary structure requirements for cell-penetrating peptides AKA protein transduction domains ... These are the same groups of viruses that commonly cause mild cold or flu-like signs. Usually, when we have these signs, we ...
The crystal structure of rubella virus E1 glycoprotein in its post-fusion form reveals a class II fusion protein with distinct ... in many respects it is more similar to other aerosol-transmitted human viruses such as the agents of measles and mumps. ... Rubella virus envelope glycoprotein structure. The rubella virus causes the relatively mild German or three-day measles in ... Structure and interactions at the viral surface of the envelope protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus. . Structure 14, 75-86 (2006 ...
... measles virus (2ZB5) (21); MojV, Mojiang virus (green, 5NOP) (62). Cα trace rendered and RMSD annotated. (C) Structure-based ... mumps virus (5B2C) (43); MojV (5NOP) (62); GhV, Ghana virus (4UF7) (61); NiV (2VWD) (94); HeV, Hendra virus (2X9M) (22); MV ( ... Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18, 135-141 (2011).. ... Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to the CD46 receptor. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17, 124-129 (2010).. ...
Although viruses share several features with living organisms, such as the presence of genetic material (DNA or RNA), they are ... Virus A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. ... measles, and mumps in children. A vaccine against measles and mumps has greatly reduced the incidence of these diseases in the ... The capsid of viruses is relatively simple in structure, owing to the few genes that the virus contains to encode the capsid. ...
2016) Trisaccharide containing α2,3-linked sialic acid is a receptor for mumps virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:11579-11584. ... 2016) Measles virus fusion protein: Structure, function and inhibition. Viruses 8:112. ... 2011) Structure of the measles virus hemagglutinin bound to its cellular receptor SLAM. Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:135-141. ... Structures of the prefusion form of measles virus fusion protein in complex with inhibitors. Takao Hashiguchi, Yoshinari Fukuda ...
An example is the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria ... This care is necessary to preserve the three-dimensional structure of surface molecules that stimulate the immune response. ... measles vaccine, mumps vaccine or the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Anyone who has had a severe allergic ... measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, or the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Children who have had a severe allergic ...
An example is the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The second type of vaccine can involve killed viruses or bacteria ... This care is necessary to preserve the three-dimensional structure of surface molecules that stimulate the immune response. ... measles, mumps, ru-bella (also called German measles), pertussis (also called whooping cough), diptheriae, tetanus (lockjaw), ... The virus or bacteria need to be killed in a way that does not perturb their surfaces. ...
These missing symptoms resemble that of measles and mumps, which some, mostly Russian and Chinese, believe is a clear sign of ... independent labs concluded these claims to be premature since the SARS virus is a coronavirus,[3][4][5] whereas measles and ... mumps are paramyxoviruses.[6][7] The primary differences between a coronavirus and a parmyxovirus are in their structures and ... first publicized his claim that the SARS coronavirus is a synthesis of measles and mumps. According to Kolesnikov, this ...
A number of important human diseases including; mumps, measles, rabies, bonra disease, and ebola haemorrhagic fever can be ... Genome Structure. The Midway virus genome is non-segmented, and contains six open reading frames with only two open reading ... Since the Midway virus was found to be highly divergent from known viruses, it has been classified as being a virus of the ... The creation of the genus Nyavirus was suggested in 2009 for two viruses, Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV). ...
Measles and Mumps: Disease of the Paramyxoviridae Virus Family. Examine viruses that include measles, mumps, parainfluenza, RSV ... RNA viruses are the focus of this chapter. Lessons will cover the transmission, structure and life cycles of RNA viruses. Some ... The Ebola Virus and other Deadly Filoviridae Viruses. Examine Filoviridae viruses, like Ebola virus, Marburg virus and ... 9. Measles and Mumps: Disease of the Paramyxoviridae Virus Family This lesson will teach you about the viruses of the ...
... to which the measles, mumps, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses belong. Viruses in this family have a single- ... stranded, nonsegmented, linear molecular structure with helical symmetry.. parameter. 1. in mathematics and statistics, an ... n one of the major ribonucleic acid virus families, ...
... mumps and rubella. In 1963, the company introduced the first available live-virus measles vaccine. In 1967, courtesy of a virus ... A Merck scientist in 1989 studies the structure of the HIV-1 protease. By 1993, we were undertaking the biggest research ... In 1971, Merck distributed a vaccine that prevented all three conditions - measles, mumps and rubella - with a single shot. ... Hilleman went on to develop vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, hepatitis A and B, meningococcal and ...
A method for preventing lesions caused by a virus of the Herpesviridae or Poxviridae family, comprising topically applying a ... virus responsible for measles and mumps, and respiratory syncitial virus responsible for croup; corona virus, which is also ... 0005] Pathogenic viruses can be classified into two general types with respect to the viral structure, i.e., those that contain ... Viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), human lymphotrophic viruses (e.g., HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency viruses (e.g., HIV ...
Live virus vaccines for human use, 29 monovalent vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella or polio, eight polyvalent vaccines ... Analyses based on primary nucleotide sequence homology and on secondary structures, characteristic to genotypes, revealed that ... Three vaccines (rubella and two measles) were from Europe and two (mumps and rubella) from Japan. The 5-untranslated genomic ... detected from one measles sample, belonged to BVDV-1b genotype. Pestiviral cDNA detected from the Japanese mumps and rubella ...
The parainfluenza virus is similar to other paramyxovirides, (enveloped viruses) which include: mumps, measles, sendai, ... Structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its metastable, prefusion conformation. Nature. Volume 439, January 2006 ... Parainfluenza Virus 5F Protein. By: Andrew Braith, Andrew Hipp, Rob Hlavacek, and Ben Krage. Java version ... This exact form of the virus shown in this tutorial is that of the pre-conformational state in which the stalk sits above the ...
Some illnesses caused by viruses come and go -- common colds, flu, measles, mumps, and chicken pox, forexample. Others, such as ... Viruses are tiny structures that are too small to be seen with a regular microscope. The powerful electron microscope invented ... Rather than killing the viruses, antiviral drugs block steps in the process through which viruses reproduce. Some may also ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS,is a retrovirus. ...
HHMI News: Viral Harpoon Reveals Ancestry of Measles, Mumps Viruses. The scientists crystallized the fusion protein of a ... Our laboratory is investigating the molecular structure and the mechanism of replication of influenza A, B, and C viruses and ... Emedicine Search Results for Measles. The mumps virus is a paramyxovirus that shares various epidemiological characteristics ... Mumps - Mumps is a single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Paramyxovirus. ...
... a family of viruses that includes mumps, human parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), have been determined. This ... information could help design and development of antiviral drugs for these viruses as well as for coronavirus, which functions ... The 3D atomic structure of a key complex in paramyxoviruses, ... Atomic Structures of Flu, Measles, Mumps and RSV Mapped News ... a family of viruses that includes mumps, human parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).. This information could ...
... including the viruses that cause measles, mumps, and many human respiratory diseases, to fuse with and infect human cells. ... Determining the structure of this molecule and its role in the viral fusion mechanism may aid the development of drugs and ... vaccines that target these types of viruses, say the scientists, whose work was funded by NIGMS and NIAID, both parts of NIH. ... A team of researchers has solved the structure of a molecule that controls the ability of viruses of the paramyxovirus family, ...
Now one theory said that the antigenic structure of the measles/mumps virus was similar to the antigenic structure of the beta ... So when our body makes antibodies to fight off measles virus, those antibodies attack the pancreatic beta cells, too. Viola ... Mullins puts it this way, "Are we trading mumps and measles for cancer and AIDS." ... "Are we trading mumps and measles for cancer and AIDS?" When we look into vaccine production we see the links of vaccines to ...
The Paramyxoviridae include many medically important viruses such as measles, mumps, and parainfluenza viruses and the emerging ... The 12 Å structure of trypsin-treated measles virus N-RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 339:301-312. ... Members of the Paramyxoviridae such as measles, mumps, and parainfluenza viruses have pleomorphic, enveloped virions that ... suggesting that virus particles containing up to six genomes may be found. Polyploid measles viruses have previously been ...
Atomic structures mapped in measles, mumps, flu and RSV. Northwestern University researchers have, for the first time, ... determined the 3-D atomic structure of a key complex in paramyxoviruses, a family of viruses that includes measles, mumps, ... The Epstein-Barr virus is one of the most widespread human viruses. Part of the herpesvirus family, it causes glandular fever ( ... Unexpected insights into the dynamic structure of mitochondria. As power plants and energy stores, mitochondria are essential ...
The generic name of M-m-r Ii is measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live. ... NDC Code Structure. *0006 - Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. *0006-4681 - M-m-r Ii *0006-4681-00 ... mumps, and rubella (German measles).M-M-R II contains weakened forms of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus.M-M-R II ... Measles, mumps, and rubella are three common childhood diseases, caused by measles virus, mumps virus (paramyxoviruses), and ...
... measles) and rubulavirus (mumps) are far shorter. ... Overall structure of the 2F5-gp41 complex.The overall structure ... Structure and Mechanistic Analysis of the Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody 2F5 in Complex with Its gp41 ... Structure and Mechanistic Analysis of the Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody 2F5 in Complex with Its gp41 ... Structure and Mechanistic Analysis of the Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody 2F5 in Complex with Its gp41 ...
  • The pathogenesis of disease is broadly speaking similar to that caused by viruses, but the inflammatory response of the immune system tends to be more severe with these bacterial organisms compared to the common viral causes of meningitis. (stackexchange.com)
  • Importantly, CDV exhibits a very broad host range that even extends to non-human primates [ 8 - 11 ], which raises concerns that the virus could eventually adapt to humans. (prolekare.cz)
  • In order to achieve global measles eradication, post-exposure prophylaxis has recently been proposed as a synergistic strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps [ 2 ] and newly available morbillivirus infection inhibitors have established proof-of-concept for the efficacy of this approach in animal models [ 3 - 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Viral meningitis can also damage tissues but typically more slowly, and in most individuals without immune problems the immune system is able to limit the virus before the infection gets out of control. (stackexchange.com)
  • Therefore, the development of a panel of broad-spectrum morbillivirus inhibitors might be important to augment measles eradication and suppress the emergence of future zoonotic morbilliviruses. (prolekare.cz)
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