Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mathematical Computing: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Basic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.ComputersStress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Trichloroepoxypropane: A potent epoxide hydrase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitor. It enhances the tumor-initiating ability of certain carcinogens.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Riots: A form of violent crowd behavior which expresses the emotional release of resentments and prejudices, usually relevant to grievances toward the social system.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Communicable DiseasesPhysiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Carnobacterium: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)CD-I: An optical disk storage system used on specialized players that combine the functions of computer and CD player in a self-contained box, designed to be connected to a television set and a home stereo for video and sound output. The player is controlled with a hand-held remote unit resembling a television remote control. (J Allied Health 1993 Winter;22(1):131-8)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal: A rare aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, characterized by a biphasic histologic pattern of small compact cells intermixed with islands of cartilaginous matrix. Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have a predilection for flat bones; long tubular bones are rarely affected. They tend to occur in the younger age group and are highly metastatic. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1456)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Computational techniques in mathematical modelling of biological switches. 21st International Congress on Modelling and ... Other examples are in modelling biological switches (see a tutorial for the computational techniques in modelling biological ... Computational Techniques in Mathematical Modelling of Biological Switches. In Weber, T., McPhee, M.J. and Anderssen, R.S. (eds ... In the mathematical area of bifurcation theory a saddle-node bifurcation, tangential bifurcation or fold bifurcation is a local ...
Mathematical modelling of function[edit]. The kidney is a very complex organ and mathematical modelling has been used to better ... S.R. Thomas (2005). "Modelling and simulation of the kidney". Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry. 5: 70-83. doi: ... A.M. Weinstein (1994). "Mathematical models of tubular transport". Annual Review of Physiology. 56: 691-709. doi:10.1146/ ... However, this model is greatly simplified for clarity and symmetry. Some of the other paths and complications are described at ...
Applied Mathematical Modelling. 37 (5): 3048-62. doi:10.1016/j.apm.2012.07.030. Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Hubbard, Kristin E.; ... Journal of Biological Physics. 39 (4): 749-76. doi:10.1007/s10867-013-9329-5. PMC 3758828 . PMID 23949368. Lv, Yunfei; Yuan, ... Biological Conservation. 157: 423-431. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.023. ISSN 0006-3207. Rassweiler, A.; Costello, C.; Siegel, ... Rong; Pei, Yongzhen (2013). "A prey-predator model with harvesting for fishery resource with reserve area". ...
Fasham, M. J. R. (1981). "Analytic food web models". In T. Platt; K.H. Mann; R.E. Ulanowicz. Mathematical models in biological ... This work led to the development by Fasham and colleagues of a seminal open ocean plankton ecosystem model. This model, ... 1999). "Modeling the relative contributions of autotrophs and heterotrophs to carbon flow at a Lagrangian JGOFS station in the ... He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of open ocean plankton ecosystem models. Fasham was born in 1942 in ...
Maini, Philip K.; Othmer, Hans G. (2001). "Mathematical Models for Biological Pattern Formulation". R.F. Bachvarova, Rosemary F ... "Modeling Gastrulation in the Chick Embryo: Formation of the Primitive Streak". PLoS ONE. 5 (5): e10571. doi:10.1371/journal. ... Schnell, Santiago; Maini, Philip K; Newman, Stuart A.; Newman, Timothy J. (2007). Multiscale Modeling of Developmental Systems ...
3rd edition in 2 volumes: Mathematical Biology: I. An Introduction (551 pages) 2002; Mathematical Biology: II. Spatial Models ... Abstracted for inclusion in the 2003 Yearbook of the Institute of Oncology] Pattern formation, biological. In: The Handbook of ... A mathematical model for the dynamics of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for cancerous growth (with K.R. Swanson, D ... Why Are There No 3-Headed Monsters? Mathematical Modeling in Biology. Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc.. June/July, 785-795, 2012 ...
Discrete Mathematical Models, with Applications to Social, Biological and Environmental Problems, Prentice-Hall, 1976, .mw- ... Roberts' research concerns graph theory and combinatorics, and their applications in modeling problems in the social sciences ... List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 2013-07-07. ... In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[9] ...
"Mathematical modeling of polyamine metabolism in mammals". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (31): 21799-812. doi: ... Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in nutrition and are commonly used in nutritional ... Stegink LD (July 1987). "The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive". The American Journal of ... Wang Q, Parrish AR, Wang L (March 2009). "Expanding the genetic code for biological studies". Chemistry & Biology. 16 (3): 323- ...
A functional differential equation model for biological cell sorting due to differential adhesion". Mathematical Models and ... FDEs are used in mathematical models that assume the specified behavior or phenomenon is dependent on the present as well as ... Barnes, B.; Fulford, G. R. (2015). Mathematical Modelling with Case Studies. Taylor & Francis Group LLC. pp. 75-77. ISBN 978-1- ... this model has been used in many other fields for different uses, such as describing chemical reactions. Modelling predatory- ...
Mathematical Models of the Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycle. New York, Raven, 1984. pp. 81-103. - US Congress Office of Technology ... Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker. Washington DC, US Government Printing Office, 1991. Miller, J. C. (2006). In ... "Chronobiological aspects and models of sleep and napping". In: Dinges DF, Broughton RJ (eds.), Sleep and Alertness: ... in the quantification of daily variations in physiological function and some kinds of cognitive performance in fatigue modeling ...
2001). The Geometry of Biological Time. New York: Springer-Verlag. Murray JD. (2003). Mathematical Biology II: Spatial models ... Spiral waves have been observed in various biological systems including systems such as heart ventricular fibrillation, retinal ...
A Spatial Model for the Successful Biological Control of Sitona discoideus by Microctonus aethiopoides. The Journal of Applied ... Integrodifference equations are widely used in mathematical biology, especially theoretical ecology, to model the dispersal and ... However, multivoltine populations can also be modeled with integrodifference equations, as long as the organism has non- ... Discrete-Time Growth Dispersal Models. Mathematical Biosciences. 80:109-136. ...
Buchanan, Mark (4 June 2008). "Ecological modelling: The mathematical mirror to animal nature". Nature. 453: 714-716. doi: ... "Foraging success of biological Lévy flights recorded in situ". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109: 7169-7174 ... "A new approach for objective identification of turns and steps in organism movement data relevant to random walk modelling". ... "Lévy flights and superdiffusion in the context of biological encounters and random searches". Physics of Life Reviews. 5 (3): ...
"Stochastic models for heterogeneous DNA sequences". Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 51 (1). ... Durbin, R., S. Eddy, A. Krogh and G. Mitchison (1998). Biological sequence analysis (en inglés). Cambridge University Press. ... Lander, Eric S.; Waterman, Michael S. (1995). Calculating the Secrets of Life: Contributions of the Mathematical Sciences to ... Un exemplo de artigo de predición de estruturas de proteínas é o de Sonnhammer, E. L. L. (1998) A hidden Markov model for ...
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 2, 641-649 [1] Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition ... Herbert Fröhlich is the source of the idea that quantum coherent waves could be generated in the biological neural network. His ... This model was studied by the statistician J. F. C. Kingman and is known as the "house of cards" models. Depending on the ... In evolutionary models each species reproduces proportionally to its fitness. In the infinite alleles model, each mutation ...
Seki, K.; Miyazaki, T. (2001). "A mathematical model for biological clogging of uniform porous media" (PDF). Water Resources ... Bioclogging or biological clogging is clogging of pore space in soil by microbial biomass; their body and their byproducts such ... Biological causes: Usually bioclogging means the first of the following, while bioclogging in broader sense means all of the ... doi:10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4. Furumai, H.; Jinadasa, H.K.P.K.; Murakami, M.; Nakajima, F.; Aryal, R.K. (2005). "Model ...
The THOR Center for Neuroinformatics Established April 1998 at the Department of Mathematical Modelling, Technical University ... NIF supports concept-based queries across multiple scales of biological structure and multiple levels of biological function, ... These models will be deposited in an internet database from which Blue Brain software can extract and connect models together ... Neuroinformaticians provide computational tools, mathematical models, and create interoperable databases for clinicians and ...
Computing and mathematical modelling Constituent Grammatical Evolution, evolutionary algorithm. Computer generated environment ... Conservative Group for Europe, known since April 2009 as Conservative Europe Group Biological Sciences Caudal Ganglionic ... Computable general equilibrium models, in economics. Education Conférence des grandes écoles Certificate of Education a British ...
... is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems. It is a biology-based ... These include: New forms of computational models, such as the use of process calculi to model biological processes (notable ... Development of syntactically and semantically sound ways of representing biological models.[citation needed] Network-based ... who constructed a mathematical model that explained the action potential propagating along the axon of a neuronal cell. Their ...
The main focus lies on developing mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques. By these means it addresses ... transforming the industries in which biological scientists work. Biological scientists can now manipulate the genetic material ... Biological scientists in the field may work in warm or cold climates, in all kinds of weather. Marine biologists encounter a ... Many biological scientists depend on grant money to fund their research. They may be under pressure to meet deadlines and to ...
"A Mathematical Model of the Folate Cycle: new insights into folate homeostasis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (53): ...
Optimal Control Applied to Biological Models. Mathematical and Computational Biology Series. Chapman & Hall/ CRC. ISBN 978-1- ...
See also: Mathematical modelling of infectious disease. Tracking the transmission of infectious diseases is called disease ... Biological vectors are usually, though not exclusively, arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and lice. Vectors are ... "Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics". Virulence. 4 (4): 295-306. doi:10.4161/viru.24041. PMC 3710332. PMID ... Biological vectors are often responsible for serious blood-borne diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease ...
McInerney, Daragh (2001). Spatio-temporal patterning in biological systems : numerical techniques and mathematical modelling ( ... 1991). Mathematical models of wound healing (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. Smallbone, Kieran (2007). The role of acidity ... Maini's research includes mathematical modelling of tumours, wound healing and embryonic pattern formation, and the theoretical ... Panovska, Jasmina (2004). Mathematical modelling of tumour growth and application to therapy (DPhil thesis). University of ...
Laird, Simon (2008), "The Tangled Nature Model of Evolutionary Ecology: An Overview", Mathematical Modeling of Biological ... The purpose of the model is to create a simple and logical ecological model based on observation. The model is designed such ... Tangled nature model[edit]. The tangled nature model provides different methods for demonstrating and predicting trends in ... Another model is Law and Diekmann's 1996 models on mutualism, which is defined as a relationship between two organisms that ...
Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. ... The mathematical models formulated in computational neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the ... Furthermore, these computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments ...

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