Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Fishes, PoisonousFisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.TriglyceridesDietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Menu PlanningPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Cypriniformes: An order of fish with 26 families and over 3,000 species. This order includes the families CYPRINIDAE (minnows and CARPS), Cobitidae (loaches), and Catostomidae (suckers).Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fish Flour: A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.Ciguatera Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of SEAFOOD containing microgram levels of CIGUATOXINS. The poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Batrachoidiformes: An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Osmeriformes: An order of fish including smelts, galaxiids, and salamanderfish.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Characiformes: An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Metacercariae: Encysted cercaria which house the intermediate stages of trematode parasites in tissues of an intermediate host.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.RNA Virus InfectionsDiabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Flavobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils) in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. (hindawi.com)
  • The substitution of fish meal in animal feeding is necessary considering the high price of this feedstuff, and also its variable and often unreliable quality. (fao.org)
  • Enzymatically digested hydrolyzed fish retains more of the proteins, vitamins and micronutrients than emulsions, which can be processed with high heat and acids. (groworganic.com)
  • Try this method for any type of skinless fish fillet. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In particular, in cases of sweet-water fish species, the recorded impacts included reduction of the total amount of aldehydes and alcohols concomitant to fillet n-3 fatty acids reduction, increase of n-6 derived aldehydes, and related sensory-perceived "off-flavour" for plant oil fed fish [ 9 , 10 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The National School Meal Programme which WFP has supported since 2003 was disrupted by Covid-19-induced school closures in March 2020. (island.lk)
  • EMAILWIRE.COM , April 27, 2020 ) Fish meal is made primarily from the bones and organ meat leftover from fish. (emailwire.com)
  • Solid Gold Holistique Blendz With Oatmeal, Pearled Barley & Ocean Fish Meal Dog Food is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles for Maintenance. (jbpet.com)
  • Specifically formulated to enhance your dog's whole-body health, these recipes produce a brilliant coat, sharp mind and optimal energy levels, with ocean-fish meal sourced from the pristine waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Bering Sea. (chewy.com)
  • A great source of trace elements for fertilizing and soil conditioning, Alfalfa Meal is loved by roses and earthworms alike. (hydroponics.net)
  • A readily available source of organic nitrogen, Blood Meal promotes rapid vegetative growth and is great for heavy feeders like corn, spinach, broccoli and leafy greens. (hydroponics.net)
  • Coast of Maine Organic Products Kelp Meal is a soil amendment providing a valuable source of macro- and micro-nutrients that promotes healthier plants and improved crop yields. (coastofmaine.com)
  • Fish meal: Source of dietary omega-3 fatty acids? (petfoodindustry.com)
  • There is plenty of evidence that dietary FM and FO replacement in fish can significantly alter the final product quality. (hindawi.com)
  • The P digestibility model estimates digestible P contents of fish feed based on the dietary inclusion level of different P chemical compounds, which were characterized into five categories: bone-P, phytate-P, organic P, Ca monobasic /Na/ K Pi supplement, Ca dibasic Pi supplement. (fprf.org)
  • Add fish, pour the sauce over, reheat, stirring well and serve with fluffy rice. (ifood.tv)
  • Along with the fish sticks and greens, we had leftover brown rice, quinoa, lentils, and green smoothies (for the twins). (nourishingmeals.com)
  • Consumers are less experimental with staple foods such as pasta, rice, and noodles, yet they are willing to experiment with prepared food that they do not consume frequently, such as ready meals. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Our Organic Plant Food supplements, including Fish Bone Meal, are all single source fertilizers that comply with the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) rules and are included in the NOP listing of all-natural, non-synthetic substances permitted in organic production. (coastofmaine.com)
  • Freshness of the catch, LLDe of fish, requirements for meal and oil quality and environmental issues dictate the need for individual plant solutions. (audiofind.com)
  • Note: To maintain freshness and avoid overcooking, make sure to thaw frozen fish in the refrigerator (not at room temperature), under warm water, or in the microwave. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Enzymatic digestion of fish allows the minerals and amino acids to become readily available to plants and makes those nutrients water soluble, so you can use them in foliar spraying or through drip and other irrigation systems. (groworganic.com)
  • Enhanced with Probiotics, vitamins and immunostimulants, each formula also includes the signature Cobalt BLUE flake that is super-packed with immunostimulants and a triple-vitamin boost which helps fish fight off disease and keeps them in top shape and color. (postcrescent.com)
  • Tropical Fish Flake food. (ebay.co.uk)
  • J ust a few mouthfuls of oily fish a day could reduce the risk of bowel cancer patients dying from the disease, a new study suggests. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A normal portion of oily fish contains around 1.8g of omega-3 but just 0.3g a day lowered the risk of death within 10 years of diagnoses by 41 per cent. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This study provides no support of taking omega-3 supplements but does support to the notion that eating oily fish once/twice a week is good for health especially if it replaces red and processed meat. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Newest and high quality fish meal processing line with good price 008615838059105 is according to the different usage and requirements, utilizing the physical methods and chemical processes to get rid of the harmful impurities and needless substance in the crude oil, getting standard oil. (epier.com)
  • 1)Newest and high quality fish meal processing line with good price 008615838059105Pump crude oil into refining tank and heat with conduction oil, and the temperature will reach about 70°C-80°C after one hour. (epier.com)
  • 3Newest and high quality fish meal processing line with good price 008615838059105)Put discolored oil into deodorization tank with vacuum pump. (epier.com)
  • Shandong Microwave Machinery Co.,Ltd.is a Tartary buckwheat dehulling and separating equipment factory specializing in the production of Newest and high quality fish meal processing line with good price 008615838059105 , scientific research,manufacturing,installation, commissioning.Shandong Microwave Machinery Co.,Ltd.can provide Tartary buckwheat dehulling and separating equipmentcustomers with design and services of 1-2000 tons Newest and high quality fish meal processing line with good price 008615838059105. (epier.com)
  • c.Having a great experience in such equipment manufacturing, well-trained specialists and a good industrial base we guarantee a high quality fish meal. (digit-life.com)
  • 4. Unknown growth factor.Fish meal contains growth-promoting unknown factors.This substance has not been purified into compounds, this substance can stimulate animal growth and development. (futurenowinc.com)
  • Conclusion: Feed price is key factor in the production economy of all animal, including fishes. (fao.org)
  • In the investigations conducted various feedstuffs of plant and animal origin were used to substitute fish meal. (fao.org)
  • Various fish feed pellet machine types and sizes Massalfa Microwave to accommodate your Hot sale extruder fish feed machinery/ professional supplier for make fish feed machinery/fish meal for animal feed requirements. (massalfa.org)
  • A total of 360 nursery pigs weighing 12 lb. and 21 days of age were used in a 35-day study to evaluate the effects of select menhaden fish meal (SMFM), PEP2+ (also known as Ferm-O-Tide), Peptone 50 and PEP-NS on nursery pig performance. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Fish McBites, which are fried pieces of fish, will use the same Alaska pollock used in the fast-food chain's Filet-O-Fish. (newsday.com)
  • McDonald's, often a target for health advocacy groups that say Happy Meals encourage kids to eat junk food, in 2011 began adding apple slices and reduced the portion of French fries in the meal boxes. (newsday.com)
  • The normal package is wooden fish food box(Size: L*W*H). If export to european countries,the wooden box will be fumigated.If container is too tigher,we will use pe film forpackor pack it according to customers special request. (noahandthewhale.com)
  • algal-meal SP - 413 EP - 21 JF - Food chemistry JO - Food Chem VL - 185 N2 - The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • They are the perfect leisure food for High quality shrimp feed floating fish meal making machine consumers. (digit-life.com)
  • While in the Art of Animation food court, Landscape of Flavors, she found some great, easy, on-the-go, meals and snacks that she shared with me! (wdwradio.com)
  • Please join Angie every week in "Fish Are Friends, Not Food: Eating Vegan in WDW! (wdwradio.com)
  • Disclaimer: This blog post, and all past and future Fish Are Friends, Not Food blog posts, are written with my most recent knowledge of the food in WDW parks. (wdwradio.com)
  • The Everything Food Allergy Cookbook :prepare easy-to-make meals - without nuts, milk, wheat, eggs, fish or soy / by Linda Larsen. (in.us)
  • Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. (embopress.org)
  • Gambierdiscus ‐containing macroalgae serve as food for herbivorous fish, which results in the introduction of ciguatoxins into the food web. (embopress.org)
  • These Gambierdiscus ‐containing macroalgae are eaten by herbivorous fish, which in turn serve as food for larger carnivorous fish, which accumulate the toxins in their bodies. (embopress.org)
  • Loaves and Fishes Food Pantry at Manor Memorial United Methodist Church in New Market has closed to the public. (nvdaily.com)
  • Tetra Goldfish Holiday Fish Food 2 x 12g ---Food for all goldfish ---Patented formula with delicious Daphnia, essential vitamins, trace elements and minerals. (ebay.co.uk)
  • 2 x 14 day blocks (blocks can be cut up for smaller amount of time or less fish) --- TetraFin Holidays patented gelbased formula provides up to two weeks food for goldfish giving you the peace of mind that they will be in top condition on your return. (ebay.co.uk)
  • All these birds depend on the sea to provide a wide variety of food types- from clams, crabs and urchins nearshore- to krill, forage fish, and squid offshore. (usgs.gov)
  • But seabird populations are also affected by human activities that have direct impacts (pollution, bycatch in fishing gear) and indirect effects (global warming alters food availability) on birds. (usgs.gov)
  • Smaller fish are lower in mercury simply by virtue of their position near the bottom of the food chain. (arthritis.org)
  • Host Marc Summers is catching all sorts of fish food. (foodnetwork.com)
  • The organic fish meal that I've been buying to mix layer and grower on our farm is driving up the overall cost of feed. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • You can increase the effectiveness of Fish Bone Meal by mixing in other organic materials such as compost. (coastofmaine.com)
  • The purpose of paper was the evaluation of short-chain organic acid effect on Escherichia coli in fish meal stored at 12°C. Fish meal samples (n=125) were inoculated with 7 x 10 7 CFU x g -1 of E. coli ATCC 25922 strain and treated with 0 to 1.2% of formic (35%) and propionic (15%) acid mixture. (scialert.net)
  • Therefore, the objectives of the current experiment were to determine the ME content as well as standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in Prosin and Protide, based on the ME and SID of AA values, to evaluate the effects of Prosin and Protide replacing 50% or 100% of fish meal in diet with identical nutrient levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The P digestibility model is the first mathematical model developed to estimate digestible P content of fish feeds and it can be a useful tool in practical feed formulation. (fprf.org)
  • The digestibility trial was carried out with rainbow trout (initial body weight - 48 g/fish) using the Guelph feces collection system. (fprf.org)
  • As South Beach Diet® followers know, fish is rich in heart-healthy omega 3s, so it's worth learning other tasty ways to prepare it so you can enjoy it often. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Fish oil contains beneficial fatty acids called omega-3s and has been found to be effective in reducing high triglycerides. (livestrong.com)
  • Among the most potent edible inflammation fighters are essential fatty acids called omega-3s - particularly the kinds of fatty acids found in fish. (arthritis.org)
  • Research finds that people who regularly eat fish high in omega-3s are less likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (arthritis.org)
  • Many fish that are rich in omega-3s are also high in mercury, which can cause brain and nervous system damage when eaten in large enough quantities. (arthritis.org)
  • On this issue the research is conflicting, but both wild-caught and farm-raised fish are considered good sources of omega-3s. (arthritis.org)