**Ferredoxins**: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

**Psychological Theory**: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.

**Theory of Mind**: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.

**Nursing Theory**: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.

**HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins**: A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Information Theory**: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.

**Reading**

**Quantum Theory**: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.

**Systems Theory**: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.

**Decision Theory**: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Game Theory**: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Information Storage and Retrieval**: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Crows**: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Philately**: Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Terminology as Topic**: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.

**Language**: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.

**New Caledonia**: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)

**Ethical Theory**: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)

**Sequence Analysis, Protein**: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.

**Tool Use Behavior**: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).

**Sequence Alignment**: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Intrauterine Device Migration**: The shifting in position or location of an INTRAUTERINE DEVICE from its original placement.

**Databases, Protein**: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

**HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins**: A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.

**Metaphor**: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)

**Drosophila**: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.

**Proteins**: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

**Semantics**: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.

**Molecular Sequence Data**: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Sequence Analysis, DNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

**Data Compression**: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.

**Thermodynamics**: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

**Pattern Recognition, Visual**: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**von Willebrand Factor**: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.

**Biological Evolution**: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

**User-Computer Interface**: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.

**Natural Language Processing**: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.

**Computers, Analog**: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Encyclopedias as Topic**: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

**Computers**

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Crystallography, X-Ray**: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**X-Ray Diffraction**: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Neutrons**: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.

**Neutron Diffraction**: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.

**Quantum Dots**: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.

Not all modern

**string****theories**use both**types**; some incorporate only the closed variety. The earliest**string****model**has several ... Advances in**Theoretical**and**Mathematical**Physics. 2 (4): 231-252. arXiv:hep-th/9711200 . Bibcode:1998AdTMP...2..231M. doi: ... which explained**string****theory**for a popular audience. In 1987, Eric Bergshoeff (de), Ergin Sezgin (de) and Paul Townsend**showed**... see Bootstrap**model**). Sakata's approach was reworked in the**1960s**into the quark**model**by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig by ...Riazuddin published a

**mathematical****theory**of non-standard**model**, and its brief extensions to τ (tau) - a particle that is ... He was the founding director of Institute of Physics (IP) where he engaged the research on**string****theory**,**theory**of relativity ... During the**1960s**, he associated himself with complex**mathematical**applications of nuclear physics. In 1960, Riazuddin used ... In 1973, Raziddin Siddiqui formed the**Mathematical**Physics Group (MPG) which closely collaborated with**Theoretical**Physics ...Here the

**theory**in the bulk is a**type**of gauge**theory**describing particles of arbitrarily high spin. It is similar to**string**... In very elementary terms, anti-de Sitter space is a**mathematical****model**of spacetime in which the notion of distance between ... In fact,**string****theory**was originally developed during the late**1960s**and early 1970s as a**theory**of hadrons, the subatomic ... Unlike in quantum field**theory**,**string****theory**does not yet have a full non-perturbative definition, so many of the**theoretical**...... and a rubber band as a

**model**of finding the convex hull of a set of points; and**strings**tied together as a**model**of finding the ... named because they perform**mathematical**operations. Op amps are a particular**type**of feedback amplifier with very high gain and ... Analogical**models**Chaos**theory**Differential equation Dynamical system Field-programmable analog array General purpose analog ... In the**1960s**, the major manufacturer was Electronic Associates of Princeton, New Jersey, with its 231R Analog Computer (vacuum ...In addition to being an idea of considerable

**theoretical**interest,**string****theory**provides a framework for constructing**models**... and his collaborators**showed**that this construction reproduces exactly the**strings**appearing in**type**IIA superstring**theory**. ...**String****theory**was first studied in the late**1960s**as a**theory**of the strong nuclear force, before being abandoned in favor of ... 1. American**Mathematical**Society. ISBN 978-0821820124. Duff, Michael (1996). "M-**theory**(the**theory**formerly known as**strings**...He

**showed**that**mathematical**physics is a conservative extension of his non-**mathematical**physics (that is, every physical fact ... They attributed the paradox to "vicious circularity" and built up what they called ramified**type****theory**to deal with it. In ... Formalism holds that**mathematical**statements may be thought of as statements about the consequences of certain**string**... Not surprisingly, then, this approach to mathematics is sometimes associated with**theoretical**computer science. Like ...Chris Hull and Paul Townsend

**showed**that**type**IIB**string****theory**with a large coupling constant is equivalent via S-duality to ... Another important**theoretical**idea that plays a role in M-**theory**is supersymmetry. This is a**mathematical**relation that exists ... Unlike supergravity**theory**,**string****theory**was able to accommodate the chirality of the standard**model**, and it provided a**theory**... New concepts and**mathematical**tools provided fresh insights into general relativity, giving rise to a period in the**1960s**-70s ...**Types**of knot Adams, Colin (2004), The Knot Book: An Elementary Introduction to the

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**Theory**of Knots, American ... This was

**shown**by Max Dehn, before the invention of knot polynomials, using group

**theoretical**methods (Dehn 1914). But the ... Knot

**theory**can be used to determine if a molecule is chiral (has a "handedness") or not (Simon 1986). Tangles,

**strings**with ... The first major verification of this work was done in the

**1960s**by John Horton Conway, who not only developed a new notation ...

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**string****model**. They found they only needed 26 cuts to come to ... In the**theory**of computational complexity, the decision version of the TSP (where, given a length L, the task is to decide ... Richard M. Karp**showed**in 1972 that the Hamiltonian cycle problem was NP-complete, which implies the NP-hardness of TSP. This ... In the**1960s**however a new approach was created, that instead of seeking optimal solutions, one would produce a solution whose ...The

**model**was used during the**1960s**and 1970s in the attempt to create a functional computer-assisted translation system. It ... 1] Junction**theory**held that a simple concatenation of operands in linguistic formulations was as 'meaningless' as any**string**... Junction**theory**explicitly prohibited the intermingling of distinct data**types**in a single representation, noting, for example ... Speech is the best**show**man puts on ... But we suspect the watching Gods perceive that the order in which his amazing set of ...Dana Scott in the

**1960s**and 1970s**showed**how to marry**model****theory**and combinatory logic. Lambda calculus is concerned with ... Specifically, a**typed**combinatory logic corresponds to a Hilbert system in proof**theory**. The K and S combinators correspond to ... and has more recently been used in computer science as a**theoretical****model**of computation and also as a basis for the design of ... "On the Building Blocks of**Mathematical**Logic" in From Frege to Gödel: a source book in**mathematical**logic, 1879-1931, Jean van ...... and a rubber band as a

**model**of finding the convex hull of a set of points; and**strings**tied together as a**model**of finding the ... named because they perform**mathematical**operations. Op amps are a particular**type**of feedback amplifier with very high gain and ... In the**1960s**, the major manufacturer was Electronic Associates of Princeton, New Jersey, with its 231R Analog Computer (vacuum ... A few universities still use analog computers to teach control system**theory**. The American company Comdyna manufactured small ...Weak and strong

**typing**[edit]. Weak**typing**allows a value of one**type**to be treated as another, for example treating a**string**as ... In practice, while few languages are considered**typed**from the**type****theory**(verifying or rejecting all operations), most modern ... Concepts, Techniques, and**Models**of Computer Programming, The MIT Press 2004.. *David A. Watt. Programming Language Concepts ... In the**1960s**, Simula was the first language designed to support object-oriented programming; in the mid-1970s, Smalltalk ...The study of sound and musical phenomenon prior to the 19th century was focused primarily on the

**mathematical****modelling**of ... music**theory**, music therapy, computer science, psychology, philosophy, and linguistics. Music has been**shown**to consistently ... From the**1960s**the field grew along with cognitive science, including such research areas as music perception (particularly of ... Music psychology in the second half of the 20th century has expanded to cover a wide array of**theoretical**and applied areas. ...No accepted

**theory**of parapsychology currently exists, and many competing and often conflicting**models**have been advocated by ... She**showed**clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed ... One**type**of DMILS experiment looks at the commonly reported "feeling of being stared at." The "starer" and the "staree" are ... "Investigating Rhine's methods, we find that his**mathematical**methods are wrong and that the effect of this error would in some ...The formal design and study of

**type**systems is known as**type****theory**. A language is**typed**if the specification of every ... Weak**typing**allows a value of one**type**to be treated as another, for example treating a**string**as a number. This can ... Lisp, implemented in 1958, was the first dynamically**typed**functional programming language In the**1960s**, Simula was the first ... A reference or**model**implementation, sometimes written in the language being specified (e.g., Prolog or ANSI REXX). The syntax ...Standard ModelEdit. Main article: Standard

**Model**. In the**1960s**physicists realized that QED broke down at extremely high ... In trying to**show**that quantum mechanics was not a complete**theory**, Einstein started with the**theory's**prediction that two or ... Yet the two men disagreed on the interpretation of their mutual**theory**. For instance, Heisenberg accepted the**theoretical**... Bohr, Heisenberg and others tried to explain what these experimental results and**mathematical****models**really mean. Their ...The most elaborate decay-based

**theory**of working memory to date is the "time-based resource sharing**model**". This**theory**assumes ... Within the**theoretical**framework of the multi-component**model**, one candidate gene has been proposed, namely ROBO1 for the ... The term "working memory" was coined by Miller, Galanter, and Pribram, and was used in the**1960s**in the context of**theories**... Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). "A**mathematical****model**for the transition rule in Piaget's developmental stages". Acta Psychologica. ...... no

**theory**reconciling general relativity with the Standard**Model**has yet been found, although supersymmetry and**string****theory**... Rutherford identified and named two**types**of radioactivity and in 1911 interpreted experimental evidence as**showing**that the ... 614-642): "Using a whole body of**mathematical**methods (not only those inherited from the antique**theory**of ratios and ... However, attempts to quantize electromagnetic**theory**entirely were stymied throughout the 1930s by**theoretical**formulations ...... constructing

**mathematical****models**of**theoretical**biology and biological**theories**, using observational data, and performing ... An example that**shows**both**types**of change is bacterial adaptation to antibiotic selection, with genetic changes causing ... doi:10.1016/j.**str**.2008.11.008. ISSN 1357-4310. PMID 19141283. Weissman, Kira J.; Müller, Rolf (April 14, 2008). "Protein- ... Artificial evolution became a widely recognised optimisation method as a result of the work of Ingo Rechenberg in the**1960s**. He ...... such as the Drude

**model**, the Band structure and the density functional**theory**.**Theoretical****models**have also been developed to ... For other**types**of systems that involves short range interactions near the critical point, a better**theory**is needed. Near the ... The Ising**model**was solved exactly to**show**that spontaneous magnetization cannot occur in one dimension but is possible in ... Modern**theoretical**studies involve the use of numerical computation of electronic structure and**mathematical**tools to ...No accepted

**theory**of parapsychology currently exists, and many competing and often conflicting**models**have been advocated by ... She**showed**clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed ... In the most common experiment of this**type**, a random number generator (RNG), based on electronic or radioactive noise, produces ... "Investigating Rhine's methods, we find that his**mathematical**methods are wrong and that the effect of this error would in some ...Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini Entropy: This

**modelling**of entropy using network**theory**is used in the analysis of quantum gravity ... is a set of production rules for**strings**in a formal language. The rules describe how to form**strings**from the language's ... The American**Mathematical**Monthly 103(1): 1-17. Fraser, Gordon (2006). The New Physics for the Twenty-first Century. England: ... Ashtekar variables: In**theoretical**physics, Ashtekar (new) variables, named after Abhay Ashtekar who invented them, represent ...His work comprises three broad

**theoretical**and practical efforts in the field the field: auction**theory**and matching**theory**, ... Milgrom**showed**that the idea is quantitatively important in the context of a very simple macroeconomic**model**. But, ... Finally, Professor Milgrom has contributed to**mathematical**economics and game**theory**, with studies on reputation and adaptive ... sets of**types**and actions are compact metric spaces, the players' payoffs are continuous functions of the**types**and actions, ...The nature of such

**theories**made it impossible for any criticism or experiment-even in principle-to**show**them to be false.[11] ... Yet I must admit that the doctrine seems to hold good for the quantum-**theoretical****models**which have been designed to explain, ... the evolution of**theories**through the scientific method may, in Popper's view, reflect a certain**type**of progress: toward more ... The simplest**mathematical**formulation that Popper gives of this concept can be found in the tenth chapter of Conjectures and ...In the

**1960s**, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its ... UC Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded a large number of companies, some of which are**shown**below.[134][135] UC Berkeley ... John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar**Model**and the Hubble Space Telescope,[244] resulting in a National Medal ... Daniel Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect**theory**. Richard O. Buckius, ...Riazuddin published a

**mathematical****theory**of non-standard**model**, and its brief extensions to τ (tau) - a particle that is ... He was the founding director of Institute of Physics (IP) where he engaged the research on**string****theory**,**theory**of relativity ... During the**1960s**, he associated himself with complex**mathematical**applications of nuclear physics. In 1960, Riazuddin used ... In 1973, Raziddin Siddiqui formed the**Mathematical**Physics Group (MPG) which closely collaborated with**Theoretical**Physics ...Not all modern

**string****theories**use both**types**; some incorporate only the closed variety. The earliest**string****model**has several ... Advances in**Theoretical**and**Mathematical**Physics. 2 (4): 231-252. arXiv:hep-th/9711200 . Bibcode:1998AdTMP...2..231M. doi: ... which explained**string****theory**for a popular audience. In 1987, Eric Bergshoeff (de), Ergin Sezgin (de) and Paul Townsend**showed**... see Bootstrap**model**). Sakatas approach was reworked in the**1960s**into the quark**model**by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig by ...Professor Johnson is a British academic who has made significant contributions to

**string****theory**and more broadly,**theoretical**... Nominated by: Professor Alex Clark, School of**Mathematical**Sciences.. His work in ergodic**theory**was known to me long before I ... Dr Wilson is an outstanding researcher and a role**model**for the new generation of engineers.". "I first met Stephanie in ... In his later life he used his position to support, mentor and facilitate a pathway for the future generations, which**shows**a ...But there is hope for those who have never learnt play the real thing:

**mathematical****models**of the physics of a bowed**string**may ... Rosen,**type**of**strings**, pressure on the**strings**, acceleretion, deceleration of the bow--there are so many variables. None of ... A plucked**string**, like that on a guitar, can be described by linear systems**theory**. The essential feature of a linear system is ...**String**vibrato. Permalink Submitted by Anonymous on December 23, 2012 "Anonymous" is incorrect--studies**show**that vibrato goes ...An American team have now

**shown**a new**type**of such behaviour, in which a rogue gene than can cause sterility in crossbreeds of ... At least, thats the**theory**. Pacific Biosciences in Menlo Park has developed a technique for replicating a piece of DNA in a ... Fermis thinking was formalized and fleshed out in the**1960s**by astronomer Frank Drake of Cornell University, whose celebrated ... can be discerned as a**string**of fairy lights, using a microchip-based light sensor that can image individual molecules.. With a ...... and a rubber band as a

**model**of finding the convex hull of a set of points; and**strings**tied together as a**model**of finding the ... named because they perform**mathematical**operations. Op amps are a particular**type**of feedback amplifier with very high gain and ... In the**1960s**, the major manufacturer was Electronic Associates of Princeton, New Jersey, with its 231R Analog Computer (vacuum ... A few universities still use analog computers to teach control system**theory**. The American company Comdyna manufactured small ...There seems to be no rigorous

**mathematical**proof based on the principles of quantum**theory****showing**that this modification also ... 7). During refinement, wavefunction parameters in the dynamical**theoretical****model**have to be updated repeatedly by adjustment ... Method development and early applications date back to the**1960s**.117 First interpretations of CBED disks with quantum chemical ... aUniversität Bremen, Fachbereich 2 - Biologie/Chemie, Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, Leobener**Str**. NW2 ...One of Einsteins close friends, Kurt G del, produced a

**model**(from Einsteins field**theory**) for a universe which spins so fast ... But then in the**1960s**several theorists**showed**that local rotation of stressed spacetime near black holes could do similar ... Nobody paid much attention to their**theoretical**possibility until the early**1960s**, however, when Gerald Feinberg introduced the ... I think in terms of four**types**of psience fiction, which correspond quite closely to the four**types**Peter Lowentrout outlined ...It is generally agreed that the sense of information isolated by Claude Shannon and used in

**mathematical**information**theory**is ... Calcott**shows**that thinking of development in terms of these signalling networks with their Boolean structures has real ... Thus the developmental disorders caused by thalidomide in the**1960s**were due to an inability to use genetic signals that were ... Second, the simplest cases for**models**of signalling are cases in which there is common interest. The sender and receiver are ...Weak and strong

**typing**[edit]. Weak**typing**allows a value of one**type**to be treated as another, for example treating a**string**as ... In practice, while few languages are considered**typed**from the**type****theory**(verifying or rejecting all operations), most modern ... Concepts, Techniques, and**Models**of Computer Programming, The MIT Press 2004.. *David A. Watt. Programming Language Concepts ... In the**1960s**, Simula was the first language designed to support object-oriented programming; in the mid-1970s, Smalltalk ...Perturbation

**theory**; Quantum Chromo Dynamics; Rolled-up dimensions; Standard**Model**;**String****Theory**; Superstring**Theory**;**Theory**...**showed**that a particular**theory**remained exactly the same if the particles and**strings**of the**theory**were interchanged. ... We now believe that**string****theory**can contain different, independent**types**of**string**, each of which can oscillate in many ... Supersymmetry is an extension of known particle physics;**String****theory**is different, which is based on**theoretical**questions ...... and produced a

**mathematical****model**that supported the steady state**theory**, thereby giving it both respectability and ... Controversy Over Steady-State**Theory**. In the late 1950s and early**1960s**, controversy over the steady state**theory**grew. New ... "The Evolution of**Type**II Stars." Astrophysical Journal Supplement 2 (1955): 1-40. A major contribution to the**theory**of stellar ... This had led**theoretical**astronomers to propose several conflicting**models**of the universe, none of which could be tested using ...This is the

**theoretical**Earth focusing & from the**Theory**of Complex Functions. The undergraduate иллюстрированная история ... The natural and professional engineers are organizational**types**rewritten to prevent the system of minimum such readers.**shows**... This scan is similar to test**mathematical**mind among**mathematical**corporate losses. Although it is Now a system, it will ... What can I tap to do this in the Handbook? If you find on a certain module, like at college, you can Look an map**string**on your ...Complexity

**theory**, which analyses the difficulty to solve a problem with available resources, was**shown**to be related to the ... The solutions to**mathematical**problems are widely held to be noncontingent since**mathematical**propositions are regarded as ... Grigg, R.M., Could monkeys**type**the 23rd psalm? Apologia 3(2):59-63, 1994; updated from his 1991 article, in Creation, 13(1):30 ... In the**1960s**, the Russian probabilist Andrei Kolmogorov investigated what makes a sequence of coin flips random. … What ...... both of whom had separately developed similar

**theories**, but using different**mathematical**methods. Feynmans**theory**was ... this is known as the two-fluid**model**. Feynman**showed**that a roton, which is a quantity of rotational motion that can be found ... After a**string**of successes, Einsteins elegant**theory**had fallen from most physicists attention by the 1930s, displaced by ... The**theoretical**work of the American physicist Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988) opened up the doors to research in quantum ...... "

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- String theory is an outgrowth of S-matrix theory, a research program begun by Werner Heisenberg in 1943 (following John Archibald Wheeler's 1937 introduction of the S-matrix), picked up and advocated by many prominent theorists starting in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, which was discarded and marginalized in the mid 1970s to disappear by the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
- The advent of digital computing made simple analog computers obsolete as early as the 1950s and 1960s, although analog computers remained in use in some specific applications, like the flight computer in aircraft , and for teaching control systems in universities. (wikipedia.org)

- Physicists today speculate that theories of extra dimensions also will illuminate connections in particle physics and cosmology. (wakwak.com)
- Publicly, Hoyle was best known as the leading proponent of the steady state theory of cosmology. (encyclopedia.com)

- Later, he went to Chicago, Illinois where he joined his brother Fayyazuddin, and theoretical physicists Faheem Hussain and Peter Rottoli. (wikipedia.org)
- Together, Feynman and Welton dived into quantum mechanics, physicists' bizarre yet successful description of the atomic domain, and general relativity, Albert Einstein's notoriously difficult theory of gravitation. (encyclopedia.com)
- This article describes how physicists discovered the limitations of classical physics and developed the main concepts of the quantum theory that replaced it in the early decades of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)

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- In quantum field theory, the intermediate steps are the fluctuations of fields or equivalently the fluctuations of virtual particles. (wikipedia.org)
- This property can determine the amplitude in a quantum field theory order by order in a perturbation series once the basic interactions are given, and in many quantum field theories the amplitudes grow too fast at high energies to make a unitary S-matrix. (wikipedia.org)
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- After earning his PhD in Chemical Sciences from the University of Milan (Italy) in 2006 (Maurizio Sironi's group), he worked as post-doctoral fellow in the group of Kenneth M. Merz Jr at the Quantum Theory Project of the University of Florida (USA) and in the group of Giorgio Colombo at the ICRM Institute of the Italian CNR (Milan, Italy). (rsc.org)
- 1 The basic idea is to compensate shortcomings and limitations of quantum mechanical models, e.g. incomplete consideration of electron correlation, with experimental data that are not suffering from the same limitations ( Fig. 1 ). (rsc.org)
- Hoyle's first supervisor was the German-Jewish émigré Rudolf Peierls and, second, Paul Dirac (Nobel Prize in Physics 1933), then at the height of his fame as a founder of modern quantum theory. (encyclopedia.com)
- A veteran of the Manhattan Project of World War II and a 1965 Nobel laureate in physics, he made lasting contributions across many domains, from electrodynamics and quantum theory to nuclear and particle physics, solid-state physics, and gravitation. (encyclopedia.com)
- The desire to resolve inconsistencies between observed phenomena and classical theory led to two major revolutions in physics that created a shift in the original scientific paradigm: the theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum mechanics shows that light, along with all other forms of electromagnetic radiation , comes in discrete units, called photons , and predicts its energies, colors, and spectral intensities . (wikipedia.org)
- More broadly, quantum mechanics shows that many quantities, such as angular momentum , that appeared continuous in the zoomed-out view of classical mechanics, turn out to be (at the small, zoomed-in scale of quantum mechanics) quantized . (wikipedia.org)
- However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity . (thefullwiki.org)
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- A minority tradition has argued that the enthusiasm for information in biology has been a serious theoretical wrong turn, and that it fosters naive genetic determinism, other distortions of our understanding of the roles of interacting causes, or an implicitly dualist ontology. (stanford.edu)
- The embrace of informational and other semantic concepts has been especially marked within genetics, and other fields-evolutionary theory and developmental biology-with strong ties to genetics. (stanford.edu)
- In a recent volume of the Vienna Series in a Theoretical Biology (2003), Gerd B. Muller and Stuart Newman argue that what they call the "origination of organismal form" remains an unsolved problem. (stephencmeyer.org)
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- Riazuddin carried out his research from International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and Daresbury Laboratory where he published papers in mathematics and physics. (wikipedia.org)
- His undergraduate achievement assured him a place as a research student in the Cavendish Laboratory, the birthplace of nuclear physics, where the electron, isotopes, and the neutron had been discovered, resulting in a string of Nobel Prizes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The term "nuclear winter" was a neologism coined in 1983 by Richard P. Turco in reference to a 1-dimensional computer model created to examine the "nuclear twilight" idea, this 1-D model output the finding that massive quantities of soot and smoke would remain aloft in the air for on the order of years, causing a severe planet-wide drop in temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- The only phenomenon that is modeled by computer in the nuclear winter papers is the climate forcing agent of firestorm-soot, a product which can be ignited and formed by a myriad of means. (wikipedia.org)
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- In the article, entitled "The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories", Dr. Meyer argues that no current materialistic theory of evolution can account for the origin of the information necessary to build novel animal forms. (stephencmeyer.org)
- Since all biological data tend to be noisy, statistical models and methods are a key element of analysis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In §3, we introduce various types of modern biological technologies, the data being generated and the biological questions that are being posed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

- It includes been on the Fibonacci existence and can store typed into the successful estimation. (be-mindful.de)

- Einstein used approximation methods in working out initial predictions of the theory. (thefullwiki.org)

- One candidate is a particle predicted by theories that invoke extra dimensions of spacetime (beyond the familiar four). (blogspot.com)
- With methodological naturalism as the basis of evolutionary thinking, 'truth' is by stipulative definition the best theory available that does not invoke God's involvement in any manner. (answersingenesis.org)

- The mathematical foundations of the topic were studied by Gustav Herdan (e.g. (grsampson.net)
- This buy Creating 3D Game Art for the iPhone with Unity: in nonlocal proposal organ confirmed only reserved in East Africa as a mixture's test and acquaintance's truth and showed expressed as a illusion for a matter became not already( with the performance Beginning foundations he included assumed himself). (socalmodern.com)
- A crop of other Correct foundations that is the development of theory learns renowned relation. (ciganot.com)

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- The recent work on extra dimensions relies on both more traditional and more modern theoretical physics concepts to motivate the questions it answers and its methods. (wakwak.com)
- is Hear pages with new books of the congestive 1960s, climbing concepts to choose a same government of the Islamist. (circa67.com)

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- For influences of mathematical studies and methods on philosophy, see Mathematical philosophy . (hitchhikersgui.de)
- The goals of this activity include modelling and even creating life and life - like systems, as well as developing practical applications using intuitions and methods taken from living systems. (techylib.com)

- and, (d) moderated mediation modeling was employed to examine differences in the learning mechanism by teacher subgroups and by student groups in accordance with reform policy expectations. (ufl.edu)

- Sophisticated mathematically-based models of population genetics have proven adequate for mapping and understanding quantitative variability and populational changes in organisms. (stephencmeyer.org)

- Graeme Hirst, 1989Proceedings, First International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, analyst 157--169, May, Toronto San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, AbstractIf tradition practice Prerequisites wish to wish contemporary for interested physics of second parallel, they must provide more Genome-wide with experts of origin and Time than they even show. (jerodtate.com)
- By contrast, artificial life characteristically constructs a lower - level model that itself is a bottom - up - specified parallel system of simple local agents and then iterates the model and observes the resulting global behavior. (techylib.com)

- He presented on variability over Deep Time emphasizing that variability existed on every scale imaginable, showing what "trends" looked like over 10,000 years, 1000 years, 100 years and 10 years. (climateaudit.org)
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- General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. (thefullwiki.org)

- The reason is that the penetration depth data shows that at high energies the probability of the incident particles to interact peaks at a shorter depth and is also more strongly peaked than one expects for protons. (blogspot.com)

- Hoyle was an outstanding British cosmologist and astrophysicist whose penchant for controversial theories meant he was seldom out of the public eye between 1950 and 1980. (encyclopedia.com)

- then, there continued quite a real types towards growing the effect of network, to be next that n't Vous foregoing innovations in all three genomes of life issued possible. (newviewgraphics.com)
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- Type 2 diabetes as a redox disease. (e-cambridge.info)

- In this proposed S-matrix theory, there are no local quantities at all. (wikipedia.org)
- In these model scenarios, various soot clouds containing uncertain quantities of soot were assumed to form over cities, oil refineries , and more rural missile silos . (wikipedia.org)

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- StiglitzViewAn Introduction to Probability Theory and Its ApplicationsArticleJan 1972J Roy Stat SocJ. (mildenberger.name)

- These equations specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by whatever matter is present, and form the core of Einstein's general theory of relativity. (thefullwiki.org)
- One way to understand the global behavior of this sort of complex system is to model that behavior with equations that explicitly describe how global vari ables interact. (techylib.com)

- the bending of starlight around the Sun during the solar eclipse of 1919 was a testimony to the predictive power of Albert Einstein 's theory of general relativity ? (thefullwiki.org)
- scientists are testing Einstein 's theory of general relativity with Gravity Probe B , an artificial satellite ? (thefullwiki.org)
- Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity , it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. (thefullwiki.org)
- In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of a consistently expanding universe. (thefullwiki.org)

- 1992 ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. This surface is northwest shown invested. (immos-24.de)

- The theory of such systems is always more intricate, and there is scope for very complicated outcomes and chaotic behaviour (read more about chaos in Issue 26 ). (maths.org)
- The range of good and bad noises which can be made on a violin string are examples of these complicated outcomes. (maths.org)
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- That is, they will have to acknowledge the importance of irrational and often unpredictable behavior, face up to the often idiosyncratic imperfections of markets and accept that an elegant economic "theory of everything" is a long way off. (spon.ca)
- As died in the emotional theory, the behavior undrstnd well through each transport on the description patient. (luxury-ho.com)
- Shen and Ladanyi [ 6 ] presented a model which coupled the stress-strain behavior of the frozen soil to heat and mass transport and frost heave was estimated by summation of the volume expansion due to the ice segregation, at last the numeric analysis was executed on computer. (hindawi.com)

- They use launched shown at Evolutionary Years around the Valor and are extended recommended for a electromagnetic function in Southeast Asia. (mooreamusicpele.com)

- [note However, classical physics led to the Rayleigh-Jeans law, which, as shown in the figure, agrees with experimental results well at low frequencies, but strongly disagrees at high frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
- Result shows that the simulation results match well with the experimental results, and the correctness of the mathematical model is validated. (hindawi.com)

- A plucked string, like that on a guitar, can be described by linear systems theory . (maths.org)
- SpringerLink shows building books with tradition to contents of corporate systems from Journals, Books, Protocols and Reference is. (joerissens.de)
- There 's a forthcoming theory of systems in the American using and Complexity request, ' is Bill Wascher. (joerissens.de)
- This school is many strings in three so entrenched possessors: interested Apr in systems, mathematical criterion, and mopping-up operations. (tcpleven90.com)
- At about the same time cybernetics (Wiener 1948) applied two new tools to the study of living systems: the use of information theory and a deep study of the self - regulatory processes (homeostases). (techylib.com)
- Information theory typifies the abstractness and material - independence of artificial life, and self - regulat ion is one of the hallmarks of living systems studied in artificial life. (techylib.com)
- Most traditi onal AI models are top - down - specified serial systems involving a complicated, centralized controller that makes decisions based on access to all aspects of global state. (techylib.com)

- This article focuses specifically on processing models of human sentence comprehension, as delimited further in section 2.5 . (oxfordre.com)

- The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Bianco, J.) granted summary judgment to the defendants on the ground that Zarda had failed to show that he had been discriminated against on the basis of his sex. (justia.com)
- We convened this rehearing en banc to consider whether Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation such that our 2 precedents to the contrary should be overruled. (justia.com)
- In the picture, the models are categorized according to two dimensions: the mathematical basis and the properties of the model. (turkcewiki.org)

- In the book, I show how we need about 10 quadrillion (1016) calculations per second (cps) to provide a functional equivalent to all the regions of the brain. (euvolution.com)
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- Bob Carter is an Australian geologist, who has professionally collected important deep sea cores from sediments offshore New Zealand showing climate variability in Deep Time. (climateaudit.org)
- Read15 ReadsAzam came a можайский уезд московской губернии существующие given to Wave MechanicsHydroelastic tools between shock Histories and intermediate resolution request aquatic DolatshahFilippo NelliLuke G. BennettsAlessandro ToffoliHydroelastic possibilities between subject modulation nonlinearities and experimental front model travel applied increasing atherosclerosis structures for a metre of Y variability waves and models. (mooreamusicpele.com)

- Despite these similarities, there is an important difference between the modeling strategies artificial intelligence and artificial life typically employ. (techylib.com)

- He was the director of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1974 until 1984. (wikipedia.org)
- He was joined by other students of Salam where they created a Theoretical Physics Group at the ICTP. (wikipedia.org)
- A common feature of these activities is the generation of enormous amounts of complex data, which, as is common in science, though gathered for the study of one group of questions, can be fruitfully integrated with other types of data to answer additional questions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

- Einstein's theory has important astrophysical implications. (thefullwiki.org)
- Among his important %%% works from Harvard are the introduction of %%% the Slater determinant (entry %%% Slater:1929:TCS, which the memoir %%% Morse:1982:JCS calls ``his greatest paper''), %%% and the Slater-type orbital (entry %%% Slater:1930:ASC). (utah.edu)
- One of the pas of path I 're possesses that the order criticized modeled in the important design, and they addressed to use the information here and be it improved towards the office. (newviewgraphics.com)

- Wasserman, Amy Hutchinson, Philip Smallwood, Jeremy Nathans, Peter K. 2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, Second Edition( Springer Science, New York) ISBN 978-0-387-95364-9. (cdmw.de)
- But while sabbaticals at the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the central cause of the profession's failure was the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. (spon.ca)
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- Thomas Huxley argued that, given enough time, a team of monkeys typing random letters on typewriters would with enough time produce Shakespeare's works. (answersingenesis.org)
- This might be explained by an automaton theory, whose transitions occur in abstract time. (oxfordre.com)

- 3 human person in which subjectivity is concerned claimed at results is Ignited not over the traders and shows not denied from one analysis to another, a sensitivity were in Historically every unique tailor. (emelisahealingarts.com)
- Results showed that mathematics self-concept significantly mediated the relationship between prior and subsequent achievement during the period from 1st grade to 3rd grade. (ufl.edu)
- He showed some results on cloudiness thatI had not seen before, illustrated by some interesting paintings. (climateaudit.org)
- bookstores, which not are at least ten results the model of an process, make critically more international to have. (literary-liaisons.com)

- Princeton also had concerns: in those days, the physics department scrutinized every applicant of Jewish background who professed a desire to study theoretical physics, fearing that the field (if not the department) already had more than its fair share-a practice that faded soon after World War II. (encyclopedia.com)

- If the read of example through a whole expectation model far stress-strain, we cannot help applied that media should enable confined out on the text of a support, where the conditional learning of Tweets include of channel, level, or present vicious spires, while the stationary are read of velocity or bold Other sides. (sunshineday.com)

- Although the diplomatic operation does leaving, regarding to the latest analysis by the United Nations, social identity to the shuffleboard shows just in the able computer for abusive -Indexes( UNPAN, 2008). (geotrade-gmbh.com)