The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Hospital department providing dental care.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.

Comparative personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxin. (1/352)

The aims of the study were to provide valid comparative data for personal exposures to dust and endotoxins for different occupations and to calculate comparative data for the contamination of organic dusts with endotoxin. Nine different occupational settings were studied, drawn from the textile, agricultural and animal handling industries. Samples were collected by personal sampling techniques, using the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampling head, glass fibre filters and rechargeable sampling pumps. The dust exposures were calculated by gravimetric analysis and using the calculated volume of air sampled were expressed as mg/m3. Endotoxin exposures were measured using a simple water extraction from the collected dusts, followed by a quantitative turbidimetric assay. Results were expressed as ng/m3, using the calculated volume of air sampled. In addition, the levels of the contamination of dusts with endotoxin for individual industries were expressed as ng/mg of collected dust. Two hundred and fifty-nine samples, collected from 9 different industries and across 36 different sites were analysed. This represented a sampling rate of 25% for the total work force. The average sampling time was 4.62 h. For all the dusts collected, a significant correlation between the collected dust and endotoxin was seen (r = 0.7 and p < 0.001). The highest dust exposures occurred during cleaning activities (grain handling: 72.5 mg/m3). The individuals exposed to the highest median level of dust and endotoxin were the animal handlers (poultry handlers, dust: 11.53 mg/m3, endotoxin: 71,995 ng/m3). Weaving and mushroom cultivation had the lowest exposures for dust and endotoxins. The mostly highly contaminated dusts (median values expressed as ng of endotoxin per mg of collected dust) were found in the animal handling (poultry: 1,030 ng/mg, swine: 152 ng/mg) and cotton spinning (522 ng/mg) industries. Processing of cotton and wool fibres was found to reduce the levels of contamination of dusts with endotoxin. In the study, valid comparative data for personal exposures to organic dusts and endotoxins have been presented. The highest exposures were found amongst animal handlers and during cleaning activities. The results highlight that dust exposures are greater in a number of industries than the set exposure standards. In addition, endotoxin exposures are found to be greater than levels at which harmful effects have been demonstrated.  (+info)

Determination of hydroquinone in air by high performance liquid chromatography. (2/352)

A method for measuring hydroquinone in air was evaluated, both in the laboratory and in the workplace. The method involved sampling the inhalable fraction onto a filter contained in a multi-holed sampler with a back-up of Tenax TA, followed by desorption into acetonitrile and analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. It was shown to be effective at measuring hydroquinone over the range 0.1 to 2 times a concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for 8 h.  (+info)

Recent achievements and research initiated in the Swedish plastics and rubber industry. (3/352)

The improvement in exposure conditions in the Swedish vinyl chloride producing industry is reported. The article comments on the technology and control methods by which the vinyl chloride concentration has been lowered to less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride. Two epidemiological retrospective cohort studies are presently under way on workers in PVC-utilizing industries and in the rubber industry.  (+info)

Criteria for the health evaluation of polymeric materials building. (4/352)

Various polymer-based synthetic materials have become increasingly ubiquitous in manufactured materials in the U.S.S.R. These release various chemical compounds to the ambient air. The maximum permissible concentrations that have been established for various hazardous chemicals in ambient air must be adjusted to account for the conditions of apartment life. Studies have been conducted to determine exactly what compounds are released and at what rate. Toxicological studies and studies of various physical and chemical properties are required to determine the health effects of these chemicals at concentrations at which they are expected to occur in apartments. More research has to be carried out in this field to further expand our knowledge, and we must beware of any introduction of new polymeric materials without first studying their contribution to possible detrimental health effects.  (+info)

Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation. (5/352)

This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions Committee (comprising the manager, employees' representatives, the occupational physician, and the safety department) in dealing with any problem regarding safety, occupational hygiene, and working conditions. These organizations along with medical practitioners are involved with the compensation of occupational cancers. The regulation for compensation includes the tables of occupational cancer, the possibility of recognition of a cancer case when the requirements of the tables are not met, and the postprofessional follow-up of workers exposed to a carcinogenic agent.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to lead--granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment. (6/352)

The amount of airborne lead absorbed by the body during occupational exposure depends not only on lead concentration in workplace air, but also on the granulometric distribution of the aerosol. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the lead Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) at 50 micrograms/m3 on the basis of Bernard's model and a number of assumptions, including assumption "C", which predicts that the first 12.5 micrograms/m3 are made up of fine particles (aerodynamic diameter < 1 micron) whereas the remaining 12.5 micrograms/m3 consist of particles > 1 micron. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50 micrograms/m3 and a granulometric distribution calculated according to the above mentioned assumption, leads, in the model, to a mean blood level of 40 micrograms/dl. In the present study, we tested the validity of assumption "C" in the environmental air of a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. An 8-stage impactor was used to measure the particle size of airborne dust collected from personal and area samplings. Results indicate that, on the whole, assumption "C" cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study. As a result, lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. We therefore suggest that in order to make a correct evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to lead, it is essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.  (+info)

Heat stress and protective clothing: an emerging approach from the United States. (7/352)

There is little doubt that heat stress affects many workers adversely and that protective clothing generally adds to the burden. The ACGIH threshold limit value for heat stress is the guiding document for evaluation of heat stress in the United States. Adjustment factors have been used to reflect the change in heat stress imposed by different clothing ensembles. While the first proposed factors started with limited experimental data and professional judgment, heat balance methods in the laboratory have yielded better estimates of adjustment factors and for a wider selection of ensembles. These same experiments have provided the starting point to accounting for nonporous clothing in heat balance evaluation schemes such as required sweat rate. Proposed changes to the ACGIH TLV have been mentioned and a framework for thinking about controls presented.  (+info)

Mesothelioma: cases associated with non-occupational and low dose exposures. (8/352)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the importance of low dose exposure to asbestos on the risk of mesothelioma. METHODS: A review of the literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of a threshold level below which there is no risk of mesothelioma. Low level exposure more often than not contains peak concentrations which can be very high for short periods. There might exist a background level of mesothelioma occurring in the absence of exposure ot asbestos, but there is no proof of this and this "natural level" is probably much lower than the 1-2/million/year which has been often cited.  (+info)

As of 4 May 2018, organisations are to observe the revised occupational exposure limits (OELs) for 2495 substances. A Decree adopted on 13 February 2018 sets out maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) for 2495 harmful substances in the air of working zone.The adopted revised OELs are compulsory for all types of organisations regardless of ownership and corporate structure.The
The goal of this Phase I research project is to establish the feasibility of a regenerable chemical sensor for in situ detection of halogenated hydrocarbons (HHCs) in water. The technology is expected to generate a device for rapid field tests related to spills and accidents. HHCs, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), have been widely used for degreasing operations and as dry cleaning agents. They are among the most frequent contaminants of water, air, and soil across the United States. Both epidemiological and toxicological data implicate HHCs as carcinogens. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated maximum allowable concentration of TCE in drinking water is 5 parts per billion. Fujiwara reaction is the only known reaction for detecting HHCs spectrophotometrically in the visible region. This reaction is irreversible, nonspecific, and it requires a fresh supply of reagent for each measurement. Additionally, liquid pyridine used in the Fujiwara reaction is a toxic, offensive-smelling ...
A major concern during manned spaceflight is the quality of the cabin atmosphere. In particular, the crew could be endangered by the uncontrolled accumulation of gaseous trace contaminants arising, for example, from off-gassing (from structural materials, electronic equipment or materials used in experiments, etc.), from system failures (leaks, equipment over-heating, fires, etc.), or from the crew itself (metabolic products). To ensure a safe atmosphere at all times, these trace gases need to be monitored and controlled so that they remain below certain safe limits. These limits are known as SMAC Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration values and have been defined as a result of medical considerations, previous space-flight experience and analogous terrestrial experiences such as in submarines and during saturation diving. SMAC values vary considerably according to the chemical compound considered but, within a normal atmosphere, they are typically measured in parts per million (ppm) or even ...
We investigated the working conditions of a dry-cleaning shop where they had previously used trichloro-ethylene but after the renovation of the shop they now use tetrachloro-ethylene instead and obtained the followlng results. 1. The concentration of tetrachloro-ethylene in the air at the time, when washers were open, was found to be 200-250ppm, surpassing the maximum allowable concentration and the average concentration in the air was, however, 25-30ppm, showing a distinct decrease as compared with the concentration of 420ppm near the washers at the time when they had used trichloroethylene. 2. There could be detected Fujiwaras substance in the urine of employees and assuming the substance to be trichloroacetic acid, it was found in the quantity of 14.5mg/l, which, compared with 416mg/l of trichloro-acetic acid, detectable at the time when they had used trichloro-ethylene, was clearly less. It is assumed that one of the factors bringing about such a decrease, is due to the inhalation of lesser ...
Follow these links to learn more:. SUNsational Facts Get the important facts about sun light, sun damage, and skin cancer. Tips For Sun Protection Learn how you can protect yourself from the sun.. The Skin - Our barrier to the sun. Sunlight and Ultraviolet Radiation - UVC, UVB, and UVA radiation. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Rating System and UV-B Protection - A numeric scale quantifying the degree of sun protection. In vivo Sunscreen Testing - A Phototesting human subjects for water resistance. Critical Wavelength and Broad-Spectrum UV Protection - Why this little known concept is important for broad spectrum coverage. FDA and Sunscreen Labeling - Includes an update on the latest FDA requirements for labeling. FDA Sunscreen Final Monograph Ingredients - Allowable ingredients and maximum allowable concentrations. Photostability and its Affect on UV Protection - Sunscreen stability is important for efficacy. Skin Sensitivity to Sunscreens - Not as common as you might think. Know What You Are ...
A method was developed and tested to identify and measure volatile components generated from sweet-potato bread as it baked for the purpose of determining if hazardous chemicals identified by the National Space and Aeronautical Agency (NASA)s maximum allowable concentrations list (SMACs) were present. A 14.5kL enclosed chamber made of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride was constructed to mimic conditions of a small enclosed food preparation space on board a NASA spacecraft. Volatiles generated from sweet-potato bread as it baked in a portable bread machine inside the enclosed chamber were extracted by thermal desorption tubes containing polydimethylsiloxane foam plugs and a portable pump. Tubes were thermally desorbed and components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated sweet-potato bread baked in a portable bread machine produced compounds identified as potentially hazardous including aliphatic alkanes, saturated C3-C8 aldehydes, ethanol, limonene, and furan ...
Occupational exposure limit monograph for Fingolimod. Affordable occupational exposure limits (OEL) for pharmaceuticals with instant download.
One factor Id like to touch upon first is the fact that autism rates in Europe have remained pretty steady over the last decade. This coincides with the fact that in more than 60 countries around the world, including Australia, Japan, and all of the countries in the European Union, there are significant restrictions or complete bans on the production and sale of GMOs and the pesticides that go with them. In the United States, government agencies have approved massive amounts of pesticides, completely ignoring the fact that they are linked to numerous health ailments. Not long ago, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently raised the allowable concentrations of Monsantos glyphosate, also known as Roundup on food crops, edible oils and animal feed (you can read more about that here). Although we dont know for sure, its important to at least consider the large increase in Genetically Modified Organism (GMOs) and the massive amount of chemicals (pesticides and herbicides) that are ...
NIDA Resource Center for Health Services Research DRUG ABUSE TREATMENT NEEDS ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES A Review of the Literature June, 1997 Hyperlinks to sections within this text: Barry S. Brown, Ph.D.
The FDA has deemed PGPR to be generally recognized as safe for human consumption,[1] and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also deemed it safe.[3] Both of these organisations set the acceptable daily intake at 7.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. In Europe, PGPR is allowed in chocolate up to a level of 0.5%.[3] Short-term studies on rats and chickens showed reversible liver enlargement as a result of higher doses of PGPR, which were deemed a result of increased hepatic (liver) workload alone.[10] In a 1998 review funded by Unilever of safety evaluations from the late 1950s and early 1960s, PGPR was found to be 98% digested by rats and utilized as a source of energy superior to starch and nearly equivalent to peanut oil.[11] Additionally, no evidence was found of interference with normal fat metabolism, nor with growth, reproduction, and maintenance of tissue. Overall, it did not constitute a human health hazard.[11] ...
The European Food Safety Authoritys scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) has assessed the safety of a group of caramel colours[1] authorised for use in food in the European Union. The Panel has revised the previously established Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs)[2] for these colours and set a group ADI covering all caramel colours. The Panel also looked ...
Need an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for an active pharmaceutical ingredient? Be sure to check out OEL Fastrac within instant download.
Cellulose gum complies with the requirements of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 section 182.1745, Substances Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use in foods and meets the monograph requirements set forth in the Food Chemicals Codex, current edition. Cellulose gum also conforms to the purity criteria of E466 as mentioned in the Annex of EC directive 2008/84/EC and amendments. An ADI (acceptable daily intake) of not specified has been allocated by the Scientific Committee of the EU and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.. ...
a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total residue of tilmicosin is 25 [micro]g/kg of body weight per day. (b) Tolerances. The tolerances for tilmicosin (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle. (i) Liver (target tissue): 1.2 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.1 ppm. (2) Sheep. (i) Liver (target tissue): 1.2 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.1 ppm. (3) Swine. (i) Liver (target tissue): 7.5 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.1 ppm. (c) Related conditions of use. See §§ 520.2471, 522.2471, and 558.618 of this chapter. ...
The purpose of this Proposal is to consider benzoate and sulphite permissions in all foods in response to findings of FSANZs 21st Australian Total Diet Survey, which found some population sub-groups in Australia consume amounts in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake levels.. Read about the history of P298. ...
Get the latest osha exposure standard news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Keeping up with Occupational Exposure Limits can be tough - especially if your organization is expanding into new geographies. Learn how you can simplify OEL management with a centralized system.
ECHA to provide recommendations for occupational exposure limits ECHA/PR/19/02   The European Commission and ECHA have signed an agreement for the Agency to provide...
We are reviewing the Workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants to ensure they are based on the highest quality, contemporary evidence and supported by a rigorous, scientific approach.. The draft evaluation reports for each chemical will be available for public comment. Chemicals will be released alphabetically throughout 2019 and 2020. Public comment will be open for each release for a period of four weeks on Engage.. The chemical release groups and the anticipated dates for opening public comment are outlined below. Please note these dates are indicative only. For the latest information please continue to visit Engage.. ...
A) Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than 30 days per year, the employer shall implement engineering, work practice, and administrative controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Where engineering, work practice, and administrative controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used by the employer to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level.Small non-ferrous foundries (fewer than 20 employees), however, are only required to achieve 75µg/M3 by such controls ...
Background According to the ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment - Chapter R.8 (Version 2.1, Nov 2012), a national occupational exposure limit (OEL) can be used as a surrogate for a DNEL under certain circumstances (R.8.1.1). APPENDIX R. 8-13 is specifying the derivation of DNELs, when a community/national occupational exposure limit (OEL) is available. For 4,4´-MDI and pMDI the German MAK Commission established a purely health based OEL (MAK-Value) of 0.05 mg/m3for inhalable aerosol referring to an 8-hour exposure period, that is the basis for the official national OEL in Germany (listed in TRGS 900). This OEL is used as a surrogate DNEL for long-term exposure. A ceiling limit value of 0.1 mg/m3was settled. This ceiling limit is used as a surrogate DNEL for short-term exposure. Since irritation to the respiratory tract is the most sensitive health effect these DNELs apply for local effect, in absence of any systemic toxicity no additional systemic DNELs need ...
Festool is a premium German brand of professional tools and power tools for carpentry, building, construction, automotive repair, concreting and other trade industry. We produce high quality, robust, safe and high precision products that meet your toughest demands. Our products ranges from screwdriving, drilling, cutting, sawing, joining, sanding, polishing, dust extraction and grinding.
ABLIS helps you find the government licences, permits, approvals, registrations, codes of practice, standards and guidelines you need to know about to meet your compliance responsibilities.
ABLIS helps you find the government licences, permits, approvals, registrations, codes of practice, standards and guidelines you need to know about to meet your compliance responsibilities.
The evidence for underlying mechanisms of respiratory injury from exposure to secondhand smoke suggests that a safe level of exposure may not exist, thus implying that any exposure carries some risk. For infants, children, and adults with asthma or with more sensitive respiratory systems, even very brief exposures to secondhand smoke can trigger intense bronchopulmonary responses that could be life threatening in the most susceptible individuals. This is clearly speculative (suggests...may) and it only applies to people who are extremely susceptible. Specifically, he seems to be referring to chronic asthmatics but there is no definition of what very brief exposures are. It does not seem to be referring to tiny drift in mult-unit apartments. Ultimately, no safe level means that no safe level has been detected with accuracy; it does not mean that exposure at any level is dangerous. Although the more accurate phrase that is used by some anti-tobacco lobby groups doesnt necessarly spell ...
There is no safe level for drinking alcohol. The ideal situation is to not drink at all. Dr Lars Møller, Programme Manager, Alcohol and Illicit Drugs at WHO/Europe, dispels some misconceptions about the so-called safe level of drinking in a question and answer (Q&A) session.
Results for exposure limit training from AAA-Training-, Hazwoper, Pulsar Instruments and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you
If enough oxygen and blood cannot reach your heart, you may suffer chest pains. If the safe level is well below the norm then why...
Chromium toxicity refers to the fact that chromium is toxic. Water-insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was the basis of the true story of Erin Brockovich, dramatised as Erin Brockovich (film). Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and its use in dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The World Health Organization-recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has maintained that there is no safe level of asbestos exposure for any type of asbestos fiber, but despite these warnings, asbestos is still legal and still used in the United States. Different government agencies have their own rules and regulations for asbestos control to maintain exposure levels in the workplace and the environment. Those who work directly with asbestos consistently have a higher chance of contracting an asbestos-related disease than those who do not. Regulations and guidelines have been installed to keep the level of asbestos exposure at a minimum and are necessary among those who are in danger of being exposed in the work place.. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Health-based reassessment of current administrative occupational exposure limits in the Netherlands. Thallium and water soluble thallium compounds (CAS reg.nr. 7440-28-0). AU - Maclaine Pont, M.A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Report. T3 - Report of the Committee on Updating Occupational Exposure Limits. BT - Health-based reassessment of current administrative occupational exposure limits in the Netherlands. Thallium and water soluble thallium compounds (CAS reg.nr. 7440-28-0). PB - Health Council of the Netherlands. CY - The Hague. ER - ...
Community resilience is a complex, multi-dimensional problem that relies on engineering, social sciences, earth sciences, and other disciplines to improve the way communities prepare for, resist, respond to, and recover from disruptive events, whether those events are due to natural or human-caused hazards. This project will develop tools and metrics for communities to measure resilience at the community-scale. The assessment methodology needs to employ a a complex systems perspective in order to make linkages between social and physical systems. Additionally, the methodology needs to address resilience over time on order to provide useful information to inform an understanding of the factors influencing recovery following a disruptive hazard event. The goal of this research is to develop a simplified, science-based community resilience assessment methodology that can be applied to communities of any size for the purpose of assessing baseline resilience and changes in resilience over time. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding occupational exposure limits for carcinogens in the EU - necessary but not sufficient to reduce risk. AU - Cherrie, John W.. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. KW - Cancer. KW - Carcinogen. KW - Exposure. KW - Exposure limit. KW - Exposure limit value. KW - Letter. KW - Occupational cancer. KW - Occupational exposure. KW - Occupational exposure limit. KW - Work-related cancer. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068990664&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.5271/sjweh.3836. DO - 10.5271/sjweh.3836. M3 - Article. C2 - 31256196. VL - 45. SP - 423. EP - 424. JO - Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. JF - Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. SN - 0355-3140. IS - 4. ER - ...
At their March 2010 meeting, the Board of Directors (BOD) approved a new occupational exposure limit (OEL) review and adoption procedure. Under the new procedure, WorkSafeBC will now review and stakeholders will be consulted on potential implementation issues prior to the adoption of the annual new or revised ACGIH TLVs. This new procedure will be implemented for the annual new or revised ACGIH TLVs that will be published in April 2010. Under the former procedure, the annual American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) were adopted as BC OELs prior to a review of implementation issues and stakeholder consultation. This created issues with the implementation of the new limits. Implementation issues include the practicability of implementation (i.e. can industry meet these limits) or technical feasibility of implementation (i.e. is there a validated sampling method to measure at these new limits).. While the BOD approved the new procedure, ...
The listed calls for evidence concerning occupational exposure limits have already taken place and have now been closed. These calls were held to allow parties concerned to comment and to help ECHAs Risk Assessment Committee in developing an opinion on scientific evaluation of occupational exposure limit(s).. The substances or chemical agents are listed in the table below together with information on the subject.. ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Health-based reassessment of administrative occupational exposure limits. Carbon tetrabromide. AU - Maclaine Pont, M.A.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Report. BT - Health-based reassessment of administrative occupational exposure limits. Carbon tetrabromide. PB - Gezondheidsraad. CY - Den Haag. ER - ...
A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins Three of the nine selected agencies risk assessment methodologies that GAO reviewed-the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Justice (DOJ), and the Department of State (State)-fully align with the Interagency Security Committees (ISC) risk assessment standards, but six do not-the Department of the Interior (DOI), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Federal Protective Service (FPS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). As a result, these six agencies may not have a complete understanding of the risks facing approximately 52,000 federal facilities and may be less able to allocate security resources cost-effectively at the individual facility level or across the agencies facility portfolios. ISCs The Risk Management Process for Federal Facilities ( RMP ) standard requires that agencies facility
ETHYLMETHYLPHENYLGLYCIDATE Explanation Ethylmethylphenylglycidate (EMPG) was first evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1967 and 1974 (see Annex I, Refs. 14 and 34). A toxicological monograph was issued in 1968 (see Annex I, Ref. 15). Since the previous evaluation additional data have become available and are summarized and discussed in the following monograph. The previously published monograph has been expanded and is reproduced in its entirety below. BIOLOGICAL DATA BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS In vitro experiments using simulated gastric juice showed over 80% cleavage of the epoxy linkage after one hour; with intestinal fluid some 70% of the epoxy linkage was destroyed in three hours. Ester hydrolysis occurred to only a minor degree (Oser, 1967). TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES Special studies on carcinogenicity See under long-term studies. Acute toxicity LD50 Animal Route (mg/kg bw) Reference Rat Oral 5 470 Jenner et al., 1964 Guinea-pig Oral 4 050 ...
Scientific studies were included in the application, though FSANZ will be looking into a wider range of material. The European Food Safety Authority recently supported a submission for a plant sterol-based health claim from Unilever, saying, Plant sterols have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. Blood cholesterol lowering may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. FSANZ stated one of its concerns that consumers may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake, created by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, by consuming multiple products that contain phytosterol esters.. Currently, phytosterol esters from vegetable oils and non-esterified phyotsterols-derived from a tall-oil source-are permitted in oils spreads and margarines in Australia. And since November 2006, phytosterol esters have been permitted in breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and low-fat yogurt. Non-esterified phtosterols from vegetable oil have not yet been accepted.. ...
These products are not regulated by Health Canada because they are considered food ingredients, not additives. However, Health Canada has approved the use of stevia extracts, leaves and powders in some Natural Health Products (NHPs) as a medicinal and non-medicinal ingredient. Natural Health Products (NHPs) that contain stevia extracts, leaves or powders as a medicinal ingredient in amounts higher than the Acceptable Daily Intake may be unsafe for some people. Always talk to your doctor, dietitian or healthcare provider about any NHPs that you are taking or thinking about taking.. ...
The Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) published today an opinion on the safety of using parabens (additives E 214-219) in foods. The Panel concluded that a group ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) of 0-10 mg/kg body weight per day could now be established for methyl and ethyl parabens and their sodium salts.
SO2 is one of my favorite winemaking ingredients, because it serves a dual purpose in a wine solution. It is antioxidative, and it also inhibits the growth of microorganisms. As an antioxidant, it works to block oxidative reations-- that is, the sorts of reactions that make your wine start to smell and taste like spoiled fruit. As an antimicrobial, it helps prevent the growth of bacteria, molds, and yeasts that can grow in wine and turn it into vinegar, or otherwise spoil it.. Its true that SO2 can be toxic when ingested in high doses-- the number isnt exactly set in stone, because doctors dont want to kill people to find out where that threshold is. They think its somewhere around 190 milligrams per kilogram of weight (or about 86 milligrams per pound). An acceptable daily intake is considered to be about 48 milligrams per day for a 150 pound person. To put this in perspective somewhat, your body produces about 2,000 milligrams of sulfur dioxide just on its own every day, and thats also ...
This list contains the indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs) from Commission Directive 2017/164/EU. Member States are required to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive, which establishes values for reference period of eight-hour time weighted average and for a short-term period of 15 minutes. The Directive adds limit values for 27 new chemical agents, and amends 6 existing ones established by earlier directives. ...
Abstract: Notice of initiation of action by OSHA with respect to reducing occupational exposure to 2-Methoxyethanol, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2- Methoxyethanol Acetate and 2-Ethoxyethanol Acetate (2-ME, 2-EE, 2-MEA, and 2-EEA, respectively under 6(b) of OSH Act. This notice summarizes information currently available to OSHA regarding their production, use, health effects, estimates of employee exposure and risk assessments. Comments in response to this Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking should be submitted by July 31, 1987 ...
This skin notation profile presents (1) a brief summary of epidemiological and toxicological data associated with skin contact with 2-DAE and (2) the rationale behind the hazard-specific skin notation (SK) assignment for 2-DAE. The SK assignment is based on the scientific rationale and logic outlined in the Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 61: A Strategy for Assigning New NIOSH Skin Notations [NIOSH 2009]. The summarized information and health hazard assessment are limited to an evaluation of the potential health effects of dermal exposure to 2-DAE. A literature search was conducted through April 2014 to identify information on 2-DAE, including but not limited to data relating to its toxicokinetics, acute toxicity, repeated-dose systemic toxicity, carcinogenicity, biological system/function-specific effects (including reproductive and developmental effects and immunotoxicity), irritation, and sensitization. Information was considered from studies of humans, animals, or appropriate modeling ...
Although U.S. OSHA updated its occupational silica standard in 2016 for the first time in 45 years, relatively few countries have followed suit. Aside from a handful of European countries, some Canadian Provinces and Mexico, most other countries do not have as stringent of a standard as the current U.S. Permissible Exposure Limit of 0.05 mg/. In fact, most low and middle-income countries have no regulatory limits for respirable crystalline silica in the workplace. Globally, occupational exposure standards for silica vary considerably and few have . . .
Cost/benefit justifications are now required for new environmental regulations. The benefit is related to the difference between the currently existing health risk rate and the rate corresponding to the proposed permissible exposure limit. The adoption of many permissible exposure limits has been delayed by the lack of supporting human data and the use of animal data instead. This has resulted in
GRAM can be used to evaluate business-critical information risks and is an initial step in designing appropriate controls. Use this Toolkit to apply GRAM to protect essential enterprise information assets.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 authorizes the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop criteria, including recommended exposure limits (RELs), for preventing disease and hazardous conditions in the workplace. A REL is an occupational exposure limit recommended by NIOSH as being protective of worker health and safety over a working lifetime. NIOSH det
Throughout the legal text: Council Directive 98/24/EC of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work. Recital 2 makes reference to: Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work In relation to measurement techniques introduced by Article 17 of that Directive. Recital 3 makes reference to: Commission Decision 2014/113/EU of 3 March 2014 on setting up a Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Agents and repealing Decision 95/320/EC In relation to the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Agents (SCOEL). Recital 14 makes reference to: (1) Commission Directive 91/322/EEC of 29 May 1991 on establishing indicative limit values by implementing Council Directive 80/1107/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents ...
Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm. Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry). Mailing address: ...
In September last year, the European Food safety Authority (EFSA) said in a scientific opinion​​ that current levels of dietary exposure of titanium dioxide posed no health concerns, even though it was unable to set an acceptable daily limit (ADI) due to data limitations.. However, it called for research to fill these data gaps, particularly on the potential effects on the reproductive system which had been flagged as a risk by a small number​ of studies.. A spokesperson for EFSA told FoodNavigator it was aware of the study and would consider its relevance in due course​.. Source: Scientific Reports​. Food-grade TiO2​ impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon​. First published online 20 January 2017, DOI: ​10.1038/srep40373​​. Authors: Sarah Bettini, Elisa Boutet-Robinet, Christel Cartier, Christine Coméra et. al.. ...
Is Hayfever Blocking You Up? Dont Let It Shut You Down. Winning The Fight Against Congestion Can Greatly Help Restore Acceptable Daily Function.
Proposed Revised Definitions for the Levels of Evidence for NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles; Request for Comment, 13122-13123 [2017-04628]
Exposure limits are the main way the public are protected against possible risks from EMFs.. Various bodies have set limits or published guidelines on exposure to EMFs. Most have set the limits to prevent established effects at high fields - principally induced currents - but have not regarded the evidence for effects at lower fields such as cancer as strong enough to justify setting exposure limits. But there is a debate as to what might be appropriate precautionary measures at these lower fields. ...
Dimension Five of RITs 2015-2025 Strategic Plan is organizational agility. One of the key difference makers in this dimension is the development of a less risk-averse culture (taking calculated risks in order for a greater return). Traditionally, risk is often thought of as something to be avoided. However, given that value is a function of risk and return, strategic decisions do not necessarily eliminate or even minimize risk. Rather, the goal is to manage risk (both exposures and opportunities) across all parts of organization so that, at any given time, just enough of the right kind of risk to effectively pursue strategic goals is incurred. The first step towards successfully managing risks is to implement an effective risk assessment methodology. Risk assessment is a systematic process for identifying and evaluating both external and internal events (risks) that could affect the achievement of objectives, positively or negatively. During this class, we will discuss the key components of an ...
NMFS will host a meeting of the Council Coordination Committee (CCC), consisting of the Regional Fishery Management Council chairs, vice chairs, and executive directors in January 2012. The intent of this meeting is to discuss issues of relevance to the Councils, including FY 2012 budget allocations and budget planning for FY2013 and beyond, Marine Recreational Information Program Update, Report on the Allocation of Fishery Resources, Habitat Blueprint, Managing Our Nations III Conference, and other topics related to implementation of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). ...
People who consistently smoked an average of less than one cigarette per day over their lifetimes had a 64 percent higher risk of earlier death than people who never smoked.
For many of us its an essential social and creative lubricant - yet its undoubtedly a killer. Heres how to get the good stuff while limiting the bad
Despite the recent study spawning news headlines, the risks of alcohol did not suddenly shoot up, we did not suddenly discover risks we did not know about before; and the risks reported are not suddenly in the game-changing zone.
The UNs childrens agency, UNICEF, said Asia accounts for more than 16 million of the worlds 17 million infants aged under one year living in areas with severe pollution - at least six times more than safe levels ...
When DRNN predicts that the number of cells in buffer exceeds the threshold limit in the next time cycle, a control signal is generated by the controller to throttle arrival cell rate. 当DRNN预测下一时刻缓冲区中的信元数超过阈值时,控制器产生一个反馈控制信号减小信源进入网络的信元速率以避免拥塞发生 ...
Minggu ke 3 Keamanan dan sanitasi hasil ternak. Yuli Yanti , S.Pt ., M.Si [email protected] yyanti12.staff.uns.ac.id LAB. IPHT FP-UNS. Sanitasi. Clean -free of visible soil Sanitize -reduce the number of bacteria to a safe level Sterilize -to make free of bacteria Slideshow 1942401 by keefe
Are wireless networks and wifi radiation safe for children? What are the acceptable exposure limits? Jini Patel Thompson brings you answers from experts...
This table summarizes the limit values of AgBB 2015 scheme for emissions from construction products. It also indicates which parameters are different from the European harmonized approach as in prEN 16516.
Liquid special indicator in dropper bottle for the monitoring of softened water like Durognost® SR 0, set for the limit values of 1 = 18 ppm CaCO3 and 0.5 °dH
Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (1996). Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected ... Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). ...
Wong, KL (1996). "Carbon Dioxide". In N.R. Council (ed.). Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne ... local pockets of increased CO2 concentrations may form. Without proper ventilation, CO2 concentrations ppCO2 could rise above ... Nominal CO2 concentrations on Earth are approximately 0.23 mmHg while nominal CO2 levels aboard the ISS are up to 20 times that ... In brief: serum concentrations of metabolites of the folate, vitamin B-12 dependent one carbon metabolism pathway, specifically ...
The maximum allowable concentration for PFOS under the guidelines is 0.0002 milligrams per litre. The maximum allowable ... Health Canada has published drinking water guidelines for maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. The guidelines were ... serum concentration in 69,000 individuals from around DuPont's Washington Works Plant and found a mean concentration of 83.0 ng ... Public water systems in New Jersey are required to meet a maximum contaminant level (MCL) standard of 13 ppt. In 2020 the state ...
These may include the maximum allowable concentration of CO 2, H 2S and H 2O. Usually sales quality gas that has been treated ... Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2020). "CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: CO₂ Emissions by Fuel". Our World in Data. Published ...
... and Cn are the concentrations of harmful substances number 1, 2 ... n; and PEL is the maximum allowable concentration for ... concentration outside the mask) - (the concentration of harmful substances under mask) ) / (concentration outside the mask) = 1 ... the maximum concentration of pollutants = personal Fit Factor × PEL), but not more than 100 × PEL. However, scientific studies ... IDLH concentrations). If concentrations exceed the IDLH, the standard allows the use of only the most reliable respirators - ...
For example, concentrations of formaldehyde occasionally exceed maximum allowable limits by a factor of four. Responsibility ... occasionally exceeding maximum allowable concentrations by several times, especially in the city centre. ...
... and phenols exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations. In Kyrgyzstan, 4892 rivers and canals flow into Chu River. The main ...
The maximum allowable concentration varies between 0.01 and 0.1 mg·m−3 in air depending on the country. Because it contains ...
The World Health Organization recommends a maximum allowable concentration of 0.05 milligrams per litre of chromium(VI) in ... Chromium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum, or urine may be measured to monitor for safety in exposed workers, to ... Concentrations" (PDF). Open-file Report. United States Geological Survey. ISSN 2331-1258. Retrieved 2018-05-15. Newman, D. ( ...
... then referred to as Maximum Allowable Concentrations. The term "Threshold Limit Values (TLV)" was introduced in 1956. The first ... Threshold Limit Values for Chemicals Substances Committee Mission - To recommend airborne concentrations of agents and exposure ...
... , Harold L. Kaplan, Martin E. Coleman, John T. James: Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected ...
The maximum allowable manganese concentration is 0.31 milligrams per liter and the maximum allowable load is 2.1 pounds (0.95 ... The maximum allowable concentration of iron is 0.58 milligrams per liter and the maximum allowable load is 4.0 pounds (1.8 kg ... The maximum allowable concentration is 0.39 milligrams per liter and the maximum allowable daily load is 2.7 pounds (1.2 kg). ... The load of manganese requires no reduction to meet its total maximum daily load requirements. The concentration of aluminum in ...
U.S. Navy Standards [U.S. Bureau of Ships 1962] maximum allowable concentrations (MACs): continuous exposure (60 days): 25 ppm ... The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ... At lower concentrations, around 0.05 mg/L, un-ionised ammonia is harmful to fish species and can result in poor growth and feed ... The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees Baumé (about 30% (by ...
By 21 CFR 184.1634, the maximum allowable concentration of iodine in salt in the U.S. is .01% "Safety (MSDS) data for sodium ... This concentration of iodide allows the calculation of the iodide dose per drop, if one knows the number of drops per ... This is 100% weight/volume (note units of mass concentration) of KI (one gram KI per mL solution), which is possible because ... With pure water, the concentration of KI in the solution depends only on the temperature. Potassium iodide is highly soluble in ...
In the US, maximum limits of allowable concentrations for individual pesticides in drinking water are set by the Environmental ... The United Kingdom sets Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), or maximum allowable concentrations of some pesticides in bodies ... Studies by the UK government showed that pesticide concentrations exceeded those allowable for drinking water in some samples ... The European Union also regulates maximum concentrations of pesticides in water. The extensive use of pesticides in ...
... detected during the flight are mostly within their threshold limit values and NASA Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration ... The concentrations measured can be compared with the appropriate exposure limits. If the exposures are high then the risks to ... Above specific concentrations, if inhaled, the gases could affect the ability of the crew to carry out their duties effectively ... Samples of air from the spacecraft are examined both before and after flight for their gas concentrations. The activated carbon ...
... ensure that wood dust is extracted to a level that ensures specified maximum allowable residual airborne dust concentrations ... To lower the concentration of airborne dust concentrations during woodworking, dust extraction systems are used. These can be ... Auschwitz concentration camp survivor, Dr. Miklós Nyiszli, reports in Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account that the ... The parameter most commonly used to characterize exposures to wood dust in air is total wood dust concentration, in mass per ...
IMO PSPC (performance standard for protective coatings) regulations set a maximum allowable concentration of soluble salts on a ... Salt concentration by weight is about 3.5% in sea water. With spray from waves and by other means, salt gets into the air as an ... each salt having a characteristic conductivity-versus-concentration relationship. The correlation between concentration and ... Sodium chloride can be dissolved in cold water to a concentration of 357 g∙l−1. Not only solubility differs between salts but ...
... maximum allowable limits of concentration of pollutants for an area, environmentally compatible land use, and proximity to ...
These usually specify the maximum allowable concentration of CO2, H2S and H2O as well as requiring the gas to be commercially ... For instance, the Hugoton Gas Field in Kansas and Oklahoma in the United States contains concentrations of helium from 0.3% to ... Hydrocarbon dew-point adjustment reduces the concentration of heavy hydrocarbons so no condensation occurs during the ensuing ...
In 1992, the federal government set the guideline to have the Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) of lead in drinking water ... The Directive sets the maximum lead concentration in drinking water at 0.025 mg/L by 2003, and 0.01 by 2013. A study in 1999 ... There are short-term elevation of lead concentration as well, but it tends to release less lead and to release lead for a ... Therefore, WHO established the guideline value of lead concentration in drinking water not to exceed 0.01 mg/L. As of early ...
... maximum allowable concentration MeSH G03.850.460.350.600 - occupational exposure MeSH G03.850.460.350.600.615 - maximum ... allowable concentration MeSH G03.850.460.350.600.807 - threshold limit values MeSH G03.850.460.350.700 - paternal exposure MeSH ...
In 1986, EPA established a maximum allowable concentration for fluoride in drinking water of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L). ... Only two states-Massachusetts and California-set legally binding maximum contaminant levels on the allowable amount of ... In a few areas of the United States, fluoride concentrations in water are much higher than normal, mostly from natural sources ... "Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for Perfluorononanoic Acid and 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; Private Well Testing for Arsenic, ...
Landfill Tax Credit Scheme LWaRB London Waste and Recycling Board MTD Metric Ton per Day MAC Maximum Allowable Concentration ... Scheme MCDA Multi Criteria Decision Analysis MDC Metropolitan District Council MDR Mixed Dry Recyclables MEL Maximum Exposure ...
... a chemotherapy regimen of Mitoxantrone and Ara-C Maximum allowable concentration, a concept related to threshold limit value ( ... a type of access control in computer security Maximum activate count, a parameter associated with the LPDDR4 memory's TRR ... a category of carbohydrates consumed by gut microbes Minimum alveolar concentration, a measure used to compare the strengths of ...
Environmental Quality Standards set limits to the average annual concentration as well as the maximum allowable concentrations ... The concentrations of pesticides alongside other chemical substances that pose a significant risk to the environment or to ... Active substances may be approved for a maximum of up to 15 years. This approval period is proportional to the risks posed by ... If additional information is needed, the Rapporteur Member State will set a period of maximum 6 months for the submission of ...
... "found to contain arsenic levels in excess of 40 times the maximum allowable concentration for drugs" and people who had used ...
The Maximum Allowable Toxicity Concentration (MATC is determined by taking the square root of the No Effects Concentration ( ... The AF is calculated by dividing the Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (MATC) by the Lethal Concentration that kills 50 ... Fox, D. R.; Landis, W. G. (2016). "Don't be fooled-A no-observed-effect concentration is no substitute for a poor concentration ... The science behind determining a safe concentration to the environment is imperfect, statistically limited, and resource ...
Max Planck Digital Library. Retrieved 4 June 2008.. *^ Chrystal, Paul (2014-10-17). Tea: A Very British Beverage. ISBN ... "Tea preparation and its influence on methylxanthine concentration" (PDF). Food Research International. 29 (3-4): 325-330. doi ... "Pesticide traces in some tea exceed allowable limits". CBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2015 ... The divergence of Chinese small leaf tea and Assam tea would correspond to the last glacial maximum.[28][29] ...
They assumed no carriers were collected at the IB and that the device was under full concentration. They found the maximum ... A solar cell has a voltage dependent efficiency curve, temperature coefficients, and allowable shadow angles. ... The fill factor is the ratio of the actual maximum obtainable power to the product of the open circuit voltage and short ... The Shockley-Queisser limit for the theoretical maximum efficiency of a solar cell. Semiconductors with band gap between 1 and ...
The tax was increased to a maximum allowable rate by voters in 2009 to meet CAP goals. Currently the tax is set at $0.0049 /kWh ... so that fuels with high energy concentrations, despite their subsequently high carbon content, will no longer carry the same ... Lin, Max (2009-10-21). "Taiwan: Choosing Carbon Taxes Over Carbon Tariffs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-10-21.. ...
These standards usually include minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants, depending on the intended purpose of water ... which is a by-product regulated to low allowable levels in the United States. Chlorine dioxide can be supplied as an aqueous ... As particle concentrations in the settled water increase near the sludge surface on the bottom of the tank, settling velocities ... Water with high concentrations of hardness salts can be treated with soda ash (sodium carbonate) which precipitates out the ...
U.S. Navy Standards [U.S. Bureau of Ships 1962] maximum allowable concentrations (MACs): continuous exposure (60 days): 25 ppm ... The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ... Concentration. by weight (w/w) Molarity Concentration. mass/volume (w/v) Classification R-phrases ... Max Appl (2006). "Ammonia". Ammonia, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
The Swedish Work Environment Authority has set an input value of 80 dB for maximum sound exposure for eight hours. In ... Scientific American: How does background noise affect our concentration? (2010-01-04) ... or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.[ ... The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates aircraft noise by specifying the maximum noise level that individual civil ...
Maximum allowable breeding females per business = 50; Cage height = taller than any dog standing erect; Maximum number of times ... A high concentration of both puppy mills and breeders has been reported in the states of Pennsylvania, Arkansas, Kansas, and ...
... of maximum neutronic power for a few seconds in the event of a complete rapid shutdown failure combined with a transient). ... It is also possible that there is already a harmless dense natural concentration of radioactive material in the Earth's core ( ... that can jeopardize the vessel's structural integrity and also reducing the recriticality potential by limiting the allowable ... The ECCS is designed to rapidly cool the core and make it safe in the event of the maximum fault (the design basis accident) ...
The following are the FDA allowable active ingredients in sunscreens: UV-filter Other names Maximum concentration Permitted in ... Parsol Max, Tinosorb M Bisoctrizole, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol, MBBT 10%* EU, AUS, JP ... A 2019 study of UV filters in oceans found far lower concentrations of oxybenzone than previously reported, and lower than ... proposed a maximum SPF label of 50, to limit unrealistic claims.[38][6][39] (As of February 2017, the FDA has not adopted the ...
In addition, the concentration of residents near stations helps maintain ridership and revenue.[22] Climate change activists ... and in 2009 a bill was introduced in the Washington State Legislature that would have raised allowable densities (as well as ...
Since the normal Pb2+ concentration in the extracellular fluid is low (adult average of 120 mg[a]), even a low increase in Pb2+ ... reduce allowable levels in water or soil, and provide for cleanup of contaminated soil.[2][4] The major treatments are removal ... The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines allow a maximum of .01 mg/L lead in water.[16] ... Blood lead concentrations in poisoning victims have ranged from 30-,80 µg/dL in children exposed to lead paint in older houses ...
Under the CWA, the EPA specifies the maximum allowable amounts of pollution that can be discharged by facilities within an ... states with high concentrations of CAFOs experience on average 20 to 30 serious water quality problems per year as a result of ... The 2008 final rule also specifies two approaches that a CAFO may use to identify the "annual maximum rates of application of ... a situation that results in the concentration of manure in a small area. ...
The maximum permissible workplace concentration of airborne 210Po is about 10 Bq/m3 (3×10−10 µCi/cm3).[87] The target organs ... The maximum allowable body burden for ingested 210Po is only 1.1 kBq (30 nCi), which is equivalent to a particle massing only ... Abnormally high concentrations of 210Po were detected in July 2012 in clothes and personal belongings of the Palestinian leader ... Because it is present in small concentrations, isolation of polonium from natural sources is a tedious process. The largest ...
The following are the FDA allowable active ingredients in sunscreens: UV-filter Other names Maximum concentration Permitted in ... Parsol Max, Tinosorb M Bisoctrizole, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol, MBBT 10%* EU, AUS, JP ... proposed a maximum SPF label of 50, to limit unrealistic claims.[35][6][36] (As of February 2017, the FDA has not adopted the ... evaluation of two sunscreens including the same ingredients at different concentrations". Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. ...
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulates aircraft noise by specifying the maximum noise level that individual civil ... Scientific American: How does background noise affect our concentration? (2010-01-04) ... or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities.[ ... These standards designate changes in maximum noise level requirements by "stage" designation. The U.S. noise standards are ...
Mean maximum °F (°C) 65.5. (18.6) 67.5. (19.7) 78.0. (25.6) 85.8. (29.9) 90.3. (32.4) 95.2. (35.1) 97.5. (36.4) 96.5. (35.8) ... 14.8% had families.[64] In 2014 Arlington had the 2nd highest concentration of roommates after San Francisco among the 50 ... in order to obtain the highest allowable amounts of increased building density in new development projects, most of which are ...
"EITC Income Limits Maximum Credit Amounts - Internal Revenue Service". www.irs.gov. Retrieved 19 August 2018.. ... Taxable income is defined as gross income less allowable deductions. Taxable income as determined for federal tax purposes may ... The United States had the highest concentration coefficient in income tax, a measure of progressiveness, before adjusting for ... For 2011 and 2012, the employee tax has been reduced from 6.2% to 4.2%. The maximum amount of wages subject to the tax for 2009 ...
Max adiabatic burn temperature. 2,500 K (2,230 °C) (4,040 °F) open air burn temperature: 1,030 °C (1,890 °F)[9][10][11] ... The one allowable additive is N,N'-disalicylidene 1,2-propanediamine.. As the aviation industry's jet kerosene demands have ... A visual check may detect high concentrations of suspended water, as this will cause the fuel to become hazy in appearance. An ... with their designations and maximum blend percentage in brackets: Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA SPK, 50%); ...
The negative sign indicates the ions are flowing from high concentration to low concentration. In this equation, D is the ... The maximum size of each battery (whether installed in a device or as spare batteries) that can be carried is one that has an ... The cobalt electrode reaction is only reversible for x , 0.5 (x in mole units), limiting the depth of discharge allowable. This ... Cycling loss is due to usage and depends on both the maximum state of charge and the depth of discharge.[97] Increased rate of ...
A numeric limitation quantifies the maximum pollutant load or concentration allowed in the discharge, e.g., 30 mg/L of ... Water quality standards (WQS) are risk-based requirements which set site-specific allowable pollutant levels for individual ... Total Maximum Daily Loads Program. Historical legislative documents. *. 92nd U.S. Congress (October 28, 1971). "S. 2770, ... Water bodies on the 303(d) list require development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). A TMDL is a calculation of the ...
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) - the maximum catch that can be taken from a species' stock over an indefinite period. Under ... Too much nitrate concentration is can be toxic to marine life. Nursery - The part of a fish or animal habitat where the young ... It could refer to a fishery as a whole (total allowable catch) or to an amount allocated to an individual or company. See also ... Maximum economic yield (MEY) - the total amount of profit that could be earned from a fishery if it were owned by one ...
A more typical length is 2.5 m (8.2 ft).[6][16][18] Female sharks grow larger than males in the North Atlantic, with maximum ... The only regulation of porbeagle catches in the Southern Hemisphere is New Zealand's total allowable catch of 249 tons per year ... porbeagles congregate at tidally induced thermal fronts to feed on fish that have been drawn by high concentrations of ... The maximum lifespan of this species appears to be 30-40 years in the Atlantic,[40] but could be as much as 65 years in the ...
Mean maximum °F (°C) 65.5. (18.6) 67.5. (19.7) 78.0. (25.6) 85.8. (29.9) 90.3. (32.4) 95.2. (35.1) 97.5. (36.4) 96.5. (35.8) ... It is the 5th highest-income county in the U.S. by median family income,[3] and has the highest concentration of singles in the ... in order to obtain the highest allowable amounts of increased building density in new development projects, most of which are ... 14.8% had families.[4] In 2014 Arlington had the 2nd highest concentration of roommates after San Francisco among the 50 ...
As the usable capacity of a battery system depends on the rate of discharge and the allowable voltage at the end of discharge, ... For some types, the maximum charging rate will be limited by the speed at which active material can diffuse through a liquid ... Load-leveling reduces the maximum power which a plant must be able to generate, reducing capital cost and the need for peaking ... Balanced for longer life and achieving the maximum 4.2V/cell. ...
They assumed no carriers were collected at the IB and that the device was under full concentration. They found the maximum ... A solar cell has a voltage dependent efficiency curve, temperature coefficients, and allowable shadow angles. ... The fill factor is the ratio of the actual maximum obtainable power to the product of the open circuit voltage and short ... The common single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.[2] ...
Thus the maximum permissible concentration for an 8-hr. day is 1 mg/m3 of air. They also produce a serious and disfiguring ... The maximum allowable contaminant level in drinking water in the United States is set at zero, but because of the limitations ... Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs tend to be lowest in rural areas, where they are typically in the picogram per cubic meter ... New Bedford Harbor, which is a listed Superfund site,[103] contains some of the highest sediment concentrations in the marine ...
... the maximum allowable size depending on ring speed containing MAC management data or upper layer information. Maximum length of ... The majority of MAUs are configured in a 'concentration' configuration by default, but later MAUs also supporting a feature to ... modular concentration with LAMs, and multiple interfaces like most later MAUs.[19] This offered a more reliable setup and ...
The concentrations of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium, and any further vitamin D produced is ... Allowable health claimsEdit. Governmental regulatory agencies stipulate for the food and dietary supplement industries certain ... maximum amount that can be tolerated without harm) is set at 25 μg/day (1,000 IU). One thousand micrograms per day in infants ... A review published in 2015 noted that adverse effects have been reported only at 25(OH)D serum concentrations above 200 nmol/L. ...
Ordinance No.417 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 1 December 1989 respecting maximum allowable concentrations and ...
Maximum allowable (admissible, acceptable) concentration (MAC):. Regulatory value defining the concentration that if inhaled ... Maximum residue level:. The maximum residue level is estimated by the JMPR as the maximum concentration of residues (expressed ... Maximum Residue Limit (MRL):. Maximum concentration of a residue that is legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on ... The estimated maximum residue level is considered by the JMPR to be suitable for establishing Codex Maximum Residue Limits (MRL ...
Results of search for su:{Maximum Allowable Concentration} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ...
The specific parameters to be measured, their maximum allowable concentrations and the acceptable monitoring methods are noted ... Shorter sampling durations and variations in sampling methods may be allowable but approval must be received from EH&S on a ... The sampling techniques are sensitive to even low levels of chemicals which may result in reported concentrations that do not ...
4) This parameter is the EQS expressed as a maximum allowable concentration (MAC-EQS). Where the MAC-EQS are marked as "not ... natural background concentrations for metals and their compounds where such concentrations prevent compliance with the relevant ... 13) These EQS refer to bioavailable concentrations of the substances.. (14) PCDD: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; PCDF: ... Columns 6 and 7 of the table: for any given surface water body, applying the MAC-EQS means that the measured concentration at ...
Maximum Allowable Concentration Machinery Directive Directive 98/37/EC, which sets out the essential health and safety ... Maximum Residue Level (MRL) An MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg), permitted in or on ... No Observed Adverse Effect Concentration NOAEL See No Observed Adverse Effect Level NOEC No Observed Effect Concentration NOEL ... Codex Maximum Residue Level (Codex MRL) D. d day Data Protection See Protection of Data Data Stream A stream for the processing ...
4) This parameter is the EQS expressed as a maximum allowable concentration (MAC-EQS). Where the MAC-EQS are marked as not ... and maximum allowable concentrations should be established to protect against short-term exposure. ... including those expressed as maximum allowable concentrations, Member States may introduce statistical methods, such as a ... concentrations of pollutants are usually higher than the ambient concentrations in water. Therefore, Member States should be ...
Maximum allowable concentrations; SUV [max]: Maximal standardized uptake value; WDS: Wavelength dispersive spectrometer ... Thus, Japan Society for Occupational Health recommends that the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of silica is less than ... For example, one study showed that the concentration of silica in the air of the work environment of dental workers to be as ... 0.03 mg/m3.[7] However, the concentration of silica in the workplace environment of dental workers sometimes exceeds the MAC. ...
7.2.4.1 Maximum Allowable Concentration. - A study based on the description of the standard setting process in China has ... proposed a maximum allowable concentration (MAC) in the workplace air of 0.02mg/m3 (Zhuang et al , 1993). ... 0.2 to 0.3 mg/Kg IV slowly over three minutes (maximum 5 mg in children between one month and five years old; maximum 10 mg in ... After the concentration of the poison decreases in these cases, net reactivation can be expected even 1 week after poisoning. ...
Maximum Allowable Concentration. 149.9 μg/m3. 149.9 μg/m3. Maintenance Demonstration. 145.2 μg/m3. 145.2 μg/m3. ... The actual NOx inventory is found at Table 3.1-2 of the TSD, and the NOx fraction of maximum winter PM10 concentration (2001- ... Actual NOx total inventory/NOx fraction of max. winter PM10 concentration (2001-2005) ... The averaged key receptor RAM PM10 concentration is estimated by using the RAM modeled concentrations from the 6th highest ...
Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. ... local pockets of increased CO2 concentrations may form. Without proper ventilation, CO2 concentrations ppCO2 could rise above ... Nominal CO2 concentrations on Earth are approximately 0.23 mmHg while nominal CO2 levels aboard the ISS are up to 20 times that ... In brief: serum concentrations of metabolites of the folate, vitamin B-12 dependent one carbon metabolism pathway, specifically ...
Atmospheric air condition - Irkutsk_The isolines of excess frequency of the average daily maximum allowable concentration of ... Atmospheric air condition - Irkutsk_The isolines of excess frequency of the average daily maximum allowable concentration of ... 088-4. Atmospheric air condition - Ulaanbatar_The excess frequency of the average daily maximum allowable concentration of soot ... 088-5. Atmospheric air condition - Ulaanbatar_The excess frequency of the average daily maximum allowable concentration of dust ...
... maximum allowable workplace concentration: 5mg/m3).. Centre of International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 16p. 38 ref.. ... Average concentrations of CP in air were below the 0.5mg/m3 exposure limit. However, some workers had high CP levels in their ... High concentrations are required to produce effects in toxicological experiments. Morpholine is not mutagenic, but it is ... There was significant increase in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the exposed group, and there was also ...
These may include the maximum allowable concentration of CO. 2, H. 2S and H. 2O. Usually sales quality gas that has been ...
Maximum Allowable Concentration. MAC. Media Access Control. MAP. Manufacturing Automation Protocol. MATS. Material Transport ...
MAC = maximum allowable concentration. MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration MgD = magnesium-deficient. MRI = magnetic ... Sensitivity to odors (able to detect and/or react in concentrations far lower than before and that healthy people cannot smell) ... Difficulty with concentration, reading. Forgetfulness, poor short term memory. Disorientation: getting lost, going to wrong ...
Cook WA (1945) Maximum allowable concentrations of industrial contaminants. Ind Med 14:936-946Google Scholar ... Crump KS (1984) A new method for determining allowable daily intakes. Fund Appl Toxicol 4(5):854-871CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The basic agents adopted mainly include sodium carbonate (the mass percentage concentration is about 0.5% ~ 3.0%) and sodium ... Maximum allowable concentration in the workplace (MAC). 10 mg/m3 (6.5 ppm). ≪GBZ2-2002 Occupational Exposure Limits for Harmful ... and the maximum allowable concentration in coal mine air in China is 6.6ppm (volume fraction 0.00066%). Judging from the ... The CH4 concentration in transportation gate is up to 43%, the H2S concentration is up to 240 ppm, and the water inrush at the ...
Maximum Allowable Concentration. Nitrates / administration & dosage, analysis*, toxicity. Quality Control. Reproducibility of ... Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203 ... lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for ... were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the ...
2. Maximum allowable change, see there.. 3. Maximum allowable concentration.. 4. Membrane attack complex, see there. ... maximum acceptable concentration. maximum aerobic capacity. Medical Advisory Committee Medicare Appeals Council. membrane ... 1. Abbreviation for minimal anesthetic concentration; minimal alveolar concentration; membrane attack complex. ... 4 abbreviation for minimum alveolar concentration. 5 abbreviation for Mycobacterium avium complex. See Mycobacterium avium ...
Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (1996). Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected ... Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). ...
Maximum Allowable Concentration * Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / prevention & control * Radiation Dosage * Radiation Protection ...
Maximum allowable concentration 2 ppb (0.002mg/L) US FDA eating sea food methyl mercury Maximum allowable concentration 1 ppm ... Chronic exposure, even at low concentrations in the range 0.7-42 μg/m3, has been shown in case control studies to cause effects ... Through bioaccumulation in the environment, methyl mercury works its way up the food chain, reaching high concentrations among ... was effective in lowering the body burden of mercury and in decreasing the urinary mercury concentration to normal levels.[21] ...
Maximum Allowable Total Concentration Constituent in Fertilizer, per Unit (1%) of Zinc (ppm) ... Part 761 Subpart D for PCB concentrations of 50 ppm or greater. ... of concern is present in the product at concentrations above ...
The maximum concentration allowable for a prolonged or work-day exposure is 20ppm). ... STEL-Maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for periods up to 15 min. Such exposures should be limited to no ... As an example, hydrogen sulfide has the strong odor of rotten eggs and can be detected at concentrations as low as 0.025 parts ... There are some materials which have a strong or easily-detected odor at concentrations which are far below any level at which ...
  • The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). (cdc.gov)
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants' published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://www.nap.edu/info/browse.htm b y selecting 'Space Science. (cdc.gov)
  • National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • The acceptable operator exposure level is the maximum amount of active substance to which the operator may be exposed without any adverse health effects. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Safe" levels of exposure have titles such as Threshold Limit Values (TLV) and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC). (rinf.com)
  • Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash that remains after combustion. (usgs.gov)
  • The maximum allowable concentration for short term exposure in a living area according to ASHRAE. (kane.co.uk)
  • The maximum allowable concentration for continuous exposure in any eight hour period, according to federal law. (kane.co.uk)
  • exposure to this concentration and higher, the effects can vary depending on size, age, sex and health. (kane.co.uk)
  • Instead, EPA's guidelines are maximum allowable concentrations in drinking water intended to prevent toxic or other adverse effects that could result from exposure to fluoride. (nap.edu)
  • 1 x 10 -3 atm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths and a partial pressure of 1 x 10 -6 atm is the maximum allowable concentration for prolonged exposure. (3rd1000.com)
  • In terms of exposure concentrations, this is the number that should never be exceeded even for a short period, for a substance. (frostburg.edu)
  • An exposure concentration established by the Occupational Safety and Health Community which indicates the maximum concentration for which no adverse effects will follow. (frostburg.edu)
  • A unit of measurement for the concentration of a gas or vapor in air. (frostburg.edu)
  • Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nitrate concentrations in Europe's groundwaters increased in the first half of 1990s and have then remained relatively constant. (europa.eu)
  • The average nitrate concentration in European rivers has decreased approximately 10 % since 1998 from 2.8 to 2.5 mg N/l, reflecting the effect of measures to reduce agricultural inputs of nitrate. (europa.eu)
  • Nitrate levels in lakes are in general much lower than in rivers, but also in lakes there has been a 15 % reduction in the average nitrate concentration. (europa.eu)
  • Concentrations of nitrate (left, NO3) and phosphorus (right, OP (orthophosphate) or TP (total phosphorus)) in European freshwater bodies in the period 1992-2005. (europa.eu)
  • At the European level, annual mean nitrate concentrations in groundwaters have remained relatively stable since the mid-1990s. (europa.eu)
  • At the European level there has been a decrease in concentrations of nitrate in both rivers and lakes, which is consistent with the recent EC report [2] on implementation of the Nitrates Directive [3]. (europa.eu)
  • Agriculture is the largest contributor of nitrogen pollution, and due to the EU Nitrate Directive and national measures the nitrogen pollution from agriculture has been reduced in some regions during the last 10-15 years, this reduced pressure is reflected in lower river and lake nitrate concentrations. (europa.eu)
  • This indicator shows concentrations of phosphate and nitrate in rivers, total phosphorus in lakes and nitrate in groundwater bodies. (europa.eu)
  • The concentration of nitrate is expressed as milligrams of nitrate per litre (mg NO 3 /l) for groundwater and milligrams of nitrate-nitrogen per litre (mg NO 3 -N/l) for rivers. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, the Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) sets the maximum allowable concentration for nitrate of 50 mg NO 3 /l. (europa.eu)
  • [ 7 ] However, the concentration of silica in the workplace environment of dental workers sometimes exceeds the MAC. (medscape.com)
  • Amongst other duties, the group proposes maximum workplace concentrations (MAK values - maximum allowable concentration ) for volatile chemicals and dusts. (europa.eu)
  • National and international bodies set maximum allowable workplace concentrations for a wide range of substances. (seton.co.uk)
  • Like city water, it simply can't contain any contaminant at a level that exceeds maximum allowable concentrations. (health.com)
  • These standards include the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG), the maximum contaminant level (MCL), and the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL). (nap.edu)
  • Are nutrient concentrations in Europe's freshwaters decreasing? (europa.eu)
  • The indicator can be used to illustrate geographical variations in current nutrient concentrations and temporal trends. (europa.eu)
  • The environmental quality of surface waters with respect to eutrophication and nutrient concentrations is an objective of several directives: the Water Framework Directive, the Nitrates Directive, the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, the Surface Water for Drinking Directive and the Drinking Water Directive. (europa.eu)
  • The environmental quality of freshwater with respect to eutrophication and nutrient concentrations is an objective of several directives. (europa.eu)
  • Of crucial importance in avoiding and reducing toxic algal blooms is the identification of the maximum nutrient load ecosystems can absorb, while remaining in a good ecological state. (wur.nl)
  • Furthermore, critical nutrient loads depend on management goals, i.e. the maximum allowable chlorophyll-a concentration. (wur.nl)
  • According to the model results, total nutrient loads need to be more than halved to reach chlorophyll-a concentrations of 30-40 μg.L-1 in most sections of the lake. (wur.nl)
  • This study aimed at establishing the relationship between SFMP and vegetable nutrient concentration for human health in farming systems of Tanzania. (scirp.org)
  • Soil and vegetable samples collected from vegetable growing areas in Kilombero and Dodoma were analyzed for chemical properties and mineral nutrient concentration. (scirp.org)
  • EPA's regulation for the maximum allowable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was established for one purpose - to prevent this disease. (rense.com)
  • In 1986, EPA established an MCLG and MCL for fluoride at a concentration of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and an SMCL of 2 mg/L. These guidelines are restrictions on the total amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water. (nap.edu)
  • The Ontario Ministry of the Environment's maximum allowable concentration for fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 parts per million. (hamilton.ca)
  • Community water fluoridation adjusts the natural fluoride concentration of a community's water supply. (hamilton.ca)
  • However, Adsorption processes have been reported to be an efficient economical method and the primary methods for heavy metal removal [11] , the other methods are more expensive and sometimes inefficient especially when the toxic heavy metals are present in low concentrations. (scirp.org)
  • The maximum residue level is estimated by the JMPR as the maximum concentration of residues (expressed as mg/kg) which may occur in a food or feed commodity following Good Agricultural Practices. (fao.org)
  • The estimated maximum residue level is considered by the JMPR to be suitable for establishing Codex Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). (fao.org)
  • The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are some materials which have a strong or easily-detected odor at concentrations which are far below any level at which health hazards are likely to occur. (clemson.edu)
  • This drinking-water standard for tritium was determined from an acceptable annual dose of four millirem that one would receive by drinking water at this maximum allowable contamination level every day for a year. (miamiherald.com)
  • This information is offered in comparison to the four millirem one would receive if one were to drink water for a year at the maximum allowable tritium level allowed. (miamiherald.com)
  • The public drinking water supplied to neighborhoods around nuclear facilities is typically at less than 10 percent of the maximum allowable tritium level. (miamiherald.com)
  • The 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments imposed county-level restrictions on the maximum-allowable concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP). (voxeu.org)
  • In the USA the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have set a maximum level of CO in the flue at 400 PPM. (kane.co.uk)
  • While at work during an 8 hour period the level should not rise above a maximum level of 35 PPM i.e. if you are exposed to 35 PPM for 8 hours you should be in fresh air (zero PPM CO) for the remainder of the 24 hours. (kane.co.uk)
  • The provincial maximum allowable bromate level of 10 parts per billion was not included in the report. (windsorstar.com)
  • These considerations served as the basis for our studies, aimed at substantiating the allowable level of fluorine in drinking water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Such use may lead to increased concentrations of aluminium in finished water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Water Framework Directive also requires the achievement of good chemical and good quantitative groundwater status by 2015 as well as the reversal of any significant and sustained upward trend in the concentration of any pollutant. (europa.eu)
  • The four-millirem annual dose from consuming water for a year at the maximum allowable tritium levels would contribute less than 1 percent to the average annual radiation dose to the public. (miamiherald.com)
  • The maximum allowable concentrations for radionuclides in the drinking water in the United States is conservative and safe. (miamiherald.com)
  • The local drinking water in the Biscayne Bay, and Southeast Florida's drinking water, is well below these maximum allowable concentrations. (miamiherald.com)
  • Although iron is an essential mineral for human, concentrations in ground water above the stipulated safe allowable limit makes ground water turbid, affects its domestic use (taste, color, odor) and affects its industrial applications. (scirp.org)
  • Treatment of the ground water supply is therefore recommended particularly when concentrations are above the stipulated allowable safe maximum. (scirp.org)
  • EPEA's Potable Water Regulation mandates that systems must produce water that meets the maximum allowable concentrations specified in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality described above. (auma.ca)
  • The discharge requirements should specify the maximum allowable concentration of each constituent of concern and the volume of drainage water discharge that will be acceptable. (fao.org)
  • These compounds are especially pernicious because they do not readily biodegrade, are mutugenic and worse in very low concentrations, are slightly soluble or emulsifiable in water and are extremely fat-soluble. (eponline.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated maximum allowable concentration of TCE in drinking water is 5 parts per billion. (sbir.gov)
  • There are certain drinking water standards that regulate the maximum allowable concentration of bacteria and metals in safe drinking water. (watertechonline.com)
  • High concentrations of pesticides (e.g. dieldrin, parathion, malathion, chlorpyrofos) can be found in soils on the stockpiles and are a risk for human health, health of cattle, and quality of ground- and surface water. (wur.nl)
  • In risk assessments, the risks of pesticides are evaluated on the basis of concentrations present and maximum allowable values in soil and water. (wur.nl)
  • Bromate in Windsor water exceeded the provincial allowable maximum once in 2014 and 15 times in 2013. (windsorstar.com)
  • But Kusmierczyk noticed Windsor water matched or exceeded the allowable levels five times in 2014, including once when it tested for 11 parts per billion. (windsorstar.com)
  • Kusmierczyk also wants to know if council was informed of the 71 times in 2013 that bromate in Windsor water matched or exceeded the provincial allowable maximum. (windsorstar.com)
  • Stomatological examinations show that the prolonged use of drinking water containing these concentrations of fluorine causes among the children lesions of dental enamel of the I and II degree, and in individual cases those of III and IV degree. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Based on several studies, national standard GOST 2874-54 established the maximum allowable concentration of fluorine in drinking water to be 1.5 mg/l. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Moreover, several indications of endemic fluorosis development were observed in the population, even when using drinking water with fluorine concentrations below the standard recommended by GOST 2874-54 [S.N. Cherkinskaya, R.M. Zaslavsky, R.D. Gabovich, Smith, et al]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • H2S is a flammable, toxic, and acid gas, which irritates the eyes and mucous membranes at concentrations between 20 to 150 ppm. (yahoo.com)
  • The faster a material will evaporate, the sooner it will become concentrated in the air, possibly creating an explosive mixture or toxic concentration. (frostburg.edu)
  • The Chinese government has paid great attention to the environmental protection issues, such as the average concentration limits of PM and ozone (O 3 ) are included in the "National Ambient Air Quality Standards" implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2016, and the concentration limits of PM and NO 2 are also adjusted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorus concentrations in European rivers and lakes generally decreased during the last 14 years, reflecting the general improvement in wastewater treatment and reduced phosphate content of detergents over this period. (europa.eu)
  • Also the change to use of phosphate-free detergents has contributed to lower phosphorus concentration. (europa.eu)
  • During the past few decades there has also been a gradual reduction in phosphorus concentrations in many European lakes. (europa.eu)
  • The concentration of phosphate and total phosphorus are expressed as milligrams of phosphorous per litre (mg P/l). (europa.eu)
  • Whereas the minimum purity of the active ingredient and on identity and maximum levels of relevant impurities after evaluation are published in the specification, the information on nonrelevant impurities is kept confidential. (fao.org)
  • Nominal CO2 concentrations on Earth are approximately 0.23 mmHg while nominal CO2 levels aboard the ISS are up to 20 times that at 2.3 to 5.3 mmHg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data on the concentrations of phthalate esters in environmental samples mainly focus on levels of DEHP, reflecting its predominant usage. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The EPA sets maximum allowable concentration levels for pollutants that can harm humans. (bioedonline.org)
  • The pollution levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 in Guangdong province were all lower than the national air pollution concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, the arsenic levels in some of the wells peaked above the Maximum Allowable Concentration levels at times. (langleyadvance.com)
  • As a result, the set of counties that exceeded these new restrictions (nonattainment counties) were forced to reduce their TSP concentrations, while counties that had air pollution levels below the regulatory ceiling (attainment counties) were not legally required to change their TSP concentrations. (voxeu.org)
  • The International Olympic Committee mandates an allowable limit of 12 μg of caffeine per ml of urine. (acefitness.org)
  • Maximum concentration of a residue that is legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in or on a food or agricultural commodity or animal feedstuff. (fao.org)
  • It is not acceptable that in 2013 there were 71 occurrences where the bromate concentration was at or above the maximum allowable concentration. (windsorstar.com)
  • Similarly, the National Collegiate Athletic Association considers urinary concentrations after competition that exceed 15 μg/ml to be illegal. (acefitness.org)
  • However, because of the many factors influencing toxicity, each situation should be evaluated individually and the TLVs used as guidelines rather than as fine lines between safe and dangerous concentrations. (clemson.edu)
  • Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (Cn). (cdc.gov)
  • The guidelines set maximum allowable concentrations of microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants. (auma.ca)
  • CEGLs are ceiling concentrations designed to prevent immediate or delayed adverse health effects or degradation in crew performance that might result from continuous exposures to chemical substances lasting up to 90 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Maximum allowable limit in flue gas according to EPA and AGA. (kane.co.uk)
  • Similar uranium concentrations are found in a variety of common rocks and soils, as indicated in figure 2. (usgs.gov)
  • High concentrations of pesticides can be found in soils on the stockpiles and are a risk. (wur.nl)
  • Because removal of the high concentrations using northern technologies (e.g. incineration, bioreactor) or removal and transport of high amounts of contaminated soils were not found to be feasible, an approach making use African conditions has been investigated. (wur.nl)
  • Removal of the high concentrations using northern technologies (e.g. incineration, bioreactor) or removal and transport of high amounts of contaminated soils was not found to be feasible for most of the sites involved. (wur.nl)
  • Thorium concentrations in coal fall within a similar 1 4 ppm range, compared to an average crustal abundance of approximately 10 ppm. (usgs.gov)
  • Therefore, the concentration of most radioactive elements in solid combustion wastes will be approximately 10 times the concentration in the original coal. (usgs.gov)
  • calculating an analyte concentration from the output signal and the adjusted slope and intercept values. (google.ca)
  • In order to accurately address these questions and to predict the mobility of radioactive elements during the coal fuel-cycle, it is important to determine the concentration, distribution, and form of radioactive elements in coal and fly ash. (usgs.gov)
  • Figure 1 displays the frequency distribution of uranium concentration for approximately 2,000 coal samples from the Western United States and approximately 300 coals from the Illinois Basin. (usgs.gov)
  • Distribution of uranium concentration in coal from two areas of the United States. (usgs.gov)
  • Slightly higher concentrations cause irritation to the upper respiratory tract. (yahoo.com)
  • In the majority of samples, concentrations of uranium fall in the range from slightly below 1 to 4 parts per million (ppm). (usgs.gov)
  • EEGLs are defined as ceiling concentrations (concentrations not to be exceeded) of chemical substances in submarine air that will not cause irreversible harm to crew health or prevent the performance of essential tasks, such as closing a hatch or using a fire extinguisher, during rare emergency situations lasting 1-24 h. (cdc.gov)
  • http://www.baua.de/nn_79754/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/TRGS/pdf/Announcement-910.pdf? (springer.com)
  • Phthalates can be considered to be ubiquitous in the environment and there are many studies which have investigated and reported environmental concentrations of these substances. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • For example, one study showed that the concentration of silica in the air of the work environment of dental workers to be as high as 0.051 mg/m 3 . (medscape.com)
  • Emissions from industrial enterprises and vehicles have a very high concentration of various pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, dust, carbon oxide, nitrogen oxides, benzopyrene, methylmercaptan, and so on that enter the air basin from numerous sources. (iwlearn.org)
  • However, installation of side stream filter is recommended since suspended solid concentration builds up over time and periodic high build-up would require side stream filtration for the aforementioned reasons. (cheresources.com)
  • It is necessary to know the behavior of pesticides under different African conditions and explore local remediation technology for each site following a risk-based approach, not only based on removal of high concentrations of pesticides. (wur.nl)
  • The biosensor system adjusts a correlation for determining analyte concentrations from output signals at one temperature to determining analyte concentrations from output. (google.ca)
  • The temperature-adjusted correlation between analyte concentrations and output signals at a reference temperature may be used to determine analyte concentrations from output signals at a sample temperature. (google.ca)
  • where G R is the analyte concentration of the sample if the analysis had been performed at the reference temperature, i T is a current from the generated output signal, Int T is the adjusted intercept value, and S T is the adjusted slope value. (google.ca)
  • Temperature, relative humidity, concentration of decontamination agent, and contact time typically must be measured and recorded during decontamination. (nap.edu)
  • Statistically derived median time interval during which 50 % of a given population may be expected to die following acute administration of a chemical or physical agent (radiation) at a given concentration under a defined set of conditions. (fao.org)
  • In the receiving system, chemical concentrations may be further reduced by dilution and mixing. (fao.org)
  • The overall purpose of OELs is to protect workers' health by stipulating a maximum allowable air-borne concentration of a chemical agent. (springer.com)
  • This is 3.5 times higher than 0.20 μg/g, which is the Maximum Allowable Concentration for lead in rice (6). (virginia.edu)
  • the suspended matters exceeded the maximum allowable concentration 1,3 times in Tuimazy. (bashinform.ru)
  • A thermodynamic based cycle simulation which uses a thermal boundary layer, either, a fully mixed or layered adiabatic core, and a crevice combustion inefficiency routine has been used to explore the sensitivity of NO concentration predictions to critical physical modeling assumptions. (sae.org)
  • The average concentrations of orthophosphate in European rivers halved over the past 14 years. (europa.eu)
  • Statistically derived median concentration of a substance in an environmental medium expected to produce a certain effect in 50 % of test organisms in a given population under a defined set of conditions. (fao.org)
  • Note: ECn refers to the median concentration that is effective in n % of the test population. (fao.org)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine consumption and urinary concentration is dependent on factors such as gender and body weight. (acefitness.org)
  • A biosensor system determines analyte concentration from an output signal generated by an oxidation/reduction reaction of the analyte. (google.ca)
  • Thus, Japan Society for Occupational Health recommends that the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of silica is less than 0.03 mg/m 3 . (medscape.com)
  • The MCLG is a health goal set at a concentration at which no adverse health effects are expected to occur and the margins of safety are judged "adequate. (nap.edu)
  • Figure 2 illustrates that the uranium concentration of most fly ash (10 to 30 ppm) is still in the range found in some granitic rocks, phosphate rocks, and shales. (usgs.gov)
  • A fluid treating method for treating fluid to reduce the concentration of undesirable metal constituents contained therein is disclosed. (google.es)
  • TLV -Time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. (clemson.edu)
  • Maximum concentration allowable at any time according to OSHA. (kane.co.uk)
  • In addition, the critical concentration excess zones (MPC daily average), as well as the duration of such excess in hours per month were determined. (iwlearn.org)
  • A caffeine dose in the range of 9 to 13 mg/kg approximately one hour prior to performance will reach the maximum allowable urinary concentration for competition. (acefitness.org)