Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Advance Care Planning: Discussions with patients and/or their representatives about the goals and desired direction of the patient's care, particularly end-of-life care, in the event that the patient is or becomes incompetent to make decisions.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Resuscitation Orders: Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Masculinity: Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Advance Directive Adherence: Compliance by health personnel or proxies with the stipulations of ADVANCE DIRECTIVES (or similar directives such as RESUSCITATION ORDERS) when patients are unable to direct their own care.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Femininity: Female-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cognitive Dissonance: Motivational state produced by inconsistencies between simultaneously held cognitions or between a cognition and behavior; e.g., smoking enjoyment and believing smoking is harmful are dissonant.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Mice, Inbred C57BLCourtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.United StatesPersonal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Colinus: A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

Tuning the drum: the mechanical basis for frequency discrimination in a Mediterranean cicada. (1/500)

Cicadas are known to use sound to find a mate. While the mechanism employed by male cicadas to generate loud calling songs has been described in detail, little information exists to explain how their ears work. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal vibrations in the cicada Cicadatra atra are measured in response to acoustic playbacks. The topographically accurate optical measurements reveal the vibrational behaviour of the anatomically complex tympanal membrane. Notably, the tympanal ridge, a distinct structural element of the tympanum that is a link to the receptor cells, undergoes mechanical vibrations reminiscent of a travelling wave. In effect, the frequency for which the maximum deflection amplitude is observed regularly decreases from the apex to the base of the ridge. It is also shown that whilst female ears are mechanically tuned to the male's song, the male's tympanum is only partially tuned to its own song. This study establishes the presence of a peripheral auditory mechanism that can potentially process auditory frequency analysis. In view of the importance of acoustic signalling in cicadas, this unconventional tympanal mechanism may be employed in the context of species recognition and sexual selection.  (+info)

Bilateral damage to the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of male ferrets causes a female-typical preference for and a hypothalamic Fos response to male body odors. (2/500)

Previous studies showed that bilateral lesions of the male ferret's preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH), centered in the sexually dimorphic nuclei present in this region, caused subjects to seek out a same-sex male, as opposed to a female conspecific. Male subjects with POA/AH lesions (which were also castrated and given estradiol) displayed female-typical receptive behavior in response to neck gripping by a stimulus male, implying that subjects' approaches to a same-sex conspecific were sexually motivated. We asked whether the effect of POA/AH lesions on males' partner preference reflects a shift in the central processing of body odorant cues so that males come to display a female-typical preference to approach male body odorants. Sexually experienced male ferrets in which electrolytic lesions of the POA/AH caused bilateral damage to the sexually dimorphic male nucleus (MN) resembled sham-operated females by preferring to approach body odors emitted from anesthetized male as opposed to female stimulus ferrets confined in the goal boxes of a Y-maze. This lesion-induced shift in odor preference was correlated with a significant increase in the ability of soiled male bedding to induce a Fos response in the medial POA of males with bilateral damage to the MN-POA/AH. No such partner preference or neural Fos responses were seen in sham-operated males or in other groups of males with POA/AH lesions that either caused unilateral damage or no damage to the MN-POA/AH. Male-typical hypothalamic processing of conspecifics' body odorants may determine males' normal preference to seek out odors emitted by female conspecifics, leading to mating and successful reproduction.  (+info)

Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice. (3/500)

Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural 'attraction system' is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely 'in love'. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism motivates individuals to focus their courtship energy on specific others, thereby conserving valuable time and metabolic energy, and facilitating mate choice.  (+info)

Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices. (4/500)

Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OSRs) by genotyping all adult and pup bank voles on 13 islands using six microsatellite loci. We used Bateman's principles (Is and I and Bateman gradients) and selection coefficients (s' and beta') to evaluate, for the first time, the genetic mating system of bank voles and compared these measures with alternative indices of sexual selection (index of monopolization and Morisita's index) across the OSRs. We found that all the sexual selection indices show significant positive intercorrelations for both males and females, suggesting that Bateman's principles are an accurate and a valid measure of the mating system. The Bateman gradient, in particular, provides information over and above that of other sexual selection indices. Male bank voles show a greater potential for sexual selection than females, and Bateman gradients indicate a polygynandrous mating system. Selection coefficients reveal strong selection gradients on male bank vole plasma testosterone level rather than body size.  (+info)

Economy of mate attraction in the Cassin's finch. (5/500)

Mate attraction can be costly. Thus, individuals should modulate it according to its probable benefits. Specifically, individuals should modulate mate-attraction efforts based on their need for, the probability of attracting, and the reproductive competence of prospective mates. We tested these predictions by monitoring song output in laboratory-housed male Cassin's finches (Carpodacus cassinii) before, during and after brief female exposure following variable periods of isolation from females. We inferred individual reproductive competence from the product of season and reproductive schedule, the latter estimated from moult progress. Males produced little song in the presence of a female but robustly elevated song output in response to female loss. However, mere absence of a female did not elevate song output in males unaccustomed to female proximity. Furthermore, song output in response to female loss increased with her reproductive competence. We suggest that individuals modulate mate-attraction effort based on the benefits such efforts are likely to yield.  (+info)

Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei). (6/500)

Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system.  (+info)

Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl. (7/500)

Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.  (+info)

The multiple signals assessed by female satin bowerbirds: could they be used to narrow down females' choices of mates? (8/500)

Female choice based on multiple male traits has been documented in many species but the functions of such multiple traits are still under debate. The satin bowerbird has a polygynous mating system in which males attract females to bowers for mating; females choose mates based on multiple aspects of males and their bowers. In this paper, we demonstrate that females use some cues to decide which males to examine closely and other cues to decide which males to mate with. Female visitation rates to bowers were significantly related to male size and the males' 'solitary' display rates, and, to a lesser extent, to the numbers of bower decorations. After controlling for female visitation rates, it was found that a male's mating success was significantly related to his size and the rate at which he 'painted' his bower with saliva and chewed up plant material.  (+info)

Puts, D. A., Hill, A. K., Bailey, D. H., Walker, R. S., Rendall, D., Wheatley, J. R., ... & Jablonski, N. G. (2016, April). Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 283, No. 1829, p. 20152830). The Royal Society.. Read More ...
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individuals phenotypic traits. Evolutionary change is possible because the qualities that are desired in a mate are more frequently passed on to each generation over time. For example, if female peacocks desire mates who have a colourful plumage, then this trait will increase in frequency over time as male peacocks with a colourful plumage will have more reproductive success. Mate choice is one of two components of sexual selection, the other being intrasexual selection. Ideas on sexual selection were first introduced in 1871, by Charles Darwin, then expanded on by Ronald Fisher in 1915. At present, there are five mechanisms that explain how mate choice has evolved over time. These are direct phenotypic benefits, sensory bias, the Fisherian runaway hypothesis, indicator traits and genetic compatibility. In systems where mate choice exists, one sex is ...
The most widely contemplated theory attempting to explain the prevalence of sexual selection is that females choose among males because some males have better genes than others. Although intuitively appealing, this theory is highly controversial as genetic variance in sexually-selected traits should be depleted. Recent advances in multivariate quantitative genetics have confirmed that male sexually selected traits lack genetic variance. We will test the hypothesis that female choice against novel deleterious mutations prevents the accumulation of genetic variance while still providing a genetic benefit to choosing females, providing a mechanism for the maintenance of female choice in natural populations ...
Both are loud, and both cause colourful flashy things to pop up on lawns everywhere. And much like elections, the peacocks train is a costly endeavour. The species might be better off in terms of survival and abundance if they could just do away with those feathers. In terms of sheer waste, they remind me of the Green party pamphlets in our apartment building entrance way. They were stuffed blindly into all of the available mailboxes - which happen to be for street level businesses on our downtown block, not residents. Nice.. Peacocks and elections are both supposed to experience strong positive feedback effects. In politics, momentum can lead to rapid climbs in popularity. Sexual selection can be similar: as Ronald A. Fisher pointed out, exaggerated male traits can potentially evolve through a process of positive feedback. If enough females prefer the particular male trait initially, and the next generation inherits both the female preference and the exaggerated male trait, it can kick-start a ...
Altogether, the authors conclude, this evolutionary experiment shows that mating preferences â can evolve at least in part in correlation with the environment.â This result is consistent with the classic by-product model of speciation, in which new species arise as a side effect of divergent selection; in this case, mating preferences act as a premating isolation mechanism that arises along with the divergent environments. Interestingly, the authors found no correlation between the CHCs that adapted most and those for which female preferences changed. Teasing apart the relative contributions of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of CHCs and mating preferences may help shed light on the complicated relationship between trait and preference evolution in generalâ and on the role that preference plays in the emergence of new species. â Liza Gross ...
We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the under …
Research by Penton-Voak suggests that far from being constant, female mate choice varies across the menstrual cycle. They found that women chose a slightly feminised version of a male face as most attractive for a long-term relationship. However, for a short-term, sexual relationship, the preferred face shape was more masculinised. Sexual selection may well have favoured females who pursue a mixed mating strategy under certain conditions. A female might choose a main partner whose feminised appearance suggests kindness and cooperation in parental care, but might also copulate with a male with a more masculine appearance when conception is most likely. Such males are more likely to have higher levels of testosterone, which suppresses the immune system. Therefore, a male who is healthy must have a highly efficient immune system - a very valuable characteristic to pass to ...
Dont drills have beautiful rear ends? Since this weeks submissions have focused on paleoanthropology and human evolution, Im adding in a few interesting primatological posts. Beast Ape discusses primate coloration in Badge of Status in Drills. While male coloration is often though to be a result of sexual selection, particularly as a result of female choice, a recent study has found that while male coloration in drills is a badge of social status, it does not relate to female preference within a given a given rank. Over at Prancing Papio, Raymond Ho discusses recent evidence for Grandmothering in Japanese Macaques. Although the evidence is limited and anecdotal, this is one of the first published accounts in support of the Grandmother Hypothesis from nonhuman primates. I think this is important, because I suspect theres been more observations of grandmothering in primates (Im pretty sure Ive heard of it happening in rhesus macaques, and wouldnt be surprised if there were accounts from ...
Lets pretend for a minute that there were not significant methodological concerns and just look at the data. What I notice are a few things. First, females primarily exhibit NO preference, not facial preference. If half my subjects exhibited no preference, Id probably have to say the methods and stimuli were flawed. Males might have a slight mobile preference, but even if that were statistically significant, Im not sure there is a lot of biological meaning to 19 vs 11 individuals preferences. Further, they mention that their statistical significance derives entirely from the greater male preference for the mobile (not a greater female preference for the face), yet their conclusions indicate female superiority in social cognition skills.. Table 2 is perhaps more damning. First, the difference in percent looking time is not really different between any of the four groups (male/face, male/mobile; female/face, female/mobile). This becomes more obvious when you consider the standard deviations. ...
We found that several pairwise distances differed between the sexes. For example, the distance from the brow to nasal bridge was found to be more than 5% larger in females than males. We then tested for an interaction between sex and genetic ancestry by testing for differences in the slopes of the ancestry association between males and females. Although the pattern differed slightly between samples, after Bonferroni correction many correlations were the found to be same in both sexes. However, females in all three samples had many additional significant correlations that were not seen in males, while males had very few correlations that were not found in females. The results of these analyses suggest that selection on females is driving the differentiation in facial features among populations. (Liberton et al., 2009 ...
We found that several pairwise distances differed between the sexes. For example, the distance from the brow to nasal bridge was found to be more than 5% larger in females than males. We then tested for an interaction between sex and genetic ancestry by testing for differences in the slopes of the ancestry association between males and females. Although the pattern differed slightly between samples, after Bonferroni correction many correlations were the found to be same in both sexes. However, females in all three samples had many additional significant correlations that were not seen in males, while males had very few correlations that were not found in females. The results of these analyses suggest that selection on females is driving the differentiation in facial features among populations. (Liberton et al., 2009 ...
Daily News Thousands of Mutations Accumulate in the Human Brain Over a Lifetime Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death.. ...
a weight session can have a cardiovascular effect if you have less rest between sets, thats what i was saying, not that a weight session should be seen as cardio. I recommend females use higher repitions and more sets such as 5 by 15-20... You can still work your muscles with higher reps/sets.... Regardless of the amount of sets/reps you are using, to get benifets from training you have to train at a high intensity where the last few repitions in a set are hard to lift. Using higher reps/ sets just means you wont be lifting as heavy, but just as intensly. This will give more of a toning affect and looks far better on females. With that said though, females can still train using the conventional 3 sets by 8 and not get to the size a male would, but if i was a female id stay away from that ...
Much more is now known about human origins and evolution than was the case almost 40 years ago, when I began to study primate reproductive biology. In the
Will you save the best chocolate in the box until last? Do you want the good news first or the bad? Your preferences may depend on your age, reports a Cornell study published in Psychology and Aging.
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Ben Stiller is giving you his best Blue Steel.Heres the 28-year-old back in 1994 (left) -- and 15 years later, the 43-year-old version at an event in…
Rosanna Arquette knows good work when she sees it.Heres the 26-year-old actress/director/producer back in 1986 (left) -- and 25 years later, the…
A lot of people tend to have a strange fascination with serial murders. When we picture them, we generally imagine creepy men with a lust for blood, but serial killing is not a uniquely male trait.
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A crucial question in sexual selection theory is whether post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces or counteracts conventional pre-copulatory sexual selection. Male body size is one of the traits most generally favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection; and recent studies of sperm competition often suggest that large male size is also favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast to this general pattern, this study shows that pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection act antagonistically on male body size in Gerris lacustris. One large and one small male were kept together with two females in this experiment. Large males had a significant mating advantage, but small males copulated longer and gained higher fertilization success from each mating. Large and small males, however, gained similar reproductive success, and there was no overall correlation between mating success and reproductive success. These results suggest that estimates of male fitness based solely on mating success ...
Mate choice is often assumed to be a prerogative of females because of their putatively larger reproductive investment than males. However, recent evidence suggests that spermatogenesis is far from being limitless and that males show a high selectivity towards their mates, thus maximizing their reproductive success. We investigated mutual mate choice in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii through two experiments. The first experiment explored the effects of body size, chelar size and chelar symmetry and social status of a potential partner. In the second experiment, we asked whether this species can discriminate between partners of the same body size but with different mating status. We used a binary choice test paradigm, in which two targets with opposing characteristics were simultaneously presented to a test animal, the chooser. The results showed that P. clarkii males are more selective than expected. Similar to the other sex, they were significantly attracted by targets with large body ...
Parasite-stress theory, illustrated by researchers Corey Fincher and Randy Thornhill, is a theory of human evolution proposing that parasites and diseases encountered by a species shape the development of species values and qualities. The differences in how parasites and diseases stress peoples development is what leads to differences in their biological mate value and mate preferences, as well as differences across culture. Parasites causing diseases pose potential ecological hazards and, subsequently, selection pressures can alter psychological and social behaviours of humans, as well as have an influence on their immune systems. Several hypotheses have attempted to explain how parasite load influences female mate choice, as certain traits are thought to be costly and the expression of such traits may be indicative of genetic quality. According to the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis, female mate choice is based on the extent to which male secondary sexual characteristics are expressed, as these are ...
Parasites are thought to play an important role in sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies, which in turn are likely to be critical to the transmission and therefore the evolution of parasites. Despite this clear interdependence we have little understanding of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the context of reciprocal parasite evolution. Here we develop a general coevolutionary model between host mate preference and the virulence of a sexually transmitted parasite. We show when the characteristics of both the host and parasite lead to coevolutionarily stable strategies or runaway selection, and when coevolutionary cycling between high and low levels of host mate choosiness and virulence is possible. A prominent argument against parasites being involved in sexual selection is that they should evolve to become less virulent when transmission depends on host mating success. The present study, however, demonstrates that coevolution can maintain stable host mate choosiness and ...
A large body of literature has centred on whether female resistance evolves as a result of sexual conflict or as a form of female choice for superior mates (also known as resistance as a screen, or resistance as choice) [50,101-103]. According to this hypothesis, open-ended female resistance will ensure that a female copulates only with dominant males that are best able to overcome female resistance; male offspring will be superior competitors/coercers, and female resistance will evolve through the indirect benefits of their superior coercive male offspring [50,101-103]. This type of screening has been hypothesized to occur during pre-copulatory struggles, and during and/or after copulation via cryptic female choice mechanisms [50]. The main argument against the resistance as a screen hypothesis is that the magnitude of the direct costs imposed by coercive males may be much greater than the magnitude of any potential indirect benefit that females may gain [56], but this issue is far from ...
My research interests lie in the field of Behavioural Ecology. I study how variation in the social and physical environment shapes behavioural differences at the individual- and group- level, which in turn have important evolutionary consequences. My work is mainly lab-based and uses guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model system.. During my PhD, I tested the hypothesis that females alter their sexual behaviours in response to variation in the distribution of male phenotypes experienced during development. I also explored whether learned preferences acquired in a foraging context while growing could be transferred into a mating context. The study showed the key role played by the social environment experienced during ontogeny in the expression of female mate preferences in a species that lack parental care.. Currently, my research centres on the study of social network structure and its adaptive value. Specifically, I am analyzing how the dynamic structure of established social networks responds ...
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Background: One of Darwins chosen examples for his idea of sexual selection through female choice was the "sword", a colourful extension of the caudal fin of male swordtails of the genus Xiphophorus. Platyfish, also members of the genus Xiphophorus, are thought to have arisen from within the swordtails, but have secondarily lost the ability to develop a sword. The sustained increase of testosterone during sexual maturation initiates sword development in male swordtails. Addition of testosterone also induces sword-like fin extensions in some platyfish species, suggesting that the genetic interactions required for sword development may be dormant, rather than lost, within platyfish. Despite considerable interest in the evolution of the sword from a behavioural or evolutionary point of view, little is known about the developmental changes that resulted in the gain and secondary loss of the sword. Up-regulation of msxC had been shown to characterize the development of both swords and the ...
New research indicates that the genetic quality of sperm worsens as men get older, increasing a mans risk of being infertile, fathering unsucces
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We studied sampling behaviour and mate choice in the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi. Once a female selects a mate, she copulates in his burrow and remains there until releasing her aquatic larvae. U. mjoe
I almost didnt write this review. A couple of months ago, my friend Tracy at Fanserviced-B published her extensive and detailed review of Sunday Riley Good Genes, and I wasnt sure, when I started testing the product, that Id have anything to add to the conversation. The more time I spent with Good Genes, however,…
Most of the time you pick a potential mate based on what you see, but with this dating trend youll pick someone based on their scent. In fact, you wont see what they even look like until later in the game.. This type of dating usually takes place at pheromone dating parties. If youre planning to attend a party like this, youll be given specific instructions for how to capture your scent for potential dates.. Participants are often asked to sleep in the same t-shirt for three nights. Then, you place it in a Ziploc freezer bag and freeze it until its time for the party. This is designed to capture your scent and preserve it.. Once you arrive, your bag will receive a number. Youll get the opportunity to smell the shirts of potential mates and they will get the chance to smell yours. At the end of the evening, participants can choose to talk with people whose scent they were attracted to.. The idea behind this is the idea that pheromones cause you to be biologically attracted to other people. ...
Sexual selection, a concept introduced by Charles Darwin in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, is a significant element of his theory of natural selection. The sexual form of selection;. ... depends, not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for possession of the females; the result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring.. ... when the males and females of any animal have the same general habits ... but differ in structure, colour, or ornament, such differences have been mainly caused by sexual selection.. The coloration of feathers is believed to be primarily evolved in response to sexual selection. In many cases the physiological condition of the birds is indicated by the quality of their feathers and this is used, mainly by the females, in mate choice.. The females cannot be as outrageously decorated, since they cannot afford to be discovered by a predator while hatching the offspring. Nonetheless they are very beautiful and many ...
Remarkably, we have actually kind of obtained a similar result in one of our previous study (Svensson et al. 2006 Evolution), where we found that strong divergent sexual selection was accompanied by a significant decrease of female response towards conspecifics from other populations. This is corroborated by another study yet from our group, that found reduced gene flow between some of these populations (Svensson et al. 2004 Heredity), like it has been found in other systems (Rice and Pfennig 2010). I had myself never really thought about it that way, and this opened my mind a lot I must say on what Erik and others of our group have done in the past. And what about learning then? Well, we know it is likely to play an important role in divergence of mate preferences in our system (Svensson et al. 2010 Evolution), and all things considered it might even facilitate this process, as mate choice may change faster and thus the constraining effects of gene flow in the early stages will then not be an ...
The example of the !Kung woman who did not want to kill her light-skinned daughter is illustrative of Judys hypothesis, but, it is simply a starting point. Nevertheless, I think it highlights a weakness: the genomic data is shedding light on the possibility that selection for loci which cause light skin (or, more properly explain a proportion of the intergroup variance) occurred long after the first humans settled the temperate zone. If the parental preference for light skin (which derives from the deep seated sensory bias which is also the root of sexual selection) existed prior to the arrival in the northern latitudes why is it that Eurasian populations seem to exhibit pulses of selection relatively late in history? One could make the argument, assuming that parental and sexual selection were paramount, that child and mate choice were simply not operative prior to this time period. Sexual selection works ideally through polygynous mating systems where there is a great deal of reproductive ...
It used to be said that men predominantly liked salty snacks and women liked sweets. Food preference, in that sense, was related to chromosomes. It may go deeper than that. Even your preference for fats, carbohydrates and proteins may be genetic.
In Fragile X syndrome-a genetic mishap that results in cognitive delays-the lack of a translation-repressing protein leads to the rampant accumulation of other proteins in the mouse brain.. 0 Comments. ...
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Also, Sykess characterization of sexual selection is flat-out wrong. He writes, Sexual selection disappears for the simplest of reasons - there are no longer two sexes ... The destructive spiral of greed and ambition fuelled by sexual selection diminishes. The world no longer reverberates to the sound of mens clashing antlers and the grim repercussions of conflict, but only right after saying that the baby girls will not be clones ... They have two biological parents, not just one. Their only difference from any other child is that both parents are women. Sexual selection is the theory that competition for mates between individuals of the same sex drives the evolution of certain traits. If women still have to seek out mates, they will still want to seek out the best mate possible, and an intra-sex competition will stil be in effect. Some traits will be more attractive than others ...
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Does anyone know what kind of swordtail this is? I just bought it. It looks blue when the light hits right, and its grey when it doesnt. Also what would...
2000 words I was alerted to a response to my article r/K Selection Theory Rebuttals on Twitter. I enjoy when people write responses to my pieces as I can better build my arguments. Its also fun defending what I wrote. This Pastebin is where the response is. He states that he disagrees with AC (Anonymous Conservative) on two…
What is the point, really, of kissing? Humans make such a big deal of it, but almost no other animals smooch. A new study out of Oxford University suggests that kissing may actually have a purpose beyond the obvious -- its a mating audition. Potential mates are doing a taste test.
What is the point, really, of kissing? Humans make such a big deal of it, but almost no other animals smooch. A new study out of Oxford University suggests that kissing may actually have a purpose beyond the obvious -- its a mating audition. Potential mates are doing a taste test.
This is a cool case of sexual selection acting on females, specifically because the males make an unusually large parental investment and thus must be choosy. Totally confirms my prejudices about the situations in which sexual selection should be expected. The fact that it involves lying is just gravy.. ...
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Mate preferences of female mottles sculpins, Cottus bairdi. Animal Behavior 28:728-734. ... In order to mate the female will come up to the males nest and lay her eggs there. The female chooses her mate on physical ... Mottled sculpins only mate once a year. The clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. However within ... Therefore, older females are usually chosen for mates over younger females.[3][6] ...
"Investigation of Mating Preference for Nestmates in the Paper Wasp Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)" (PDF). Journal of ... Animal Behaviour. 22 (3): 741-744. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.407.6956. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(74)80026-6. Retrieved 25 September 2014.. ... After mating, the drones die off while the fertilized queens seek hideouts in which to hibernate for the winter.[2] The colony ... It is common for queens to mate with only one drone. Each drone has only one set of chromosomes to pass on to its offspring. ...
MHC is thought to contribute to mate choice in animals and humans. In sexual selection, females opt for mates with an MHC which ... If odor plays a role in human mate choice then the contraceptive pill could disrupt disassortative mate preferences.[82] Those ... If women are taking a contraceptive pill the changes in mate scent preferences over the menstrual cycle are not expressed.[81] ... Women's scent preferences and the menstrual cycle[edit]. Women's preferences for body odor change with their menstrual cycles.[ ...
O'Loghlen, A.L. & Beecher; M.D. (1997): Sexual preferences for mate song types in female song sparrows. Animal Behavior 53(4): ...
"Video mate preferences of female three-spined sticklebacks from populations with divergent male coloration". Animal Behaviour. ... The sequence of territorial courtship and mating behaviours was described in detail by Niko Tinbergen in a landmark early study ... Bakker, T. C. M.; Mundwiler, B. (1994). "Female mate choice and male red coloration in a natural three-spined stickleback ( ... Baube, C.L.; Rowland, W.J.; Fowler, J.B. (1995). "The mechanismsof colour-based mate choice in female threespine sticklebacks: ...
Alternative mating strategy Animal sexual behaviour Human female sexuality Human mating strategies Human sexual activity Human ... In addition to impacting mating preferences, females have been found to exhibit differing mating behaviour at different cycle ... Gildersleeve, K.; Haselton, M. G.; Fales, M. R. (2014). "Do women's mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle? A meta- ... Parker, T. H.; Ligon, J. D. (2003). "Female mating preferences in red junglefowl: a meta-analysis". Ethology, Ecology & ...
Rodríguez, Rafael (2013). "The evolution and evolutionary consequences of social plasticity in mate preferences". Animal ... In this case, a stronger attractive response to a particular cue is assumed to reflect a preference for mates with that cue. ... Contextual plasticity plays a major role in studies of mate preference, in which each subject is exposed to cues from different ... animals that can change how they respond to differences in stimuli would have a leg up over animals that were set in a rigid ...
Repeatability of mate preference functions in Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). Animal Behaviour. 1-7. Wood, T. K ... Females only mate once, while males mate multiples times. Soon after a female mates, she would start ovipositing eggs into the ... Experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance in a variable environment. Evolution. 66:459-468. Fowler- ... The evolution of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25(9): 1855-1863. Fowler- ...
Tsukamoto, Y., Kataoka, H., Nagasawa, H., & Nagata, S. (2014). Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted ... Journal of Animal Ecology, 74(6), 1051-1058. Hamilton, R (1990) L., Cooper, R. A., and Schal, C The influence of nymphal and ... mated females fed off of a more protein rich diet after mating. Unmated and mated female crickets were found to prefer a 2:1 ... Tsukamoto, Y., Kataoka, H., Nagasawa, H., & Nagata, S. (2014). Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted ...
Alcock, J. (1993). Animal behaviour: An evolutionary approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Buss, D. M. (1995). Mate Preference ... He proposes that females have adapted a preference to mate with males who display both an ability and willingness to invest ... The body-guard hypothesis proposes that rape-avoidance drives women's mate preferences for physically or dominant males. Women ... Males have developed behaviours that help them to retain a mate, also known as mate guarding, in order to enhance reproductive ...
"Does It Matter That Beaugregory Damselfish Have a Mate Preference?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 42 (3): 149-155. doi: ... Even though large male size can be advantageous in defending nests and eggs against conspecifics among many animals, nest ... This plasticity in mating behavior can be attributed to two factors: (1) intrusions by other fish to feed in the females' ... Females also do not choose their mates based upon the brood sizes of the males. In spite of the increased male parental care, ...
... to store energy or insulate the animal; or for display purposes, such as intimidating rivals and predators, or attracting mates ... This consistency in large body size among spinosaurids could have evolved as a byproduct of their preference for semiaquatic ... If these represent Baryonyx's meal, the animal was, whether in this case a hunter, or a scavenger, an eater of more diverse ... When alive, these spines would have been covered in skin or fat tissue and formed a dorsal sail down the animal's back, a ...
Animal Behaviour 75(4), 1519-24. Nwanze, K. F., et al. (1975). Evidence for ovipositional preference of Callosobruchus ... It is possible that male may benefit from harming the female because the injury could reduce matings or mating success with ... A female without an additional nutrient source is less choosy in the mating process. She does not even refuse matings with ... The emerged adult beetles mate assortatively, meaning they mate with others that developed on the same host bean. If the ...
Animal Behaviour. 55: 361-376. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0586. Omland, K. E. (1996), "Female mallard mating preferences for ... "Effects of experimental manipulations of male secondary sex characters on mate preference in red jungle fowl". Animal Behaviour ... Elegant plumes in a bird or antlers in a deer grown once a year could signal the overall condition of an animal during the long ... If each ornament reflected the male's quality with a certain error, then mate choice based on a single trait would lead a ...
"Female preference variation has implications for the maintenance of an alternative mating strategy in a swordtail fish". Animal ... The β males mimic the females and therefore manage to mate with some of the females in an α male's harem. The γ form is much ... Their reproductive strategy is of interest, as both males and females are unusual among animals. Males are polymorphic and ... Of the three, α males are the largest and most dominant; they mate with multiple females in a harem. ...
Geographic variation in mate preference", Animal Behaviour, 31: 1154-1165 Ratti, J. T. (1979). Reproductive Separation and ... Species interactions can also result in reproductive character displacement (in both mate preference or mating signal). ... increasing mate discrimination rapidly. Additionally, when there is a low cost to female mate preferences, changes in male ... gossypinus exhibit reproductive character displacement in mating preferences, with heterospecific matings taking place between ...
"Video mate preferences of female three-spined sticklebacks from populations with divergent male coloration". Animal Behaviour. ... Bakker, T. C. M.; Mundwiler, B. (1994). "Female mate choice and male red coloration in a natural three-spined stickleback ( ... Baube, C.L.; Rowland, W.J.; Fowler, J.B. (1995). "The mechanismsof colour-based mate choice in female threespine sticklebacks: ... Milinski, M.; Bakker, T. C. M. (1990). "Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized ...
Higher-ranking animals get preference for food and resting sites, and the alpha male gets primary mating rights. Animals in the ... The most dominant male, the alpha male, gets preference for food and resting places, and mates with most of the receptive ... The mantled howler uses a polygamous mating system in which one male mates with multiple females. Usually, the alpha male ... Males outrank females, and younger animals of each gender generally have a higher rank than older animals. ...
The ability to detect variations in humidity is critical for many animals. Birds, reptiles and insects all show preferences for ... specific humidities that influence their mating, reproduction and geographic distribution. Because of their large surface area ...
Example: a female animal chooses to mate with a particular male during a mate choice trial. A possible proximate explanation ... Example: female animals often display preferences among male display traits, such as song. An ultimate explanation based on ... sexual selection states that females who display preferences have more vigorous or more attractive male offspring. Proximate ...
... species across the animal kingdom may also engage in competitions for mating. If one considers mates or potentials mates as a ... The sensory bias hypothesis states that the preference for a trait evolves in a non-mating context, and is then exploited by ... Mating systems[edit]. Main article: Mating systems. Various types of mating systems include monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, ... In this mating system, female guppies prefer to mate with males with more orange body coloration. However, outside of a mating ...
Simmons, L.W. (1989) Kin recognition and its influence on mating preferences of the field cricket, Gryffus bimaculatus (de Geer ... A review of the genetics of inbreeding depression in wild animal and plant populations, as well as in humans, led to the ... This is due to the fact that males die immediately after mating; therefore when they disperse to mate, they often meet with ... The extent of bias for a particular sex is dependent on numerous factors which include, but are not limited to: mating system, ...
Mating is preceded by a courtship/pairing period in many animal mating systems. It is during this period that sexually mature ... Kahn, A. T. (2014). "Female preferences for timing in a fiddler crab with synchronous courtship waving displays". Animal ... doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00212.x. Parker, G.A. (1983). "Mate quality and mating decisions". In Bateson, P. Mate Choice. ... Many species of animals engage in some type of courtship display to attract a mate, such as dancing, the creation of sounds and ...
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 46:68-74. Ridley M. 1988. Mating frequency and fecundity in insects. Biological Reviews. 63: ... called female sperm preference or cryptic female choice (e.g. many invertebrate animals, birds and reptiles). One important ... Animal Behaviour. 58:247-254. Rowe, L. & Arnqvist, G. (2002) Sexually antagonistic coevolution in a mating system: combining ... During mating, males will try to inseminate as many females as possible. However, the more times a female's abdomen is ...
Female mating preferences are widely recognized as being responsible for the rapid and divergent evolution of male secondary ... Sexual selection by direct and/or indirect benefits as well as sexual conflict determine the evolution of animal mating systems ... In these mating systems, females that mate with a polygynous male normally receive less assistance than females mated with a ... In polygynous mating systems, sexual conflict means the optimization of male reproductive success by having mated with multiple ...
Apart from mating during the rutting season, water deer are solitary animals, and males are highly territorial. Each buck marks ... Most of these animals still reside close to Woburn Abbey. It appears that the deer's strong preference for a particular habitat ... Scent plays an important part in courtship, with both animals sniffing each other. Mating among water deer is polygynous, with ... The animals were kept in the London Zoo until 1896, when Herbrand Russell oversaw their transferral to Woburn Abbey, ...
Social Transmission of Food Preferences. *Reproductive and mating behavior. *Open Field (exploratory behavior, risk assessment ... Animal Behavior Core. Go to the Behavioral Core Website The Behavioral Core provides expertise, staff and state-of-the-art ... We facilitate functional assessments and phenotyping with many type of logistical support including help with animal protocols ...
Animal sexual behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal sexual behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Mate preferences of female mottles sculpins, Cottus bairdi. Animal Behavior 28:728-734. ... In order to mate the female will come up to the males nest and lay her eggs there. The female chooses her mate on physical ... Mottled sculpins only mate once a year. The clutch size can vary anywhere from 8 eggs to 148 eggs for females. However within ... Therefore, older females are usually chosen for mates over younger females.[3][6] ...
In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a ... Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. ... Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was ... Animals * Bacteria / metabolism* * Diet / veterinary * Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development * Drosophila melanogaster ...
The nose knows: MHC-dependent mate selection in humans through odor preference Alexandra Roman. Department of Biology. Lake ... Animal Welfare Legislation and Standards for Farmed Animals: The Lack Thereof Brittany Schweiger. Department of Environmental ... Homosexuality in Animals: An Analysis of Sexual Behavior Theories Amanda Gibbs. Department of Biology. Lake Forest College. ... Isotopes: Unconventional Tools in Illuminating Patterns of Animal Movement Emily Ong. Department of Biology Lake Forest College ...
"Investigation of Mating Preference for Nestmates in the Paper Wasp Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)" (PDF). Journal of ... Animal Behaviour. 22 (3): 741-744. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.407.6956. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(74)80026-6. Retrieved 25 September 2014.. ... After mating, the drones die off while the fertilized queens seek hideouts in which to hibernate for the winter.[2] The colony ... It is common for queens to mate with only one drone. Each drone has only one set of chromosomes to pass on to its offspring. ...
OLoghlen, A. L. & Beecher, M. D. (1997). Sexual preferences for mate song types in female song sparrows. Animal Behaviour, 53 ... OLoghlen, A. L. & Beecher, M. D. (1999). Mate, neighbour and stranger songs: a female song sparrow perspective. Animal ... Animal Behaviour, 59, 29-37.. Nordby, J. C., Campbell, S. E., Burt, J. M. & Beecher M. D. (2000) Social influences during song ... Animal Behaviour. 83, e1-e3. Ak ay, , Searcy, W. A., Reed, V. A., Templeton, C. N., Campbell, S. E. & Beecher, M. D. (2012) Who ...
... which could impair the animals vision. However, we found that RGS9 mutant and WT animals did not differ in the water maze ... Conditioned Place Preference. Place conditioning was performed as described (13), except that mice were conditioned to morphine ... All experimental mice were generated through matings of heterozygous RGS9+/- mice. For all behavioral studies, 8-week-old wild- ... Animals. The creation of RGS9 knockout (KO) mice is described elsewhere (10). We used mice that were backcrossed into a C57BL/6 ...
Thornhill, R., Gangestad, S. W., & Comer, R. (1995). Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry. Animal Behaviour, 50(6 ... Li, Valentine, & Patel (2010) Mate preferences in the US and Singapore: A cross-cultural test of the mate preference priority ... Mate preferences in humans refers to why one human chooses or chooses not to mate with another human and their reasoning why ( ... Yet mate preference changes depending on the strategy being used: when searching for a long-term mate, women often tend to ...
OLoghlen, A.L. & Beecher; M.D. (1997): Sexual preferences for mate song types in female song sparrows. Animal Behavior 53(4): ...
3. Evolutionary Wanderlust: Sexual Selection with Directional Mate Preferences. Geoffrey F. Miller and Peter M. Todd ... More than sixty contributions in From Animals to Animats 2 by researchers in ethology, ecology, cybernetics, artificial ... Evolution of Herding Behavior in Artificial Animals. Gregory M. Werner and Michael G. Dyer ... intelligence, robotics, and related fields investigate behaviors and the underlying mechanisms that allow animals and, ...
... news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/04/animals-flies-sex-mating-evolution.html © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- ... The preference to that zone was quite immediate, Shohat-Ophir says. Some of them just stayed there, as well. ... Deadly Spider Mating Game For many spider species, the males have tricks to avoid being eaten during mating. The male Tasmanian ... Mating is very important for any species to survive, and so any mechanisms that increase the robustness of mating, as a ...
Yamazaki, K., Boyse, E., Mike, V., Thaler, H., Mathieson, B., Abbott, J.,…Thomas, L. (1976). Control of mating preferences in ... Animal Behaviour, 119, 75-86.Google Scholar. *. Bonneaud, C., Chastel, O., Federici, P., Westerdahl, H., & Sorci, G. (2006). ... Puts, D. A. (2005). Mating context and menstrual phase affect womens preferences for male voice pitch. Evolution and Human ... Wedekind, C., Seebeck, T., Bettens, F., & Paepke, A. J. (1995). MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proceedings of the ...
Mate preference: a possible causal mechanism for a moving hybrid zone. Animal Behavior 65:489-500. ...
Furthermore, they show that assortative mating through gamete preference, as already demonstrated for sea urchins, may play a ... Many marine animals migrate over long distances through a planktonic larval stage. Therefore, strong reproductive isolation is ... However, surprisingly little is known about mating preferences and hybrid fitness in marine organisms. Smooth-shelled mussels ( ... There was no evidence of a cost to mating with a more genetically similar mate, because offspring survival was not influenced ...
Having an STI could benefit male animals More information: Pavitra Muralidhar. Mating preferences of selfish sex chromosomes, ... The first is called direct selection, and it is what it sounds like-genes that affect mating preferences are direct targets of ... Student gives possible explanation for female mating preferences that decrease male survival chances. by Bob Yirka , Phys.org ... Student gives possible explanation for female mating preferences that decrease male survival chances. ...
2009 Hes healthy, but will he survive the plague? Possible constraints on mate choice for disease resistance. Animal Behav. 77 ... In their paper The health of a nation predicts their mate preferences, DeBruine et al. [1] find that womens preferences for ... 2010 The health of a nation predicts their mate preferences: cross-cultural variation in womens preferences for masculinized ... We hope our suggestions will lead to direct testing of the factors that shape mating preferences. ...
... that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features-averageness and symmetry-that promoted adaptive mate ... 1990c Male Tail Length and Female Mate Choice in the Monogamous SwallowHirundo rustica.Animal Behaviour 39:458-465.CrossRef ... Gangestad, S. W., and D. M. Buss In press Pathogen Prevalence and Human Mate Preferences.Ethology and Sociobiology.Google ... 1992 Paternal Effects on the Fighting Ability of Sons and Daughters and the Mating Success of Sons in a Scorpionfly.Animal ...
Gender differences in mate preferences[edit]. Males place greater emphasis on: Physical Appearance, Younger women, No ... In animals the pattern of sexual behaviour begins with the females ovulation period. The sending out of pheromones to the male ... The need to nurture and encourage an individual interests and preferences and makes a person feel like they are more in control ...
Animals were provided fresh food every other day. All experiments used w1118CS male flies, given that their food preferences ... are not influenced by mating status57.. Fly-to-Liquid-Food Interaction Counter (FLIC) Feeding assay. Thirty age-matched male 4- ... To achieve the two different feeding states, animals were fasted for 18-24 h in the presence of water. Animals were then refed ... Fasted: CD n = 44, SD2 n = 38, SD5 n = 39, SD7 n = 31 biologically independent animals. Refed: CD n = 30, SD2 n = 34, SD5 n = ...
2010) illustrated the role that commensal microbiota play in the mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster. In zebrafish, ... Animal Models. Animal models provide an avenue to probe these interactions at a depth that is not possible using human-based ... Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 20051-20056 ... 2014) observed that bacterial taxa, such as Bacteroidetes, are associated with animal fat, rich diets, and high protein intake ...
Sexual selection will target women if they outnumber men on the mate market. Among early modern humans, such imbalances ... Familiarity Leads to Female Mate Preference for Novel Males in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Animal Behavior, 58, 907-916. ... Thelen, T. H. (1983). Minority type Human Mate Preference. Social Biology, 30, 162-180. ... van den Berghe, P. L., & Frost, P. (1986). Skin Color Preference, Sexual Dimorphism and Sexual Selection: A Case of Gene- ...
Repeatability of mate preference functions in Enchenopa treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). Animal Behaviour. 1-7. Wood, T. K ... Females only mate once, while males mate multiples times. Soon after a female mates, she would start ovipositing eggs into the ... Experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences: mating assurance in a variable environment. Evolution. 66:459-468. Fowler- ... The evolution of experience-mediated plasticity in mate preferences. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25(9): 1855-1863. Fowler- ...
It seems there is a presupposition here that animals dont have any particular preference for younger mates. I dont think its ... We designed and used a computational model and computer simulation to show that male mating preference for younger females in ... Here we use a stochastic, two-sex computational model implemented by computer simulation to show how male mating preference for ... Here we use a stochastic, two-sex computational model implemented by computer simulation to show how male mating preference for ...
Members of the Animal Behaviour Group use a wide variety of techniques to conduct laboratory and field experiments on animals ... Social learning of food and mate preferences * Sexual selection. * Effects of learning on physiological regulation ... Animal Behaviour Lab (3S03), Behavioural Ecology (3T03), Evolution of Communication (3YY3), Special Topics in Animal Behaviour ... Animal Behaviour Group. McMaster University now boasts a large and interactive group of researchers who use evolutionary and ...
  • Researchers from Slovenia and South Africa have discovered heterospecific mating in Nephila spiders, and have published their findings on 15th November 2016 in the journal Scientific Reports . (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies have consistently found that females tend to select mates that are roughly 4 years older than themselves, and this even applies cross-culturally. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example might be a male that is good at helping tend a nest, and is therefore highly prized by females looking for a mate. (phys.org)
  • Nonrandom mating results when individuals tend to choose mates with a specific phenotype and the associated genotype(s) among compatible mates. (hindawi.com)
  • However if a male is in good enough condition to weather these negative effects, it would be indicative to women, who selected these men as mates, that they have good genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is called direct selection , and it is what it sounds like- genes that affect mating preferences are direct targets of selection. (phys.org)
  • W e think our own relationships are wrought with lies and intrigues, but this is nothing compared to the lengths animals will go to in their efforts to pass on their genes to the next generation. (nautil.us)
  • There is increasing evidence that animals select partners that are compatible with them and it has been suggested that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) might influence mating preferences. (redorbit.com)
  • The work represents the first experimental evidence that birds' mating preferences are influenced by the genes of the major histocompatibility complex. (redorbit.com)
  • Migration is a complex behavioural adaptation for survival that has evolved across the animal kingdom from invertebrates to mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Migration is a common and critical behavioural adaptation for survival that has evolved in many animal taxa ranging from invertebrates to mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Behavioural observations and corresponding endocrinological data are used to investigate underlying mechanisms of mate competition and male mating strategies in relation to social parameters such as age, dominance status, and kinship. (mpg.de)
  • In this review we discuss the considerable evidence for the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in social recognition in rats and mice, as well as in offspring recognition in sheep and mate preference in monogamous voles. (nih.gov)
  • According to a study published in Nature Neuroscience, prairie voles mate for life. (techeye.net)
  • The voles' pair bonding, sharing of parental roles and egalitarian nest building in couples makes them a good model for understanding the biology of monogamy and mating in humans. (techeye.net)
  • Neuroscientist Mohamed Kabbaj and his team at Florida State University in Tallahassee took voles which had been housed together for six hours but had not mated. (techeye.net)
  • It is a well-known fact that men assign as far greater salience to the attractiveness of a potential mate when considering their mating preference than women do. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both active and passive immunotherapy protocols decrease insoluble amyloid-ß42 (Aß42) peptide in animal models, suggesting potential therapeutic applications against the main pathological trigger in Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sdbonline.org)
  • We size up our potential mates: how he smells or N dresses, what college she attended or where she works. (articlesfactory.com)
  • In this modern age of animal sheltering, most potential adopters scour the Internet for their pet before heading to a shelter. (tailsinc.com)
  • Most of my work has examined how organisms avoid being killed by predators, how organisms find and assess potential mates, and the trade-offs associated with balancing these activities. (utica.edu)
  • The United States raises and slaughters almost 10 times more birds than any other type of animal. (aspca.org)
  • All birds-egg-laying hens, meat chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese and others-are excluded from all federal animal protection laws. (aspca.org)
  • Besides catching the proverbial worm, there's another good reason for birds to get up and going early in the morning: Sleeping in can give their mates an opportunity to step out on them, leaving them to care for another bird's chicks. (mentalfloss.com)
  • The birds frequently mate outside of the pairs they've formed and many nests contain offspring from more than one father. (mentalfloss.com)
  • These "affairs" usually happen around dawn and when one partner in a pair is still asleep, suggesting that early birds have a better chance at doing a little mating on the side and can better guard their own partners from their neighbors, while birds that sleep late miss out on both these opportunities. (mentalfloss.com)
  • To see how wake-up times affected the birds' mating success and if snoozers were losers, biologist Timothy Greives did an experiment where he manipulated their biological clocks. (mentalfloss.com)
  • In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. (nih.gov)
  • After one generation, flies preferred to mate with those that were on the same diet, either starch or molasses, and these preferences continued for at least 37 generations. (kenyon.edu)
  • Students who major in general zoology are interested in the study of human beings and other animals, but perhaps do not want to pursue a professional career in medicine or zoology. (owu.edu)
  • We asked if the multiple sexes of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila mate preferentially among each other. (hindawi.com)
  • We quantified pairing frequencies among four sexes of T. thermophila using experiments that allowed the sexes to compete as mating partners. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that all sexes mated equally frequently among each other, that is, we found no evidence of preferential mating with respect to sex. (hindawi.com)
  • Investigation into molecular differences between the sexes will be necessary to reveal the mechanistic basis of random mating among them. (hindawi.com)
  • In other words, is selective mating observed when there is an opportunity to choose between many compatible sexes? (hindawi.com)
  • Alternatively, the multiple sexes could be grouped such that sexes within a group mate more frequently with each other than those between groups, resulting in pronounced mating preferences between groups. (hindawi.com)
  • The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila has seven, self-incompatible mating types (sexes). (hindawi.com)
  • The size advantage model of sex allocation in the protandrous sex-changer Crepidula fornicata: role of the mating system, sperm storage, and male mobility. (sb-roscoff.fr)
  • Lorenz and Tinbergen, who together are credited as founders of scientific ethology, contributed individually to the discipline and, during the mid-twentieth century, worked together on a theory that animals develop formalized, rigid sequences of action in response to specific stimuli. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another theory has attributed bilateral symmetry to the sexual preference of opposite genders to members possessing the most symmetrical features. (reference.com)