**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Computers**

**Molecular Dynamics Simulation**: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Monte Carlo Method**: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Models, Cardiovascular**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.

**Thermodynamics**: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

**Models, Neurological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Water**: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Mathematics**: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Attitude to Computers**: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.

**Computers, Analog**: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Stochastic Processes**: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.

**Biophysics**: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.

**Protein Conformation**: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

**Kinetics**: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

**Computer Peripherals**: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Diffusion**: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.

**Biophysical Phenomena**: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.

**Patient Simulation**: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.

**Models, Anatomic**: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.

**Phantoms, Imaging**: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

**Computer Literacy**: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.

**Static Electricity**: The accumulation of an electric charge on a object

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Hydrogen Bonding**: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.

**Molecular Conformation**: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

**Action Potentials**: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

**Computer-Aided Design**: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.

**Lipid Bilayers**: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.

**Neural Networks (Computer)**: A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

**Computer Systems**: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.

**Solvents**: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Finite Element Analysis**: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.

**Motion**: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.

**Image Processing, Computer-Assisted**: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

**Imaging, Three-Dimensional**: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

**Genetics, Population**: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

**Selection, Genetic**: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.

**Computers, Handheld**: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.

**Biomechanical Phenomena**: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.

**Likelihood Functions**: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

**Protein Structure, Secondary**: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.

**Solutions**: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

**Decision Support Systems, Management**: Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.

**Biological Evolution**: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

**Protein Folding**: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.

**Computer User Training**: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.

**Molecular Docking Simulation**: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.

**Computer Terminals**: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)

**Binding Sites**: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Mutation**: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

**Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions**: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.

**Proteins**: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

**Bayes Theorem**: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

**Equipment Design**: Methods of creating machines and devices.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.

**Protein Binding**: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

**Rotation**: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Temperature**: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

**Nucleic Acid Conformation**: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.

**Computer Graphics**: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

**Quantum Theory**: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.

**Evolution, Molecular**: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Markov Chains**: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.

**Artifacts**: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.

**Ions**: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.

**Sample Size**: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)

**Physiology**: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.

**Molecular Sequence Data**: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

**Hydrodynamics**: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.

**Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted**: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.

**Feedback**: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.

**Normal Distribution**: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

**Computer Communication Networks**: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Nonlinear Dynamics**: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

**Image Enhancement**: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

**Movement**: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.

**DNA**: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

**Plethysmography, Impedance**: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)

**Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy**: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).

**Computer-Assisted Instruction**: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.

**Entropy**: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

**Amino Acid Sequence**: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

**Heart Conduction System**: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Equipment Failure Analysis**: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.

**Peptides**: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

**Protein Structure, Tertiary**: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.

**Tomography**: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.

**Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.

**Mathematical Computing**: Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.

**Stress, Mechanical**: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.

**Surface Properties**: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Statistical Distributions**: The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

**Animal Nutrition Sciences**: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.

**Manikins**

**Elasticity**: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.

**Crystallography, X-Ray**: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Protons**: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.

**Cost-Benefit Analysis**: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.

**Electric Conductivity**: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Membrane Potentials**: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).

**Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy**: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

**Chemistry, Clinical**: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.

**Radiographic Image Enhancement**: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.

**Inbreeding**: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

**Enzymes**: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.

**Viscosity**: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**GMP Reductase**: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.

**Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine**: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.

**Oscillometry**: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.

**Electrophysiology**: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.

**Transducers**: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Models, Structural**: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Neurons**: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.

**Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.

**Nerve Net**: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.

**Game Theory**: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

**Perilymph**: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)

**Brain**: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

**Phylogeny**: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

**Scattering, Radiation**: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Laboratories**: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.

**Liquid Crystals**: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.

**Population Density**: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.

**Chromosome Mapping**: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

**Ion Channels**: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.

**Heart**: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.

**Genetic Markers**: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

**Molecular Structure**: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.

**Ligands**: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

**Pressure**: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Round Window, Ear**: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.

**Models, Economic**: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.

**Synapses**: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.

**1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine**: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

**Cell Membrane**: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

**Genetic Linkage**: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.

**Population Dynamics**: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

**Quantitative Trait Loci**: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.

**Base Sequence**: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

**Minicomputers**: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.

**Acoustics**: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Electric Stimulation**: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.

**Signal-To-Noise Ratio**: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Escherichia coli**: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

**Arrhythmias, Cardiac**: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.

**Research Design**: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

**Systems Biology**: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.

**Chemistry, Physical**: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.

**Dendrites**: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.

**Quality Control**: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Energy Transfer**: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.

**Hydrogen-Ion Concentration**: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Sodium Channels**: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.

**Patch-Clamp Techniques**: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Teaching**: The educational process of instructing.

**Precipitins**: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.

**Myoglobin**: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.

**Breeding**: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.

**Calibration**: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.

**Computers, Molecular**: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.

**Population**: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Radiation Dosage**: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

**Dogs**: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)

**Internet**: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

**Information Systems**: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.

**Neural Conduction**: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.

**Radio Waves**: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.

**Genetic Drift**: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.

**Automatic Data Processing**: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.

**Ion Channel Gating**: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.

**Linkage Disequilibrium**: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

**Recombination, Genetic**: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.

**Quality-Adjusted Life Years**: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)

**Polymers**: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).

**Potassium**: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.

**Forecasting**: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Phosphatidylcholines**: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.

**Anisotropy**: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

Mathematics and

**Computers**in**Simulation**. 73 (1-4): 175-82. doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2006.06.002.. ... "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A:**Mathematical**, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 372 (2008). doi: ... a b Patriots Day on IMDb as "**Computer**Forensic Tech". *^ a b Baird, A; Kagan, J; Gaudette, T; Walz, KA; Hershlag, N; Boas, DA ( ... "Journal of**Mathematical**Analysis and Applications. 316 (1): 87-109. doi:10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.04.046.. ..."

**Simulation**of Topological Field Theories by Quantum**Computers**". Communications in**Mathematical**Physics. 227 (3): 587-603. arXiv ... Quantum**simulation**[edit]. The idea that quantum**computers**might be more powerful than classical**computers**originated in Richard ... Abrams, D. S.; Lloyd, S. (1997). "**Simulation**of many-body Fermi systems on a universal quantum**computer**". Physical Review ... Problems which are undecidable using classical**computers**remain undecidable using quantum**computers**.[4]:127 What makes quantum ...Techniques to Understand

**Computer****Simulations**: Markov Chain Analysis. *Markov Chains chapter in American**Mathematical**Society's ... Markov chains are used in lattice QCD**simulations**.[60] Chemistry[edit]. E. +. S. ↽. −. −. ⇀. E. Substrate. binding. S. ⟶. E. ... R. A. Sahner, K. S. Trivedi and A. Puliafito, Performance and reliability analysis of**computer**systems: an example-based ... Information and**computer**science[edit]. Markov chains are used throughout information processing. Claude Shannon's famous 1948 ...arXiv:1102.1523 . Boisvert, Ronald F. (2000). "

**Mathematical**software: past, present, and future". Mathematics and**Computers**in ...**Simulation**. 54 (4-5): 227-241. arXiv:cs/0004004 . doi:10.1016/S0378-4754(00)00185-3. Even the SSP (which appeared around 1966) ... Many**computers**have cache memory that is much faster than main memory; keeping matrix manipulations localized allows better ... As**computer**architectures became more sophisticated, vector machines appeared. BLAS for a vector machine could use the ...Boisvert, Ronald F. (2000). "

**Mathematical**software: past, present, and future". Mathematics and**computers**in**simulation**. 54 (4 ... Articles are intended for readers with backgrounds in all areas of**computer**science and information systems. The focus is on ... Rosen's vita at history.**computer**.org "Publications". Association for Computing Machinery. Retrieved 2011-12-05. ...Applied

**Mathematical**Modelling. 18 (7): 391-399. doi:10.1016/0307-904x(94)90225-9. Hudetz, W.J. (1973). "A**computer****simulation**... One of these techniques is referred to as a finite element method which divides the membrane into triangles and a**computer**is ... Twizell, E.H.; Curran, D.A.S. (1977). "A finite model of the otolith membrane".**Computers**in Biology and Medicine. 7 (2): 131- ... Applied**Mathematical**Modelling. 4 (2): 82-86. doi:10.1016/0307-904x(80)90110-9. Castillo, J.; McDermott, G.; McEachern, M.; ...Fumio Tajima demonstrated by

**computer****simulation**that the D. {\displaystyle D\,}. statistic described above could be modeled ...**Mathematical**details[edit]. D. =. d. V. ^. (. d. ). =. k. ^. −. S. a. 1. [. e. 1. S. +. e. 2. S. (. S. −. 1. ). ]. {\ ...**Mathematical**reason. Biological interpretation 1. Biological interpretation 2 Tajima's D=0 Theta-Pi equivalent to Theta-k ( ...**Simulations**have shown this distribution to be conservative,[2] and now that the computing power is more readily available this ...North East Polytechnics

**Mathematical**Modelling &**Computer****Simulation**Group). Professor Caldwell has been invited by the Open ... Professor Caldwell, has had extensive experience of**mathematical**modelling throughout his career in both university teaching ... "**Mathematical**Solution of Physical Problems Particularly Involving Magnetostatic Fields" and his second DSc by Teesside ... Caldwell has authored a number of postgraduate textbooks in**mathematical**modeling and edited a number of annual conference ......

**mathematical**modeling and**computer****simulations**; and the role of ecology. Ecologists became aware that the ecological factors ... complex**computer****simulations**, and theoretical work. The scientific language concerning reinforcement has also differed over ... and in 1965 and 1970 the first**computer****simulations**were run to test for its plausibility. Later, population genetic and ...Before

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**Mathematical**software: past, present, and future". Mathematics and**Computers**in**Simulation**. 54 (4 ... It is sent to all ACM members.[2][3] Articles are intended for readers with backgrounds in all areas of**computer**science and ...The theoretical component involves considerable

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- It is written in a clear and precise language, focusing on a thorough understanding of the concepts behind the equations and how these are used in the simulations. (wiley.com)
- Michael Reissig, Professor of Partial Differential Equations, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg 'There are many specialised books on mathematical modelling in specific narrow areas, this book takes a broader point of view to touch upon many of the key ideas in language suitable for an undergraduate or non-specialist audience. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Systems Analogies and Equations, Mathematical Methods. (routledge.com)
- the sheer number of units suggests that faster than real-time simulation of these equations will be hard to achieve on a single core. (frontiersin.org)
- The course covers basic concepts of linear equations, linear inequalities, systems of linear equations and matrices, systems of inequalities and linear programming, simplex method, set and counting theory, probability theory, stochastic processes (Markov processes are presented), theory of games, the mathematics of finance and mathematical modeling. (uis.edu)
- Mathematical models provide the equations and rules that define a process. (utah.edu)
- Find the answers to all kinds of questions using mathematical equations! (google.com)
- Mathematical equations can provide the answers to so many questions. (google.com)
- Readers will practice familiar mathematical skills, like addition and subtraction, in a new way by forming equations! (google.com)
- Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering with Mathematica clearly demonstrates how to solve difficult practical problems involving ordinary and partial differential equations and boundary value problems using the software package Mathematica (4.x). (google.com)
- Computer simulation of the beating human heart requires the simultaneous solution of equations of motion that couple together the fluid mechanics of the blood, the elasticity of the flexible heart valve leaflets, and the active, time-dependent elasticity of the muscular heart walls. (krellinst.org)

- To quantify the matrix resin chernorheological behaviour, methods for the generation of mathematical models for the cure and viscosity changes undergone by a dicyandiamide (DICY) cured epoxy resin system are described. (salford.ac.uk)
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- It is a nice idea to use in addition to numerical methods program packages of symbolic computations as Mathematica and Matlab for simulation. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Most of the available books, which I know, concern mathematical modeling or applied mathematics without computer simulations or, from the other hand, they present numerical methods and computer simulations without mathematical background. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- This special book joins mathematics and computer simulations and proposes the powerful methods and advantages of both subjects. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Problems of various degrees of difficulty and complexity are discussed to illustrate methods of computer-aided design and analysis that can bridge the gap between theories and applications. (routledge.com)
- Specific guidelines and practical methods for defining requirements, developing specifications, and integrating system modeling early in simulation development are included as well. (routledge.com)
- Computer Methods and Programming Languages. (routledge.com)
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- Frontmatter for an Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods. (compadre.org)
- Markov processes are the basis for general stochastic simulation methods known as Markov chain Monte Carlo , which are used for simulating sampling from complex probability distributions, and have found application in Bayesian statistics and artificial intelligence . (wikipedia.org)
- Written by experts in both mathematics and biology, Algebraic and Discrete Mathematical Methods for Modern Biology offers a bridge between math and biology, providing a framework for simulating, analyzing, predicting, and modulating the behavior of complex biological systems. (elsevier.com)
- Each chapter begins with a question from modern biology, followed by the description of certain mathematical methods and theory appropriate in the search of answers. (elsevier.com)
- Colleges and universities should expect every college graduate to be able to apply simple mathematical methods to the solution of real-world problems. (maa.org)
- Educated adults should be able to interpret mathematical models, represent mathematical information in several ways, and use different mathematical and statistical methods to solve problems, while recognizing that these methods have limits. (maa.org)
- These elements extend those in the ideal of 'mathematical power' presented in the NCTM Standards , which include 'methods of investigating and reasoning, means of communication, and notions of context. (maa.org)
- IJMMNO addresses mathematical modelling, algorithm development, numerical methods, computer simulations and numerical optimisation as well as applications and case studies. (inderscience.com)
- It is perhaps no accident that those researchers using computational simulation have been inspired by ideas from biological modeling, ecology, theoretical physics and thermodynamics, chaos theory, complexity theory and organization studies since these methods have also been fruitfully used in those areas. (wikipedia.org)
- These include moving heat source simulations, simultaneous bead laying methods (also called "block-dumped" methods) and combinations of the two. (open.ac.uk)
- Avoiding mathematical theorems and numerical methods-and requiring no prior experience with the software-the author helps readers learn by doing with step-by-step recipes useful in both new and classical applications. (google.com)
- The author's clear explanation of each Mathematica command along with a wealth of examples and exercises make Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering with Mathematica an outstanding choice both as a reference for practical problem solving and as a quick-start guide to using a leading mathematics software package. (google.com)

- By the use of these mathematical models a program for use on a personal computer has been written by means of which the cure,exotherTnic heat generation and viscosity of the resin may be simulated under both isothermal and linear temperature ramp conditions. (salford.ac.uk)
- The accuracy of such Computational nano-technology based experiment generally depends on the accuracy of the following things: Intermolecular interaction, Numerical models and Simulation schemes used. (scribd.com)
- The authors explain exhaustively and clearly how to develop and apply mathematical models, how to create the corresponding codes for symbolic and numerical computations and finally how to analyze the results. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. (sae.org)
- Computer simulation and mathematical models of the noncentrosomal plan" by Ezgi Can Eren, Natarajan Gautam et al. (wustl.edu)
- We also highlight the need to compare the results from simulation and mathematical models with quantitative data from biological experiments in order to test the validity of the models and to further improve them. (wustl.edu)
- and Dixit, Ram, "Computer simulation and mathematical models of the noncentrosomal plant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton" (2012). (wustl.edu)
- familiarity with selected scientific and engineering application areas and their mathematical models. (kth.se)
- Specifically new simulation models that are student centered need to be developed and explored. (divched.org)
- Computer Simulation Analysis of Biological and Agricultural Systems focuses on the integration of mathematical models and the dynamic simulation essential to system analysis, design, and synthesis. (routledge.com)
- Mathematical models of populations are limited by the difficulty they have with modelling in a clean way the complex, non-random mating patterns caused by geography, population movement, religion and social status. (humphrysfamilytree.com)
- Many mathematical models are of 1-parent genealogies - which is basically like modelling the female-female or male-male CAs. (humphrysfamilytree.com)
- Mathematical Models, Simulations, and Verification Radar System Characterization. (bookin.org.ru)
- In this paper we present both continuous and discrete mathematical models which describe the formation of the capillary sprout network in response to chemical stimuli (tumor angiogenic factors, TAF) supplied by a solid tumor. (nih.gov)
- This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. (duke.edu)
- However, unlike its predecessors, this book employs simple computer models implemented within spreadsheet environments to simulate different aspects of the alternative energy technologies and therefore teach the subject matter. (routledge.com)
- Using different medium-sized network models consisting of several thousands of neurons and off-the-shelf hardware, we compare the simulation speed of the simulators: Brian, NEST and Neuron as well as our own simulator Auryn. (frontiersin.org)
- Our results show that real-time simulations of different plastic network models are possible in parallel simulations in which numerical precision is not a primary concern. (frontiersin.org)
- Simulations can be done using models in real life, but often computers are used to run simulations in the virtual world. (utah.edu)
- right) Crash tests are an example of real-life simulation models. (utah.edu)
- Because mathematical models use numerical inputs and outputs, they allow you to see very specifically how a system evolves over time. (utah.edu)
- It strives to promote the development of effective algorithms, mathematical models, and optimisation techniques and their applications in real-world problems with demonstrated capability and efficiency in cross-disciplinary and industrial applications. (inderscience.com)
- This presentation focuses on a technique to scale battery models from cell-level to pack-level and the subsequent preparation of the battery pack model for real-time simulation. (mathworks.com)

- Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Activated Sludge Systems - Second Edition, provides, from the process engineering perspective, a comprehensive and up-to-date overview regarding various aspects of the mechanistic ("white box") modeling and simulation of advanced activated sludge systems performing biological nutrient removal. (iwapublishing.com)
- By combining a general introduction and a textbook, this book serves both intermediate and more experienced model users, both researchers and practitioners, as a comprehensive guide to modeling and simulation studies. (iwapublishing.com)
- This international, comprehensive guide to modeling and simulation studies in activated sludge systems leads the reader through the entire modeling process - from building a mechanistic model to. (iwapublishing.com)
- Modeling and Simulation of Corrosion Product Activity in Primary Coolant Circuit of PWRs. (bookin.org.ru)

- Summarizing, this book will occupy for sure an important place in my collection, and I recommend it to the students and teachers of applied mathematics, technology, informatics and any other field of science where the computer simulations of processes may be useful. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- The key objective of simulations in chemistry instruction is to help students develop a coherent understanding and explanation of the concepts and theories underlying various chemical processes (Suits & Sanger, 2013). (divched.org)
- Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Aluminum Fabrication Processes. (elsevier.com)
- like with the state space, there are conceivable processes that move through index sets with other mathematical constructs. (wikipedia.org)
- In factories, computer simulations can help optimize processes used to manufacture products. (utah.edu)

- Further, simulations are cost effective, safe to use, and convenient to integrate with various instructional settings including lecture and laboratory (Millar & Osborne, 1998). (divched.org)

- Richard Craster, Professor of Applied Mathematics,ã FIMA, FCGI, Leverhulme Trust Research Fellow, Imperial College London 'The book introduces to a Reader the problems of mathematical modeling and computer simulations in a friendly and easy manner, but still mathematically precise. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Three topics will be chosen from the following list: geometry, graph theory, counting techniques and probability, mathematics of finance, and mathematical modeling. (uis.edu)
- Over the years, the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) has approached this question in various ways, most recently by establishing, in 1989, a Subcommittee on Quantitative Literacy Requirements (henceforth called the Subcommittee ) of its Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics. (maa.org)

- In particular spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) creates specific demands for simulations of spiking neural networks. (frontiersin.org)
- Overall, these results show that to study plasticity in medium-sized spiking neural networks, adequate simulation tools are readily available which run efficiently on small clusters. (frontiersin.org)

- Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Pneumatic Systems, Advances in Computer Science and Engineering Matthias Schmidt, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/15313. (intechopen.com)

- The parameters of our model can be derived from these theoretical values and fast Monte Carlo simulations. (nsti.org)
- The theoretical capillary networks generated by computer simulations of the discrete model are compared with the morphology of capillary networks observed in in vivo experiments. (nih.gov)
- To understand how the central nervous system performs computations using recurrent neuronal circuitry, simulations have become an indispensable tool for theoretical neuroscience. (frontiersin.org)

- As a result, readers will learn how to design the computational model and which parameters of the simulations are essential, as well as being able to assess whether the results are correct, find and correct errors, and extract the relevant information from the results. (wiley.com)
- We present a mathematical model and the computer simulation of Brownian motion of nanoparticle-bioprobe-polymer contrast agent complexes and their hybridization to immobilized targets. (nsti.org)
- present documented, successful case studies of practical model applications as a guide while planning a simulation study. (iwaponline.com)
- The intern's research will provide a detailed energy storage system model and designs using various batteries, ultracapacitors and their combinations, as well as the computer simulation of various hybrid vehicle power systems using ADVISOR (Advanced VehIcle SimulatOR) and the company's vehicle simulation software. (mitacs.ca)
- Protein Binding of Small Ions--A Mathematical Model of Serum Albumin. (rand.org)
- Example of a Large-Model Simulation of the Blood Biochemical System. (rand.org)
- A mathematical model of the human external respiratory system. (rand.org)
- This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform. (sae.org)
- A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the turbulent multiphase flow field inside the flotation treatment furnace. (wpi.edu)
- Simulations based on the model were used to demonstrate the effect of the various process parameters on the performance of a batch-type rotating impeller particle flotation process. (wpi.edu)
- a knowledge base and skills ranging from formulation of a mathematical model to constructing software for high-performance computer architectures. (kth.se)
- The paper provides an introduction to a new-student centered model of Simulation Design that incorporates Learning Cycle Approach and knowledge evaluation throughout the simulation. (divched.org)
- To actually model the quirks of the history and geography of the world you really need a computer simulation. (humphrysfamilytree.com)
- But this needs to be proved (by constructing a local-mating mathematical model). (humphrysfamilytree.com)
- It may be that the pattern of local mating is extremely distorted by earth's specific geography, so perhaps only a computer simulation (rather than a general mathematical model) can solve this issue. (humphrysfamilytree.com)
- Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a CFD program (fire dynamics simulator) based on large eddy simulations (LES) is used to model floor-level fires in a ventilated tunnel. (cdc.gov)
- A reduced mathematical model is constructed based on the thermodynamics in the Ising spin variables representing the afferent synaptic connection distribution. (springer.com)
- In previous work, using a reaction-diffusion mathematical model based on variables that directly describe tumor cell cycle and biology, we formulated the hypothesis that tumor morphology is determined by the competition between heterogeneous cell proliferation caused by spatial diffusion gradients, e.g., of cell nutrients, driving shape instability and invasive tumor morphologies, and stabilizing mechanical forces, e.g., cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion. (aacrjournals.org)
- To test this hypothesis, we here obtain variable-based statistics for input to the mathematical model from in vitro human and rat glioblastoma cultures. (aacrjournals.org)
- Results of computer simulations of the mathematical model closely resemble the morphologies and spatial arrangement of tumor cells from the in vitro model. (aacrjournals.org)
- Previous attempts to quantify tumor morphology include using the fractal dimension of the tumor periphery to characterize degree of tumor aggression focusing on the existence and stability of asymmetric solutions to a mathematical model of solid tumor growth ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Nelson & Winter's (1982) Evolutionary theory of economic change used a simulation to show that an evolutionary model could produce the same sort of GDP / productivity numbers as neo-classical rational choice theorizing. (wikipedia.org)
- A Simulation Model for Resource Balancing in Healthcare Systems. (igi-global.com)
- The simulation model for emergency department is developed by Arena package program. (igi-global.com)
- Testing different scenarios, effective policy can be designed using developed simulation model. (igi-global.com)
- 1. Discrete Event Simulation: design of a simulation model and programme, input modelling including random number generation and random variable generation, output analysis, design of simulation experiments, simulation modelling using the Simul8 software. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Working Model 2D is an award-winning motion simulation package that allows engineers, designers, and animators to build and analyze mechanical systems quickly on desktop computers. (mathworks.com)
- The function partitions the model for concurrent execution on multicore real-time computers. (mathworks.com)

- 18 For grayscale images, mathematical morphology provides a well-founded theory. (spiedigitallibrary.org)

- The Subcommittee began with the perception, supported by many recent studies and reports, that general mathematical knowledge among the American people is in a sorry state. (maa.org)

- In order to implement theories that explain experimental evidence of nanoparticle-fluid dynamics and predict numerically optimum system performance, a description of the basic math modeling and computer simulation aspects is necessary. (mdpi.com)
- Attempt has also frequently used simulation approaches are Monte been made to discuss the contributions towards the societal Carl, and Molecular Dynamics methodsis the change in the present convergence of Nano-systems and manipulation of matter on a atomic and information technologies. (scribd.com)
- to join the international research community by continuing PhD studies in the CSE and science/engineering fields where simulation and high-performance computing is applied: fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, material science, chemical engineering, structural mechanics, biocomputing, and many more. (kth.se)
- The present work characterizes the hydration of Aniline at ambient to supercritical conditions through the use of Molecular Dynamics computer simulation. (bookin.org.ru)
- mathematical modeling and computer simulation of cultural evolutionary dynamics. (dur.ac.uk)
- The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. (nasa.gov)
- Second, we found that the fusion of stress granules (SGs) was important for their dynamics, and simulation predicted gamma distribution of SG size, which was confirmed by experiments. (nii.ac.jp)

- Interactive Computer Elucidation of a Biological System. (rand.org)
- Simulation of a biological system on an analog computer. (rand.org)
- Computer Simulation Analysis of Biological and Agricultural Systems is an excellent text and self-guide for agricultural engineers, agronomists, foresters, horticulturists, soil scientists, mechanical engineers, and computer simulators. (routledge.com)
- Every topic provides a fast-track pathway through the problem by presenting the biological foundation, covering the relevant mathematical theory, and highlighting connections between them. (elsevier.com)

- Simulations provide new affordances for learning science, particularly for abstract phenomena, and also promote interaction and thinking about complex scientific ideas (Webb, 2005). (divched.org)
- While animations are used to help students understand and explain abstract concepts, simulations allow students to explore phenomena and their representations while manipulating variables (Suits & Diack, 2002). (divched.org)
- Many computer simulations are effectively used to illustrate abstract points. (maa.org)

- The goal of this book is to outline Mathematical Modeling using simple mathematical descriptions, making it accessible for first- and second-year students. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)

- We use both explicit computations with the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distributions, and computer simulations for docking to targets. (nsti.org)
- It is written for mathematically capable students who have not necessarily had prior exposure to probability theory, stochastic calculus, or computer programming. (springer.com)

- Computer Simulations for Science and Engineering (COSSE) is a master's programme within the multidisciplinary field of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), which is an enabling technology for scientific discovery and engineering design. (kth.se)
- The master's programme in Computer Simulations for Science and Engineering is a two-year programme including compulsory mobility for the students. (kth.se)
- This course was also taught as part of the Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA) programme as course number SMA 5211 (Introduction to Numerical Simulation). (mit.edu)

- Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Activated Sludge Systems can be used as supplementary material for a graduate level wastewater engineering courses and is useful to a wide audience of researchers and practitioners. (iwaponline.com)
- Some researchers have focused on design features of animations and simulations. (divched.org)
- Researchers have in particular emphasized an intuitive and user-friendly simulation design to foster conceptual understanding. (divched.org)
- Very little has been published in the area of empirical ABM, and this contributed volume will appeal to graduate-level students and researchers studying simulation modeling in economics, sociology, ecology, and trans-disciplinary studies, such as topics related to sustainability. (powells.com)
- Featuring investigative exercises that deepen understanding and inspire further research, Alternative Energy Technologies: An Introduction with Computer Simulations makes an ideal introductory textbook for undergraduate students and a valuable professional reference for experimental researchers. (routledge.com)
- When threat of a disease epidemic arises, health researchers use computer simulations to track the disease and predict how it might spread. (utah.edu)
- The objectives of IJMMNO are to establish an excellent platform for discussion and communication between applied mathematicians, mathematical and numerical modellers, computer algorithm developers, and optimisation researchers in academic and research institutions, and industry. (inderscience.com)
- More recently, however, researchers have also started to apply computer simulation to understand organizational behaviour at a more micro-level, focusing on individual and interpersonal cognition and behavior such as team working. (wikipedia.org)

- Computer simulations illustrate the results. (spiedigitallibrary.org)

- Many authoritative mathematical and other groups have affirmed the importance of quantitative, or mathematical, skills in the population at large. (maa.org)

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- The CFD simulations indicate that the Froude modeling is an approximation for tunnel fires. (cdc.gov)

- Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource. (lmebooks.org)
- SHORT BLURB/BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The hottest, most important topic to reservoir engineers is reservoir simulation. (powells.com)
- Engineers create computer simulations to test traffic flow on proposed roads. (utah.edu)
- MathWorks is the leading developer of mathematical computing software for engineers and scientists. (mathworks.com)

- : 127 What makes quantum algorithms interesting is that they might be able to solve some problems faster than classical algorithms because the quantum superposition and quantum entanglement that quantum algorithms exploit probably can't be efficiently simulated on classical computers (see Quantum supremacy ). (wikipedia.org)
- It focuses on multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research to communicate new algorithms and techniques in mathematical modelling and numerical optimisation and promote real-world applications in all major areas of sciences, engineering and industry. (inderscience.com)

- This book seamlessly meshes modeling concepts with alternative energy concepts and provides the reader with interesting real world simulation examples and exercises. (routledge.com)

- Her research is focused on computational simulations of solid state surfaces and interfaces, using mainly density functional theory. (wiley.com)
- Tanaka S (1990a) Theory of self-organization of cortical maps: mathematical framework. (springer.com)
- This is valuable since computer simulation can help readers understand the theory. (springer.com)

- Wang, Q, Lassalle, S , Mileham, AR & Owen, GW 2007, ' Analysis and optimisation of a linear walking worker line using a combination of computer simulation and mathematical modelling approaches ', International Journal of Production Research , no. (bath.ac.uk)
- IJMMNO publishes full-length original research papers, with a section dedicated to short research notes and concise case studies using modelling, simulation and optimisation. (inderscience.com)

- The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. (sae.org)
- Simulation Techniques and Methodologies: Computer Simulation Analysis. (routledge.com)
- The complex three-dimensional shapes of intracellular structures and the confinement of certain molecules to membranes, however, complicate experimental analysis and computational simulation of diffusion in live Ivo F. S. (bookin.org.ru)
- Miller KD, Keller JB, Stryker MP (1989) Ocular dominance column development: analysis and simulation. (springer.com)
- Technological Progress, Income Distribution And Capacity Utilisation: A Computer Simulation-Based Analysis ," Anais do XXXII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 32nd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 085, ANPEC - AssociaÃ§Ã£o Nacional dos Centros de PÃ³s-GraduaÃ§Ã£o em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics]. (repec.org)
- Vibrant images, exciting examples, and clear mathematical diagrams and charts engage readers while making them more confident in their data analysis skills. (google.com)

- This introductory "how to" title enables readers to understand, plan, run, and analyze their own independent atomistic simulations, and decide which method to use and which questions to ask in their research project. (wiley.com)
- Water resource managers use simulations to analyze how changes in water use impact supply. (utah.edu)

- This chapter provides the readers to evaluate healthcare system using discrete event simulation. (igi-global.com)

- The focus of the group is the development of computational methodologies for molecular simulations which link different scales in problems occurring in condensed matter, material science and chemical physics. (fu-berlin.de)

- Astrophysicists have created simulations of Earth's first 500 years of existence. (utah.edu)

- Kleinstreuer C, Xu Z. Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulations of Nanofluid Flow with Applications to Cooling and Lubrication. (mdpi.com)
- Introduction to Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulations is written as a textbook for readers who want to understand the main principles of Modeling and Simulations in settings that are important for the applications, without using the profound mathematical tools required by most advanced texts. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Simulation Techniques and Applications: Soil-Water-Environmental Systems. (routledge.com)
- Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a powerful, simulation-modeling technique that has seen an uptick in the number of useful real-world applications in the last few years. (powells.com)
- Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a powerful, simulation-modeling technique that has seen a dramatic increase in real-world applications in recent years. (powells.com)
- Numerical simulation applications. (mit.edu)

- ã Courses in mathematical modelling could benefit from adopting this book as it provides a valuable, and accessible, teaching resource. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- Edyta Hetmaniok, Silesian University 'This book hits many of the major topics that should be in an introductory undergraduate course on Mathematical Modeling at the sophomore or junior level. (gambit-ksiazki.pl)
- This book describes the state-of-the-art advances in computer-based plant control. (environmental-expert.com)
- Like individual pages in a flip book, computer simulations preserve snapshots of calculations over time. (utah.edu)
- This book shows readers how practical and useful their mathematical and STEM skills can be, encouraging them to look for math everywhere! (google.com)
- This book challenges students to learn more advanced mathematical and STEM skills, using exciting astronomy examples to keep readers engaged. (google.com)
- This book aims at a middle ground between the introductory books on derivative securities and those that provide advanced mathematical treatments. (springer.com)
- The book provides wonderfully clear explanations without sacrificing mathematical accuracy. (springer.com)
- The book could also be used in some master programs in financial engineering and mathematical finance. (springer.com)

- Professor Segel, author of the highly acclaimed Modeling Dynamic Phenomena in Molecular and Cellular Biology, in conjunction with Professor Odell, has now produced on disc a series of programs which, together with the accompanying manual, will form an invaluable teaching and research tool, designed to integrate computer usage into a course on mathematical modelling for biologists. (cambridge.org)

- In the late 1980s the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research realised the increasing importance of mathematical modelling and computer based simulations that were critical for understanding complex systems, which were used in a wide array of scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
- Interactive Simulation of Continuous Systems : Progress and Prospects. (rand.org)
- Systems, Scientific Principles, and Computers: Introduction and Overview. (routledge.com)
- The distributed software implementation of the numerical algorithm is adapted to running on hybrid computer systems of various architectures. (springer.com)
- A. A. Davydov, B. N. Chetverushkin, and E. V. Shil'nikov, "Simulating flows of incompressible and weakly compressible fluids on multicore hybrid computer systems," Comput. (springer.com)
- Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Activated Sludge Systems - Second Edition provides, from the process engineering perspective, a comprehensive and up-to-date. (iwapublishing.com)
- 6.336J is an introduction to computational techniques for the simulation of a large variety of engineering and physical systems. (mit.edu)
- Since 1983, G. Caneba has been involved in pioneering efforts in mathematical modeling and computer simulation of nonlinear dynamic systems. (mtu.edu)
- While there are many uses for computer simulation (including the development of engineering systems inside high-technology firms), most academics in the fields of strategic management and organizational studies have used computer simulation to understand how organizations or firms operate. (wikipedia.org)

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- The use of Excel as a modeling platform provides beginners with an easy-to-use framework from which they can visualize each step in the simulation process while checking their results for each step. (routledge.com)
- A combination of general research results, experience, trial and error methodology, and computer-based simulations can usually provide the information necessary to select or modify appropriate methane control technology for site-specific situations. (cdc.gov)
- These results are supported by computer simulations. (ams.org)
- Results will be shown as a computer animation of the beating heart. (krellinst.org)

- The importance of computers in physics and the nature of computer simulation is discussed. (compadre.org)

- Numerical simulations of the system, using parameter values based on experimental data, are presented and compared qualitatively with in vivo experiments. (nih.gov)
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- Offline Computer - Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access. (routledge.com)
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- Without simulations, the reservoir engineer would not be able to do his or her job at all, and the technology available in this product is far superior to most companies internal simulation software. (powells.com)

- Later research using computational simulation flowered in the 1990s and beyond. (wikipedia.org)

- In this paper, a brief study of Computer-Simulation techniques as well as some Experimental result. (scribd.com)

- Not included in these simulations is the electrical activity that coordinates and controls the heartbeat, but we shall discuss how the IB framework can be generalized to solve the electrical problem, too. (krellinst.org)

- Simulations thus provide a certain degree of control to learners through their interactive features such as play and pause buttons, adjusting variables such as mass, volume etc., using buttons and sliders, and stop, review, and exit functions. (divched.org)
- It can serve as an excellent bridge between the introductory books on derivative securities and those that provide advanced mathematical treatments. (springer.com)
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- The computer code is verified by checking the computed velocity profile against experimental measurements. (cdc.gov)

- In current 3-dimensional multi-pass repair weld simulations each pass is generally modelled as a single continuous weld bead using either a simultaneous bead deposition or a progressive bead deposition moving heat source approach. (open.ac.uk)

- Focuses on mathematical reasoning and the solving of real-life problems. (uis.edu)

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- Alternative Energy Technologies: An Introduction with Computer Simulations explores the science and engineering behind a number of emerging alternative energy technologies, including polymer solar cells, algae biofuels, and artificial leaves. (routledge.com)

- To earn a minor in Mathematical Sciences, students must complete a minimum of 24 semester hours, at least 12 hours of which must be upper-division course work taken at UIS. (uis.edu)
- Students wishing to minor in Mathematical Sciences should select an academic advisor from among the Mathematical Sciences faculty who will help ensure that all requirements for the minor are met. (uis.edu)

- ACM recognizes excellence through its eminent awards for technical and professional achievements and contributions in computer science and information technology. (acm.org)
- 85% of our School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering postgraduate students are in professional employment within six months of graduating from Essex (DLHE 2017). (essex.ac.uk)
- We have six laboratories that are exclusively for computer science and electronic engineering students. (essex.ac.uk)
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- to gain employment in "end-user" high-tech industry and "provider companies", using and developing tools for advanced computer simulation in the pharmaceutical, automotive, materials, aeronautics, power generation, micro-electronics, etc. industries. (kth.se)