Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The consumption of edible substances.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The selection of one food over another.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.

Implication of maternal nitrogen balance in the regulation of circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I in human pregnancy. (1/608)

Nutrition plays an important role in regulating the circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). We have demonstrated that reduced nitrogen balance is related to changes in serum IGF-I levels but not serum growth hormone levels in pregnant rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of changes in nitrogen balance on serum IGF-I levels in normal and malnourished pregnant women (defined as having negative nitrogen balance). Forty-eight pregnant women (threatened miscarriage and premature labor, 39; pre-eclampsia, 3; hyperemesis, 3; ileus, 2; bleeding from the colon, 1) and 19 non-pregnant women admitted in Kobe University Hospital were enrolled in this study. Blood samples of normal pregnant controls were also obtained from 172 healthy pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic. Serum IGF-I levels and nitrogen balance were measured serially in 9 pregnant women with threatened miscarriage and premature labor and 9 malnourished pregnant women out of 48 pregnant women. Serum IGF-I and urinary nitrogen levels were measured by radioimmunoassay with acid-ethanol extraction and the Dumas method, respectively. Nitrogen balance was expressed as the difference between daily nitrogen intake and nitrogen excretion assessed by urinary nitrogen levels. Serum IGF-I levels in normal pregnant controls significantly increased in the third trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant controls. No difference in serum IGF-I levels in any trimester of pregnancy was observed between normal pregnant controls and pregnant women with threatened miscarriage and premature labor. There was no significant difference in nitrogen balance between the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage and premature labor and non-pregnant controls. In the longitudinal study, no correlation was found between the changes in serum IGF-I levels and those in nitrogen balance in the 9 pregnant women with threatened premature labor (daily nitrogen balance > 0 g/day) on the basis of linear regression analysis. On the other hand, the changes in serum IGF-I levels in the 9 malnourished pregnant women were significantly correlated with those in nitrogen balance (y = 1.72x + 17.5; r = 0.60; P < 0.05: linear regression analysis). These results indicate that maternal nutritional states have a major effect on serum IGF-I levels in malnourished pregnant women, but not in pregnant women with daily nitrogen balance > 0 g/day. Serum IGF-I levels can be a potent index of nutritional states under malnutrition during human pregnancy.  (+info)

Adult growth hormone treatment reduces hypertension and obesity induced by an adverse prenatal environment. (2/608)

The discovery of a link between an adverse in utero environment and the propensity to develop metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult life is one of the most important advances in epidemiological research of recent Years. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that alterations in the fetal environment may have long-term consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in adult life. This process has been termed 'fetal programming' and we have shown that undernutrition of the mother during gestation leads to development of the metabolic syndrome X during adult life. Striking metabolic similarities exist between syndrome X and untreated GH deficiency (GHD). In the present study we have investigated the effects of GH treatment on blood pressure and metabolic parameters. Virgin Wistar rats (age 75+/-5 days, n=20 per group) were time-mated and randomly assigned to receive food either ad libitum (AD) or 30% of AD intake (UN) throughout pregnancy. At weaning, male offspring were assigned to one of two diets (control or hypercaloric (30% fat)). Systolic blood pressure was measured at day 100 and following twice daily treatment with recombinant bovine GH for 21 days. GH treatment increased body weights in all treated animals but significantly reduced retroperitoneal and gonadal fat pad weights. Following GH treatment, systolic blood pressure was markedly decreased in all UN offspring. Saline-treated animals showed no change in systolic blood pressure over the treatment period. GH treatment increased heart-to-body weight ratio in all GH-treated animals. Our data demonstrated that GH treatment reduces hypertension and improves cardiovascular function in animals exposed to adverse environmental conditions during fetal or postnatal life.  (+info)

Gender-specific programming of insulin secretion and action. (3/608)

Insulin secretion and glucose tolerance were studied in 20-week-old male and female offspring of rat dams maintained on an isocaloric 20% or 8% protein diet during pregnancy and lactation after transfer to the same diet at weaning. Protein-restricted male and female offspring were also weaned onto a 20% protein diet. In males, post-absorptive insulin concentrations were suppressed by protein restriction from conception to adulthood (by 41%; P<0.001); however, basal insulin levels were 2.6-fold higher (P<0.001) if protein restriction was limited to gestation and lactation. Post-absorptive insulinaemia in females was unaffected by early or sustained protein restriction, but was lower than for males in the control group and the group exposed to protein restriction during early life alone (by 40% (P<0.001) and 52% (P<0.001) respectively). Plasma insulin/blood glucose ratios were higher in males compared with females in both control and early protein-restricted groups (1.6-fold (P<0.05) and 2.3-fold (P<0.001) respectively). A positive linear relationship existed between mean ambient insulin and glucose concentrations in males (r=1.0) and females (r=0.9), but the gradient was 12.4-fold greater (P<0.01) in males. beta-Cell function was evaluated after intravenous glucose challenge. In males, the acute insulin response and the suprabasal 30-min area under the insulin curve were dramatically higher in rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation alone (2.6- and 2.8-fold respectively; P<0.001). In contrast, these parameters were lowered by extending the exposure to protein restriction to adulthood in males, and by either early or prolonged exposure to protein restriction in females. The insulin resistance index was increased (2.5-fold; P<0.001) in male, but not female, rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation alone, and was not increased by extending the period of protein restriction to adulthood in either sex. Thus the data have demonstrated gender-specific lowering of insulin sensitivity due to protein restriction during early life only. The insulinogenic index (insulin response in relation to prevailing glycaemia) was increased in male, but not female, rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation alone (3.0-fold; P<0.001). A modest decline in insulin secretion in the female groups exposed to protein restriction until either the end of lactation or adulthood was compensated by increased insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the insulin resistance index in both groups (by 48% and 52% respectively; P<0.05). Glucose disappearance rates did not differ between the male and female control or early protein-restricted groups but were higher in both male (31%; P<0.05) and female groups (46%; P<0.001) exposed to protein restriction from conception to adulthood. Marked gender differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not associated with gender differences with respect to glucose tolerance. Our data therefore demonstrated that exposure to protein restriction during early life alone leads to relative insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in adulthood, but this relationship is gender specific, observed only in males, and glucose tolerance is maintained.  (+info)

Gender-linked hypertension in offspring of lard-fed pregnant rats. (4/608)

Epidemiological studies suggest an association between maternal nutrition and offspring cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and abnormal aortic fatty acid composition in adult female offspring of rats fed animal lard during pregnancy. We have now further investigated this model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control breeding diet (5.3% fat) or a diet rich in lard (25.7% fat) 10 days before and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were implanted with radiotelemeters for recording of blood pressure, heart rate, and activity at 80, 180, and 360 days of age. Reactivity to acetylcholine and to nitric oxide were assessed in isolated small mesenteric arteries from 80- and 180-day-old littermates. Systolic blood pressure (awake phase) was raised in female offspring (180 days: offspring of control, 130.7+/-1.6 mm Hg, n=5, versus offspring of lard-fed, 138.1+/-2.9, n=5, P=0.029; 360 days: offspring of control, 129.7+/-3.7 mm Hg, n=6, versus offspring of lard-fed, 142.1+/-3.2, n=6, P=0.005). Diastolic blood pressure was also raised at 180 days (offspring of control, 87.6+/-1.0 mm Hg, n=5, versus offspring of lard-fed, 94.7+/-2.6, n=5, P=0.011). Blood pressure was not raised in male offspring. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was blunted in male and female offspring of lard-fed dams (80 and 180 days). Feeding a diet rich in lard to pregnant rats leads to gender-related cardiovascular dysfunction in normally fed offspring.  (+info)

Renal function and angiotensin AT1 receptor expression in young rats following intrauterine exposure to a maternal low-protein diet. (5/608)

Recent studies have proposed a link between impaired nephrogenesis, decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and the onset of hypertension in rats exposed in the uterus to a maternal low-protein diet. However, there is no detailed information about renal function in this model; hence the aim of the present study was to assess renal function in young (4-week-old) rats exposed in the uterus to a maternal low-protein diet. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed isocalorific diets containing either 18% (normal protein; offspring denoted NP rats) or 9% (low protein; offspring denoted LP rats) (w/w) protein from conception until birth. At 4 weeks of age, male offspring were anaesthetized and prepared for the study of renal function, during which animals received saline alone, a bolus of enalapril (5 mg.kg(-1)) or a bolus of enalapril followed by an infusion of angiotensin II (30 ng.min(-1).kg(-1)). Under control conditions, renal haemodynamic and tubular function did not differ. However, when challenged with angiotensin II, LP rats responded with a greater decrease in glomerular filtration rate than did NP rats [NP, 2.0+/-0.2 ml.min(-1).g(-1) kidney weight ( n =9); LP, 1.0+/-0.2 ml.min(-1).g(-1) kidney weight ( n =5); P <0.05]. Renal electrolyte excretion did not differ. LP rats had significantly fewer glomeruli than NP rats ( P <0.01). Renal angiotensin II AT(1) receptor expression was increased ( P <0.01) by 24% in LP rats. It is concluded that blood pressure may be elevated in LP rats in order to maintain glomerular filtration rate against a background of fewer nephrons. Increased AT(1) receptor expression, which may arise as a result of the direct effect of protein restriction or in response to the reported decrease in renal tissue angiotensin II concentration, could also contribute to the elevated blood pressure of this model.  (+info)

Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep. (6/608)

Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation.  (+info)

Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children? (7/608)

BACKGROUND: Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. METHODS: We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about "food insecurity," that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. RESULTS: Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets.  (+info)

Does the interaction between maternal folate intake and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms affect the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate? (8/608)

Periconceptional folic acid supplementation may reduce the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)). Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene reduce availability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the predominant circulating form of folate. To determine the effect of MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C genotypes and haplotypes on CL(P) risk and the interaction with maternal periconceptional dietary folate and folic acid supplement intake, the authors conducted a case-control triad study in the Netherlands (1998-2000) among 179 CL(P) and 204 control families. Infant and parental MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C genotypes and haplotypes were not associated with CL(P) risk in the case-control and transmission disequilibrium test analyses. Mothers carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype and who either did not use folic acid supplements periconceptionally or had a low dietary folate intake, or both, had an increased risk of delivering a CL(P) child (odds ratio (OR) = 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 30.9; OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 10.5; OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 79.1, respectively). No supplement use, low dietary folate intake, and maternal MTHFR 1298CC genotype increased the risk of CL(P) offspring almost sevenfold (OR = 6.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 30.2). Thus, the detrimental effect of low periconceptional folate intake on the risk of giving birth to a CL(P) child was more pronounced in mothers with the MTHFR 677TT or MTHFR 1298CC genotype.  (+info)

In recent years, it has become well established that risk patterns for both obesity and type 2 diabetes originate as a consequence of alterations in growth and metabolism during critical windows of prenatal and early postnatal development (1-5). Human studies of maternal undernutrition and low birth weight have shown that adult offspring develop an increased risk for obesity (1), type 2 diabetes (2,3), and cardiovascular disease (4,5). In humans, maternal obesity is also a risk factor for the development of obesity in offspring during childhood (6-8). In animal models, maternal high-fat feeding results in profound changes in offspring health, including increased rates of obesity and percent body fat (9-11), impaired glucose tolerance (12), increased adipocyte lipogenesis and proliferation (13), increased cardiovascular disease (14), decreased β-cell function (12), and increased food intake (15). Thus, both human and animal studies have shown severe metabolic effects of maternal over- and ...
NCDs are observed mostly in adults, however there is strong evidence that suggests NCDs origin early in life, thus the first 1000 days of life (conception to age 2yrs). Studies show that maternal BMI before conception and during pregnancy predict future risk of obesity and associated metabolic conditions in both mother and offspring. Weight gain during the first two years of life is also critical in defining the infants predisposition to obesity during adulthood. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of delivering a primary health care intervention to enhance compliance with updated nutrition and health care (diet, physical activity and breastfeeding) standards from early pregnancy through the first year of life. Methods: cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT), designed as a public health intervention program effectiveness study (i.e. intervention will be available through the established national health system under standard operating conditions). A cluster unit will be a primary health ...
Inspired by breast milk, Gerber BabyNes, is an advanced nutrition system bringing six stages of single serve formulas together with a Wi-Fi-connected Machine.
We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts. Maternal diet particularly affected genes involved in RNA processing, immune response, and mitochondria. Between one-quarter and one-third of differentially expressed genes contained a differentially methylated region associated with maternal diet. An offspring high-fat diet reduced overall variation in DNA methylation, increased body weight and organ weights, increased long bone lengths and weights, decreased insulin sensitivity, and changed
Sjm Welham, AA Jackson, SC Langley-Evans; Effect of Maternal Protein Restriction during Pregnancy on Renal Function. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1997; 92 (s36): 14P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs092014P. Download citation file:. ...
DISCUSSION. In the present study, maternal HFD during the pregnancy (Experiment 1) or lactation (Experiment 2) induced changes in somatic and neurological development, promoting: 1. Reduced body weight and length early in life; 2. Overweight later in life; 3. Altered head growth; 4. Delayed reflex ontogeny; and 5. Delayed acquisition of mature developmental patterns of physical features. These changes are similar to those observed in the offspring of undernourished mothers 14 and opposite to those observed in dams with overnutrition 15 .. Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that prenatal (intrauterine) and early postnatal maternal nutrition have a significant role on food intake, body weight and energy homeostasis of the offspring 16 , 17 . Pups of dams fed HFD during pregnancy and lactation showed low birth weight and reduced body weight during lactation, compared with controls 16 , 18 . According to Niculesco and Lupu [5], high fat diet-induced maternal obesity has impaired ...
Maternal obesity, metabolic state, and diet during gestation have profound effects on offspring development. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders has risen rapidly in the last several decades in parallel with the rise in obesity rates. Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of offspring developing behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Animal models show that a maternal diet high in fat similarly disrupts behavioral programming of offspring, with animals showing social impairments, increased anxiety and depressive behaviors, reduced cognitive development, and hyperactivity. Maternal obesity, metabolic conditions, and high fat diet consumption increase maternal leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory cytokines. This leads to increased risk of placental dysfunction, and altered fetal
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Background: Research directed to optimizing maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception remains very limited, despite suggestive evidence of its importance in addition to ensuring an optimal nutrition environment in the periconceptional period and throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods/Study design: This is an individually randomized controlled trial of the impact on birth length (primary outcome) of the time at which a maternal nutrition intervention is commenced: Arm 1: |= 3 mo preconception vs. Arm 2: 12-14 wk gestation vs. Arm 3: none.
Evidence from epidemiological studies and animal models shows that suboptimal early nutrition affects susceptibility to obesity in later life. We and others have shown that rodents exposed to maternal protein restriction in utero and accelerated postnatal growth (recuperated offspring) are more susceptible to development of diet-induced obesity (Ozanne et al., 2004; Bieswal et al., 2006). In the current study, we focused on 3-month-old recuperated rats fed a chow diet that are a similar weight to control offspring. This enabled us to investigate mechanisms mediating the effects of early nutrition on susceptibility to developing diet-induced obesity without the confounding effects of obesity itself. In recent years, leptin has been studied as a key factor involved in programming of obesity risk (Cripps et al., 2009; Bouret et al., 2004). However, we previously showed that programming of increased adiposity is, at least in part, independent of leptin (Cottrell et al., 2011). In the current study, ...
Exposure to cold prior to conception causes the resulting offspring to have more brown adipose tissue, which protects against excess weight and metabolic disorders. Scientists studying mice have discovered that this information is passed on by the sperm, and there is a similar correlation in humans.
Dive into the research topics of Mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring for obesity: Evidence from animal studies. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Somewhere around 16106 AGS-EBV cells treated with numerous siRNAs and TSA as explained higher than ended up collected to ascertain EBV copy variety by qPCR as
This paper examines the maternal, household, and health service factors influencing maternal nutrition practices in the context of a large scale maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) program in Bangladesh. Data were from a household survey of… ...
'We know that poor diet and faulty genes may influence the development of both, but here we saw the two combine to cause an increased risk of health
Recent findings suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has consequences for the offsprings bone health in later life. To investigate whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency affects fetal femur growth in ways similar to those seen in childhood rickets and study the timing during gestation of any effect of maternal vitamin D status, we studied 424 pregnant women within a prospective longitudinal study of maternal nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy (Southampton Womens Survey). Using high-resolution 3D ultrasound, we measured fetal femur length and distal metaphyseal cross-sectional area, together with the ratio of femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area to femur length (femoral splaying index). Lower maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D concentration was not related to fetal femur length but was associated with greater femoral metaphyseal cross-sectional area and a higher femoral splaying index at 19 weeks gestation [r = -0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Encouragingly, doing exercise by the offspring improves many of the poor offspring outcomes that result from maternal obesity.. These new findings add to the accumulating evidence for the influence of conditions in the womb and early life, on the physiology of the offspring, which thus impacts their susceptibility for diseases and the rate at which they age.. This reinforces the link between maternal obesity and the aging of offspring, specifically around the increased likelihood of developing diabetes and heart disease, noted Elena Zambrano, senior author on the study, Encouragingly, in previous studies, we have shown that exercise by the offspring can off help offset the risks brought about by maternal obesity.. The research has been published in The Journal of Physiology.. The Physiological Society.. ...
New York, March 31: Consuming a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation may put your offspring at higher risk of obesity later in life, a recent research
Extensive epidemiological evidence in humans and animal models suggests that poor maternal nutrition increases the susceptibility of the offspring to develop ty...
To improve the health of pregnant women and children under 2 in Bangladesh, SHIKHA scaled up behavior change communication activities in maternal nutrition and infant and young child feeding. ...
The Womens Health Dietetic Practice Group addresses health and nutrition issues relative to the life stages that are unique to women including preconception, prenatal, postpartum, lactation and menopause.
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and a leading cause of childhood mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is universal recognition of the importance of the The First Thousand Days for physical growth and, when linear growth fails during this window of opportunity, for associated concurrent and future morbidity and mortality [1-3]. Sub-optimal nutrition is widely regarded as the most important etiologic factor contributing to impaired linear growth in poor communities worldwide. However, multiple nutrition interventions, whether maternal following identification of pregnancy, or offspring , 2 years of age have overall met with only partial success [4]. Typically, however, maternal intervention trials have not begun in the first trimester or/and the periconceptional period despite observational evidence of a relationship between poor maternal nutrition at conception and LBW first reported a quarter of a century ago [5]. A series of ...
Augustyniak, R. A., Singh, K., Zeldes, D., Singh, M. & Rossi, N. F. (2010). Maternal protein restriction leads to hyperresponsiveness to stress and salt-sensitive hypertension in male offspring. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative, and comparative physiology 298(5), 1377-1382. ...
Our nutrition videos are lectures recorded at global nutrition conferences and workshops, featuring leading experts addressing a wide range of key nutritional topics. The talks are free to Nestlé Nutrition Institute members, and cover all the most-discussed subjects in nutrition today.
Vitamins and minerals essential for improving the nutritional environment of periodontal bone and tissue.These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These products are not meant to diagnose, treat or cure any disease or medical condition. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or nutritional supplement program or before using these or any product during pregnancy or if you have a serious medical condition.
Mouse blastocysts sense maternal nutrition quality via isoleucine availability to regulate trophectoderm endocytosis level, a survival mechanism ...
Hans van Goudoever - Right amount of fat and protein, key to babies The early childhood diet and that of the mother during pregnancy determines the health of a child later life. This is the claim that the EU-funded research project Early Nutrition is trying to substantiate by the time it is due to be completed in 2017. ...
Women with preeclampsia were older than those without it and likelier to be non-Hispanic white, married, more educated, nonsmokers, and overweight when pregnancy began. Adjusted serum 25(OH)D levels in early pregnancy were 15% lower in women who later developed preeclampsia than in control subjects. Maternal serum levels of 25(OH)D below 37.5 nmol/liter in early pregnancy were associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of developing preeclampsia, independently of race/ethnicity, season of the year, gestational age at sampling, prepregnancy body mass index, and educational level. Adjusting for calcium intake altered the findings only slightly. After adjusting for several possible confounding factors, a 50-nmol/liter decline in serum 25(OH)D more than doubled the risk of preeclampsia. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.1-5.4. The disparity in maternal vitamin D levels persisted at the time of delivery. Cord blood serum levels of 25(OH)D were significantly lower ...
Malnutrition remains a significant problem among HIV-infected populations, even among those with access to ART. In patients with HIV infection, poor nutritional status is associated with significant reduction in survival rates, accelerated disease progression, diminished response to therapies including ART, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and reduced work capacity and quality of life. However, there is not evidence whether delay or reversal of weight loss improves life expectancy, nor is there evidence about the specific benefits food supplementation has on people with HIV infection. As antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to scale up in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical need for information about the impacts of appropriate food supplementation on the effectiveness of ART, on the health status of clients, and on the progression of the disease.. Malnourished adult ART and pre-ART clients at six clinical sites in Kenya are randomly allocated either to a group ...
Undernutrition and oxidative stress in fetal life and infancy may lead to adverse health outcomes in the offspring. We studied nutrition and oxidative parameters in pregnancy and their associations with birth anthropometry and metabolic status in the children.. In Matlab in rural Bangladesh, women were randomized to either early (Early) invitation to food supplementation or to start at their own liking (Usual). Women were also allocated to either; 1) 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), 2) multiple micronutrients including 30 mg iron and folic acid (MMS), or 3) 30 mg iron and folic acid (Fe30F). Micronutrients (hemoglobin, iron, zinc, folic acid, vitamin B-12) were assessed in pregnancy week 14, lipid peroxidation in week 14 and 30, and DNA oxidation in week 19. The offspring were assessed for anthropometric measurements at birth and metabolic status at 4.5 years.. Micronutrient deficiencies were common with zinc and vitamin B-12 deficiency being most prevalent. Anemia was present in ...
Prenatal vitamin D status and offsprings growth, adiposity and metabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Christina Santamaria, Wei Guang Bi, Line Leduc, Negar Tabatabaei, Prévost Jantchou, Zhong-Cheng Luo, François Audibert, Anne Monique Nuyt, Shu Qin Wei
Long-term Taurine Supplementation Leads To Enhanced Hepatic Steatosis, Renal Dysfunction And Hyperglycemia In Mice Fed On A High-fat Diet. Springer-verlag Berlin, v. 803, p. 339-351 2015 ...
Adolescence has been highlighted as a period when environments are critical for the human capital development of women, and thus of their children, but evidence on this from low- and middle-income countries is scarce. We estimate the effect of mother adolescent undernutrition on offspring growth and development from infancy through adolescence using data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam and Instrumental Variables (IV) estimation that employs rainfall shocks during mothers adolescence as instruments for mothers nutritional status. We find a positive and significant effect of mother adolescent nutritional status on child height-for-age in infancy that persists through to adolescence and evidence that this may manifest mainly through a biological channel. Our results also support a significant impact of rainfall shocks during mothers early adolescence on mothers adult height and child growth from infancy to adolescence. We find no significant effect of mothers adolescent nutritional ...
Proximal Constituents 3.8. Generally speaking, it would appear that, except in extreme maternal undernutrition, the concentrations of total energy and protein in breast-milk are maintained at remarkably normal levels. In the Gambia, for example, where even during good times of the year dietary mean intake is only 1,700 kcal/d, the average energy content of the mothers milk is maintained at 72 kcal/100 ml, which compares well with the mean content of British mothers milk, 69 kcal/100 ml. Even when mean intake was 1,100-1,200 kcal/d the energy content only dropped by about 10 per cent. 3.9. It is not easy to be precise about the effect of maternal diet on fat content, because concentration varies during the course of a feed - the fore-milk being more dilute than hind-milk. Most studies have been based on expressed milk, but more cannot be sure that this reproduces the same value that integrated measurements during actual breast-feeding would. In the Gambia, an estimate of the average fat content ...
(2000) Kwong et al. Development. Epidemiological studies have indicated that susceptibility of human adults to hypertension and cardiovascular disease may result from intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight induced by...
A study team at MedUni Viennas Center for Brain Research has found that high-fat maternal diets can cause life-long changes in the brain of the unborn offspring.
This is another study that touches upon the effects of specific condition or stress while the woman is pregnant on the future offsprings health and...
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Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular, and molecular evidence suggests that the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and durin
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Periconceptional folic acid (FA) has an established protective effect in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), leading to global recommendations for FA supplementation before and in early pregnancy. However, it is unclear whether there are any benefits for offspring brain health arising from continued maternal FA supplementation beyond the first trimester. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of maternal folate nutrition during pregnancy in relation to brain health in the offspring. As part of this work, an extensive review of the literature was conducted which highlighted that maternal folate during pregnancy may affect neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in the first decade of life, albeit the evidence at this time is predominantly observational. The children of mothers who had participated in a randomised trial of Folic Acid Supplementation in the Second and Third Trimesters (FASSTT) were investigated, providing a unique opportunity to more robustly examine offspring ...
MONDAY, March 16, 2020 (HealthDay News) - There is an association between low maternal vitamin D during early pregnancy and an elevated risk for offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.. Minna Sucksdorff, M.D., from University of Turku in Finland, and colleagues examined the association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in early pregnancy and offspring ADHD. The analysis included 1,067 ADHD cases born between 1998 and 1999 and 1,067 matched controls. First-trimester maternal 25(OH)D serum levels were assessed using quantitative immunoassay.. The researchers observed a significant association between decreasing log-transformed maternal 25(OH)D levels and offspring ADHD in unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 1.65) and in the analyses adjusting for maternal socioeconomic status and age (OR, 1.45). ADHD risk was higher for the lowest versus highest ...
Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism with consequent exposure of the fetus to an abnormal metabolic milieu. It is recognized that maternal obesity predisposes offspring to chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine whether the nuclear Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), known to play a role in maintaining homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, is involved in renal injury in offspring of obese mothers. Maternal obesity was established in a rat model by feeding dams with high-fat diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. The offsprings kidneys were examined at postnatal Day 1and Day 20. Human kidney 2 (HK2) cells were exposed to high glucose with or without the FXR agonist GW4064 or when FXR mRNA was silenced. Glucose intolerance in the offspring of obese mothers was evident at weaning, with associated downregulation of renal FXR expression and upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of Maternal Obesity with Child Cerebral Palsy or Death. AU - McPherson,Jessica A.. AU - Smid,Marcela C.. AU - Smiley,Sarah. AU - Stamilio,David M.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between maternal obesity and cerebral palsy or death in children. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial previously performed by the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Women in the original trial were included if at high risk for preterm delivery. The present study included singletons enrolled in the original study with complete data. Obese and nonobese women were compared. A secondary analysis comparing class 3 obese or classes 1 to 2 obese women to nonobese women was performed. The primary outcome was a composite of cerebral palsy or perinatal death. Results In this study, 1,261 nonobese, 339 obese, and 69 morbidly obese women were included. ...
In the present study, we sought to conduct a literature review of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, which assessed the impact of probiotics intake during pregnancy on the development of eczema in children. A meta-analysis was conducted for comparison of the development of atopic e …
Environmental perturbations during early mammalian development can affect aspects of offspring growth and cardiovascular health. We have demonstrated previously that maternal gestational dietary protein restriction in mice significantly elevated adult offspring systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the present study investigates the key mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in these mice. Following mating, female MF-1 mice were assigned to either a normal-protein diet (NPD; 18 % casein) or an isocaloric low-protein diet throughout gestation (LPD; 9 % casein), or fed the LPD exclusively during the pre-implantation period (3·5 d) before returning to the NPD for the remainder of gestation (Emb-LPD). All offspring received standard chow. At 22 weeks, isolated mesenteric arteries from LPD and Emb-LPD males displayed significantly attenuated vasodilatation to isoprenaline (P = 0·04 and P = 0·025, respectively), when compared with NPD arteries. At 28 weeks, stereological analysis of glomerular ...
Principal Investigator:TOKUDA NOBUKO, Project Period (FY):2011 - 2013, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Eating habits, studies on eating habits
Undernutrition is a particularly devastating, yet preventable problem not limited to developing countries. In the United States, approximately 14% of households were deemed food insecure by the USDA in 2014. That is, over 17 million households in the U.S. were uncertain of having food, or unable to acquire food. Hunger in infants and children has…
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Beliefs around maternal diet and breastfeeding within the context of the nutrition transition in Egypt". Maternal & Child ... Supplementing nutritional intake can lead to an earlier return of menses and ovulation than exclusive breastfeeding.[12] ... Beyond the physiological factors that influence lactational amenorrhea, cross cultural differences can help account for many of ... An additional study that references this phenomenon cross-culturally was completed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and has ...
This phenomenon is known as the premature ovarian failure (POF) and it is used as the model for the study of the genetics of ... Typically maternal care is defined at the most basic level of pregnancy and birth and lactation, but includes other things like ... The assumption that energy measured in calories can be used as a universal measure of nutritional cost is criticized by a ... Lactation is one of the costliest forms of parental investment because it is taxing at a metabolic and physiological level, but ...
Family Planning and Maternal, Infant, and Young Child Nutrition Integration in Bondo Sub-County, Kenya". Maternal and Child ... Supplementing nutritional intake can lead to an earlier return of menses and ovulation than exclusive breastfeeding. Nursing ... Beyond the physiological factors that influence lactational amenorrhea, cross cultural differences can help account for many of ... An additional study that references this phenomenon cross-culturally was completed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and has ...
In addition to physiological degradation, pacific salmon become more lethargic as mating goes on, which makes some individuals ... It is rare in mammals because mammals have obligate maternal care due to internal fertilization and incubation of offspring and ... Cole, Lamont C. (June 1954). "The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 29 (2): ... Larva only feed in restricted periods of the year because of the nutritional state of their host plants (as a result, they are ...
Chronobiology - field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- ... Paleopathology - the study of pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, and on nutritional disorders ... physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses. Nematology - scientific discipline concerned with the study ... maternal effect - penetrance - complementation - suppression - epistasis - genetic linkage chromosomal effects: chromosome - ...
This is often coupled with some physiological change in appearance. Cichlids can have maternal, paternal, or biparental care. ... These phenomena, known as egg spots, aid in the mouthbrooding mechanisms of cichlids. The egg spots consist of carotenoid-based ... For example, females of lyretail cichlids (Neolamprologus modabu) dig at sandy substrate more to push nutritional detritus and ... Maternal care is most common among mouthbrooders, but cichlids' common ancestor is thought to exhibit paternal-only care. Other ...
Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell Univ. Press. 476 pp. Wright, A.-D. G.; et al. (2004). "Molecular diversity ... 1985). Maternal vocalizations and other sounds in the fetal lamb's sound environment. Early Human Development, 11: 179-190. ... N.Z. Farmer, 98(6): 29-31 Parrott, R.F., (1990). Physiological responses to isolation in sheep. Social Stress in Domestic ... Details of that phenomenon, which I have argued elsewhere was a local process at least for sheep and cattle (Meadow 1984b, 1992 ...
Maternal nutrition and the avoidance of drugs, alcohol and other substances during all nine months of pregnancy (especially the ... Upon hearing the tune, these newborns showed physiological changes, such as a decrease in heart rate. This observed change did ... Further research in this area is needed.[citation needed] Similarly to nutritional intake, drugs consumed by the mother during ... Thompson, Richard F.; Spencer, William A. (1966). "Habituation: A model phenomenon for the study of neuronal substrates of ...
Maternal nutritional deficiencies, such as those observed during a famine, as well as maternal obesity have also been ... If the psychotic symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, then the diagnosis ... sometimes termed passivity phenomena, are also common.[22] There is often an observable pattern of emotional difficulty, for ... Maternal stress has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, possibly in association with reelin. Maternal ...
"NFHS-3 Nutritional Status of Adults". Retrieved 26 November 2009. Kanjilal, B; et al. (2010). "Nutritional Status of Children ... Additionally, physiological or chronic stress is strongly correlated in women being underweight. The Government of India has ... This phenomenon is most prevalent in the rural areas of India where more malnutrition exists on an absolute level. Whether ... and maternal mortality ratio (MMR), Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) Provide universal access to public health services Prevent ...
Nutritional treatment]". Rev Enferm (in Spanish). 31 (9): 51-8. ISSN 0210-5020. PMID 19007035. Høst A, Halken S, Jacobsen HP, ... This is a normal phenomenon, common to everyone. The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence ... A non-allergic food hypersensitivity is an abnormal physiological response. It can be difficult to determine the poorly ... There is no conclusive evidence to support the restriction of dairy intake in the maternal diet during pregnancy in order to ...
... or physiological. A characteristic of the phenotype that arises through adaptive maternal effects, is the plasticity of this ... A similar phenomenon occurs in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Urchin mothers in nutrient rich environments ... This displayed that birth weight may not be an adequate way to determine nutritional status during gestation. This study ... This is a maternal, not an adaptive maternal effect. In order to be an adaptive maternal effect, the mother's environment would ...
With an increase in gestational time, the fetal organs also grow in progression to the body weight, the phenomenon which is ... Public health aspect of low birth weight, third report of the expert committee on maternal and child health (WHO)" (PDF). World ... 1977; 109-117 Gueri M, Jutsum P, Sorhaindo B (March 1982). "Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status in pregnant women: ... under physiological and pathological conditions: immunocytochemical, electron microscopic and in vitro observations". In Vivo. ...
This phenomenon, where molecule Y affects the binding of molecule X to a transport molecule Z, is called a heterotropic ... Murray S.S. & McKinney E.S. (2006). Foundations of Maternal-Newborn Nursing. 4th ed., p. 919. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. ... Oxyhemoglobin is formed during physiological respiration when oxygen binds to the heme component of the protein hemoglobin in ... Other common causes of low hemoglobin include loss of blood, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, chemotherapy, kidney ...
Breastfeeding includes nutritional benefits which are undeniable, but the main reason breastfeeding is promoted in attachment ... For that, he adopted Mary Ainsworth's term of "maternal sensitivity": The woman directs her attention completely on the child ... Lorenz believed that instincts are physiological processes, and assumed they could be described as neuronal circuitry in the ... As early as in 1996, sociologist Sharon Hays had described the sociocultural phenomenon of an Intensive Mothering; with ...
Adequate maternal nutrition is important. Women with a low BMI are at increased risk for preterm birth. Further, women with ... Use of nutritional supplements such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is based on the observation that populations who ... Studies in Ireland and Denmark first noticed the phenomenon, and it has been confirmed elsewhere. There is no universally ... all of which invoke physiological and anatomical changes considered to be beneficial in reducing preterm birth. Two meta- ...
Yet, nutritional quality of middle class diets closely mirrors those of the upper classes. More importantly, the nutritional ... One clear illustration of this phenomenon is the introduction of spices in European diet. In medieval Western Europe, the ... Maternal & Child Nutrition. 11 (4): 870-881. doi:10.1111/mcn.12028. ISSN 1740-8695. PMC 6860335. PMID 23320519. S2CID 12577875 ... Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in ...
Then, and to an extent now, menstruation was a private matter and a girl's menarche was not a community phenomenon. The Ulithi ... especially nutritional factors. The mean age of menarche has declined over the last century, but the magnitude of the decline ... Menarche is the culmination of a series of physiological and anatomic processes of puberty: Attainment of a sufficient body ... early maternal harshness --> earlier menarche --> increased sexual risk taking". Developmental Psychology. 46 (1): 120-28. doi: ...
International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research (March 2015). "Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry". ... By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with ... However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors-including physiological responses and homologous facial displays ... high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse ( ...
... and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the ... Chen LW, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong MF, Pan A, van Dam RM (May 2016). "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of ... Liddle DG, Connor DJ (June 2013). "Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS". Primary Care. 40 (2): 487-505. doi:10.1016/j. ... Chen LW, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong MF, Pan A, van Dam RM (September 2014). "Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is ...
This phenomenon, where molecule Y affects the binding of molecule X to a transport molecule Z, is called a heterotropic ... As a result, fetal blood in the placenta is able to take oxygen from maternal blood. Hemoglobin also carries nitric oxide (NO) ... nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, chemotherapy, kidney failure, or abnormal hemoglobin (such as that of sickle-cell ... Oxyhemoglobin is formed during physiological respiration when oxygen binds to the heme component of the protein hemoglobin in ...
"Phenomena: A Science Salon. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2016-12-25. Retrieved 2017-06-08.. ... complex spermatophores and maternal care in crickets, katydids, and weta". Journal of Orthoptera Research. 4 (4): 203-218. doi: ... Physiological Entomology. 8 (2): 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1983.tb00344.x.. ... probably providing a nutritional boost.[12] ...
Yong, Ed (9 May 2014). "The Silence of the Crickets, The Silence of the Crickets". Phenomena: A Science Salon. National ... complex spermatophores and maternal care in crickets, katydids, and weta". Journal of Orthoptera Research. 4 (4): 203-218. doi: ... probably providing a nutritional boost. Gryllus firmus exhibits wing polymorphism; some individuals have fully functional, long ... Physiological Entomology. 8 (2): 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1983.tb00344.x. S2CID 85962428. Cade W. H. (1975). " ...
March 2015). "Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry". The Lancet. Psychiatry (Review). 2 (3): 271-4. doi:10.1016/ ... By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with ... However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors-including physiological responses and homologous facial displays ... high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse ( ...
Maternal investment: In many species, males benefit from high maternal investment as it allows them to preserve more energy and ... A study tested two hypotheses concerning mating plugs: a) that they were nutritional gifts for females to digest to provide ... Sperm competition can be exhibited throughout behavioral, morphological and physiological male adaptations. Some examples of ... a third phenomenon also explains the differences in gene expressions between two sexes - sexual antagonism. Sexual antagonism ...
By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with ... March 2015). "Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry". The Lancet. Psychiatry (Review). 2 (3): 271-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Maternal stress and birth complications including prematurity and infections have also been implicated in increasing ... However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors-including physiological responses and homologous facial displays ...
Leptin, a hormone produced from the ob gene and adipocytes[20] Its physiological role is to regulate hunger by alerting the ... Newbern D, Freemark M (December 2011). "Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth". Current ... and insulin response may well be a threshold phenomenon.[38][37][39] The pathway's sensitivity to insulin may be blunted by ... "N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a nutritional tool to prevent insulin resistance associated to type 2 diabetes and ...
allopatry The phenomenon by which two or more populations of a single species exist in geographic isolation from one another. ... maternal effect Any nongenetic effect of the mother on the phenotype of her offspring, owing to factors such as cytoplasmic ... adaptationism The Darwinian view that many or most physiological and behavioral traits of organisms are adaptations that have ... inheritance, transmission of congenital disease, and the sharing of nutritional conditions. mating system mating system ...
Hsu CC, Ness E, Kowdley KV (March 2017). "Nutritional Approaches to Achieve Weight Loss in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease". ... Oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and mitochondrial abnormalities are potential causes of this "second hit" phenomenon. A ... Some evidence indicates that maternal undernutrition or overnutrition increases a child's susceptibility to NASH and hastens ... Physiological Genomics. 49 (8): 385-399. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00012.2017. PMID 28600319. Heiman ML, Greenway FL (May ...
International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research (March 2015). "Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry". ... The application of the concept of mental illness to the phenomena described by these authors has in turn been critiqued by ... However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors-including physiological responses and homologous facial displays ... high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse ( ...
Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... In the Överkalix study, paternal (but not maternal) grandsons[129] of Swedish men who were exposed during preadolescence to ... Historically, some phenomena not necessarily heritable have also been described as epigenetic. For example, the term epigenetic ... "Progressive, transgenerational changes in offspring phenotype and epigenotype following nutritional transition". PLoS ONE. 6 ( ...
fingers turning white or blue when cold (Raynaud's phenomenon). Criteria for individual diagnosis. Some people, especially ... studies show that social support is a modulating factor which buffers against SLE-related damage and maintains physiological ... "Maternal autoantibodies and congenital heart block: mediators, markers, and therapeutic approach". Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 33 ... Raynaud's phenomenon, and psychiatric symptoms. Males tend to have more seizures, kidney disease, serositis (inflammation of ...
The distinction between physiological and psychological causes is often difficult to test,[5] and it is particularly ... The phenomenon of multiple chemical sensitivities is a peculiar manifestation of our technophobic and chemophobic society. It ... a complete review of the patient's diet may be needed to avoid nutritional deficiencies.[35] ... D]efinition of the phenomenon is elusive and its pathogenesis as a distinct entity is not confirmed....The current consensus is ...
Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ... In fact the trend towards increased maternal care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been stronger and more ... suggest that control of fire and releasing increased nutritional value through cooking was the key adaptation that separated ... "Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals but is associated with sociality". Proceedings of ...
Paternal genes in offspring demand more maternal resources than maternal genes in the same offspring and vice versa. This has ... The patterns can be explained by physiological constraints or ecological conditions, such as mating opportunities. In ... Leks and choruses have also been deemed another behavior among the phenomena of male competition for females. Due to the ... "Open-cell parasitism shapes maternal investment patterns in the Red Mason bee Osmia rufa". Behavioral Ecology. 17 (5): 839-848 ...
Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... This phenomenon of altered Macrophage Polarization is mostly associated with all the diabetic complications in a clinical set- ... A person's paternal grandson is the son of a son of that person; a maternal grandson is the son of a daughter. ... "Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (15): 5293- ...
An identical phenomenon is much more commonly seen with Ancylostoma caninum infections in dogs, where the newborn pups can even ... Most evidence suggests that the contribution of hookworm to maternal anemia merits that all women of child-bearing age living ... abounded in an era when active public health departments in other parts of the country were eradicating nutritional and ... mainly because they have much higher physiological needs for iron (menstruation, repeated pregnancy). ...
The application of the concept of mental illness to the phenomena described by these authors has in turn been critiqued by ... However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors-including physiological responses and homologous facial displays ... high maternal negative affect, anxious childrearing, modelling of dysfunctional and drug-abusing behaviour, and child abuse ( ... "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders". Nutrition Journal. 7 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2. PMC 2248201. PMID ...
Whilst the specific physiological mechanisms by which immunity is produced differ sharply between the individual and society, ... Social immunity differs from similar phenomena that can occur in groups that are not truly social (e.g. herding animals). These ... Boos, Stefan; Meunier, Joël; Pichon, Samuel; Kölliker, Mathias (2014-07-01). "Maternal care provides antifungal protection to ... larvae raised on these carcasses are smaller and in a worse nutritional state-at adulthood these beetles were also smaller, ...
Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ... In fact the trend towards increased maternal care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been stronger and more ... Shultz, Susanne; Dunbar, Robin (December 14, 2010). "Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals ... suggest that control of fire and releasing increased nutritional value through cooking was the key adaptation that separated ...
... "designed to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions, and may ... Another universal phenomenon regarding food is the appeal of contrast in taste and presentation. For example, such opposite ... Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce (2010-01-01). "Maternal and Young Child Nutrition Adversely Affected by External Shocks Such ... Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or fungal ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O ... Good maternal nutrition: The best start in life  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‏2016)‏ This ... publication presents a summary of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable ...
Division of Maternal and Child Health Subject Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Remove constraint Subject: Nutritional ... Division of Maternal and Child Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ... Division of Maternal and Child Health Remove constraint Publisher: United States. Public Health Service. ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Maternal Nutritional Physiological ... "Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Maternal Nutritional ... "Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" by people in Profiles. ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Nutritional Counseling for ... Hydration is another special nutritional concern during pregnancy. When you are pregnant, your body needs even more water to ...
Maternal Behavior* * Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Middle Aged * Pregnancy * Surveys and Questionnaires ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena* * Pregnancy * Prevalence * Rickets * Seasons * United States / epidemiology * ... Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture. ... black women had a smaller mean increase in maternal 25(OH)D compared with white women from winter to summer (16.0+/-3.3 nmol/L ...
... the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance ... Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Animals. Animals, Wild. Antioxidants / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Birds ... However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to ... Previous Document: Pheasant sexual ornaments reflect nutritional conditions during early growth.. Next Document: Clade-specific ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as ... Research on Mother-Baby Units (MBUs) has mainly focused on maternal psychiatric outcomes, not the well-being of infants. This ... While there have been studies on the effects of maternal depression and anxiety on mother-infant styles of interaction in ... Maternal and paternal depression and anxiety: their relationship with mother-infant interactions at 3 months. ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / genetics*. Ovulation. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy Rate. ... Adaptation, Physiological / genetics. Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics, metabolism. Dinoprost / metabolism. Dinoprostone / ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena1. * more Subject » Genre *Official reports2. *Proceedings2 ... Division of Maternal and Child Health Remove constraint Publisher: United States. Public Health Service. Division of Maternal ... Division of Maternal and Child Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ... Division of Maternal and Child Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena1. *Public Health[remove]1. Genre *Official reports1 ... Division of Maternal and Child Health Remove constraint Publisher: United States. Public Health Service. Division of Maternal ... Division of Maternal and Child Health and United States. Public Health Service. Office of the Surgeon General. ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Child Nutritional Physiological ... Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena., Public Health., Public Policy., MEDICAL / Endocrinology & Metabolism, MEDICAL / ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Dietetics, ravitsemus, Public health, kurssikirja, sähkökirjat, osteoporoosi, ... Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Public Health, Public Policy, Medicine, sähkökirjat ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Models, Animal. *Oxidative Stress. *Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (ATP)/ ... Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal ... Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal ... Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Nutritional Status. *Pregnancy. *Prospective Studies. *Risk Factors. *Surveys ... Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) >30], excess ... Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) >30], excess ... as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at childs birth. P values were determined by Poisson regression models ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as ... Physiological response of crossbred sheep under nutritional scarcity.. Nutritional scarcity during summer and winter is a major ... Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Nutritional physiology of animals.. Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ... Re-evaluating the nutritional awareness, knowledge and eating behaviours of women attending a tertiary maternity hospital ...
It is a complex phenomenon, influenced not only by maternal physiological and metabolic changes but also by placental ... It can be inferred that what occurred, in this case, was hemodilution, a physiological phenomenon in gestation which occurs the ... The identification of inadequate weight gain outcomes on maternal nutritional status may be useful for the development of ... evaluated the risk factors for maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain and maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. ...
Search ("Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena"[Mesh] OR "Milk, Human"[Mesh] OR "Breast Feeding"[Mesh] OR "breast feeding ... Search ((("Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena"[Mesh] OR "Milk, Human"[Mesh] OR "Breast Feeding"[Mesh] OR "breast ... Ip S; Chung M; Raman G; Chew P; Magula N; DeVine D; Trikalinos T; Lau J. Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes ... Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Washington, DC: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2016. www.healthypeople. ...
This phenomenon can be understood in the context of the phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in ... development such as maternal undernutrition or overnutrition can program changes in the integration among physiological systems ... This phenomenon can be understood in the context of the phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in ... It has been shown that both maternal protein restriction and overnutrition alter the central and peripheral control of arterial ...
In addition, the rodent model of maternal protein restriction has revealed that longevity can be influenced either positively ... Characteristic is the way in which breast-feeding condenses so many meanings--nutritional, medical and moral--into one act. The ... The modification of ageing by nutritional intervention is well recognised. Post-weaning diet restriction is the only widely ... Animal models including intrauterine artery ligation, maternal restriction of iron, protein or general caloric intake, provide ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Child Nutritional Physiological ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Dietetics, ravitsemus, Public health, kurssikirja, sähkökirjat, osteoporoosi, ... 3 SIMULTANEOUS USERS, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, Nutrition Policy, Nutritional Status, Public Health, Food Habits, ... Maternal and Child Health., Quality of Life Research., Social Work., Anthropology, Maternal and infant welfare, Psychology, ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Pregnancy/blood*. *Pregnancy Outcome. *alpha-Linolenic Acid/blood. Substances. *Fatty ... Infant plasma trans, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are related to maternal plasma fatty acids, length ... In healthy women, we sampled maternal blood at 35 wk gestation (n = 58) and umbilical cord blood at birth (n = 70). ... We determined the associations of birth outcome with maternal and infant plasma concentrations of TFAs, CLAs, AA, and DHA. ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. ... Maternal nutrition affects the ability of treatment with IGF-I ... Maternal organ weights, fetal and placental weights were assessed. Treatment with IGFs did not alter body weight gain and had ... affects maternal growth and body composition as well as fetal and placental growth, in ad libitum fed, and in moderately, ... half of pregnancy stimulates placental growth in both ad libitum fed and food restricted guinea pigs without affecting maternal ...
Maternal Health Services. Child Health Services. Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. 5. Declaration of the Paris AIDS Summit: ... Washington, D.C.] : Clearinghouse on Infant Feeding and Maternal Nutrition, [1991?]. Subject(s):. Maternal Health Services. ... Washington, DC : Clearinghouse on Infant Feeding and Maternal Nutrition, [1990]. Subject(s):. ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Young Adult. en_US. ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Overweight. en_US. ...
"Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena", "type": "DefinedTerm" }, { "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh ... Effect of maternal cadmium exposure on postnatal development and tissue cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations in rats in ... These results suggest that the observed toxic effects of Cd are, at least in part, mediated by the disruption of maternal Zn ... These results suggest that the observed toxic effects of Cd are, at least in part, mediated by the disruption of maternal Zn ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. 650 22 - SUBJECT ADDED ENTRY--TOPICAL TERM. Topical term or geographic name as ... two generations at nutritional risk / Anne Marie Coufopoulos and Allan Frederick Hackett -- Life cycle influences and ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Entry term(s). Maternal Nutrition Physiology Maternal Nutritional Physiological ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomenon. Maternal Nutritional Physiology. Nutrition Physiology, Maternal. Nutritional ... Phenomenon Maternal Nutritional Physiology Nutrition Physiology, Maternal Nutritional Physiology, Maternal Physiology, Maternal ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena - Preferred Concept UI. M0015117. Scope note. Nutrition of a mother which affects ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Obesity/complications. *Oxidative Stress. *Pregnancy. *Triglycerides/metabolism ... Maternal high-fat diet triggers lipotoxicity in the fetal livers of nonhuman primates.. McCurdy CE1, Bishop JM, Williams SM, ... Importantly, reversing the maternal HFD to a low-fat diet during a subsequent pregnancy improved fetal hepatic TG levels and ... Maternal obesity is thought to increase the offsprings risk of juvenile obesity and metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. en_US. ... Here we hypothesized that voluntary exercise would ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects of maternal obesity on offspring. ... Here we hypothesized that voluntary exercise would ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects of maternal obesity on offspring. ... We previously found that maternal obesity alters central appetite circuits and contributes to increased adiposity, glucose ...
A maternal confectionery diet during pregnancy that majorly consists of baked and sugary products, combined with a longer ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Maternal Perinatal Dietary Patterns Affect Food Allergy Development in Susceptible Infants Yoon Hee Kim 1 , Kyung Won Kim 2 , ... Maternal Perinatal Dietary Patterns Affect Food Allergy Development in Susceptible Infants Yoon Hee Kim et al. J Allergy Clin ...
  • This publication presents a summary of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable disease. (who.int)
  • Charlton M. Fetal obesity syndrome: maternal nutrition as a cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (uchicago.edu)
  • These results suggest that a developing fetus is highly vulnerable to excess lipids, independent of maternal diabetes and/or obesity, and that exposure to this may increase the risk of pediatric NAFLD. (nih.gov)
  • We previously found that maternal obesity alters central appetite circuits and contributes to increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and metabolic disease in offspring. (edu.au)
  • Here we hypothesized that voluntary exercise would ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects of maternal obesity on offspring. (edu.au)
  • In addition, systematic reviews of published systematic reviews on nutritional interventions or exposures in pregnancy and in infants and young children aged up to 3 years that describe effects on subsequent overweight, obesity and body composition were performed. (edu.au)
  • Little appetite for obesity: meta-analysis of the effects of maternal obesogenic diets on offspring food intake and body mass in rodents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Relationships of maternal obesity, diabetes, and nutrition during pregnancy with birth weight and in turn relationships between birth weight and risk of obesity and diabetes in later life have long been observed (rev. in 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ability of neonatal leptin treatment of these offspring rats to reverse hepatic hypomethylation of PPARA and overexpression and prevent obesity ( 15 ) reinforces evidence for a direct causal pathway of maternal malnutrition → epigenetic fetal modification → obese offspring. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • the opposite occurs in less developed societies, where in households undergoing nutritional transition, underweight can coexist with obesity. (scielo.br)
  • The most important determinant factors involved in the increasing obesity prevalence are fetal and infant nutritional conditions (stunting), education and socioeconomic conditions, dietary changes (especially increased total energy intake), and physical inactivity. (scielo.br)
  • It is important to point out that of all the risk factors associated with mortality from NCCD, obesity is the one that has undergone the largest increase and is now the main nutritional disease in most Latin American countries (Uauy et al. (scielo.br)
  • 1998, 2000) reviewed national surveys conducted from 1982 onward to assess maternal and child obesity in Latin America. (scielo.br)
  • An epigenetic phenomenon that is well-documented in humans and may be the first that springs to mind is genomic imprinting, whereby during germ cell development, regulatory regions of certain genes are differentially methylated and expressed depending on whether the gene is inherited from the mother or father ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • That grandparental nutrition status has been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk ( 17 ) hints at the potential capability of nutritional exposure to have epigenetic effects in humans, since only DNA is transmitted in this case. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Historically, research has focused on the well-documented decline in reproductive capacity that accompanies old age, especially with increasing maternal age in humans. (isharonline.org)
  • Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Washington, D.C.] : Clearinghouse on Infant Feeding and Maternal Nutrition, [1991? (nih.gov)
  • however, the mechanism(s) whereby excess maternal nutrition affects fetal development remain poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop further human investigations aimed at better understanding of the basis of biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological events related to maternal-fetal nutrition and offspring health. (dzl.de)
  • Impact of nutrient supplementation on maternal nutrition and child growth and development in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements. (bvsalud.org)
  • Over recent years it has become apparent that maternal nutrition may have critical and far-reaching persistent consequences for offspring health. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Regardless, there is documented evidence in mammals (rev. in 1 ) that maternal exposures such as nutrition status can influence metabolic phenotypes through epigenetic changes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To investigate whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency affects fetal femur growth in ways similar to those seen in childhood rickets and study the timing during gestation of any effect of maternal vitamin D status, we studied 424 pregnant women within a prospective longitudinal study of maternal nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy (Southampton Women's Survey). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Maternal and Child Nutrition , 3 (4), 239-250. (elsevier.com)
  • Bourne, LT, Marais, D & Love, P 2007, ' The process followed in the development of the paediatric food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa ', Maternal and Child Nutrition , vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 239-250. (elsevier.com)
  • Food aversions and cravings during pregnancy are known all over the world [1,2], but despite their ubiquity, neither their causes nor their ultimate effects on maternal nutrition have been well established scientifically. (unu.edu)
  • Some researchers, however, believe that aversions play a negative role in maternal nutrition because they reduce the mother s food options [1] by causing her to decrease her intake of certain foods. (unu.edu)
  • Thus, opinions on the importance of aversion to maternal nutrition are contradictory. (unu.edu)
  • Rasmussen, K.M. (1992) The influence of maternal nutrition on lactation.Annual Review of Nutrition, 12, 103-19. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study. (uchicago.edu)
  • Maternal and paternal depression and anxiety: their relationship with mother-infant interactions at 3 months. (bioportfolio.com)
  • maternal distress, infant functional problems, and relationship difficulties. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A 2007 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) review by Ip and colleagues evaluated the evidence on the association between breastfeeding and infant and maternal health outcomes. (ahrq.gov)
  • Infant plasma trans, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are related to maternal plasma fatty acids, length of gestation, and bi. (nih.gov)
  • We determined the associations of birth outcome with maternal and infant plasma concentrations of TFAs, CLAs, AA, and DHA. (nih.gov)
  • 1) Environmental and nutritional effects on reproduction using sheep models of human exposure and the dog as a sentinel species for the human, particularly the human infant. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Ruff, A.J. (1992) Breast feeding and maternal infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • This editorial summarizes new evidence, some of which is published in this supplement, on birth spacing and newborn, infant, child and maternal health, as well as the demand for birth spacing services in the developing world. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The article points to the high number of annual infant, child and maternal deaths, low birth weight infants and malnourished infants and children in developing countries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Counseling during Maternal and Infant Health Visits and Postpartum Contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh, India. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. (nih.gov)
  • It is a complex phenomenon, influenced not only by maternal physiological and metabolic changes but also by placental metabolism 1 1. (scielosp.org)
  • It has been shown that both maternal protein restriction and overnutrition alter the central and peripheral control of arterial pressure and metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that the observed toxic effects of Cd are, at least in part, mediated by the disruption of maternal Zn metabolism during pregnancy leading to Zn depletion and thus to perturbation of prenatal bone formation. (springernature.com)
  • BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that maternal effects contribute to variation in individual food intake and metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nevertheless, we found an effect on offspring body weight, consistent with permanent alterations of offspring metabolism in response to maternal diet. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The effects of intrauterine environment on offspring adiposity and metabolism appear to be mediated by clear physiological mechanisms and do not seem likely to require an epigenetic mechanism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This review will address the new concepts on the maternal diet induced-cardiometabolic diseases that include the potential role of the perinatal malnutrition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, this review will address the new concepts about the involvement of the maternal protein malnutrition and overnutrition on the development of the cardiometabolic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • A large body of evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the maternal diet during pregnancy can programme physiological and metabolic functions in the developing fetus, effectively determining susceptibility to later disease. (plos.org)
  • Whilst models of programming of physiological and metabolic function are well-characterized, the underlying mechanisms involved remain unresolved [8] . (plos.org)
  • BACKGROUND: A link between early mismatched nutritional environment and development of components of the metabolic syndrome later in life has been shown in epidemiological and animal data. (uclouvain.be)
  • The use of early nutritional stimuli to program metabolic pathways in fish is ill defined. (biologists.org)
  • Important research work was undertaken to establish the role of carbohydrates at a metabolic and physiological level in fish ( Panserat and Kaushik, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the livers of newborn rats exposed to maternal protein restriction. (plos.org)
  • Altobelli G, Bogdarina IG, Stupka E, Clark AJL, Langley-Evans S (2013) Genome-Wide Methylation and Gene Expression Changes in Newborn Rats following Maternal Protein Restriction and Reversal by Folic Acid. (plos.org)
  • Research on Mother-Baby Units (MBUs) has mainly focused on maternal psychiatric outcomes, not the well-being of infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Inadequate pre-gestational or gestational nutritional status and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy are associated with poor reproductive outcomes for both the pregnant woman and the baby 2 2. (scielosp.org)
  • Maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes: a WHO collaborative study. (scielosp.org)
  • 2 For maternal health outcomes, they concluded that a history of breastfeeding (compared with no breastfeeding or a shorter duration of breastfeeding) was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and breast and ovarian cancer. (ahrq.gov)
  • for other outcomes (e.g., postpartum depression) the relationship between breastfeeding and improved maternal health was unclear. (ahrq.gov)
  • This paper summarizes our main conclusions with regards to maternal preconceptional body mass index, gestational weight gain, placental and fetal requirements in relation to adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes of the fetus (nutritional programming). (dzl.de)
  • Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes. (harvard.edu)
  • Oligohydramnios: a prospective study of fetal, neonatal and maternal outcomes in low-middle income countries. (ucdenver.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting) with offspring outcomes. (isharonline.org)
  • Excessive iron consumption during pregnancy can lead to increased oxidative stress in the maternal body, which may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams.Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered.B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the influence of the variables maternal age, gestational age, biochemical nutritional status in alpha-tocopherol, and maternal supplementation with vitamin E had conflicting results in the literature. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the Maternal Vitamin D for ARI in Infancy (MDARI) sub-study nested within the MDIG trial, trained personnel conduct weekly postnatal home visits to inquire about ARI symptoms and conduct a standardized clinical assessment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • If shown to reduce the risk of viral ARI in infancy, integration of maternal prenatal/postpartum vitamin D supplementation into antenatal care programs in South Asia may be a feasible primary preventive strategy to reduce the burden of ARI-associated morbidity and mortality in young infants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: cohort study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent findings suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has consequences for the offspring's bone health in later life. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our observations suggest that maternal vitamin D insufficiency can influence fetal femoral development as early as 19 weeks' gestation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This suggests that measures to improve maternal vitamin D status should be instituted in early pregnancy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for associations between autism and retrospectively collected data on maternal vitamin intake before and during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity), endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation), blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index), test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex. (isharonline.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate how administration of IGF-I and IGF-II, during early to mid pregnancy, affects maternal growth and body composition as well as fetal and placental growth, in ad libitum fed, and in moderately, chronically food restricted guinea pigs. (edu.au)
  • Maternal organ weights, fetal and placental weights were assessed. (edu.au)
  • In conclusion, treatment with IGF-I during the first half of pregnancy stimulates placental growth in both ad libitum fed and food restricted guinea pigs without affecting maternal growth while fetal growth is stimulated by IGF treatment only in ad libitum fed animals. (edu.au)
  • At the other end of the nutritional spectrum, undernourishing the adolescent sheep to gradually deplete nutrient reserves, results in fetal growth restriction which is independent of alterations in placental mass. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study examined the maternal plasma concentrations of a number of putative endocrine regulators of nutrient partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments in relation to placental and fetal growth in this novel experimental paradigm. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results suggest that in pregnant adolescent sheep on high dietary intakes, elevated insulin and IGF-I levels ensure that the anabolic drive to maternal tissue synthesis is established during early gestation at the expense of placental growth. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These miRNAs of placental origin can be detected in maternal peripheral blood. (labome.org)
  • A substantial body of evidence suggests that a poor intrauterine milieu elicited by maternal nutritional disturbance, including maternal diabetes or placental insufficiency, may programme susceptibility in the fetus to later development of glucose intolerance and diabetes. (uclouvain.be)
  • Maternal prepregnant and postpartum weight was collected from questionnaires at 17th week of gestation and 6 and 18 months postpartum. (arctichealth.org)
  • Data are adjusted for child's gestational age at birth, as well as maternal height, education, parity, and age at child's birth. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low birth weight and their respective associa-tions with gestational and maternal factors in the Municipal-ity of Buriticupu-MA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Based originally on the observation that birth weight associated with the prevalence of cardiometabolic disease [7] , significant support for its relevance has been provided by the re-creation of this phenomenon in a wide range of animal models [6] . (plos.org)
  • High glucose levels throughout gestation and a decreased response to an exogenous insulin challenge on day 95 of gestation implied a degree of insulin resistance in the RMG group but, in spite of these high maternal glucose concentrations, the reduced size of the placenta probably constrained fetal growth. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Fetal programming is the phenomenon whereby alterations in fetal growth and development in response to the prenatal environment have long term or permanent effects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nutritional physiology of animals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Experimental studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may alter the morphology and physiology that contribute to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • This phenomenon can be understood in the context of phenotypic plasticity and it refers to the ability of an organism to react to both an internal and external environmental inputs with a change in the form, state, physiology, or rate of activity without genetic changes ( West-Eberhard, 2005b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistic understanding of these phenomena requires animal models to study the effects of nutrient availability on developmental physiology. (genetics.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among GST gene expression, maternal iron intake during pregnancy, and neonatal birth weight. (cdc.gov)
  • Postnatal length and weight growth velocities and their associated perinatal factors in healthy late preterm infants without restriction of neonatal complications and nutritional problems have not been widely studied. (springer.com)
  • As part of ongoing longitudinal follow-up study of growth and development of preterm infants in Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital in China, 599 healthy late preterm infants without neonatal complications and nutritional problems were sampled from 795 preterm infants born in January 2014 to April 2017. (springer.com)
  • These physiological changes promote the formation and development of amniotic fluid and placenta, increased blood volume, adipose tissue and fetus, and uterine and mammary growth 1 1. (scielosp.org)
  • Cd exposure induced maternal hypozincemia and Zn depletion in the femur of the fetuses. (springernature.com)
  • We aimed to assess renal morphology and function in offspring of leptin receptor deficient mice (Leprdb /+) and hypothesized that exposure to impaired maternal glucose tolerance (IGT) would be detrimental to the developing kidney.Nephron endowment was assessed in offspring of C57BKS/J Leprdb /+ and +/+ mice at embryonic day (E)18 and postnatal day (PN)21 using design-based stereology. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: The maternal environment and early life exposure affect immune development in offspring. (uu.nl)
  • In healthy women, we sampled maternal blood at 35 wk gestation (n = 58) and umbilical cord blood at birth (n = 70). (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) during the second and third trimester in RMG versus NMG groups and a sustained elevation in maternal tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations was evident in the RMG group from mid-gestation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, the rodent model of maternal protein restriction has revealed that longevity can be influenced either positively or negatively by early growth patterns. (isharonline.org)
  • The data showed that maternal protein restriction is associated with widespread differential gene expression and DNA methylation across the genome, and that folic acid is able to reset both molecular signatures. (plos.org)
  • Maternal variables parity, anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status, and habitual dietary intake did not appear to affect the alpha-tocopherol levels in milk. (bvsalud.org)
  • Male lifespan correlated negatively with maternal age, parity, and litter size, whereas female lifespan did not correlate with these characteristics. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. The maternal lactational capacity is important, and is determined by genetic heritage, age, parity and nutritional history. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • Maternal low-protein diet causes epigenetic deregulation of HMGCR and CYP7?1 in the liver of weaning piglets. (labome.org)
  • Ongoing research is addressing the hypothesis that maternal nutritional effects in developing oocytes and embryos, and procedures used in assisted reproduction, can program fetal development and adult health via heritable epigenetic changes to DNA methylation at specific gene loci in the oocyte and pre-implantation embryo. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, overnourishing the adolescent sheep to promote rapid maternal growth, results in the premature delivery of low birth weight lambs. (elsevier.com)
  • It has previously been reported that high nutrient intakes which promote rapid maternal growth throughout pregnancy are associated with poor pregnancy outcome when compared with normally growing adolescent animals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy and the perinatal period increases offspring adiposity and liver TG levels. (nih.gov)
  • However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Animal models including intrauterine artery ligation, maternal restriction of iron, protein or general caloric intake, provide invaluable tools to understand mechanisms linking early growth and later diseases in adult life. (isharonline.org)
  • Nevertheless, several biological and physiological mechanisms related to nutritive requirements together with their transfer and utilization across the placenta are still poorly understood. (dzl.de)
  • In spite of long history studies of this phenomenon, demographic mechanisms of population cyclicity remain insufficiently understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • To understand the peculiarities of self-regulatory mechanisms in population dynamics, it is important to evaluate the heritability of life history traits as well as their dependence on seasonal and maternal environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further postdoctoral placements at the University of Edinburgh, UK enabled Dr Lea to extend his work into endocrine and immune influences on human uterine cells after which he took up a tenured post at the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK where he focussed on nutritional influences on intra-uterine 'immuno-endocrine' mechanisms essential for fetal development using both rodent and sheep models. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Animal studies report a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes, yet are limited to models of severe hyperglycaemia which do not reflect the typical clinical condition and which are associated with foetal growth restriction that may confound nephron endowment. (edu.au)
  • Moreover, imprinting is not the only example of the phenomenon of parent-of-origin effects, whereby the sex of the parent influences what genes are expressed and in turn the risk for diabetes and related conditions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There are well-characterized examples whereby maternal genes appear to influence diabetes risk via both inheritance of maternal genetic variants and effects of the maternal genetics in creating a hyperglycemic in utero environment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Improvements in maternal nutritional status are arguably imperative for ensuring an appropriate pregnancy outcome in these vulnerable groups, but ethical boundaries limit these investigations. (elsevier.com)
  • Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS). (naver.com)
  • No significant association was found between maternal dietary intake and lean mass in adolescents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Maternal dietary protein induces opposite myofiber type transition in Meishan pigs at weaning and finishing stages. (labome.org)
  • Low birth weight and prematurity are associated with short inter-pregnancy intervals, low pre-pregnancy weights, insufficient maternal weight gains during pregnancy, multifetal pregnancies and a young maternal age. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: The variables that conditioned low birth weight were: maternal age, maternal schooling, sex of the baby, place of birth, type of delivery and prenatal consultations. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months. (arctichealth.org)
  • Birth weight of Korean infants is affected by the interaction of maternal iron intake and GSTM1 polymorphism. (cdc.gov)
  • No relationship was found between maternal iron intake and birth weight for the GSTT1 polymorphism. (cdc.gov)
  • Carotenoids and egg quality in the lesser blackbacked gull Larus fuscus: a supplemental feeding study of maternal effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results suggest that carotenoids could be one resource responsible for egg quality maternal effects in birds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Parent-of-origin effects can also include mitochondrial genome inheritance, which only occurs through the maternal line, and maternal effects on the intrauterine environment ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on child and maternal health. (worldcat.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/62054888 Title: Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on child and maternal health. (worldcat.org)
  • Environmental and nutritional effects on reproduction. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Most animal nutritionists probably never realised that amino acids, besides the nutritional properties, also have other effects. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristic is the way in which breast-feeding condenses so many meanings--nutritional, medical and moral--into one act. (isharonline.org)
  • In contrast to HNF1A , GCK mutations have been found not to have a maternal-specific effect on future glucose tolerance, apparently due to the lack of a role of GCK mutations in β-cell dysfunction ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conversely, higher maternal meat intake during pregnancy may increase FM in adolescents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years. (isharonline.org)
  • Potential role of maternal serum microRNAs as a biomarker for fetal congenital heart defects. (labome.org)
  • These associations were independent of the significant association between maternal energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy and adolescent intakes at 16 years of age. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The sense of smell is a complex system, including physiological and biochemical actors. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Researchers who believe that craving is physiological argue that it is a mechanism to protect the foetus and the mother from nutrient deficiencies [6] and suggest that craving is triggered when a deficiency in one or more nutrients arises. (unu.edu)
  • Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), and weight measurements were used to assess nutritional status. (unu.edu)
  • 05), whereas there was no difference in nutritional status between women who craved foods and those who did not. (unu.edu)
  • Division of Maternal and Child Health and United States. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Maternal-Child Nursing" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Maternal-Child Nursing" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Maternal-Child Nursing" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Maternal gene expression profiling during pregnancy and preeclampsia in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (naver.com)
  • Associations with maternal nutritional factors and their interactions with gene variants have not been reported.Northern California families were enrolled from 2003 to 2009 in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) population-based case-control study. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA expression is well characterized during arrest, recovery, and normal L1 development, providing a metazoan model for nutritional control of gene expression. (genetics.org)
  • For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 18,19 Sociodemographic factors associated with an increased likelihood of breastfeeding initiation and continuation include older maternal age, being married, Asian or white race, Hispanic ethnicity, higher maternal education, and access to private insurance. (ahrq.gov)
  • Maternal factors had a differential effect on males and females with respect to lifespan. (frontiersin.org)