A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Architecture as Topic
Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists
Facility Design and Construction
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton
Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Insurance, Health, Reimbursement
Health Care Rationing
MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins
MARVEL Domain Containing 2 Protein
Encyclopedias as Topic
S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (1/3332)S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors. (+info)
Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (2/3332)Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity. (+info)
Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (3/3332)1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. (+info)
Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. (4/3332)We have examined neuroanatomical, biochemical and endocrine parameters and spatial learning in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) during ageing. Aged beta2(-/-) mutant mice showed region-specific alterations in cortical regions, including neocortical hypotrophy, loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, astro- and microgliosis and elevation of serum corticosterone levels. Whereas adult mutant and control animals performed well in the Morris maze, 22- to 24-month-old beta2(-/-) mice were significantly impaired in spatial learning. These data show that beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs can contribute to both neuronal survival and maintenance of cognitive performance during ageing. beta2(-/-) mice may thus serve as one possible animal model for some of the cognitive deficits and degenerative processes which take place during physiological ageing and in Alzheimer's disease, particularly those associated with dysfunction of the cholinergic system. (+info)
Parallel information processing in the dorsal striatum: relation to hippocampal function. (5/3332)We investigated the effects of localized medial and lateral CPu lesions and fornix/fimbria lesions on responses to a local cue and to behavior based on cognitive-spatial information in the water maze. Rats were trained concurrently on the cue (visible platform) and spatial (submerged platform) components of the task, followed by a test in which responses to the two types of information were dissociated by a measure of competing response tendencies. Bilateral lesions of lateral CPu did not affect acquisition of either cue or spatial responding but produced a preference for the spatial response on the competition test. Bilateral lesions of the medial CPu retarded but did not prevent learning both components and produced a preference for the cue response on the competition test. The latter effect was accompanied by increased thigmotaxis (swimming in the periphery of the pool), primarily during the early acquisition trials, which was attributed to an impaired ability to respond to learned spatial information. Fornix/fimbria lesions prevented spatial but not cue learning and produced a preference for the cue response on the competition test. Asymmetric lesions (unilateral hippocampus and contralateral medial CPu) produced mild retardation of acquisition of both the cue and spatial tasks and a preference for the cue response on the competition test. These findings dissociate the functions of the lateral and medial CPu and suggest that the hippocampus and medial CPu may be parts of a system that promotes responding based on learned cognitive-spatial information, particularly in competitive cue-place response situations. (+info)
A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the CA1/CA2 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus is essential for long-term spatial memory. (6/3332)Behavioral, biophysical, and pharmacological studies have implicated the hippocampus in the formation and storage of spatial memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term spatial memory are poorly understood. In this study, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, also called ERK) is activated in the dorsal, but not the ventral, hippocampus of rats after training in a spatial memory task, the Morris water maze. The activation was expressed as enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1/CA2 subfield. In contrast, no increase in the percentage of phospho-MAPK-positive cells was detected in either the CA3 subfield or the dentate gyrus. The enhanced phosphorylation was observed only after multiple training trials but not after a single trial or after multiple trials in which the location of the target platform was randomly changed between each trial. Inhibition of the MAPK/ERK cascade in dorsal hippocampi did not impair acquisition, but blocked the formation of long-term spatial memory. In contrast, intrahippocampal infusion of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of the stress-activated MAPK (p38 MAPK), did not interfere with memory storage. These results demonstrate a MAPK-mediated cellular event in the CA1/CA2 subfields of the dorsal hippocampus that is critical for long-term spatial memory. (+info)
Contributions of the brain angiotensin IV-AT4 receptor subtype system to spatial learning. (7/3332)The development of navigational strategies to solve spatial problems appears to be dependent on an intact hippocampal formation. The circular water maze task requires the animal to use extramaze spatial cues to locate a pedestal positioned just below the surface of the water. Presently, we investigated the role of a recently discovered brain angiotensin receptor subtype (AT4) in the acquisition of this spatial learning task. The AT4 receptor subtype is activated by angiotensin IV (AngIV) rather than angiotensins II or III, as documented for the AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes, and is heavily distributed in the CA1-CA3 fields of the hippocampus. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of a newly synthesized AT4 agonist (Norleucine1-AngIV) via osmotic pump facilitated the rate of acquisition to solve this task, whereas treatment with an AT4 receptor antagonist (Divalinal) significantly interfered with the acquisition of successful search strategies. Animals prepared with bilateral knife cuts of the perforant path, a major afferent hippocampal fiber bundle originating in the entorhinal cortex, displayed deficits in solving this task. This performance deficit could be reversed with acute intracerebroventricular infusion of a second AT4 receptor agonist (Norleucinal). These results suggest that the brain AngIV-AT4 system plays a role in the formation of spatial search strategies and memories. Further, application of an AT4 receptor agonist compensated for spatial memory deficits in performance accompanying perforant path knife cuts. Possible mechanisms underlying this compensatory effect are discussed. (+info)
Complex behavioral strategy and reversal learning in the water maze without NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. (8/3332)Successful performance of the water maze task requires that rats learn complex behavioral strategies for swimming in a pool of water, searching for and interacting with a hidden platform before its spatial location can be learned. To evaluate whether NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (NMDA-LTP) is required for learning the required behavioral strategies, rats with NMDA-LTP blocked by systemic pharmacological treatment were trained in the behavioral strategies using simplified and stepwise training methods. Despite the blockade of NMDA-LTP in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area CA1, rats learned the required behavioral strategies and used them to learn both initial and reversed platform locations. This is the first evaluation of the role of NMDA-LTP specifically in behavioral strategy learning. Although hippocampal NMDA-LTP might contribute to the water maze task, this form of LTP is not essential for learning complex behavioral strategies or multiple hidden platform locations. (+info)
Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training. AU - Carter, Sylvia D. AU - Mifsud, Karen R. AU - Reul, Johannes M H M. PY - 2015/6/16. Y1 - 2015/6/16. N2 - Gene transcription and translation in the hippocampus is of critical importance in hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including during Morris water maze (MWM) learning. Previous work using gene deletion models has shown that the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc are crucial for such learning. Recently, we reported that induction of IEGs in sparse dentate gyrus neurons requires ERK MAPK signaling and downstream formation of a distinct epigenetic histone mark (i.e., phospho-acetylated histone H3). Until now, this signaling, epigenetic and gene transcriptional pathway has not been comprehensively studied in the MWM model. Therefore, we conducted a detailed study of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine10 in histone H3 (H3S10p) and induction of ...
Nicotinic alpha7- or beta2-containing receptor knockout: effects on radial-arm maze learning and long-term nicotine consumption...
Nicotinic alpha7- or beta2-containing receptor knockout: effects on radial-arm maze learning and long-term nicotine consumption in mice.
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Radial arm maze - Wikipedia
The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. The original apparatus consists of eight equidistantly spaced arms, each about 4 feet long, and all radiating from a small circular central platform (later versions have used as few as three and as many as 48 arms). At the end of each arm there is a food site, the contents of which are not visible from the central platform. Two types of memory that are assessed during the performance in this task are reference memory and working memory. Reference memory is assessed when the rats only visit the arms of the maze which contains the reward. The failure to do so will result in reference memory error. Working memory is assessed when the rats enter each arm a single time. Re-entry into the arms would result in a working memory error. The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central platform before making another choice. ...
Isoflurane Differentially Affects Neurogenesis and Long-term Neurocognitive Function in 60-day-old and 7-day-old Rats |...
Two cohorts of rats underwent a total of three tests of spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze tests. Initial testing was performed on 8-month-old animals (n = 25); after data analysis, a separate cohort (n = 9 controls, n = 8 isoflurane) was anesthetized and tested in the Morris water maze to identify the earliest timepoint at which a neurocognitive deficit is apparent. In the water maze test, the ability of rats to locate a hidden submerged platform in a circular pool (180 cm in diameter, 50 cm deep) filled with warm (24°C) opaque water was assessed. The rats were trained first to locate a visible platform (cued trials) and then to locate a hidden platform (place trials). In a subsequent trial, the hidden platform was removed (probe trial). Rats received two training sessions per day for five consecutive days. Each session consisted of three trials with a 60-s intertrial interval. The cohort was stratified to be spread evenly over one of four escape platforms located in the center ...
Transmission of Stress-Induced Learning Impairment and Associated Brain Gene Expression from Parents to Offspring in Chickens
Background. Stress influences many aspects of animal behaviour and is a major factor driving populations to adapt to changing living conditions, such as during domestication. Stress can affect offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, but recent research indicates that inherited epigenetic modifications of the genome could possibly also be involved. Methodology/Principal Findings. Red junglefowl (RJF, ancestors of modern chickens) and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light-dark rhythm) and control animals in similar pens, but on a 12/12 h light-dark rhythm. WL in both treatments had poorer spatial learning ability than RJF, and in both populations, stress caused a reduced ability to solve a spatial learning task. Offspring of stressed WL, but not RJF, raised without parental contact, had a reduced spatial learning ability compared to offspring of non-stressed animals in a similar test as that used for their parents. Offspring of ...
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Groups. In the first cohort, five groups of 16- to 18-month-old mice were behaviorally tested: APPswe;PS1ΔE9 mice (n = 14); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1-/- mice (n = 6); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1+/- mice (n = 22); BACE1-/- mice (n = 11); and nontransgenics (n = 15). Approximately equal numbers of female and male mice were used (females, 44%; males, 56%). Female to male ratio for each genotype was as follows: APPswe; PS1ΔE9 (57%); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1-/- (50%); APPswe;PS1ΔE9; BACE1+/- (41%); BACE1-/- (36%); and non-transgenic mice (40%). All mice were analyzed in three behavioral tasks: first, in the classic Morris water maze task; second, in the visual discrimination task; and finally, in the open field. A second cohort of mice was tested at 3 months of age: nontransgenics (n = 7), BACE1+/- mice (n = 20), and BACE1-/- mice (n = 7). In this cohort only, male mice were used and testing was performed in the classic Morris water maze task, radial water maze task, Y-maze, plus maze, and on an open-field ...
Publications | College of Health Sciences (CHS)
Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for 6 weeks. Short-term and long-term memories were assessed using a radial arm maze (RAM) testing paradigm. Toxic exposures had an influence on short-term working memory with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 4.57 p , 0.05), higher working memory errors (WME) (F 2, 19 = 5.09, p , 0.05) and longer RAM navigation time (F 2, 19 = 3.91, p , 0.05) for NaOCN relative to NaCN and saline treatments. The long-term working memory was significantly impaired by cyanide with fewer correct arm entries (F 2, 19 = 7.45, p , 0.01) and increased working memory errors (F 2, 19 = 9.35 p , 0.05) in NaCN relative to NaOCN or vehicle treated animals. Reference memory was not ...
Representative graph showing radial arm maze performanc | Open-i
Representative graph showing radial arm maze performance of control and experimental rats epileptic rats required more daily trials to achieve three, four, and
Spatial learning impairment induced by chronic stress is related to individual differences in novelty reactivity: search for...
Although chronic stress has been reported to induce deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function, the possible existence of individual differences in the vulnerability to develop stress-induced cognitive alterations was hypothesized. This study was designed to evaluate (i) whether individual variability in behavioural reactivity to novelty could be related to a differential vulnerability to show spatial learning deficits after chronic stress in young adult rats, and (ii) to what extent, could individual differences in stress-induced cognitive alterations be related to alterations in specific neurobiological substrates. Four month-old Wistar male rats were classified according to their locomotor reactivity to a novel environment, as either low (LR) or highly (HR) reactive, and then either submitted to psychosocial stress for 21-days (consisting of the daily cohabitation of each young adult rat with a new middle-aged rat) or left undisturbed. The results showed that psychosocial ...
Progressive impairment of directional and spatially precise trajectories by TgF344-Alzheimers disease rats in the Morris Water...
Spatial navigation is impaired in early stages of Alzheimers disease, and may be a defining behavioral marker of preclinical AD. A new rat model (TgF344-AD) of AD overcomes many limitations of other rodent models, though spatial navigation has not been comprehensively assessed. Using the hidden and cued platform variants of the Morris water task, a longitudinal assessment of spatial navigation was conducted on TgF344-AD (n = 16) and Fischer 344 (n = 12) male and female rats at three age ranges: 4 to 5 months, 7 to 8, and 10 to 11 months of age. TgF344-AD rats exhibited largely intact navigation at 4-5 months, with deficits in the hidden platform task emerging at 7-8 months and becoming significantly pronounced at 10-11 months of age. In general, TgF344-AD rats displayed less accurate swim trajectories to the platform and searched a wider area around the platform region compared to wildtype rats. Impaired navigation occurred in the absence of deficits in acquiring the procedural task demands or
The C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains have been shown to have relatively similar performances in some behavioral assessments using the water maze [26,27,28,29]. However, other studies have reported that C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice differed in their performance on tasks that required hippocampal integrity. C57BL/6 mice performed significantly better than DBA/2 mice on a stationary hidden platform version of the water maze task (place training)  and context fear conditioning .. Despite these discrepancies in behavioral reports, two strain differences in the neurobiological mechanisms support the behavioral superiority of C57BL/6 mice in hippocampus-dependent tasks over DBA/2 mice. For example, C57BL/6 mice show greater long-term potentiation and higher expression levels of protein kinase C in the hippocampus than DBA/2 mice [16,18,30]. Interestingly, even though both C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice performed with similar accuracy in either the place or visible platform training (cued training), hippocampal ...
Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models | Protocol
The dry-land Barnes maze is widely used to measure spatial navigation ability in response to mildly aversive stimuli. Over consecutive...
Learning and memory in the Morris water maze. (from the archives) - Morris Water Maze
A range of USB cameras can be used with the HVS Image video tracking and analysis software, including the HVS Image camera supplied in the a ...
Acute inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis induces anxiolysis in the plus maze test, European Journal of Pharmacology | 10.1016...
Read Acute inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis induces anxiolysis in the plus maze test, European Journal of Pharmacology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Prohibitin Viral Gene Transfer Protects Hippocampal CA1 Neurons From Ischemia and Ameliorates Postischemic Hippocampal...
Results-Prohibitin overexpression protected CA1 neurons from transient forebrain ischemia. The protection was associated with dampened postischemic reactive oxygen species generation, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and decreased caspase-3 activation. Importantly, the improvement in CA1 neuronal viability translated into an improvement in hippocampal function: prohibitin expression ameliorated the spatial memory deficit induced by ischemia, assessed by the Y-maze test, and restored postischemic synaptic plasticity assessed by long-term potentiation, indicating that the neurons spared form ischemic damage were functionally competent.. ...
Pregnancy | Barnes & Thornburg
Before sending mail to your intended recipient, you must first understand the implications of communicating with Barnes & Thornburg LLP and agree to the following terms. Barnes & Thornburg LLP appreciates your visit to the firms web site. Our site is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice. Should you choose to contact an attorney at Barnes & Thornburg LLP (via E-mail or other means of communication), do not disclose information you regard to be confidential until the attorney verifies that the firm does not represent other persons or entities involved in the matter and that the firm is willing to consider accepting representation. Unless otherwise agreed in advance, all unsolicited inquiries or information received by Barnes & Thornburg LLP will not be regarded as confidential. ...
product-liability | Barnes & Thornburg
Before sending mail to your intended recipient, you must first understand the implications of communicating with Barnes & Thornburg LLP and agree to the following terms. Barnes & Thornburg LLP appreciates your visit to the firms web site. Our site is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice. Should you choose to contact an attorney at Barnes & Thornburg LLP (via E-mail or other means of communication), do not disclose information you regard to be confidential until the attorney verifies that the firm does not represent other persons or entities involved in the matter and that the firm is willing to consider accepting representation. Unless otherwise agreed in advance, all unsolicited inquiries or information received by Barnes & Thornburg LLP will not be regarded as confidential. ...
Charles Barnes Obituary - Cook-Walden Davis Funeral Home | Georgetown TX
Obituary for Charles Barnes, Charles M Barnes was born on July 21, 1922 in Rising Star, Texas, to George and Erie Barnes. He was the youngest of five, with 2 brothers and 2 sisters. After graduating from Rising Star High
FENS Forum 2004 - Abstracts
STRAIN SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC STRESS ON SPATIAL LEARNING AND HIPPOCAMPAL HEAT-SHOCK PROTEIN 72 KDA (HSP72) EXPRESSION IN C57/BL/6 AND DBA/2 MICE: EVIDENCE OF A GENERAL NEGATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN HIPPOCAMPAL HSP72 AND SPATIAL PERFORMANCE.. A074.1. Poster 39 - Mon 12/07, 12:15 - Hall ...
Blue Water Task Force (Map)
Enter your email and get the latest info about our national and chapter related initiatives, news and updates straight to your inbox.. ...
Learning Hubs 2016
HPSS Kaupapa of the Learning Hub. The Learning Hub. A Learning Hub is a small group within a Learning Community. Each Learning Hub has a Learning Coach. They are central to the schools goal to empower learners by Innovating through personalising learning, Engaging through powerful partnerships, and inspiring through deep challenge and inquiry .. When the school is at full capacity, students will remain with the same Learning Hub for their time at school. This is so they will get to understand and know each other and their Learning Coach well. In the first few establishment years there will be some shifts due to growing groups. However, this will always be done by involving students and their families. The Learning Coach is to act as the academic and pastoral mentor for each of their students. In this way, the Learning Hub is a support system for the learner and is a bit like an extended family. Within this system every student has an adult in the school who cares about him or her ...
Maze Runner by noor taufeeq on Prezi
Chuck: Thomas first friend, is short, and big. Friendly, and talkative. (Piggy) Conflicts THE END! Exposition When Thomas arrives at Glade in the box forgeting his memory. He learns how glad works and where Glade is. And chooses to become a runner as a job. Rising Action After Teresa arrived in Glade shes been in a coma, things that regularly happen stop. Climax! Thomas figures out a way to get out of the maze from the memory gained from the painfull sting of the Grievers Falling Action They get out of the maze after shutting down the Grievers. Denouement They are rescued by some people. Teresa is separated from the boys. Represents life The Walls Represents Parents or Guardians Themes is friendship, Trigger! Crisis Is when decides to get stung by a Griever so he might be able to find out more about how to get out of the maze. Group vs. Group: Gladers fight the Grievers ...
Maze 3D | SlideME
Pure 3D Maze / Labyrinth game in your palm now. Time to boost your brain to get out of the maze as quick as possible! By using tilt sensor try to find a way out of the maze. This is an awesome game for adults, kids and especially for toddlers, a good brain training for their development.
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Mapping blank spots in the cheeseboard maze
(Medical Xpress)-During spatial learning, space is represented in the hippocampus through plastic changes in the connections between neurons. Jozsef Csicsvari and his collaborators investigate spatial learning in rats using ...
Essay | Biopsychosocial Perspectives of Learning | Essay Company
Abstract. Human-beings are ever learning throughout their lifetime. Many processes go into the formation of the material in which they learn. There are many aspects in learning from biological to psychological factors as well as social and environmental factors. Some learning is inherited genetically for survival while other forms of learning are through psychological cognitive processes while other types of learning can be accidental or incidental. Human-beings also tend to learn from the environment in which they inhabit as well as through social interactions. When an individual chooses to understand how the fundamentals of the learning process works the biopsychosocial model is best for explaining these reasons.. When most people think about learning they think about student- teacher roles and educational classroom setting. Many people do not realize all that goes into an individuals ability to learn behind the scenes. Its what is going on inside of the individual which is unseen that makes ...
KISS TOMORROW HELLO by Kim Barnes , Claire Davis | Kirkus Reviews
Wide-ranging essays about being female and middle-aged, collected by memoirist Barnes (Hungry for the World, 2000, etc.) and novelist Davis (Winter Range, 2000, etc.).
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Can you pick the APES 2016 Sarah Barnes ch 14? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by sarahbarnes
Jon Barnes , DDS | Dentist in 73160
DentalPlans detailed profile of Jon Barnes , DDS - Dentist in 73160. View plans, sample savings & pricing, patient reviews & practice information.
Barnes Bunch: Barnes Family Scrapbook 2008
Welcome to my little spot on the web. Here you can read about my life as I deal with four busy kids and one busy husband. I hope you find what I have to say interesting ...
Contemporary Anarchist Studies: An Introductory Anthology of Anarchy in the Academy by Randall Amster, Hardcover | Barnes &...
The Hardcover of the Contemporary Anarchist Studies: An Introductory Anthology of Anarchy in the Academy by Randall Amster at Barnes & Noble. FREE
Actimetrics | Automated Systems for Animal Behavioral Testing
Actimetrics makes automated systems for animal behavioral testing. ClockLab, FreezeFrame, WaterMaze, LimeLight, Big Brother, LumiCycle, Cell- & MultiCycle,
ND Learning Pedagogical Support
Established in 2019, ND Learning brings together teaching and learning expertise from across campus (The Kaneb Center, Office of Digital Learning, and Campus Partners) to serve as the central hub of learning excellence and innovation at Notre Dame. Working in collaboration with instructors, departments, and colleges, our goal is to enable effective and engaging learning for all students through research-based strategies, technologies, and modalities. ...
Optimising Approaches to learning and Studying on Meducation
The quality of learning achieved in university depends on many factors, with approaches to learning and studying being only one important aspect. To optimize learning among our university students, it is necessary to understand the learning processes that make high-quality learning outcomes possi ...
Is it possible to solve the maze problem using Depth first search implemented using a stack. I think its impossible. because with the stack implement
Large Hollow Maze Die (Square Pips) (26YVYEFY6) by acwsupremacy
Large Hollow Maze Die (Square Pips) (26YVYEFY6) by acwsupremacy on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in Dice.
Maze puzzle greeting cards and stationary
Perplex and educate kids and maze-lovers alike with artistic and educational maze puzzle Christmas cards, greeting cards, and postcards.
Recent Articles | Spatial Learning And Evolution | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 4
Harvesting lab-raised zebrafish based on their size led to differences in the activity of more than 4,000 genes, as well as changes in allele frequencies of those genes, in the fish that remained.. 0 Comments. ...
Mesa-dev] [PATCH] glxproto: make GLX swap event struct match spec
On Thu, 05 May 2011 09:32:46 +1000 Dave Airlie ,airlied at redhat.com, wrote: , On Wed, 2011-05-04 at 16:16 -0700, Jesse Barnes wrote: , , On Wed, 04 May 2011 15:17:31 -0700 , , Ian Romanick ,idr at freedesktop.org, wrote: , , , , , -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- , , , Hash: SHA1 , , , , , , On 05/03/2011 12:21 PM, Jesse Barnes wrote: , , , , We only spec a 32 bit swap count, so drop the high sbc field. , , , , , , , , Signed-off-by: Jesse Barnes ,jbarnes at virtuousgeek.org, , , , , , , Is there any way we could do this and NOT break building older versions , , , of Mesa? Id like to be able to build 7.9, 7.10, and master on my , , , system without having two different versions of glproto. , , , , , , , We did that the last time glproto bumped (kept the req at 1.4.10 and , , added ifdefs), but that added bugs that we didnt find for awhile, so I , , wanted to try to avoid it this time. Another option for you would be , , to build 7.9, 7.10, and master against different install roots with , ...
Projection 3412 -- Spatial Reference
PROJCS[NSIDC Sea Ice Polar Stereographic South, GEOGCS[Unspecified datum based upon the Hughes 1980 ellipsoid, DATUM[Not_specified_based_on_Hughes_1980_ellipsoid, SPHEROID[Hughes 1980,6378273,298.279411123064, AUTHORITY[EPSG,7058]], AUTHORITY[EPSG,6054]], PRIMEM[Greenwich,0, AUTHORITY[EPSG,8901]], UNIT[degree,0.01745329251994328, AUTHORITY[EPSG,9122]], AUTHORITY[EPSG,4054]], UNIT[metre,1, AUTHORITY[EPSG,9001]], PROJECTION[Polar_Stereographic], PARAMETER[latitude_of_origin,-70], PARAMETER[central_meridian,0], PARAMETER[scale_factor,1], PARAMETER[false_easting,0], PARAMETER[false_northing,0], AUTHORITY[EPSG,3412], AXIS[X,UNKNOWN], AXIS[Y,UNKNOWN]] ...
Projection 35 -- Spatial Reference
PROJCS[Lao_1997_UTM_48N, GEOGCS[GCS_Lao_1997, DATUM[Lao_National_Datum_1997, SPHEROID[Krasovsky_1940,6378245.0,298.3]], PRIMEM[Greenwich,0.0], UNIT[Degree,0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION[Transverse_Mercator], PARAMETER[False_Easting,500000.0], PARAMETER[False_Northing,0.0], PARAMETER[Central_Meridian,105.0], PARAMETER[Scale_Factor,0.9996], PARAMETER[Latitude_Of_Origin,0.0], UNIT[Meter,1.0]] ...
Collaborating to Build a Learning Organization (Opinion)
As I grow as a school leader, every day is an opportunity for learning and growth. Working with my colleagues and my team, I know we can build a learning organization we all want to be a part of that both nurtures student innovation and learning. And as my professional learning continues, I will embrace the forward movement as I did as a teacher, fearlessly. At the end of the day, it is all about kids and they deserve the best.
Temporary Brain Changes Lead to Accelerated Learning - Slashdot
An anonymous reader writes In an advance that could help the treatment of learning impairments, strokes, tinnitus and chronic pain, UT Dallas researchers have found that stimulating nerves in the brain accelerates learning in laboratory tests. When the juice was turned off, researchers monitoring b...
Treadmill exercise ameliorates impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing dopamine expression in hypoxic ischemia...
Hypoxic ischemia brain injury occurring during the neonatal period leads to severe neurodevelopmental impairments such as cerebral palsy, which is associated with damage to the striatum (Brucknerová et al., 2006; Chalmers, 2005; Obenaus and Ashwal, 2008). Dopamine is implicated as an endogenous substance that mediates neuronal death after hypoxic ischemic insult (Adair and Filloux, 1992).. The present study showed that the hypoxic ischemia brain injury induced extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and a loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum. Hypoxic ischemia brain injury also deteriorated spatial learning ability in the Morris-water maze test. Burke et al. (1992) reported that neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury on postnatal 7 days resulted in a decrease in the TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra of the neonatal and adult rats. The Rice-Vannucci model reduced the number of TH-positive cell bodies in the substantia nigra of the 4 weeks old rats (Oo ...
Dexamethasone Regimens Alter Spatial Memory and Anxiety Levels in Mice
Acute and sub chronic effects of oral dexamethasone on anxiety and memory in mice were evaluated using the elevated plus maze, Y maze and radial arm maze. Adult male Swiss albino mice assigned to five groups were given vehicle (normal saline), a standard drug (Diazepam or Scopolamine) or one of three selected doses of dexamethasone (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg) daily for a period of 14 days. Behavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 14 after administration. Results were analysed using a one-way ANOVA followed by a posthoc test (Student-Newman-Keul) and expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Elevated plus maze test showed a significant reduction in the time spent in the open arm and in the number of open arm entries compared to control. Results of radial arm and Y maze tasks showed an improvement in spatial memory following dexamethasone administration. Y maze locomotor activity was significantly increased, although radial arm maze exploration did not increase significantly. The study concluded that oral
Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze
The data presented above agree with previous studies on humans suggesting an improving effect of caffeine on memory (3-7) and show that the Morris water maze task is a good model for the study of this effect. Our results also agree with most of the previous studies reporting improving effects of caffeine in animal models of learning and memory. Molinengo et al. (12) reported reduction in memory decay in rats receiving chronic administration of caffeine after interruption of training in the staircase task. There are also some reports of caffeine improving memory consolidation when administered after training for a habituation task in rats (10), inhibitory avoidance in mice (13) and in rats (10), a multi-chamber maze in mice (14), and active avoidance in rats (15,16).. The present results stress some particularities of the memory-improving effect of caffeine that were not systematically addressed in previous studies: 1) the effect of caffeine was more evident when the drug is administered after ...
Effect of vitrification of mouse oocyte on the behavior of adult offspring. - Semantic Scholar
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of vitrification of mouse oocytes on the behavior of adult offspring. STUDY DESIGN Oocytes from mice were vitrified, warmed and inseminated, and two-cell embryos were transferred to foster mothers. The behavioral characterization of the offspring was detected by the Morris water maze test, forced swimming test, and elevated plus maze test, and compared to that of offspring from fresh oocytes. RESULTS Offspring produced by vitrified oocytes showed normal motor function. In the Morris water maze test of spatial learning there was a slightly decreased time spent in the quadrant containing the platform relative to mice from fresh oocytes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, offspring from vitrified oocytes did not exhibit alterations in emotional behavior. CONCLUSION No alterations were found in the behavioral characterization of adult offspring from vitrified oocytes compared with those from fresh oocytes.
Impairment of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber LTD in Mice Lacking mGluR2 | Science
Subtype 2 of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) is expressed in the presynaptic elements of hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Knockout mice deficient in mGluR2 showed no histological changes and no alterations in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation, or tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Long-term depression (LTD) induced by low-frequency stimulation, however, was almost fully abolished. The mutant mice performed normally in water maze learning tasks. Thus, the presynaptic mGluR2 is essential for inducing LTD at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses, but this hippocampal LTD does not seem to be required for spatial learning. ...
d-Amphetamine: Disruptive effects on the long-term store of memory and proactive facilitatory effects on learning in inbred...
TY - JOUR. T1 - d-Amphetamine. T2 - Disruptive effects on the long-term store of memory and proactive facilitatory effects on learning in inbred mice. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alpern, Herbert P.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Male, C57BL/6J mice were given two daily trials on an appetitively-motivated successive brightness discrimination maze problem; they then received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline or d-amphetamine for 5 days. When trained again in the maze, mice in all d-amphetamine groups tended to display impaired retention: retention was significantly impaired in the 2.0 mg/kg group. Naive mice were treated exactly as were the pretrained mice except that they received no initial maze training prior to drug treatments. Mice in all naive d-amphetamine groups tended to display enhanced acquisition of the maze problem: acquisition was significantly enhanced in the 1.0 mg/kg group. These results could not be explained as effects of d-amphetamine on attentional, motivational or other ...
In sum, we have been able to attenuate the function of CREB family transcription factors in dorsal striatum through expression of a dominant-negative CREB mutant, KCREB. These animals have a specific deficit in distinct forms of striatum-dependent procedural learning, without showing deficits in either motor learning on the rotarod or in spatial learning in the Morris water maze (data not shown). Furthermore, the mutant animals show a marked deficit in both LTP and LTD at the glutamatergic corticostriatal projection.. Whereas the role of the dorsal striatum in cognitive processes is increasingly appreciated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of striatum-dependent procedural learning are poorly understood. Although corticostriatal synaptic plasticity has been extensively investigated, its relationship to striatum-dependent procedural learning remains unclear.. One obstacle to clarifying this relationship has been the difficulty of identifying clearly dorsal striatum-dependent learning tasks. ...
Estrogen receptor alpha deficiency protects against development of cognitive impairment in murine lupus | Journal of...
One of the more profound features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is that females have a 9:1 prevalence of this disease over males. Up to 80% of SLE patients have cognitive defects or affective disorders. The mechanism of CNS injury responsible for cognitive impairment is unknown. We previously showed that ERα deficiency significantly reduced renal disease and increased survival in lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that ERα deficiency would be similarly protective in the brain, and that ERα may play a role in modulating blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and/or neuroinflammation in lupus-prone mice. MRL/lpr ERα+/+ and ERαKO mice (n = 46) were ovariectomized, received 17β-estradiol pellets, and underwent radial arm water maze (WRAM) and novel object recognition (NOR) testing starting at eight weeks of age. Mice were sacrificed and brains were hemisected and processed for either immunohistochemistry, or hippocampus and parietal cortex dissection for Western blotting. MRL/lpr ERαKO mice (n =
Frontiers | Sevoflurane Induces Exaggerated and Persistent Cognitive Decline in a Type II Diabetic Rat Model by Aggregating...
Recent studies show that a moderate duration of sevoflurane, one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice, does not induce cognitive impairment in animals under physiological conditions. However, the influence of sevoflurane on cognitive function under diabetic conditions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether sevoflurane causes cognitive decline in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and if so, to explore a possible underlying mechanism. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and non-diabetic Wistar rats underwent 2.6% sevoflurane for 4 h or sham (control) exposure. Cognitive function and hippocampal inflammation were assessed 1 week and 5 months after sevoflurane or sham exposure. Compared with Wistar control rats, GK control rats exhibited shorter freezing times in Trace fear conditioning task 1 week after exposure, took longer to locate the submerged platform and had shorter dwell-time in the target quadrant in Morris Water Maze task 5 months
PLOS ONE: Late Maturation of Adult-Born Neurons in the Temporal Dentate Gyrus
Hippocampal function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal (dorsal) pole more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory and the temporal (ventral) pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. One feature that varies across these subregions is adult neurogenesis. New neurons are more numerous in the septal hippocampus but are more active in the temporal hippocampus during water maze training. However, many other aspects of adult neurogenesis remain unexplored in the context of septal versus temporal subregions. In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the suprapyramidal blade showing greater experience-related activity than the infrapyramidal blade. Here we ask whether new neurons differ in their rates of survival and maturation along the septotemporal and transverse axes. We found that neurogenesis is initially higher in the infrapyramidal than suprapyramidal blade, but these cells are less
Lizard memory | Biology Letters
Seven male side-blotched lizards, U. stansburiana, were used in this study (eight to 10 months); all were hatched and raised in identical laboratory conditions. Previous spatial memory studies in squamates have been criticized on methodological issues. Thus, we used the Barnes maze, a standard apparatus and methodology used to test spatial memory in many taxa . The Barnes maze was a circular platform (73.66 cm high, 105.74 cm diameter) with 10 holes, equidistant from each other (26.04 cm); each hole was 15.54 cm from the edge of the maze. Holes were large enough to allow a lizard to pass through comfortably (2.54 cm diameter). To allow for spatial navigation, cues in the form of a circle and an + on the wall, were located at least 30 cm from the Barnes maze holes and 15.24 cm above the plane of the table (figure 1); cues measured between 15 and 20 cm in diameter. By positioning cues in this way, none of the cues could serve as a local cue that directly identified the goal. The door of the ...
FLURESP : Cost-effectiveness assessment of European influenza human pandemic alert and response strategies
The FLURESP consortium is composed by key European experts in Flu alert and response strategies, in Public Health and Health Economics advanced methodology. The objective of the FLURESP consortium is to redefine main human pandemic scenarios at the European level, describe and cluster possible response strategies and assess these response strategies in the frame of multi-criteria and cost-effectiveness analyses, taking into account lessons from the 2009 pandemy. If human pandemic scenarios and main related responses are well documented, they have never been assessed and ranked using both multi-criteria and cost-effectiveness approaches. Then it appears urgent to develop a strategy relying on assessment of lessons learnt with respect to improving intersectoral collaboration and cross-border coordination in responding to health emergencies. The integrated approach of Decision Making proposed by the FLURESP consortium would constitute a premiere at the European and global level, which would support ...
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone)
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reverses age-related impairments in spatial learning and lowers protein oxidation - Age (Dordr). 2013 Oct;35(5):1821-34 - the current study assessed the effect of CoQ intake in older mice for which cognitive and psychomotor impairments were already evident. Separate groups of young (3.5 months) and relatively old mice (17.5 months) were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with low (0.72 mg/g) or high (2.81 mg/g) concentrations of CoQ for 15 weeks. After 6 weeks, the mice were given tests for spatial learning (Morris water maze), spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination, and startle reflex. Age-related impairments in cognitive and psychomotor functions were evident in the 17.5-month-old mice fed the control diet, and the low-CoQ diet failed to affect any aspect of the impaired performance. However, in the Morris water maze test, old mice on the high-CoQ diet swam to the safe platform with greater efficiency than the mice on the control diet. The old ...
Immune privilege - Wikipedia
Certain sites of the human body have immune privilege, meaning they are able to tolerate the introduction of antigens without eliciting an inflammatory immune response. Tissue grafts are normally recognised as foreign antigen by the body and attacked by the immune system. However, in immune privileged sites, tissue grafts can survive for extended periods of time without rejection occurring. Immunologically privileged sites were thought to include: the brain, but this is now known to be incorrect and indeed immune cells of the CNS contribute to the maintenance of neurogenesis and spatial learning abilities in adulthood the eyes the placenta and the fetus the testicles Immune privilege is also believed to occur to some extent or able to be induced in articular cartilage. Immune privilege is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to protect vital structures from the potentially damaging effects of an inflammatory immune response. Inflammation in the brain or eye can lead to loss of organ ...
Correlation between hippocampal levels of neural, epithelial and inducible NOS and spatial learning skills in rats | AVESİS
In the present study, to better understand the role of different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in hippocampus-dependent forms of learning, we examined the expression of neural, endothelial, and inducible NOS in the hippocampus of young-adult rats classified as poor and good learners on the basis of their performance in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze. Taking into consideration strain-dependent differences in learning skills and NOS expression, experiments were performed on two different lines of laboratory rats: the inbred Wistar (W) and the outcrossed Wistar/Spraque-Dawley(W/S) line. The hippocampal levels of NOS proteins were assessed by Western Blotting. In the present study, genetically more homogenous W rats showed a slower rate of learning compared to the genetically less homogenous outcrossed W/S rats. The deficient performance in the W rat group compared to outcrossed W/S rats, and in poor learners of both groups compared to good learners was due to a higher ...
OPUS Würzburg | Search
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested ...
Dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory systems by posttraining intracerebral injection of dopamine agonists
The effect of posttraining intracerebral injections of the indirect dopamine (DA) agonist d-amphetamine, the direct D2 agonist LY 171555, and the direct D1 agonist SKF-38393 on the acquisition of two 8-arm radial maze tasks were examined. On a win-stay task, a light cue signaled the location of food …
Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology
The objective of this investigation was to assess the effects of THC treatment on CD8+ T cell-mediated activation of astrocytes. CD3/CD28/IFN α- stimulated CD8+ T cells were treated with vehicle (0.03% EtOH) or THC and cocultured with U251 astrocytes. IP-10+, MCP-1+, and IL-6+ astrocytes were quantified by flow cytometry. LegendPlex ™ was used to measure cytokine secretion by CD8+ T cells and flow cytometry was employed to quantify IFN γ, TNFα, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) expression. Recombinant TNFα and IFNγ were used to stimulate MCP-1, IP-10, IL-6 responses in ...
Sex Differences in Binge Alcohol-Induced Brain Damage and Recovery of Function
Evidence suggests that women are more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol and more vulnerable to the adverse medical consequences of heavy alcohol consumption than men. Despite this few studies have directly compared the consequences of binge alcohol between the male and female brain, and the mechanisms that underlie increased female vulnerability remain poorly understood. The present studies investigated sex differences in alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, and associated cognitive deficits and disruption of trophic support, using a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Binge exposure resulted in a significant loss of granule neurons and significantly more degenerating and dead cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of females compared to males. This was associated with a binge-induced spatial reference memory deficits in the Morris water maze for females but not males. Binge-induced neurodegeneration in the female hippocampus was associated with a decrease of BDNF, TrkB, ...
Cancer Chemotherapy and Cognitive Function in Rodent Models: Memory Impairment Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice | Clinical...
In Response: In their Letter to the Editor, Reiriz et al. have questioned the generalization of results that we recently presented about a rodent model to assess cognitive impairments induced by cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil (1). In our study, we evaluated the effects of chronic regimens of these two chemotherapeutic agents on performance of young and aged female F344 rats in two complex learning tasks, the Morris water maze and the Stone 14-unit T-maze. Both tasks involve multiple trials spread over several days and required the rat to learn and remember complex spatial relationships. Our results showed that, with 8 weeks of recovery from the chemotherapeutic regimens, rats treated with either cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) or 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) surprisingly did significantly better than untreated controls in both learning tasks. However, after providing even longer periods of recovery, 29 to 42 weeks, we observed no significant differences in maze performance between treated rats ...
World Largest Plant Maze Settled in Dafeng of Jiangsu | forimmediaterelease.net
YANCHENG, China, Sept. 22, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - Now the largest plant maze in the world is Heiner Indre Plant Maze in France, covering a land area of 40,000 square meters. But this will be changed by the Seven-color Flower Field Hawaii Plant Maze in Dafeng of China. The Seven-color Flower Field Hawaii Plant Maze was officially settled in Dafeng and its construction was started in March 2017. It covers a land area of 45,000 square meters, 5,000 square meters larger than Heiner Indre Plant Maze in France. ...
Rock Body Fitness Weight Lifting Exercises : Nootropics: Smart Pills for Athletes Gotu Kola
In the present study aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of C. asiatica were investigated for their effect on cognitive functions in rats. Male Wistar rats of 200-250 g were used to study the effect on learning and memory by using shuttle box, step through, step down and elevated plus maze paradigms...doses of aqueous extract increased the number of avoidances in shuttle box and prolonged the step through latency in step through apparatus in a dose dependent manner, while only two doses 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract showed significant increase in the step down latency in step down apparatus and transfer latency (TL) in elevated plus maze. Among doses of aqueous extract tested on oxidative stress parameters, only 200 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) with simultaneous significant increase in levels of glutathione. There was a significant increase in the levels of catalase at the 300 mg/kg but no significant change in superoxide ...
Hong Kong Morris - History of HK Morris
The Hong Kong Morris (Chinese: 香港莫利斯舞蹈團) is an English morris dancing side founded in Hong Kong in 1974. The side now has two chapters, the Hong Kong Morris in Hong Kong and the Hong Kong (UK) Morris, colloquially known as The Brackets, in the United Kingdom. In its heyday, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Hong Kong Morris was one of the largest Cotswold morris sides in the world. The Hong Kong Morris attracted its first women members in the late 1970s, at a time when there was considerable opposition to womens morris dancing in the United Kingdom. Women and men have always danced together in the Hong Kong Morris, either in mixed sets or in separate sets. By the mid-1980s the sides growing numbers enabled strong mens and womens sets to develop, and each set began to specialise in certain Cotswold traditions, while retaining a large common core of dances for mixed dancing. The Hong Kong Morris was briefly a member side of the Morris Ring, but was asked to leave the Ring ...
talks.cam : Maze Generation and Solving Algorithms
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Matthew Ireland.. The talk will consist of talking about different methods for mainly 2D maze generation and solving algorithms. We will discuss the difference of space, time complexity, possible implementation difficulties arising in each algorithm and results (the algorithm finding any path or the shortest path). We will also briefly touch upon which of the algorithms are human usable. The algorithms mentioned will include dead-end filling, A* algorithm, etc for maze generating algorithms and Kruskal, Hunt-and-Kill, Sidewinder, etc for maze solving algorithms. In addition, we will see what changes can be made in order to have a more attractive maze for the human eye. Lastly, we will look how with the help of matrices it is possible to expand these algorithms into higher dimensions (3D or higher).. This talk is part of the Churchill CompSci Talks series.. ...
Wildys World: Review: Lisa Smiths Powerhaus - Maze Of Souls
Maze Of Souls is a confounding album. Lisa Smith has an amazing rock voice; able to alter her sound to fit the song/style shes singing within a limited breadth of styles. Shes somewhere between Lee Aaron and old school Pat Benetar stylistically. Her deep amber alto is lined with a bit of barbed wire when she wants it; there arent too many female rock vocalists like her nowadays. The band can rock when theyre up to it, and it seems like the potential is here for a an amazing ride on Maze Of Souls. What we find is a bit more typical of a 1980s hair metal band, however. Maybe four songs of the eleven presented on Maze Of Souls truly inspire the listener, but there is a tendency toward blandness that belies the spark that the individual pieces can create. Maze Of Souls opens on The Verge, a straight forward classic hard rock tune. This is the listeners introduction to Smiths voice but is otherwise fairly typical of the genre. Red Door gets more into the hair metal sound, with Smith sounding a ...
3 Point Perspective - Creating the Amazing Maze by Barbara Rhodes
Students learn the basic concept of three point perspective while creating a maze. This project works for 7th through 12th grade beginning art. The basic knowledge is presented and students can create their mazes on a basic level or go way beyond by adding a second maze, adding a floating pool, adding holes in the sides of the maze walls, etc, I had my students start by throwing paint on a large poster
Amazing Mazes for Kids: Take Me Through the Bible: Steve Miller: 9781565078468 - Christianbook.com
From the publisher: Amazing Mazes for kids has nearly 75 mazes every single one a new and different adventure in some pretty incredible places. Youll walk with the animals into Noahs Ark, fish with Peter to find the fish with the coin, and fly with the ravens who feed Elijah. Along the way, youll discover many fascinating people and places in the Bible, including Jesus, Moses, Paul, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and much more! These amazing mazes are perfect for fun at home, Sunday school, church activity nights, and trips. But watch out-once you get started you wont want to stop. Softcover. Amazing Mazes for Kids: Take Me Through the Bible (9781565078468) by Steve Miller
Morris h2o maze was composed of a round pool (eighty cm in diameter and 32 cm in height) produced of stainless steel and a...
Morris water maze was composed of a spherical pool (80 cm in diameter and 32 cm in peak) produced of stainless metal and a movable system (24 cm in height). Thoroughly clean h2o was poured into the pool, which was mixed with milk to hold the sight of mice out of platform, and the surface area of drinking water was one cm increased than the platform. The temperature of drinking water was controlled at twenty five.061.0uC. A video keep track of in excess of the pool was connected to a computer. When the fastened time was above or the animal climbed on to the system, the personal computer stopped tracing, recorded the swimming route, and routinely calculated the distance of swimming, the time for discovering the platform (the water escape-latency) and the authentic angle (the angle in between the extended axes of mouse entire body and the line of plunging level to system at the time of plunging into water). The platform was in the center of the 3rd quadrant. We randomly chosen an entrance level in ...
Virgil Barnes | Society for American Baseball Research
For the third time in as many years, the World Series was a New York exclusive, but this time there was a different outcome. The Yankees prevailed, four games to two, by exploiting ineffective Giant pitching, especially during the latter half of the Series. Trouble among the Giant starters spelled opportunity for Barnes in Games 4 and 5, but in both cases, he entered the game with a several-run deficit. His team would not win either game, but he made the most of his chances. In the ninth inning of Game 4, he retired the side in order with 13 pitches. In Game 5, Barnes made a longer relief appearance: in 3⅔ innings, he allowed four hits, no runs, and no walks. In the bottom of the fifth, with two outs and two runners on base, he struck out Babe Ruth to end the inning.. The Series recaps did not toss many accolades in the direction of the Giant pitching staff, but a few took note of Barnes performance. The New York Times observed that Barnes had …showed again that he can stand up with Arthur ...
Neutralization of interleukin-1 beta reduces cerebral edema and tissue loss and improves late cognitive outcome following...
Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key mediator of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, we showed that intracerebroventricular administration of an IL-1 beta-neutralizing antibody was neuroprotective following TBI in mice. In the present study, an anti-IL-1 beta antibody or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally following controlled cortical injury (CCI) TBI or sham injury in 105 mice and we extended our histological, immunological and behavioral analysis. First, we demonstrated that the treatment antibody reached target brain regions of brain-injured animals in high concentrations (, 11 nm) remaining up to 8 days post-TBI. At 48 h post-injury, the anti-IL-1b treatment attenuated the TBI-induced hemispheric edema (P , 0.05) but not the memory deficits evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM). Neutralization of IL-1 beta did not influence the TBI-induced increases (P , 0.05) in the gene expression of the ...
Mazes: Key to Brain Development?
July 30, 2014 - Navigating through mazes to get from point A to point B is part of daily life, and the hippocampus seems to be responsible for helping us handle this invaluable task. Literal mazes created for museums challenge our navigational skills and help us learn to grapple with the unexpected.Click here to learn more about mazes, and how our brains experience them
Favorite Childrens Party Services: Old Miners Maze BRONZE
The fully-operational amusement park is home to a ferris wheel, a rock-climbing wall, a bungee jump, mechanical bull, amazing maze and lots more. Hickey also said theyre adding a colossal outdoor laser tag field in September.. Its going to have the room to hold sixteen people in the game at a time, Hickey said. I tell people that there is such a wide variety for people everywhere, and that theres such a huge amount of things to do here.. Despite only being open on the weekends and for special occasions and private events, he said theyve seen over 400,000 people come through their doors over the last two years, and that there are groups of all ages who enjoy coming to spend the day at Old Miner Maze.. We have a bunch of schools from all around the Permian Basin and even New Mexico that will come out for field days here, Hickey said. Weve had 800 people out here at one time who were all a part of an oil company.. Old Miner Maze offers group discounts and special pricing for groups of ...
Susan King - Treading the Maze - OUT OF PRINT | Abecedarian Gallery
The trade book version of an artists book of the same title. This book concerns two journeys: a summer sabbatical spent visiting medieval sites in Europe, and a winter spent recovering from breast cancer.Each woman who learns she has breast cacner enters a maze of bewilderment, fear, and isolation. Family and friends are alos drawn in, unsure of which way to turn or what words to say. Artist and writer Susan King, herself diagnosed with breast cancer, has created a unique and beautiful book, a life-affirming journey through the labyrinth of disease.In Treading the Maze, Susan King embarks on two voyages, braving the uncharted territory of cancer after setting off to explore the medieval Europe she had always dreamed of visiting. Transformed by her journey and the inspiration she found there, she has created a new path, a rich odyssey of words and images. Treading the Maze - with its crosshatching of alternating narratives and eluxive images - reflects the heightened awareness of being in the ...
Out and exit maze. Creative design of out and exit maze vectors illustration - Search Clipart, Drawings, and EPS Graphics...
Out and exit maze Vector. csp14072471 - Creative design of out and exit maze. Affordable Royalty Free Stock Photography. Downloads for just $2.50, with thousands of images added daily. Subscriptions available for just $39.00. Our stock photo image search engine contains royalty free photos, vector clip art images, clipart illustrations.
Maze Masters on Steam
Try to find your way out of the maze while fighting your way through the monsters in the maze with your AK-47 Rifle as well as trying to find the hidden objectives scattered on each map. You can choose to escape the maze or just fight your way through the monsters in the survival mode.
Uncategorized - Page 2 - On Nootropics
The first noted benefit of Coluracetam is in ameliorating the effects of glutamate neurotoxicity; cortical cultures were taken from fetal rats that had been treated with a substance that causes glutamate toxicity and these cultures were treated with Coluracetam for 12 to 24 hours. After this exposure period, it was found that Coluracetam ameliorated the effects of the exposure .. The second noted benefit of Coluracetam was in reducing the effects of learning deficits in rats, using the Morris Water Maze as a test. Adult rats in the experimental group were treated with a cholinergic neuron-specific neurotoxin and the control group was a population of healthy rats. In the experimental group, Coluracetam greatly reduced the learning deficits associated with the administration of the neurotoxin without causing any expected side effects such as tremor, hypothermia, or salivation. It would appear from this study that Coluracetam had less of an effect on the control group (the healthy rats) than it ...
June 18, 2019 | At The Golden Nymph Awards - 008 - Ben Barnes Fan
Welcome to Ben Barnes Fan! Your number one active fansite dedicated to the talented English screen and stage actor, Ben Barnes! Here you will find the latest news, photos, videos and much more. We hope you enjoy your stay, and continue to support Ben and our website. Thanks for visiting ...
Biopsychology of Learning - Open Universiteit - Open Universiteit
Optimal learning is influenced by several contexts and conditions as also stated in the concept research agenda Brain, Cognition, and Education initiated by NRO and NWO (2016). To make learning as efficient, effective, and enjoyable as possible, it is imperative that the exact relationship between the context and conditions on the one hand, where the personal learning capacity of the learner is also taken into account, and optimal learning on the other are investigated and that recommendations are formulated which are applicable in educational and instructional practice.. The research topic Biopsychology of Learning is situated at the intersection of the domains of biopsychology and learning and aims to gain knowledge and understanding of how context and conditions (see below) affect the learning process, the learner, and the learning outcomes.. Learning is not an isolated cognitive experience in the brain of the learner. In addition to personal learning capacity (i.e., genetics and equivalent ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Yu Deng
Yu Deng is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Morris Water Maze Test for Learning and Memory Deficits in Alzheimers Disease Model Mice
Vollständige Publikationsliste | Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
Woost, L.; Bazin, P.-L.; Taubert, M.; Trampel, R.; Tardif, C.; Garthe, A.; Kempermann, G.; Renner, U.; Stalla, G.; Ott, D. V. M. et al.; Rjosk, V.; Obrig, H.; Villringer, A.; Roggenhofer, E.; Klein, T. A.: Physical exercise and spatial training: A longitudinal study of effects on cognition, growth factors, and hippocampal plasticity. Scientific Reports 8, 4239 (2018 ...
Teaching Stories: An Anthology on the Power of Learning and Literature by Robert Coles, Leo Tolstoy |, Paperback | Barnes &...
The Paperback of the Teaching Stories: An Anthology on the Power of Learning and Literature by Robert Coles, Leo Tolstoy | at Barnes & Noble. FREE
Maze - Labirintul (2017) | CinemaSfera - Cele mai bune filme online !
Scris si regizat de Stephen Burke , Maze - Labirintul (2017) online subtitrat in romana se bazeaza pe izbucnirea in masa din H Block 7 in septembrie 1983 . In acel moment , HM Prison Maze a fost considerata cea mai impregnabila din Europa , un loc inspaimantator , inconjurat de garduri ...
When his daughter is captured by the formidable Maze Meister, a fast-thinking father finds himself on an unexpected journey through many maddening mazes to save her!
Anthony P. Barnes Ph.D. | OHSU People | OHSU
The Barnes Lab focuses on two fundamental cellular phenomena. One set of projects in lab is directed at understanding the nature and purpose of endothelial heterogeneity as well as how the differences in an otherwise homogenous cell type contribute to cardiac disease. Our second focus centers on the genetic and cellular mechanisms that control the development of the cerebral cortex prior to and following birth to better understand the fundamental basis of neurodevelopmental disease.. Toward our vascular biology goals, we are applying a number of cellular and molecular methodologies to understand how (cell specification mechanisms) and why (physiologic significance) the cells that form the inner lining of all blood vessels display distinct molecular identities. These differences between endothelia are often a consequence of distinct functional requirements of the organ which they serve. Our goal is to understand the genetic basis for these unique populations and how these differences may shape ...
PM Connection - Bemer Group - Staci-Jo Barnes - Jan 4, 2018 - West Volusia Regional Chamber of Commerce
Join us this evening as Staci-Jo Barnes with Bemer Group will be describing to us the benefits of enhanced blood flow using Pulse Electromagnetic Frequency
"Enemy of the People Learning Resources, Belvoir" (PDF). Belvoir. October 2018. "The Fiery Maze - ArtsReview". malthousetheatre. ... In 2016 Sarks directed A Fiery Maze, a new work written by Tim Finn, based on lyrics by Dorothy Porter, and performed by Finn ... "Review: The Fiery Maze (Sydney Festival)". Limelight. Retrieved 2018-12-21. "Subscribe to The Australian , Newspaper home ...
In 2012, at a dinner to promote multiculturalism and "bring Muslims and others together to learn and understand each other's ... Summers, Anne (24 August 2013). "Master of the maze". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. ... Akerman, Piers (3 May 2014). "Labor shows that it has learned nothing". The Sunday Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 ... "Faculty of Arts, Macquarie University". Master of the maze. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 September ...
Chance is determined by the number of arms the maze has, in a three-arm maze it is 22%, in a four-arm or plus maze it is around ... Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 142, 230-235. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2017.05.013 van Asselen, M., Kessels, R. P., Neggers, S. F ... Both apparatus are named to mimic the maze shapes which they portray. The rat is placed in the middle of the maze and is ... The apparatus used for spontaneous alternation testing takes multiple forms - the T-maze and the Y-maze being those which are ...
Danforth Collegiate and Technical Institute
Danforth has a maze-like basement. At least one basement level is permanently sealed to students creating a number of rumours ... The school's motto is "Faciendo Discimus," which means "We learn by doing." Originally existed in 1912 as Riverdale Branch ...
She subsequently reprised the role in both sequels: Maze Runner: The Scorch Trials (2015), and Maze Runner: The Death Cure ( ... The same year, she starred opposite Ben Kingsley in the comedy-drama film Learning to Drive, portraying Wendy, a depressed ... She subsequently portrayed the villainous Ava Paige in The Maze Runner (2014) and its two sequels. She returned to theater in ... Horowitz, Jane (January 25, 2018). "'Maze Runner: The Death Cure': The marathon sci-fi trilogy comes to a pedestrian end". The ...
... using visual guidance with optic marker on the floor solving complex 3D mazes archery, shooting arrows with a bow and learning ... "Humanoid Robot Learns Like a Child". Discovery News. Retrieved 11 February 2013. "XE: (EUR/USD) Euro to US Dollar Rate". www.xe ... A baby learns many cognitive skills by interacting with its environment and other humans using its limbs and senses, and ... Learning the skill of archery by a humanoid robot iCub (PDF). IEEE International Conference on Humanoid Robots, (Humanoids 2010 ...
"What I learnt at school: Maggie Philbin". teachsecondary.com. Maze Media Ltd. Retrieved 10 June 2014. Philbin, Maggie (18 July ...
... cages Illumination preferences and sensory capacity of turkeys Cognitive bias studies Social learning The radial arm maze has ... Barnes maze Oasis maze Cunningham, C.; Gremel, C.; Groblewski, P. (2006). "Drug-induced conditioned place preference and ... This can be done by putting different goal boxes at the ends of the arms of a 'T' shaped maze, or having a chamber divided into ... Sherwin, C.M.; Heyes, C.M.; Nicol (2002). "Social learning influences the preferences of domestic hens for novel food". Animal ...
Hull, Clark L. (1934). "The concept of the habit-family hierarchy, and maze learning. Part 1". Psychological Review. 41 (1): 33 ... "The goal-gradient hypothesis and maze learning". Psychological Review. 39 (1): 25-43. doi:10.1037/h0072640. ... Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 34 (5): 1158-1171. doi:10.1037/a0012857. PMC 2597002. PMID 18763898.CS1 maint: multiple names ...
Special education in the United States
Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. New York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Zobell, Erin ... Cutler, B.C. (1981), Unraveling the special education maze. Champaign, IL: Research Press. Brown, L et al. (1981), Longitudinal ... Riding, R.J.,&Raynor, S.(1998) Cognitive Styles and learning strategies: Understanding style differences in learning and ... If a student is not able to learn in a fully inclusive situation, the special education team may decide to try the student in a ...
"Appropriate maze methodology to study learning in fish" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 28 ... Fish behavior in mazes reveals that they possess spatial memory and visual discrimination. Vision is an important sensory ...
Rauscher, F. H.; Robinson, K. D.; Jens, J. J. (July 1998). "Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats". ... its links to seizure onset or research in animals suggesting that even exposure in-utero in rats improves their maze learning ... such as folding paper and solving mazes. The results were highly exaggerated by the popular press and became "Mozart makes you ... ", "intelligence and learning", and "creativity and imagination". Campbell defines the term as "an inclusive term signifying ...
"Appropriate maze methodology to study learning in fish" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 28 ... This is variously called observational learning, cultural transmission, or social learning. For example, fish can learn a ... Through social learning, fishes might learn not only where to get food, but also what to get and how to get it. Hatchery-raised ... Fishes can also learn from others the identity of predatory species. Fathead minnows, for example, can learn the smell of a ...
"Appropriate maze methodology to study learning in fish" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 28 ... Experiments with mazes show that fish possess the spatial memory needed to make such a mental map. The skin of a teleost is ...
Crazy Ex-Girlfriend (season 4)
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Crazy Ex-Girlfriend - Episodes: I NEED TO FIND MY FRENEMY". TV Maze. Retrieved March ... Season 4 Learns A Lesson About Oversharing Anyone With Twitter Can Relate To". Bustle. Retrieved December 2, 2018. CS1 maint: ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Crazy Ex-Girlfriend - Episodes: I WANT TO BE HERE". TV Maze. Retrieved March 29, 2019 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Crazy Ex-Girlfriend - Episodes: I'M ON MY OWN PATH". TV Maze. Retrieved March 29, 2019 ...
The Morris water maze is meant to test spatial learning. It uses a large round pool of water that is made opaque. The rat must ... Two types of mazes commonly used with rats are the radial arm maze and the Morris water maze. The radial arm maze consists of ... Probably one of the oldest instruments for studying memory would be the maze. The common goal is to get from point A to point B ... Cengage Learning. Fraisse, P, Piaget, J, & Reuchlin, M. (1963). Experimental psychology: its scope and method. 1. History and ...
List of Tom and Jerry video games
"Tom and Jerry Learn and Play by Uitgeverij Big Balloon B.V." AppAdvice. Retrieved 30 January 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Tom and Jerry: Mouse Maze". www.pocketgamer.com. Retrieved 4 September 2019. CS1 maint ... Mouse Maze (2008) for mobile phone "[CSDb] - Tom & Jerry +3 by Transcom (1989)". Commodore 64 Scene Database. Retrieved 9 July ... discouraged parameter (link) "Tom and Jerry Learn and Play app". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 30 January 2020. CS1 maint: ...
Tolman, E. C.; Honzik, C. H. (1930). "Degrees of hunger, reward and nonreward, and maze learning in rats". University of ... Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology (7th ed.). Belmot, CA: Cengage Learning. Shrout, P. E.; Bolger, N. ( ... Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology (7th ed.). Belmot, CA: Cengage Learning. MacKinnon, D. P.; Lockwood, C ...
Pain in amphibians
... learn to avoid electric shocks in a T-maze. Furthermore, American bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) learn to inhibit their high- ... "A test for dominance of cues during maze learning by toads". Psychonomic Science. 9 (5): 259-260. doi:10.3758/bf03332211. S2CID ... The Biology of Learning: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on the Biology of Learning, Berlin. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9783642700941 ... This shows a learning phenomenon previously recorded in other taxa including mammals, birds, fish and invertebrates. It has ...
Categories of human learning, 24, 145-201. Melton, A. W. (Ed.). (2014). Categories of human learning. Academic Press. Melton, A ... McGeoch, J. A., & Melton, A. W. (1929). The comparative retention values of maze habits and of nonsense syllables. Journal of ... Categories of human learning, 47, 381-391. Postman, L. (1964). Short-term memory and incidental learning. ... Journal of verbal Learning and verbal Behavior, 2(1), 1-21. Murdock, B. B. (1974). Human memory: Theory and data. Lawrence ...
Fable (2004 video game)
Maze is revealed to be a traitor and working with Jack. Maze kidnaps Theresa. After defeating Maze, the Hero is led into a ... The Hero learns that Jack of Blades himself destroyed Oakvale during the Hero's childhood; aided by Theresa, the Hero discovers ... An old Hero, Maze, rescues the boy, seeing great potential in him; Maze trains the boy to become a Hero at the Heroes' Guild. ... After a series of quests revolving around this new evil, it is learned that Jack of Blades has returned. He must then defeat ...
Learning and Teaching Scotland, Glasgow, UK,  p. 8-9. "University of Lancaster Research Shows that Learning with Twig Films ... 2000), Maze Media. "Tigtag - Tried and Tested - Teach Primary". TeachPrimary.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.CS1 maint: numeric ... LL Online worked in conjunction with Learning Teaching Scotland. To date, Twig Education has continued to work with Learning ... All films are accompanied by a set of learning materials. These include transcripts of the films, key learning points, ...
VIII). Effects on learning and memory in the radial maze task in mice]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica ... V) Effect on learning and memory in intact and experimentally amnesic rats]". Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica ...
"Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze". ... Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze". Behavioral Neuroscience. 107 (4): 618-626. doi: ... often referred to as the Morris water maze). These included "the cumulative search error during learning trials, the average ... "Using the spatial learning index to evaluate performance on the water maze". Behavioral Neuroscience. 129 (4): 533-539. doi: ...
Prisoners (2013 film)
Keller continues torturing Alex, who cryptically talks about escaping from a maze. Keller visits Holly, learning that Alex's ... Loki matches the maze pattern in Taylor's drawings to a necklace worn by the corpse in Dunn's house. At Taylor's house, Loki ... Seeing a photo of the late husband wearing the same maze necklace as the corpse in Dunn's basement, he searches for Holly, who ... Grace hears him and calls Loki, who learns while responding that Keller spends his nights away from home. He tails Keller to ...
Harvest Festival (Parks and Recreation)
Later, everyone spots Li'l Sebastian in the corn maze and recover him. Leslie learns the power outage was due to television ... Due to budget constraints, the Parks and Recreation set department did not build the harvest festival and corn maze sets, but ...
Automatic Item Generation
Loe, B.S., & Rust, J. (2017). The perceptual maze test revisited: evaluating the difficulty of automatically generated mazes. ... Learning and individual differences, 22, 112-117. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.11.005. Glas, C. A. W., and van der Linden, W. J ... MazeGen is another program coded with R that generates mazes automatically. The psychometric properties of 18 such mazes were ... J technol learn assess, 7(2), 1-51. Arendasy, M.E., Sommer, M., & Mayr, F. (2011). Using automatic item generation to ...
Who Moved My Cheese?
With knowledge learned along the way, Haw heads back into the maze. Getting deeper into the maze, inspired by bits of new ... Realizing he should simply move on, Haw enters the maze, but not before chiseling "If You Do Not Change, You Can Become Extinct ... After hearing movement in the maze one day, Haw realizes someone is approaching the station. Unsure, Haw hopes that it is his ... Cautious from past experience, Haw now inspects Cheese Station N daily and explores different parts of the maze regularly to ...
Orval Hobart Mowrer
Mowrer's primary achievements in learning theory followed from his work with aversive conditioning or avoidance learning. He ... ISBN 978-0-03-059147-1. Lemov, Rebecca (2005). World as Laboratory: Experiments With Mice, Mazes and Men. New York: Hill & Wang ... sign learning) is distinct from habit formation (solution learning). This theory was initially described in a 1947 paper. In ... His primary professional loyalty had always been to learning theory, but he continued to assume that neurotic symptoms and ...
Clark L. Hull
Tolman used maze experiments with rats to show that rats can learn without reinforcement and are better understood as directed ... He believed that reinforcement was not always necessary for learning to occur and that people can learn through latent learning ... Hull's primary interest was in theories of learning and behaviors that lead to learning. This was the goal of most of his ... Their book, Social Learning and Imitation, listed the four fundamentals necessary for instrumental learning. These were drive, ...
Edzard), Ernst, E. (2018-01-11). More harm than good? : the moral maze of complementary and alternative medicine. Smith, Kevin ... but he also believes there is something that conventional doctors can usefully learn from the chiropractors and homeopath: this ...
It is not known precisely what contribution learning makes to adult octopus behaviour. Young octopuses learn nothing from their ... Maze and problem-solving experiments have shown evidence of a memory system that can store both short- and long-term memory. ... They have been reported to practise observational learning, although the validity of these findings is contested. ... Octopuses are highly intelligent, but the extent of their intelligence and learning capability are not well defined.[85 ...
One study found that wood turtles were better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes. ...
Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect ... MSNBC, Thailand's Political Maze-A Beginners Guide, 26 November 2008 *^ The Economist, A right royal mess, 4 December 2008 ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... "Bhumibol Adulyadej" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template ...
Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain ... K Street NW at 19th Street in Washington D.C., part of downtown Washington's maze of high-powered "K Street lobbyist" and law ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Electric Daisy Carnival
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Mirror Maze, Bassrush Arena and Cosmic Healing Temple. ... Upon learning at the exit that only certain areas were closed ... "Electric Daisy Carnival" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
"Meet Me At 60th And 60th; Many Drivers Find Streets of Queens A Confusing Maze". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2017 ... Jamaica Center for Arts and Learning. The travel magazine Lonely Planet also named Queens the top destination in the country ...
Crusio, W. E.; Schwegler, H. (2005). "Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the ... The maze is set up so the rat is forced to return to the center of the maze before pursuing another arm. Measures are usually ... Cole, M.R.; Chappell-Stephenson, Robyn (2003). "Exploring the limits of spatial memory using very large mazes". Learning & ... Mazes vary in complexity as difficulty increases. First pioneered by Olton and Samuelson in 1976, the radial arm maze is ...
... fought their way through a dense maze of shanties and shacks to reach the critically injured crew members. Sergeant First Class ... Sergeant First Class Shughart and his team leader learned that ground forces were not immediately available to secure the site ...
Jane and the Dragon (TV series)
To make matters worse, Sir Ivon and Sir Theodore have built a hedge maze outside the castle, which Jane and Gunther must ... An adventure in a newly discovered underground chamber allows Jane and Dragon to learn a little more about each of their ... Gunther then asks Sir Ivon about having the maze test at night, without explicitly mentioning Jane's fear of the dark, thus ...
The participants were then asked to attempt a complicated mirror maze as many times as they would like. Both groups with goals ... Possible relationship to learned helplessnessEdit. Learned helplessness is a term to explain a specific pattern of behavior ... Due to the unclear results of Eisenberger's study of a Learned Industriousness-Learned Helplessness Continuum, further research ... Eisenberger, R. (1992). Learned Industriousness. Psychological Review, 99(2), 248-267. *^ a b Tucker-Ladd, C. E. (1996). ...
The nearest areas are Blackheath, Eltham, Greenwich, Kidbrooke, Maze Hill, North Greenwich, Plumstead, Welling, Westcombe Park ...
The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher
Humans have to learn how to walk, skip, and ride a bicycle but inside our bodies perform specific manipulations from birth that ... It is the improbability and maze of puzzles that occur in basic research that Thomas believes will lead us to the most ... we do not need to learn. There is new research that suggests humans may be able to change these inner processes with teaching. ...
SB-357,134 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Rogers, DC; Hagan, JJ (2001). „5-HT6 receptor antagonists enhance retention of a water maze task in the rat". ... administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning ...
Champagne ages in the many caves and tunnels under Reims, which form a sort of maze below the city. Carved from chalk, some of ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
Kasutaja:Mariina/Lapseea aktiivsus- ja tähelepanuhäire - Vikipeedia
ON PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING AND PORTEUS MAZE PERFORMANCE IN EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN, Journal of Consulting Psychology, ... ON PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING AND PORTEUS MAZE PERFORMANCE IN EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN, Journal of Consulting Psychology, ...
William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim
The Japanese garrison in Mandalay chose not to surrender, using the forts build by the British and the maze of pagodas in ... "A hardened field soldier who had learned his trade on the Western Front and in the Indian Army, Slim combined troop-leading and ... but changed his plans when he learned from intelligence that the Japanese were planning on defending Mandalay from the eastern ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Jeju Maze Park. *Mysterious Road. *Water Falls (Jeongbang. Cheonjiyeon. Cheonjeyeon). *Jeju Loveland, a sex themed sculpture ...
"Irish republicanism" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Maze Prison escape (1983). *Darkley killings (1983). *Brighton hotel bombing (1984). *Newry mortar attack (1985) ...
Strawberry Hill, London
The nineteenth-century development is named after "Strawberry Hill", the fanciful Gothic Revival villa designed by author Horace Walpole between 1749 and 1776. It began as a small 17th century house "little more than a cottage", with only 5 acres (20,000 m2) of land and ended up as a "little Gothic castle" in 46 acres (190,000 m2). The original owner had named the house "Chopped Straw Hall", but Walpole wanted it to be called something more distinctive and after finding an old lease that described his land as "Strawberry Hill Shot", he adopted this name. After a £9 million, two year restoration, Strawberry Hill House re-opened to the public in October 2010. ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... It's a maze: The pore structure of bread crumbs. Journal of Cereal Sciences, 54, 203-210 ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
The Titan's Curse
Percy soon learns that Luke had used the entrance and will lead his army through the Labyrinth straight in to the heart of camp ... Once there, Percy seeks out Nereus and learns that the monster Artemis was hunting is Bessie, the monster he saved, who is an ... Seeing Annabeth tied up and held hostage by Luke and learning that "the General" is Zoë's father, the Titan Atlas, Percy takes ... those who aren't just might be tempted to go to the original sources to learn more." ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Tours are accompanied by guides as the mine itself is very large and the complex interconnected passages are like a maze. There ... "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre ... Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, ...
"Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre ... Tours are accompanied by guides as the mine itself is very large and the complex interconnected passages are like a maze. There ... Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, ... Taxila University is one of the oldest known universities in the world and it was the chief learning centre in ancient India." ...
The Maze procedure, first performed in 1987, is an effective invasive surgical treatment that is designed to create electrical ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... "Hemp's first year on North Carolina farms wraps up, a lot was learned", Southeast Farm Press ...
London Bridge (Lake Havasu City)
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The original "English Village", a quaint English-style open-air mall with hedge maze and historical museum deteriorated, with ... McCulloch's real estate agent, Robert Plumer, learned that London Bridge was for sale and convinced McCulloch to buy it and ... when lead singer David Gates learned that London Bridge was sold and to be relocated in Lake Havasu City, Arizona. His thought ...
Evolution - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
William Rice and G.W. Salt bred fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, using a maze with three different choices of habitat such ... "Laboratory experiments on speciation: what have we learned in forty years?". Evolution 47 (6): 1637-1653. doi:10.2307/2410209 ... Each generation was put into the maze, and the groups of flies that came out of two of the eight exits were set apart to breed ...
Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats.. Rauscher FH1, Robinson KD, Jens JJ. ... in a multiple T-maze. By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work completed the maze more rapidly and with fewer errors than ... these results suggest a similar neurophysiological mechanism for the effects of music on spatial learning in rats and humans. ... This suggests that repeated exposure to complex music induces improved spatial-temporal learning in rats, resembling results ...
Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats
... in a multiple T-maze. By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work c … ... Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats Neurol Res. 1998 Jul;20(5):427-32. doi: 10.1080/01616412.1998. ... in a multiple T-maze. By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work completed the maze more rapidly and with fewer errors than ... these results suggest a similar neurophysiological mechanism for the effects of music on spatial learning in rats and humans. ...
Numbers & Counting Slide & Learn Maze Board at Lakeshore Learning
Plus, as kids guide the pegs through the board, theyll develop fine motor skills, too! The sturdy maze board has attached pegs ... Kids cant wait to get their hands on our wooden math maze! To practice numbers and counting up to 10, children simply slide ... Kids cant wait to get their hands on our wooden math maze! To practice numbers and counting up to 10, children simply slide ... Plus, as kids guide the pegs through the board, theyll develop fine motor skills, too! The sturdy maze board has attached pegs ...
Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze
Figure 4. Effect of the administration of caffeine 30 min before the test session on the learning of the Morris water maze task ... Figure 1. Effect of the administration of caffeine 30 min before the training session on the learning of the Morris water maze ... Key words: Memory, Learning, Caffeine, Methylxanthines, Adenosine receptor antagonist, Morris water maze ... A modification of the spatial version of the water maze task described by Morris et al. (11) was used. The water maze consisted ...
Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.
Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways ... Association Learning*. Choice Behavior. Discrimination Learning. Male. Maze Learning*. Memory, Short-Term. Motivation. ... Title: Learning & behavior Volume: 32 ISSN: 1543-4494 ISO Abbreviation: Learn Behav Publication Date: 2004 Nov ... Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways ...
Exploring the T-Maze: Evolving Learning-Like Robot Behaviors using CTRNNs - Infoscience
... to display reinforcement learning-like abilities on a set of T-Maze and double T-Maze navigation tasks, where the robot has to ... The learning comes about without modifications of synapse strengths, but simply from internal network dynamics, as proposed ... Exploring the T-Maze: Evolving Learning-Like Robot Behaviors using CTRNNs Blynel, J. ; Floreano, D. ... Home , Exploring the T-Maze: Evolving Learning-Like Robot Behaviors using CTRNNs ...
[email protected]: Memory performance in a novel ten-compartment water maze: normal behaviour and chlordiazepoxide-induced place learning...
The ease with which the ten-compartment water maze can be configured to measure learning in the presence or absence of ... Memory performance in a novel ten-compartment water maze: normal behaviour and chlordiazepoxide-induced place learning ... The primary aim of this study was to develop a novel water maze in which the role of extramaze and intramaze cues in the ... to acquire both mapping and non-mapping strategies during the place learning task and the use of this particular water maze is ...
Magiran | Spatial Learning and Memory in Barnes Maze Test and Synaptic Potentiation in Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Synapses of...
In this study, we investigated if learning and memory in the Barnes maze test are accompanied by the occurrence of LTP in ... the Barnes maze test.ResultsThe results showed that the fEPSP slope did not change after learning and memory in the Barnes maze ... are activated during learning. Nevertheless, little evidence states that hippocampal-dependent learning triggers synaptic ... recorded in freely moving animals before and after training them in Barnes maze as a hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and ...
Water maze learning and forebrain mRNA expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 - Infoscience
L1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with the latency to find the hidden platform in the water maze task and with ... immediately after submitting rats to a massed training protocol in the water maze. The results showed that untrained and ... including thigmotactic behavior in the water maze and increased corticosterone levels, and that recent genetic studies indicate ... steady-state levels of L1 and NCAM expression in specific brain regions could account for individual differences in learning ...
Syzygium Cumini (L.) Seed Extract Improves Memory Related Learning Ability of Old Rats in Eight Arm Radial Maze
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Here, the authors look at how spine turnover and clustering predict future learning and memory performance, and see that a ... Morris water maze. On the first day after handling/habituation (same as CFC) Ccr5+/− and WT littermates underwent the first ... Here we show that pre-learning spine turnover predicts both learning and memory performance and learning and memory-related ... We have found that pre-learning spine turnover and learning-related spine clustering both correlate with contextual learning ...
Persistence of learning-induced synapses depends on neurotrophic priming of glucocorticoid receptors | PNAS
Elevated Plus Maze.. Mice at 3 mo of age freely explored the arms (elevation of 50 cm × 50 cm × 20 cm) for 10-min video- ... To unravel this, we assessed whether learning might affect GR-PO4 using a rotarod learning paradigm. Mice were left untrained ... Motor Learning.. Mice were habituated for 30 min (15 trials) on the nonaccelerating rotarod (2 rpm for 1 min, followed by 30-s ... S1A) and did not persist 24 h posttraining, similar to c-Fos in cortical areas relevant for motor skill learning (SI Appendix, ...
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... and validity of age-related cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... AgingAnimalsAttentionCognitionEscape ReactionMaleMaze LearningMental RecallMotor SkillsRatsRats, Inbred F344Reproducibility of ... Reliability, Distribution, and Validity of Age-related Cognitive Deficits in the Morris Water Maze. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1997; ... Reliability, distribution, and validity of age-related cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1997; ...
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MicroRNA Expression Profiling in the Prefrontal Cortex: Putative Mechanisms for the Cognitive Effects of Adolescent High Fat...
Discrimination reversal learning in the water T-maze. The apparatus and the test procedure are described in detail in the ... The Y-maze apparatus has been extensively described previously28, and the test procedure is described in the Supplementary ... n = 6-8 per diet (c) Cognitive flexibility assessed in a water T-maze left-right discrimination task. Left panel: Number of ... Spatial working memory in the Y-maze. Working memory is a special short-term memory buffer used to hold relevant information ...
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The hippocampus mediates glucocorticoid-induced impairment of spatial memory retrieval: Dependence on the basolateral amygdala ...
Water Maze and Spatial Learning Procedures.. The water maze was a circular, galvanized-steel tank, 1.83 m in diameter and 0.58 ... Partial lesions of the hippocampus disrupt retrieval of spatial memory in a water maze but fail to affect new learning or ... GR Agonist Infusions into the Hippocampus Before Retention Testing Impair Water-Maze Spatial Performance.. All rats learned to ... The maze was located in a room containing several salient, visual, extra-maze cues. ...
Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in...
... showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. ... Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28) were assessed in open-field trial and eight- ... arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams ... Eight-Arm Radial Maze. The radial eight-arm maze task is used ... To test this hypothesis, the open-field task and eight-arm radial maze were used to assess the memory and learning ability at ...
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In a Maze - The New York Times
Tips for navigating the maze of global security regulations
A Silly Alphabet Maze Worksheet Printable | Scholastic | Parents
Use this ABCs maze to help your little one learn the order of the alphabet -- dont forget to color in the fun images along the ... A Silly Alphabet Maze Worksheet Printable. Use this ABC maze to help your little one learn the order of the alphabet - dont ... To solve the maze from start to finish, your child will need to follow the letters in alphabetic order. If your child gets a ... Get expert tips, free printables and fun activities for your childs learning journey. ...
Screenwriting Resources | Oscars.org | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Maze Solving using Value Iterations
Mazes | Free Coloring Pages | crayola.com
Spatial learning. Spatial learning was assessed in a water maze in which animals were required to find a platform submerged (2 ... Spatial learning in Morris water maze (Fig. 4). Distances to find the hidden platform (an average of the 4 trials per day) are ... Spatial learning in the Morris water maze in adult offspring. a, The groups adopted (A1) or separated (S1) on day 1 perform ... 1989) The use of the Morris water maze in the study of memory and learning. Int J Neurosci 48:29-69. ...
COVID-19 Resources - Alzheimer's Association New England
RatsBehaviorNavigatingMorrisCuesBehavioralRational Expression MazeTesting in the water mazeArms on a radial mazeBarnes Maze TestHippocampal-dependent spatialHippocampusEight-arm radialFactoring MazeRadial maze performanceDeficitsExploreTasksVisual acuityTaskSolve the mazeNavigate the mazeRunnerWaterWorksheetsPuzzlePolynomialsCognitiveLesionsDiscriminationGlucocorticoid receptorUtilizeCornPerformanceDifferencesContextualInhibitoryAlzheimer'sGradeImpairsExtensivelyCatheter ablationTestMiceGamesApparatusColorsKidsImpair
- Improved maze learning through early music exposure in rats. (nih.gov)
- Rats were exposed in utero plus 60 days post-partum to either complex music (Mozart Sonata (k. 448)), minimalist music (a Philip Glass composition), white noise or silence, and were then tested for five days, three trials per day, in a multiple T-maze. (nih.gov)
- By Day 3, the rats exposed to the Mozart work completed the maze more rapidly and with fewer errors than the rats assigned to the other groups. (nih.gov)
- This suggests that repeated exposure to complex music induces improved spatial-temporal learning in rats, resembling results found in humans. (nih.gov)
- Taken together with studies of enrichment-induced neural plasticity, these results suggest a similar neurophysiological mechanism for the effects of music on spatial learning in rats and humans. (nih.gov)
- Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip , in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight) administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. (scielo.br)
- Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze. (biomedsearch.com)
- Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. (biomedsearch.com)
- Rats (n=70) were first trained to swim and locate a submerged escape platform placed in one of the compartments of the water maze. (edu.mt)
- In this study, we investigated if learning and memory in the Barnes maze test are accompanied by the occurrence of LTP in Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapses in freely moving rats. (magiran.com)
- Using adult male Wistar rats, we evaluated mRNA levels of L1, NCAM, and the NCAM180 isoform in different brain regions (hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, prefrontal and frontal cortices) immediately after submitting rats to a massed training protocol in the water maze. (epfl.ch)
- In rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, CS enhanced spatial learning, passive avoidance performance, and increased brain N-acetylaspartate/creatine levels, as compared to control rats (saline). (nih.gov)
- Effects of CS on spatial learning in the water-maze test in 2VO rats. (nih.gov)
- Figure 9 shows that path length to escape to the hidden platform in Morris water maze task decreased during the 2-day training period, in all groups of rats. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we evaluated whether oral administration of Syzygium cumini seed extract (SE) ameliorates the learning-related memory of old rats by eight-arm radial maze task. (phytojournal.com)
- Finally, our results show that the S. cumini seed extract improves learning-related memory in old rats, probably, by instigating the antioxidant defense of the brain. (phytojournal.com)
- In the present study, F-344 rats throughout 1.5 to 26 months of age were tested in the reference memory version, a moving-platform repeated acquisition version, and in a cued platform version of the Morris water maze. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. (wikipedia.org)
- Reference memory is assessed when the rats only visit the arms of the maze which contains the reward. (wikipedia.org)
- It therefore seems that in remembering locations on the radial arm maze, rats do not rely on local intra-maze cues, but rather on extra-maze cues. (wikipedia.org)
- Cole and Chappell-Stephenson, using a radial maze with food locations ranging from 8 to 48, estimated the limit of spatial memory in rats to be between 24 and 32 locations. (wikipedia.org)
- In one experiment utilizing the radial arm maze, it was shown that spatial relations among hidden target sites control spatial decisions that rats make and are unrelated to visual or perceptual cues that are related to certain locations. (wikipedia.org)
- 5 or 15 ng) infused into the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley rats 60 min before water-maze retention testing, 24 h after training, dose-dependently impaired probe-trial retention performance, as assessed both by time spent in the training quadrant and initial latency to cross the platform location. (pnas.org)
- Systemic injections of stress-level doses of corticosterone administered to rats shortly before retention testing impair retrieval in tasks that rely on spatial or contextual information, including water-maze and inhibitory avoidance (ref. 22 and B.R., D.J.-F.d.Q., Gustav Schelling, and J.L.M., unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28) were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. (mdpi.com)
- Jozsef Csicsvari and his collaborators investigate spatial learning in rats using the cheeseboard maze apparatus. (medicalxpress.com)
- The test subjects are usually rodents such as mice or lab rats, which either serve as a control or may have some genetic variable or deficiency present in them which will cause them to react to the maze differently. (wikipedia.org)
- In the present series of experiments, we investigated functional interactions between these areas in rats during the performance of delayed and nondelayed spatially cued radial-arm maze tasks. (jneurosci.org)
- The two-phase delayed task consisted of a training phase that provided rats with information about where food would be located on the maze 30 min later during a test phase. (jneurosci.org)
- The single-phase nondelayed task was identical to the test phase of the delayed task, but in the absence of a training phase rats lacked previous knowledge of the location of food on the maze. (jneurosci.org)
- Rats were first trained to asymptotic levels in a task in which two maze arms were consistently baited across training. (frontiersin.org)
- Similarly, A1 rats demonstrated lower novelty-induced locomotion and improved recognition performance in a Y-maze compared to S1 offspring. (jneurosci.org)
- Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity differ in radial maze performance. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the plus-maze, HRA rats again showed more locomotion, but did not differ in open arm time or percentage of open arm entries, that is, conventional measures of anxiety-related behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the radial maze, HRA rats consistently needed less time to consume all pellets than LRA rats, which was due to faster locomotion on the arms and less time spent at the food pits (especially in baited arms) of HRA rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- Walking past tanks of various sea creatures every day led him to wonder if a "maze" in which rats had to swim rather than run, could be a useful way of examining spatial memory and so investigate the functional significance of the recently discovered hippocampal place cells. (scholarpedia.org)
- A popular task used frequently for rats is the Morris water maze. (ox.ac.uk)
- Given that animals with a slower spatial acquisition curve exhibited more anxiety-like responses, including thigmotactic behavior in the water maze and increased corticosterone levels, and that recent genetic studies indicate a role for L1 in anxiety, the current findings suggest a relationship among L1, anxiety, and cognitive processes. (epfl.ch)
- The ability to locate and retrieve food efficiently is an essential survival strategy for rodents and other mammals, and the neural substrates of foraging behavior have been studied extensively using radial-arm maze procedures pioneered by Olton and Samuelson (1976) . (jneurosci.org)
- and/or PFC to guide foraging behavior according to the demands of specific radial-arm maze tasks. (jneurosci.org)
- They were then tested in a plus-maze for possible differences in anxiety-related behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
- The NIMH RDoC working group had initially proposed three draft Constructs within the PVS Domain for consideration during the workshop: Reward Seeking, Consummatory Behavior, and Reward/Habit Learning. (nih.gov)
- The motivation behind this work is to simulate and animate the Reinforcement Learning algorithms to be able to better understand their behavior, which will enable to enhancements to these algorithms. (cmu.edu)
- Navigating mazes is a great way to help her develop her writing and critical-thinking skills. (scholastic.com)
- Navigating the Cancer Maze aims to share time-proven strategies in a "Let's talk about it" atmosphere with the aim of making the journey through cancer more easeful through knowledge. (voiceamerica.com)
- Special Encore Presentation: Navigating the Medical Imaging Maze - What scan should I have? (voiceamerica.com)
- Must be lyme literate, have doctor GPS, be good at navigating mazes. (healingwell.com)
- Now we extend this investigation by studying the effect of caffeine on the spatial version of the Morris water maze. (scielo.br)
- A modification of the spatial version of the water maze task described by Morris et al. (scielo.br)
- This study examined the effect of hippocampal lesions on acquisition of the Morris water maze and conditioned-fear task in inbred mice. (nih.gov)
- The lesioned C57BL/6J and B6D2F1 mice failed to learn the Morris task relative to sham-operated controls, and no DBA group learned the task. (nih.gov)
- These data demonstrate that C57BL/6J and B6D2F1 mice use the hippocampus to solve the Morris water maze and conditioned-fear task, and the DBA mice use the hippocampus, to some degree, in the conditioned-fear task. (nih.gov)
- In 16-month-old middle-aged C57Bl/6 mice (a model of normal aging), CS enhanced spatial learning in the Morris water maze, spontaneous locomotor activity, passive avoidance performance, and increased brain N-acetylaspartate/creatine levels, as compared to the age-matched control (saline). (nih.gov)
- and (5) swim distance is the most appropriate measure of cognitive function in the Morris water maze, but the relationship between this measure and other measures of noncognitive function make it clear that swim distance may not be a pure measure of cognitive function. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Although the Morris water maze remains a valuable preclinical test with better validity and specificity than many other behavioral tests, measures of performance in the Morris water maze should not be considered synonymous with cognitive function. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Lindner, M D.. "Reliability, Distribution, and Validity of Age-related Cognitive Deficits in the Morris Water Maze. (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Reliability, distribution, and validity of age-related cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The Barnes maze is similar to the Morris water navigation task and to the radial arm maze task, but does not utilize a strong aversive stimulus (stress induced by swimming such as in the Morris water maze) or deprivation (food or water deprivation such as in the radial arm maze) as reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
- Morris water navigation task Oasis maze Barnes, CA (1979). (wikipedia.org)
- Learning and memory in the Morris water maze. (morriswatermaze.com)
- How to set the tracking threshold for Morris Water Maze experiments using HVS Image 2014. (morriswatermaze.com)
- The Morris water maze is one of the most widely used tasks in behavioral neuroscience for studying the psychological processes and neural mechanisms of spatial learning and memory . (scholarpedia.org)
- The Morris water maze is a valuable tool to study learning and memory in rodents. (jove.com)
- This video will summarize principles of Morris Water Maze testing review procedures for setting up and running the test and highlight some ways that this and other water tests are used in lab studies. (jove.com)
- Let's dive right in to some basic concepts behind experimentation using the Morris water maze! (jove.com)
- We tested 10 boys (mean age 11.65 years) with an extremely rare disorder of androgen excess (Familial Male Precocious Puberty , FMPP ) and 40 healthy boys (mean age 12.81 years) on a virtual version of the Morris Water Maze task. (curehunter.com)
- The primary aim of this study was to develop a novel water maze in which the role of extramaze and intramaze cues in the acquisition, storage and retrieval of a place learning task could be evaluated. (edu.mt)
- Moreover, it would appear that the animals were able to acquire both mapping and non-mapping strategies during the place learning task and the use of this particular water maze is important in studying the different roles played by intra and extramaze cues during place learning and retrieval. (edu.mt)
- In order to verify whether this particular water maze could be used to study drug induced memory impairment similar to previously developed water mazes, the effect of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist chlordiazepoxide (CDP) on the acquisition and retention of a place learning task in the presence or absence of extramaze cues was investigated. (edu.mt)
- These results, in agreement with other studies, emphasise the importance of benzodiazepine receptors in the consolidation of place learning tasks, especially in the presence of distal spatial cues. (edu.mt)
- The ease with which the ten-compartment water maze can be configured to measure learning in the presence or absence of extramaze cues together with its ability to dissociate non-mnemonic from mnemonic processes adds an important tool in the study of learning and memory. (edu.mt)
- The basic function of Barnes maze is to measure the ability of a mouse to learn and remember the location of a target zone using a configuration of distal visual cues located around the testing area. (wikipedia.org)
- Another drawback to the Barnes maze is that when testing multiple animals, scent cues left on the maze by the previous animal could alter the performance of subsequent subjects. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, instead of using the distal cues, some mice learn to swim at a fixed distance from the edge of the pool until they find the platform. (morriswatermaze.com)
- Visual cues placed around the maze act as spatial cues. (stanford.edu)
- As learning and memory experiments in mammals rely heavily on normal processing of visual cues, drug-induced disruption of acquisition learning or memory formation necessitates the important control for visual acuity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Moderate doses of caffeine induce behavioral stimulant effects that suggest CNS stimulation but higher doses can suppress behavioral activity and even performances associated with learning and memory (1). (scielo.br)
- With Maze Master and RightEye's other training games, educators, optometrists and vision therapists can not only identify reading disorders, but also apply a therapy or training that will improve performance over time, avoiding the frustration, learning difficulties and behavioral challenges often associated with misdiagnosis, or, without the application of therapies proven to produce improvement. (businesswire.com)
- Behavioral tasks involving high levels of stress can influence the animal's performance on the task, making the Barnes maze ideal for eliminating stress-induced confounds. (wikipedia.org)
- Y Maze Spontaneous Alternation is a behavioral test for measuring the willingness of rodents to explore new environments. (stanford.edu)
Rational Expression Maze1
- 2) Rational Expression Maze: Simplify the following problems. (teacherspayteachers.com)
Testing in the water maze1
- Finally, measurements from animals with mobility problems, injuries, or bad vision will not accurately reflect learning and are not ideal for testing in the water maze. (jove.com)
Arms on a radial maze2
Barnes Maze Test4
- The slope of extracellular field Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (fEPSPs) was measured before and after the Barnes maze test. (magiran.com)
- The results showed that the fEPSP slope did not change after learning and memory in the Barnes maze test, and this spatial learning did not result in a change in synaptic potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (magiran.com)
- Spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test are not accompanied by LTP induction in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. (magiran.com)
- Based on the Delayed Match-to-Place experiment conducted in a standard water maze tank, the Modified Barnes Maze test assesses cognitive deficits in rodent models of CNS disorders. (stanford.edu)
- Following the recovery period of at least 10 days, field potentials were recorded in freely moving animals before and after training them in Barnes maze as a hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory test. (magiran.com)
- As infusions of the GR agonist into the hippocampus 60 min before training did not influence water-maze acquisition or immediate recall, the findings indicated that the GR agonist-induced retention impairment was induced selectively by an influence on information retrieval. (pnas.org)
- Lesions or reversible inactivation of the BLA block the modulation of memory consolidation for inhibitory avoidance and water-maze spatial training initiated by manipulation of GRs in the hippocampus ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, stress-level glucocorticoid administration to human subjects shortly before retention testing impairs hippocampus-dependent recall of previously learned verbal material ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
- Development of spatial learning occurs predominantly in the hippocampus [ 8 , 9 ] and involves synaptogenesis-the process of forming connections between neurons. (mdpi.com)
- Medical Xpress)-During spatial learning, space is represented in the hippocampus through plastic changes in the connections between neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
- Due to the spatial nature of the Barnes Maze, damage to the hippocampus leads to deficits in performance of the task. (wikipedia.org)
- For us mammals, the hippocampus seems to play a critical role in a kind of learning that has to do with a human's or animal's cognitive map of its environment. (nationalgeographic.com)
- So the hippocampus is automatically reading out the correct solution to the maze. (nationalgeographic.com)
- However, navigation in a virtual maze relies on spatial or response strategies known to depend on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus, respectively. (nih.gov)
Radial maze performance1
- It is therefore unclear whether the ATN lesions disrupted acquisition or retention of radial maze performance. (frontiersin.org)
- Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring. (mdpi.com)
- Maze Master works in conjunction with the RightEye Reading Test™, launched earlier this year , to improve the oculomotor skills deficits that may be impairing a person's reading. (businesswire.com)
- It is also used by neuroscientists to determine whether there is a causative effect after mild traumatic brain injury on learning deficits (acquisition trials) and spatial memory retention (probe) at acute and chronic time points. (wikipedia.org)
- This novel test may prove useful in determining subtle drug-induced deficits in visual acuity that may contribute to disruption of spatial performance in the water maze. (ox.ac.uk)
- Once acclimated to the maze, subjects may prefer to explore instead of complete the task. (wikipedia.org)
- Explore the different mazes to find the keys, get coins, and purchase upgrades with an exciting mixture of orientation and memory skills. (slideme.org)
- After introduction to the center of the maze, the animal is allowed to freely explore the three arms. (stanford.edu)
- Allow the animal to explore the maze and record the amount of time it takes to find the platform. (jove.com)
- Explore a preview version of Learning Path: Resource-Oriented Architecture right now. (oreilly.com)
- This paper explores the capabilities of continuous time recurrent neural networks (CTRNNs) to display reinforcement learning-like abilities on a set of T-Maze and double T-Maze navigation tasks, where the robot has to locate and "remember'' the position of a reward-zone. (epfl.ch)
- As the game progresses, the mazes grow narrower, while the numbers grow more plentiful, making the tasks more challenging. (businesswire.com)
- Recent work has suggested that this directional orientation information stemming from the ATN contributes to the generation of hippocampal and parahippocampal spatial representations, and may contribute to the establishment of unique spatial representations in radially oriented tasks such as the radial arm maze. (frontiersin.org)
- From the first months to grade school children make sensorial discoveries, learn to analyze what they could sense, and apply their abilities and skills to the more challenging tasks. (educationaltoysplanet.com)
- However, previously used visual tasks in the water maze only control for gross visual disturbances. (ox.ac.uk)
- Printable mazes support students' problem solving strategies (they brainstorm ways through the maze), fine motor skills, handwriting skills and visual acuity. (learnwithpuzzles.com)
- Visual discrimination learning in the water maze: a novel test for visual acuity. (ox.ac.uk)
- Here we describe a new training procedure enabling visual acuity to be tested in the water maze. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, in most of the brain regions we investigated (with the exception of prefrontal and frontal cortices), L1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with the latency to find the hidden platform in the water maze task and with posttraining plasma corticosterone levels. (epfl.ch)
- While previous studies have shown that ATN lesions can impair spatial working memory performance in the radial maze, little work has been done to investigate spatial reference memory in a discrimination task variant. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we tested the role of ATN signaling in a previously learned spatial discrimination task on a radial arm maze. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we asked whether and how such differences might affect performance in a task of spatial learning and memory, the radial maze. (biomedsearch.com)
- A further advantage of this model is that by reversing the submerged platform position, it allows us to examine flexibility of learning, ie how easy is it for the mouse to let go of one learned behaviour and acquire the new task. (morriswatermaze.com)
- Young (N = 23) and older adults (N = 29) were tested using fMRI on the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task, a radial task that dissociates between spatial and response strategies (in Stage 2) after participants reached criteria (in Stage 1). (nih.gov)
- The simplest water escape learning task - learning to find a hidden platform in a single fixed location - is often embedded into a series of sometimes quite complicated training and testing protocols to investigate specific theoretical issues. (scholarpedia.org)
- The Modified Barnes Maze is thought to measure similar learning abilities as the DMP without forcing the subjects to perform a task under unnatural conditions, i.e. swimming in water. (stanford.edu)
- Grey matter volume correlates with virtual water maze task performance in boys with androgen excess. (curehunter.com)
Solve the maze2
Navigate the maze2
- If you don't get lost, it takes about 30 to 40 minutes to navigate the maze. (seacoastonline.com)
- So even a maze that's on a piece of paper, if it is done well, can be challenging because its sheer complexity forces us to actually keep track of many calculations at the same time as we seek to navigate the maze. (nationalgeographic.com)
- In the first experiment, groups of animals received saline or 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg caffeine 30 min before the water maze training session (see below). (scielo.br)
- Path lengths to escape to the hidden platform in water maze were measured during the 2-day training period on days as indicated in the experimental schedule (Figure 7). (nih.gov)
- 2 or 6 ng) did not alter retention performance in the water maze. (pnas.org)
- Kids lead the hippo to water by following the H's in the letter maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- This choice of water temperature at around 13°C below body temperature is sufficiently stressful to motivate the animals to escape, but not so stressful as to inhibit learning. (scholarpedia.org)
- The water maze takes advantage of this preference to train animals to use a small platform as an escape from a pool of water. (jove.com)
- Genetic analysis of water maze discrimination learning for Mus musculus: polygenes and albinism. (jax.org)
- Taken from a page from the Pierre the Maze Detective series of bestselling children's books, the Pierre the Maze Detective Tall Buildings Jigsaw Puzzle asks you to recreate the picture of a city and then find your way out of it! (japantrendshop.com)
- You don't need to be familiar with the Pierre the Maze Detective series, since this jigsaw puzzle is lots of fun even as standalone and suitable for young and old. (japantrendshop.com)
- And you get a bonus: after finishing the jigsaw puzzle, you can use it like a maze and try to trace the path between "start" and "goal," itself another challenge and a great way to spend long days at home. (japantrendshop.com)
- These results are discussed with respect to the role of cognitive and motivational mechanisms, which as subject-inherent factors can contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the radial maze. (biomedsearch.com)
- Further, while previous studies have shown that ATN lesions can impair performance in the radial maze, these studies produced the ATN lesions prior to training. (frontiersin.org)
- Using a newly developed glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-PO 4 -deficient knock-in mouse, we show that consolidation of learning-induced neuroplasticity depends on both GR-PO 4 and neurotrophic signaling. (pnas.org)
- Maintenance of new synapses formed at the time of learning upon neuronal network activation depends on the stress hormone-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and neurotrophic factor release. (pnas.org)
- Kindergartens can get hours of enjoyment from the simplest of things, so it makes sense to utilize this natural tendency towards playfulness to enhance their learning experience. (melbrownjazzcamp.com)
- It is believed that performance of animals in one type of maze cannot be generalized to other mazes because all mazes require animals to utilize a different set of skills. (wikipedia.org)
- The First Unitarian Church of Salt Lake, 569 S. 1300 East, will continue its summer forum at 10 a.m. Sunday with "The Maize Maze: Complexities of Corn and Alternative Fuel Vehicles," by Alyson Brennan and Tim Loftis. (redorbit.com)
- Home to a 6-acre corn maze, the farm offers a wide range of educational experiences for the entire family. (seacoastonline.com)
- The maze is cut into a field of 11-foot corn stalks. (seacoastonline.com)
- There is a shady place for parents to rest while their children visit the much smaller hay bale maze or go back into the corn maze. (seacoastonline.com)
- The real duty of the corn cops is to make sure people do not run or get unruly in the maze, said Carol Hutton. (seacoastonline.com)
- People quickly learn not to pick the corn. (seacoastonline.com)
- In addition to the maze, visitors to the farm can see farm animals, including three draft horses used to harvest the corn. (seacoastonline.com)
- Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we track spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex before, during, and after two forms of episodic-like learning and find that spine turnover before learning predicts future L&M performance, as well as the localization and rates of spine clustering. (nature.com)
- Here we show that pre-learning spine turnover predicts both learning and memory performance and learning and memory-related spine clustering. (nature.com)
- For example, Olton and colleagues found that performance declined only slightly to 82% novel entries in the first 17 entries on a 17-arm maze. (wikipedia.org)
- The radial arm maze has shown to be practicable to investigate how drugs affect memory performance. (wikipedia.org)
- WASHINGTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- RightEye LLC , a leading technology innovator using eye tracking to revolutionize patient care and vision performance, today announced the launch of RightEye Maze Master™, a computer game that helps users gain better control over movement of one or both of their eyes. (businesswire.com)
- RightEye Essential Vision Tests™ - a comprehensive category of binocular vision tests that take only a few minutes to complete and provide a faster, more accurate and robust way to implement binocular vision screenings around the world, identifying issues critical to learning, athletic performance and quality of life. (businesswire.com)
- An experiment done on degu, a specific rodent species, showed that there can be sex differences in performance on the Barnes Maze. (wikipedia.org)
- In a further acuity test taken a few weeks later when animals were given saline infusions, performance was better than in the first test suggesting an effect of learning. (ox.ac.uk)
- In this study, we sought to investigate whether differences in the steady-state levels of L1 and NCAM expression in specific brain regions could account for individual differences in learning abilities. (epfl.ch)
- In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we used transcranial two-photon microscopy to track spine dynamics, and examined the relation between basal spine turnover, contextual or spatial learning and memory, and subsequent spine clustering in the mouse retrosplenial cortex (RSC). (nature.com)
- The RSC is a neocortical structure conserved from rodents to humans that is critical for spatial and contextual learning and memory 21 . (nature.com)
- Immediate early gene expression studies further support a role for RSC in learning and memory by showing increases in c-fos and Arc gene expression following context exposure and contextual fear conditioning 29 . (nature.com)
- Thus, RSC is an ideal cortical structure in which to examine the effects of contextual and spatial learning on spine dynamics. (nature.com)
- The scientists also investigated the contribution of inhibitory interneuron circuits to learning. (medicalxpress.com)
- The new research therefore shows that not only excitatory neurons change modify their behaviour and exhibit plastic connection changes during learning, but also the inhibitory interneuron circuits. (medicalxpress.com)
- The researchers suggest that inhibitory interneurons could be involved in map selection - helping one map dominate and take over during learning, so that the relevant information is encoded. (medicalxpress.com)
- The Mazes Grade 1 homework booklet contains activities that boost confidence, improve eye-hand coordination and fine motor skills, and more. (learningshop.com)
- Studies of acute glucocorticoid effects on distinct memory phases have revealed that a single administration of glucocorticoids enhances the formation of new memories and, additionally, impairs the recall of previously learned information ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- The maze has since been used extensively by researchers interested in studying the spatial learning and spatial memory of animals. (wikipedia.org)
- A Mini-Maze procedure may provide an alternative to catheter ablation for some patients with afib. (everydayhealth.com)
- During learning trials, animals learn where the rewards are located, and after a period sleep, the researchers test whether the animal can recall these reward locations. (medicalxpress.com)
- We are sure it's not plastic, but they want to test it," Maze said after the race but before the verdict. (huffingtonpost.ca)
- Drug-naive albino mice were placed in the center of an elevated maze shaped like a plus sign. (rti.org)
- Math games for first graders take the simple skills that children learned in kindergarten and build on them by introducing new concepts in an encouraging learning environment that works with kids at their own levels. (melbrownjazzcamp.com)
- Digital learning games can improve kindergarten math skills simply by being fun for the kids who play them. (melbrownjazzcamp.com)
- Learn how to combine or sort the 7 different shapes through logic games. (sensationalkids.ie)
- Bragdon, Allen is the author of 'Brain Teasers: 211 Logic Puzzles, Lateral Thinking Games, Mazes, Crosswords, and IQ Tests to Exercise Your Mind and Keep You Sharp 'til You're 100', published 2009 under ISBN 9781602393455 and ISBN 1602393451. (valorebooks.com)
- From this emerged the lab jargon name - "watermaze" - a name that some have objected to on the grounds that the one thing that the apparatus is not is a maze! (scholarpedia.org)
- Naming those colors correctly must however be learnt, and not only so you can choose the right socks to put on in the morning! (melbrownjazzcamp.com)
- Kids can't wait to get their hands on our wooden math maze! (lakeshorelearning.com)
- Then, using 72 colorful cubes in 3 different shapes, kids will snap them together to create mazes. (toys2learnpr.com)
- Kids bake cookies by completing a C maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- Kids get the rocket get back to Earth by doing an R maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- Kids draw a path from the turtle to the sea by following the T's in the letter maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- Kids draw a path from the number 0 to the numbers that come next by following the Z's in the letter maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- Kids use quarters to buy gum by completing a Q maze on this kindergarten reading worksheet. (education.com)
- ST. LOUIS, MO - Grant's Farm has always been a great place for kids to learn. (fox2now.com)
- There are kids stuck in the maze. (learningally.org)
- S o, a bunch of kids - okay, just boys - are trapped in a mysterious Glade at the center of a massive Maze, and there are monsters in the Maze that keep them inside. (flickfilosopher.com)
- WCKD was experimenting on the kids in the Maze because they are immune to the virus and were hoping to find a cure, which doesn't even make any sense but OMG Thomas is so cute amirite. (flickfilosopher.com)
- Over 100 Fun and Challenging Mazes for Kids including Easy, Normal levels and advancing to the more difficult levels. (dymocks.com.au)
- This maze book is sure to get kids thinking! (dymocks.com.au)
- Stress can either promote or impair learning and memory. (pnas.org)