Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
The status of health in rural populations.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It shares borders with India, Myanmar (Burma), and Bay of Bengal. The population is primarily Bengali, and the official language is Bangla (Bengali). The capital city is Dhaka. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, feel free to ask!
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Health care provided to individuals.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The status of health in urban populations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nepal" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a country located in South Asia, known officially as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Female parents, human or animal.
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.

Programming for safe motherhood: a guide to action. (1/862)

The Safe Motherhood Initiative has successfully stimulated much interest in reducing maternal mortality. To accelerate programme implementation, this paper reviews lessons learned from the experience of industrial countries and from demonstration projects in developing countries, and proposes intervention strategies of policy dialogue, improved services and behavioural change. A typological approach with three hypothetical settings from resource poor to resource rich environments is used to address the variability in health behaviours and infrastructure encountered when programming for safe motherhood.  (+info)

Is antenatal care effective in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality? (2/862)

Women in developing countries are dying from simple preventable conditions but what impact can the procedures collectively called antenatal care having in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity? More importantly what is antenatal care? This review found that questions have been raised about the impact of antenatal care (specifically on maternal mortality) since its inception in developed countries, and that although the questions continue to be asked there is very little research trying to find answers. Many antenatal procedures are essentially screening tests yet it was found that there were very few results showing sensitivity and specificity, and that they rarely complied with the established criteria for the effectiveness of a screening test. The acknowledged gold standard measurement of effectiveness is the randomized controlled trial, yet the only results available referred to nutritional supplementation. This service of flawed methodology has been exported to developing countries and is being promoted by WHO and other agencies. This paper argues that there is insufficient evidence to reach a firm decision about the effectiveness of antenatal care, yet there is sufficient evidence to cast doubt on the possible effect of antenatal care. Research is urgently required in order to identify those procedures which ought to be included in the antenatal process. In the final analysis the greatest impact will be achieved by developing a domiciliary midwifery service supported by appropriate local efficient obstetric services. That this domiciliary service should provide care for women in pregnancy is not disputed but the specific nature of this care needs considerable clarification.  (+info)

Demonstrating programme impact on maternal mortality. (3/862)

Reducing maternal mortality if one of the primary goals of safe mother hood programmes in developing countries. Maternal mortality is not, however, a feasible outcome indicator with which to judge the success of these programmes. This is due to an unfortunate combination of obstacles to measurement--some general to assessing the mortality impact of health programmes and some peculiar to estimating maternal mortality. There is a need to promote alternative views and measures of programme success, and alternative uses for information on maternal deaths.  (+info)

The role of private providers in maternal and child health and family planning services in developing countries. (4/862)

This paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys program (DHS) in 11 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to explore the contribution of private health care providers to population coverage with a variety of maternal and child health and family planning services. The choice of countries and services assessed was mainly determined by the availability of data in the different surveys. Private providers contribute significantly to family planning services and treatment of children's infectious diseases in a number of the countries studied. This is as expected from the predictions of economic theory, since these goods are less subject to market failures. For the more 'public goods' type services, such as immunization and ante-natal care, their role is much more circumscribed. Two groups of countries were identified: those with a higher private provision role across many different types of services and those where private provision was limited to only one or two types of the services studied. The analysis identified the lack of consistent or systematic definitions of private providers across countries as well as the absence of data on many key services in most of the DHS surveys. Given the significance of private provision of public health goods in many countries, the authors propose much more systematic efforts to measure these variables in the future. This could be included in future DHS surveys without too much difficulty.  (+info)

Integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services: current debates and future directions. (5/862)

The issue of integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services has gained an increasingly high priority on public health agendas in recent years. In the prevailing climate of health sector reform, policy-makers are likely to be increasingly pressed to address the broader concept of "reproductive health' in the terms consolidated at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, and the UN Conference on Women in Beijing. Integrated MCH/FP and STD/HIV services could be regarded as a significant step towards providing integrated reproductive health services, but clarity of issues and concerns is essential. A number of rationales have emerged which argue for the integration of these services, and many concerns have been voiced. There is little consensus, however, on the definition of "integrated services' and there are few documented case studies which might clarify the issues. This paper reviews the context in which rationales for "integrated services' emerged, the issues of concern and the case studies available. It concludes by suggesting future directions for research, noting in particular the need for country-specific and multi-dimensional frameworks and the appropriateness of a policy analysis approach.  (+info)

Costs and financing of improvements in the quality of maternal health services through the Bamako Initiative in Nigeria. (6/862)

This paper reports on a study to assess the quality of maternal health care in public health facilities in Nigeria and to identify the resource implications of making the necessary quality improvements. Drawing upon unifying themes from quality assurance, basic microeconomics and the Bamako Initiative, locally defined norms were used to estimate resource requirements for improving the quality of maternal health care. Wide gaps existed between what is required (the norm) and what was available in terms of fixed and variable resources required for the delivery of maternal health services in public facilities implementing the Bamako Initiative in the Local Government Areas studied. Given such constraints, it was highly unlikely that technically acceptable standards of care could be met without additional resource inputs to meet the norm. This is part of the cost of doing business and merits serious policy dialogue. Revenue generation from health services was poor and appeared to be more related to inadequate supply of essential drugs and consumables than to the use of uneconomic fee scales. It is likely that user fees will be necessary to supplement scarce government budgets, especially to fund the most critical variable inputs associated with quality improvements. However, any user fee system, especially one that raises fees to patients, will have to be accompanied by immediate and visible quality improvements. Without such quality improvements, cost recovery will result in even lower utilization and attempts to generate new revenues are unlikely to succeed.  (+info)

Operational factors affecting maternal mortality in Tanzania. (7/862)

Identification of the main operational factors in cases of maternal death within and outside the health care system is necessary for safe motherhood programmes. In this study, a follow-up was done of all 117 cases of maternal deaths in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam, 1991-1993, at all levels of care. In all, 79% received some medical care whereas 11% arrived too late for treatment. For each case the major operational factors and all health care interventions were defined through interviews with family members and health care staff and from hospital records, and the avoidability of each case was determined. In the health institutions where the women had consulted, the available resources were assessed. It was found that in most cases the husband (29%) or the mother (31%) of the woman decided on her care in cases of complications, and together with the lack of transport, this often caused delay at home. Also, delay in transfer from the district hospital was common. Cases of abortion complications were often not managed on time because of the delay in reporting to hospital or misleading information. Suboptimal care was identified in 77% of the cases reaching health care. Inadequate treatment was identified by the district health staff in 61% and by the referral centres in 12% of their cases. Wrong decision at the district level and lack of equipment at the referral centre were the main reasons for inadequate care. It is concluded that although community education on danger signs in pregnancy and labour is important, provision of the core resources and supplies for emergency obstetric interventions, as well as clear protocols for management and referral, are absolutely necessary for improvement of maternal survival.  (+info)

Reducing perinatal mortality in developing countries. (8/862)

The perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) is a key health status indicator. It is multifactorial in aetiology and is significantly influenced by the quality of health care. While there is an ethical imperative to act to improve quality of care when deficiencies are apparent, the lack of controls--when an interventions is applied to an entire service--makes it difficult to infer a causal relationship between the intervention and any subsequent change in PNMR. However, by specifically measuring avoidable perinatal deaths (those due to error or omission on the part of the health service), this limitation is partially overcome, and the impact of the intervention can be more rigorously evaluated. This paper reports the impact of perinatal audit in a rural African health district between 1991 and 1995. A total of 21,112 consecutive births were studied: the average number of deliveries increased by 31% from 325 to 424 per month. The PNMR (birth weight > or = 1000g) in 1991 was 27/1000, increased to 42/1000 in 1992, and fell steadily to 26/1000 in 1995 (40% reduction; p = 0.002). The proportion of avoidable deaths fell from 19% in 1991 to zero in the second half of 1995 (p = 0.0008). While factors associated with perinatal mortality are many, complex, and interrelated, this report suggests that mortality can be reduced significantly in resource-poor settings by improving quality of health care. Including the measurement of avoidable deaths in perinatal audit allows the impact of interventions to be more rigorously assessed than by simple measuring the PNMR.  (+info)

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

Maternal welfare is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a general sense, it refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses various factors such as access to quality healthcare services, nutrition, emotional support, and a safe and healthy environment.

Maternal welfare is an essential component of maternal health, which aims to ensure that women have a positive and safe pregnancy and childbirth experience, free from complications and harm. It involves addressing issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity, prenatal care, family planning, and reproductive rights.

Promoting maternal welfare requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and families working together to ensure that women have access to the resources and support they need to maintain their health and well-being during pregnancy and beyond.

Maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."

This definition highlights that maternal mortality is a preventable death that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the postpartum period, and it can be caused by various factors related to or worsened by the pregnancy or its management. The WHO also collects data on maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes (such as hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and unsafe abortion) and indirect causes (such as malaria, anemia, and HIV/AIDS).

Maternal mortality is a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations, with a target to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030.

Midwifery is the health profession that involves providing care to childbearing individuals and their newborns during pregnancy, labor, birth, and postpartum period. Midwives offer a range of services including: conducting physical examinations, monitoring the health of the fetus and mother, providing education and counseling on pregnancy-related topics, managing common complaints and complications, and collaborating with other healthcare professionals when necessary. They promote normal childbirth and work to minimize technological interventions, while ensuring the safety and well-being of both the mother and baby. Midwifery is based on the principles of informed choice, continuity of care, and evidence-based practice.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

"Delivery, Obstetric" is a medical term that refers to the process of giving birth to a baby. It involves the passage of the fetus through the mother's vagina or via Caesarean section (C-section), which is a surgical procedure.

The obstetric delivery process typically includes three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
2. The second stage starts with full dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of the baby.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta, which is the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

Obstetric delivery requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Various interventions and techniques may be used during the delivery process to facilitate a safe and successful outcome, including the use of medications, assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum extraction, and C-section.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Maternal-Child Health (MCH) Centers are healthcare facilities specifically designed to provide comprehensive care for women, mothers, and children. These centers offer a wide range of services that focus on improving the health outcomes of mothers, infants, young children, and adolescents. The primary goal is to promote and maintain the overall well-being of these populations by addressing their unique healthcare needs through various stages of life.

MCH Centers typically provide services such as:

1. Prenatal care: Regular check-ups and screenings for pregnant women to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, ensuring a healthy pregnancy and timely identification of potential complications.
2. Family planning and reproductive health: Counseling, education, and access to various contraceptive methods to help individuals and couples plan their families and prevent unintended pregnancies.
3. Immunizations and well-child visits: Vaccinations and routine healthcare check-ups for infants, children, and adolescents to ensure they receive proper immunization protection and timely identification of developmental or health issues.
4. Nutrition counseling: Guidance on healthy eating habits and appropriate nutrition for pregnant women, new mothers, and young children to support optimal growth and development.
5. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and support groups for mothers and children dealing with emotional, behavioral, or mental health concerns.
6. Parent education and support: Classes, workshops, and support groups focused on child development, parenting skills, and family dynamics to promote positive parent-child relationships and strengthen families.
7. Chronic disease management: Specialized care for mothers and children with existing medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease, to help manage their symptoms and improve overall health outcomes.
8. Referral services: Connections to specialized healthcare providers, community resources, and social support services when necessary to ensure comprehensive care and address any complex needs.

MCH Centers may be standalone facilities or integrated into larger healthcare systems, such as hospitals or community clinics. They play a crucial role in promoting health equity by providing accessible, high-quality healthcare services tailored to the unique needs of mothers and children from diverse backgrounds and communities.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Human rights abuses in a medical context can refer to violations of the right to health, which is a fundamental human right recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations. This includes:

* Denial of access to necessary healthcare, including sexual and reproductive health services
* Discrimination in the provision of healthcare based on race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, or other status
* Use of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment in healthcare settings
* Experimentation on human subjects without their informed consent
* Violation of confidentiality and privacy in the provision of healthcare services
* Inhumane living conditions in places of detention, such as prisons and immigration detention centers, which can lead to negative health outcomes.

Additionally, Human rights abuses can also refer to violations of other human rights that have an impact on a person's health, such as:

* Violence against women, children, LGBTQ+ individuals, minorities and other marginalized groups
* Forced displacement and migration
* Denial of the right to education, food, water and sanitation
* Inhumane working conditions
* Torture and ill-treatment
* Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances
* Violations of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.

These abuses can lead to physical and mental health problems, including chronic illnesses, disabilities, and psychological trauma. They can also exacerbate existing health conditions and make it more difficult for individuals to access necessary healthcare services.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

Postnatal care is the period of care and medical support provided to the mother and newborn baby following childbirth. This care typically includes monitoring the physical and emotional health of the mother, helping her with breastfeeding, and ensuring the wellbeing of the newborn through regular check-ups and screening for any potential health issues.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that postnatal care should be provided for at least 24 hours after birth in a healthcare facility, and continue for up to six weeks after delivery, with frequent contact during the first week. The specific components of postnatal care may vary depending on the individual needs of the mother and baby, but they typically include:

* Monitoring the mother's vital signs, uterine contractions, and vaginal bleeding
* Checking for signs of infection or complications such as postpartum hemorrhage or puerperal fever
* Providing emotional support and counseling to the mother on topics such as infant care, family planning, and breastfeeding
* Assessing the newborn's health, including weight, temperature, heart rate, and breathing
* Administering necessary vaccinations and screening for conditions such as jaundice or congenital defects
* Providing guidance on feeding, bathing, and other aspects of newborn care

Overall, postnatal care is a critical component of maternal and child health, as it helps to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby during the important transition period following childbirth.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a definition and overview of it in the context of public health and healthcare.

The USPHS is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is responsible for promoting and protecting the health of the nation, particularly focusing on preventing and controlling infectious diseases and other health threats. The USPHS is composed of eight uniformed service components: the Surgeon General's Office, the Commissioned Corps, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Indian Health Service (IHS), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

The Commissioned Corps of the USPHS is a group of uniformed healthcare professionals who are appointed by the President and commissioned as officers. They serve in various capacities within the federal government, including research, clinical care, health policy, and emergency response. The Surgeon General serves as the head of the USPHS and is responsible for providing advice to the President and HHS Secretary on matters related to public health.

The USPHS plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as natural disasters, infectious disease outbreaks, and bioterrorism attacks. They also work to address health disparities and promote health equity by providing healthcare services to underserved populations, including American Indians and Alaska Natives through the IHS. Additionally, the USPHS supports research and surveillance efforts aimed at understanding and addressing various public health issues, such as tobacco use, substance abuse, and mental health.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

The Indian Health Service (IHS) is a federal health program within the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Its mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level. The IHS provides comprehensive health services through a network of hospitals, clinics, and health stations on or near reservations, as well as in urban areas. It also funds and supports health programs operated by tribes and tribal organizations. Services include medical and public health care, referrals for advanced care, community health education, and environmental health and sanitation services.

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

A Public Sector, in the context of healthcare, refers to the portion of a country's health system that is managed and funded by the government. This sector provides medical services through state-owned hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as through publicly financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The public sector aims to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. It is often funded through taxes and is accountable to the public for its performance.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, rather than a medical term or condition. It is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and by Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. The official name of the country is the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Health plan implementation is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of healthcare management and administration. It refers to the process of putting into action the plans, strategies, and policies of a health insurance or healthcare benefit program. This includes activities such as:

1. Designing and structuring health benefits and coverage options
2. Developing provider networks and reimbursement rates
3. Establishing procedures for claims processing and utilization management
4. Implementing care management programs to improve health outcomes and reduce costs
5. Communicating the plan details to members and providers
6. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards

The goal of health plan implementation is to create a well-functioning healthcare benefit program that meets the needs of its members while managing costs and ensuring quality care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine and surgery concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period. It involves managing potential complications that may arise during any stage of pregnancy or delivery, as well as providing advice and guidance on prenatal care, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Obstetricians are medical doctors who specialize in obstetrics and can provide a range of services including routine check-ups, ultrasounds, genetic testing, and other diagnostic procedures to monitor the health and development of the fetus. They also perform surgical procedures such as cesarean sections when necessary.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Regional health planning is a process that involves the systematic assessment, analysis, and prioritization of healthcare needs for a defined geographic population in a specific region. It aims to develop and implement strategies, programs, and services to address those needs in a coordinated and efficient manner. This collaborative approach often involves various stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, working together to improve the overall health and well-being of the population in that region.

The medical definition of 'Regional Health Planning' can be outlined as follows:

1. Systematic assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the healthcare needs, resources, and infrastructure within a specific region, taking into account demographic, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors that influence health outcomes.
2. Analysis: The examination of data and information gathered during the assessment to identify gaps, priorities, and opportunities for improvement in healthcare services and delivery.
3. Prioritization: The process of ranking healthcare needs and issues based on their urgency, impact, and feasibility of intervention, to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently.
4. Strategy development: The creation of evidence-based, data-driven plans and interventions aimed at addressing the prioritized health needs and improving the overall health of the regional population.
5. Collaboration: The active engagement and partnership of various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional health initiatives.
6. Coordination: The alignment and integration of healthcare services, programs, and policies across different levels and sectors to ensure seamless care and avoid duplication of efforts.
7. Continuous improvement: The ongoing monitoring and evaluation of regional health programs and interventions to assess their effectiveness, make adjustments as needed, and incorporate new evidence and best practices into future planning efforts.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Home childbirth, also known as home birth, refers to the process of giving birth in a private residence, such as one's own home, rather than in a healthcare facility like a hospital or birth center. Home childbirth is typically attended by a midwife, who provides prenatal care, attends the birth, and offers postpartum care. In some cases, a doctor may also be present at a home birth. It's important to note that home birth is not legal in all countries or regions, and even where it is legal, it may not be covered by insurance. Home childbirth carries inherent risks and should only be considered after careful consultation with healthcare providers.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

'Infant welfare' is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used to describe the overall health and well-being of infants. It encompasses various aspects of infant care, including physical, mental, emotional, and social development. Infant welfare aims to promote healthy growth and development, prevent illness and injury, and provide early intervention and treatment for any health issues that may arise.

Infant welfare programs often include services such as well-child visits, immunizations, developmental screenings, nutrition counseling, and parent education on topics such as safe sleep practices, feeding, and child safety. These programs are typically provided through healthcare systems, public health departments, and community organizations. The ultimate goal of infant welfare is to ensure that infants have the best possible start in life and are equipped with the necessary foundation for a healthy and successful future.

I must clarify that "Ethiopia" is not a medical term or condition. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with diverse ethnic groups, languages, and religious practices.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please feel free to ask! I'm here to help.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "contract services" is more commonly used in business and healthcare administration than in clinical medicine. It generally refers to an agreement between a healthcare provider or organization and another entity for the delivery of specific medical services over a defined period of time. The contract outlines the scope, expectations, and compensation for these services.

For example, a hospital may have a contract with a staffing agency to provide nursing personnel on a temporary basis. Or, an insurance company might have a contract with a network of healthcare providers to deliver medical care to their policyholders at agreed-upon rates. These arrangements can help ensure consistent quality and cost control in the delivery of healthcare services.

"Men" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It generally refers to adult male human beings. If you are looking for a medical definition related to males, there are several terms that could potentially fit based on the context. Here are some examples:

* Male: A person who is biologically determined to be male, typically having XY chromosomes, testes, and certain physical characteristics such as greater muscle mass and body hair compared to females.
* Men's health: Refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions that are more common or specific to males, such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and erectile dysfunction.
* Menopause: A natural biological process that occurs in women, typically in their 40s or 50s, when their ovaries stop producing hormones and menstrual periods cease. Although not directly related to males, it is worth noting that some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause due to a decline in testosterone levels as they age (a condition known as andropause).

I hope this helps clarify! Let me know if you have any further questions or need more information.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lesotho" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southern Africa. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Personal health services refer to healthcare services that are tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and goals. These services can include preventive care, such as vaccinations and screenings, as well as medical treatments for acute and chronic conditions. Personal health services may be provided by a variety of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.

The goal of personal health services is to promote the overall health and well-being of the individual, taking into account their physical, mental, emotional, and social needs. This approach recognizes that each person is unique and requires a customized plan of care to achieve their optimal health outcomes. Personal health services may be delivered in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and long-term care facilities.

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nepal" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South Asia, between China and India. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

'Student Health Services' is a department or facility within educational institutions, particularly colleges and universities, that provide primary care medical services to students. They are often staffed by healthcare professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and mental health counselors. The services offered may include diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care, immunizations, sexual health services, mental health counseling, and health education. Student Health Services aim to promote the overall well-being of students and help them maintain good health while pursuing their academic goals.

"Marketing of Health Services" refers to the application of marketing principles and strategies to promote, sell, and deliver health care services to individuals, families, or communities. This can include activities such as advertising, public relations, promotions, and sales to increase awareness and demand for health services, as well as researching and analyzing consumer needs and preferences to tailor health services to better meet those needs. The ultimate goal of marketing in health services is to improve access to and utilization of high-quality health care while maintaining ethical standards and ensuring patient satisfaction.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

Community networks, in the context of public health and medical care, typically refer to local or regional networks of healthcare providers, organizations, and resources that work together to provide integrated and coordinated care to a defined population. These networks can include hospitals, clinics, primary care providers, specialists, mental health services, home health agencies, and other community-based organizations.

The goal of community networks is to improve the overall health outcomes of the population they serve by ensuring that individuals have access to high-quality, coordinated care that meets their unique needs. Community networks can also help to reduce healthcare costs by preventing unnecessary hospitalizations and emergency department visits through better management of chronic conditions and prevention efforts.

Effective community networks require strong partnerships, clear communication, and a shared commitment to improving the health of the community. They may be organized around geographic boundaries, such as a city or county, or around specific populations, such as individuals with chronic illnesses or low-income communities.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Puerperal infection, also known as childbed fever or postpartum infection, is a healthcare-associated infection that can occur in women following childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion. It's typically caused by bacteria that enter the reproductive system during these processes and can lead to inflammation and infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or other pelvic organs.

The most common causative agents are Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Symptoms of puerperal infection can include fever, abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and painful urination. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, or even death.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing puerperal infections and preventing complications. Good hygiene practices and proper sterilization of medical equipment can also help reduce the risk of developing this infection.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malawi" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southeastern Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

A needs assessment in a medical context is the process of identifying and evaluating the health needs of an individual, population, or community. It is used to determine the resources, services, and interventions required to address specific health issues and improve overall health outcomes. This process often involves collecting and analyzing data on various factors such as demographics, prevalence of diseases, access to healthcare, and social determinants of health. The goal of a needs assessment is to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently to meet the most pressing health needs and priorities.

Perinatal care refers to the health care provided to pregnant individuals, fetuses, and newborn infants during the time immediately before and after birth. This period is defined as beginning at approximately 20 weeks of gestation and ending 4 weeks after birth. Perinatal care includes preventative measures, medical and supportive services, and treatment for complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the newborn period. It encompasses a wide range of services including prenatal care, labor and delivery management, postpartum care, and neonatal care. The goal of perinatal care is to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby by preventing, diagnosing, and treating any potential health issues that may arise during this critical period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

In the context of medical terminology, "transients" and "migrants" are often used to describe populations that are moving or have recently moved from one place to another. These terms can refer to individuals who are temporarily residing in a location for work, school, or other reasons (transients), as well as those who are planning to settle permanently in a new location (migrants).

A "transient" population may include people who are traveling for leisure, working on temporary contracts, attending school in a different city or country, or serving in the military. These individuals typically have a specific destination and time frame for their stay, and they may not have established long-term social or medical support systems in the area.

A "migrant" population, on the other hand, refers to people who are moving with the intention of settling permanently in a new location. This can include individuals and families who are seeking better economic opportunities, fleeing political unrest or natural disasters, or reuniting with family members in another country. Migrants often face unique challenges when it comes to accessing healthcare services, as they may not have established relationships with healthcare providers in their new location, may face language barriers, and may lack familiarity with the local healthcare system.

It's important to note that these terms are not mutually exclusive, and an individual or group could be considered both transient and migrant depending on the context. For example, a refugee family who is resettling permanently in a new country might initially be considered transients as they establish themselves in their new home, but over time they would become part of the migrant population.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Community health workers (CHWs) are individuals who are trained to work within and promote the health of their own communities. They serve as a bridge between healthcare professionals and the communities they serve, often working in underserved or hard-to-reach areas. CHWs may provide a range of services, including health education, outreach, advocacy, and case management.

CHWs come from diverse backgrounds and may have different levels of training and education. They are typically trusted members of their communities and share similar language, culture, and life experiences with the people they serve. This helps to build rapport and trust with community members, making it easier for CHWs to provide culturally sensitive care and support.

The role of CHWs can vary depending on the needs of the community and the healthcare system in which they work. In some settings, CHWs may focus on specific health issues, such as maternal and child health, infectious diseases, or chronic conditions like diabetes. In other cases, they may provide more general support to help individuals navigate the healthcare system and access needed services.

Overall, community health workers play an important role in promoting health equity and improving health outcomes for vulnerable populations. By working closely with communities and connecting them to appropriate care and resources, CHWs can help to reduce disparities and improve the overall health of their communities.

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Department of Health and Human Services's national health objectives program, Healthy People 2030. The American Public Health ... Optimizing preconception health is recommended by several professional organizations to optimize maternal health prior to ... CS1 errors: missing periodical, Race and health in the United States, Social problems in medicine, Maternal health, Maternity ... Proposed interventions to reduce racial disparities in maternal health outcomes target changes at individual, health care ...
"WHO Maternal Health". WHO. Wang W, Alva S, Wang S, Fort A (2011). "Levels and trends in the use of maternal health services in ... "Maternal Health in the United States". Maternal Health Task Force. 2015-08-14. Retrieved 2018-11-09. "Sharp rise in deaths ... The four measures of maternal death are the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), maternal mortality rate, lifetime risk of maternal ... which in turn would lead to improvements with maternal health and a decrease in the number of maternal deaths. Child health ...
... in an effort to improve maternal and child health, Tanzania's government has declared maternal and child health services to be ... Reduction of maternal deaths is one of the main goals of the Tanzanian Poverty Reduction Strategy and the health sector reform ... Both maternal and child health are interdependent and substantially contributing to high burden of mortality worldwide. Every ... Due to considerable proportion of mortality being attributed by maternal and child health, the United Nations together with ...
September 1993). "A community survey on maternal and child health services utilization in rural Ethiopia". European Journal of ... In other cases, maternal health can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal health revolves around the health and ... Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. In most cases, maternal health ... Complications of pregnancy Maternal Health Task Force Maternal health in Rwanda Global health Global Strategy for Women's and ...
Maternal health services are being provided at all three levels of health sector structure : Primary, secondary and tertiary ... Having a goal and target initiates to put more efforts to identify barriers to quality maternal health services and address at ... Similarly there are plans for the improvement of maternal health services in the same time duration. WHO. "International ... Health in Ethiopia has improved from the last decades to then through the major achievement in areas of health service delivery ...
"Utilization of maternal health care services and their determinants in Karnataka State, India". Reproductive Health. 13 (S1): ... Surveys have found that women in UP who are more educated and have more money tend to use more maternal health services. In ... "Ambulance Services at Rural Hospitals" (PDF). WB Department of Health. Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A (December 1991). "Maternal ... "UNICEF's concerted action to increase access to quality maternal health services". UNICEF. Retrieved 31 July 2023. A Prakash 1 ...
Since the service area around Berea was rural and isolated, the Kentucky Maternal Health League decided against using a typical ... Hutchins, Louise Gilman (1959). "Better Health for Mountain Mothers". Mountain Maternal Health League. Kleber, John (1991). The ... Kentucky Maternal Health clients paid for the supplies if able and additional supplies were sent to a central location where ... The Mountain Maternal Health League (MMHL) was established in 1936 to provide contraception to women living in rural ...
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"About Us". Maternal and Child Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 25 October 2015. "Options ... The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a program called Maternal and Child Health Bureau that coordinates medical ... The mission of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau is to provide leadership to improve the physical and mental health, safety ... According to The World Health Organization, illegal abortions are unsafe and are responsible for 4.7-13.2% of maternal deaths ...
Maternal & Child Health Services 5. Radiology Services 6. Dental Care Services 7. Lifestyle and Wellness Centre 8. Laboratory ... In September 2020, Ishaka Adventist hospital with support from UPMB implemented Stre@mline Health, an EMR for Africa that ... The hospital, which began offering patient services in 1950, has the following departments: 1. Male Ward 2. Female Ward 3. ... The hospital also owns and administers the Ishaka Adventist Health Plan. ...
Young Professional Achievement Award from the National Coalition for Excellence in Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology. ... and the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services Pregnancy Working Group that will provide evidence for the ... She graduated with a Master of Public Health in the Department of Nutrition at UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health at ... Her research focuses on the contributions of pregnancy weight gain, dietary patterns, maternal obesity, and maternal vitamin D ...
Bowlby, John (1995) [1950]. Maternal Care and Mental Health. pp. 355-533. ISBN 978-1-56821-757-4. OCLC 33105354. PMC 2554008. ... Child Guidance Mental health in the United Kingdom Mental health trust "A guide to mental health services in England". NHS ... "Improving mental health services for young people". Department of Health. 17 March 2015. Archived from the original on 3 April ... mental health services, says Committee". Health Select Committee. UK Parliament. 5 November 2014. Archived from the original on ...
"Yesterday, Today, & Tomorrow: NIH Research Timelines". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 28 April 2019. " ... Maternal and Child Health Journal. 21 (5): 961-965. doi:10.1007/s10995-017-2287-y. PMC 5392137. PMID 28185206. "About LEAD-K". ... mental health difficulties, lower quality of life, higher trauma, and limited health literacy. Additionally, delayed exposure ... Deaf education programs must be customized to each student's needs, and deaf educators provide a continuum of services to deaf ...
"Individual Characteristics and Use of Maternal and Child Health Services by Adolescent Mothers in Niger". Maternal and Child ... US Department of Health and Human Services. Sharon K. Houseknecht and Susan K. Lewis, "Explaining Teen Childbearing and ... Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007". Matern Child Health J. 18 (3): 534-43. doi:10.1007/s10995-013 ... "Defining and deconstructing girl child marriage and applications to global public health". BMC Public Health. 20 (1): 1547. doi ...
The provision of maternal health services in each state can prevent and reduce the incidence of maternal morbidity and ... Texas State Department of Health Services (2016). "Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force and Department of State Health ... In 2007, the Health and Human Services Commission of Texas established the Women's Health Program (WHP), a Medicaid waiver ... Maternal healthcare in Texas refers to the provision of family planning services, abortion options, pregnancy-related services ...
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She previously served as National Clinical Director for Maternal Health and Maternity Services for the Department of Health. ... Health Department, Social Services, and Public Safety Northern Ireland. Department of Health. London: RCOG Press. 2001. ISBN ... She studies national and international maternal health. Lewis was responsible for the UK Confidential Enquiries into Maternal ... working to support the National Health Service, and trained in public health. One of her first responsibilities was leading an ...
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... the Special Child Health and Early Intervention Service, primary care and rural health care, maternal and child health, and the ... "Department of Health , Family Health Services". www.nj.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2022. "Department of Health , Emergency Medical ... Division of Family Health Services Office of Health Care Financing Health Systems Healthcare Quality & Assessment Office ... Health Systems, and Public Health Services. The Commissioners of the New Jersey Department of Health have spanned 22 terms: ...
For services to maternal and foetal health. John Edmund Elliot Whittaker. For charitable services in the UK and overseas. ... For services to sport, police and public service. Dr. Cecil Wilson Waketaku. For services to medical and health services. Civil ... For services to the Church and public service. Civil Division Tupa Urirau Tupa. For services to health and the community. Civil ... For services to education. Helena Ross. For services to education. Civil Division Dr. Sekhar Tam Tam. For services to health ...
Department of Health & Human Services. "Maternal Health in the United States". Maternal Health Task Force. 2015-08-14. ... Maternal mortality in 1990-2015 (PDF). World Health Organization (Report). Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Geneva: ... these services are underutilized among low-income women and women of color, who are at greater risk of poor maternal health ... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In 2010, the US maternal mortality ratio was 12.7 (deaths per 100,000 live ...
Wattie, Nora I; Royal Sanitary Association of Scotland; Congress (1945). "Maternal and child health services: in the future". ... In 1964, Wattie was awarded the Order of the British Empire for services to public health, and declared Scotswoman of the Year ... convinced the Glasgow City Corporation to invest in clinics and health education; thus improving maternal care and the take-up ... both before and after the creation of the National Health Service). Throughout her career, Wattie was modernising and ...
Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH), Member of the Board "Preeti Sudan is new health secretary, MoH&FW". ... Child Health (PMNCH). (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Indian Administrative Service ... a scheme of the Indian government's National Health Policy aiming to provide free health coverage at the secondary and tertiary ... Preeti Sudan is a retired Indian bureaucrat who served as Health Secretary of India from October 2017 to July 2020. She has ...
... and use of health services. The paper based child health record as used by the UK National Health Service is popularly known as ... Takayanagi, K; Iwasaki, S; Yoshinaka, Y (January-March 1993). "The role of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook system in ... These apps also offer services like child health monitoring, growth milestone tracking, dental health trackers, appointment ... A Personal Child Health Record or PCHR is a form of personal health record of the United Kingdom that records a child's growth ...
Domestic investment into health systems and services is crucial', The Guardian, 23 March 2019. 50 people living with disability ... and maternal, newborn and child health (including fistula). CCBRT was established in 1994. In 2004 CCBRT started offering ... private services to help subsidize health care costs, and in 2018 a new private clinic building was opened. Willibrod Slaa is ... CCBRT works with the Tanzanian government to provide free and subsidized services to low-income Tanzanians in four core areas: ...
"Healthy People 2010 : Maternal, Infant, and Child Health". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the ... Later, the social service agency that took over the case said that there was more to the case than could be released to the ... A social service agency in Colorado removed a 5-year-old child from the mother because she was still breastfeeding, but the ... Indian actor Aamir Khan serves as the brand ambassador, and has acted in numerous televised public service announcements. In ...
"2020 Topics & Objectives: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2012-06- ... In 2010, the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and American Congress of Obstetrics ... cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help) "Maternal, Infant, and Child Health-Healthy People". Healthypeople.gov. 13 September ... Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reported that VBAC is a reasonable and safe ...
Navaneetham, K.; Dharmalingam, A. (November 2002). "Utilization of maternal health care services in Southern India". Social ... "Rural Health Care System in India". "Central Government Health Scheme". "Universal Health Insurance Scheme". "Aam Aadmi Bima ... "Uptake of Health Services by People from the Dalit Community". Journal of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. 1 (2): 1-6. ... health status, 2) quality of healthcare services, and 3) healthcare access. The inequalities in health created by the caste ...
Policy - National Strategy and Action Plan for Integrated Services on Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. PDF ...
Womens Health Poverty & SDGs. How Nigers Traditional Leaders are Promoting Maternal Health. By Joan Erakit Reprint , , Print ... Yahya Louche is the chief of Bande and he stops to talk to IPS about maternal health and the importance of involving men. ... According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), PPH is responsible for about 25 percent of maternal mortality. Without ... Chief Yahya Louche of Bande, a village in Niger, addresses his constituents about maternal health and the importance of ...
Integration of mental health into priority health service delivery platforms: maternal and child health services ... Integration of mental health into priority health service delivery platforms: maternal and child health services ... Grand challenges: integrating maternal mental health into maternal and child health programmes. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):e1001442. ... Stakeholders need to agree that mental health interventions within maternal and child health platforms advances maternal and ...
Addis Ababa, Child, COVID-19, Ethiopia, Health services, Maternal, Pandemic, Routine service data. in Reproductive Health. ... Reproductive Health}}, title = {{Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 ... Health services; Maternal; Pandemic; Routine service data}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{1}}, publisher = {{BioMed Central ( ... Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...
... and health care systems in order to eliminate preventable maternal deaths among Wisconsin residents. ... The Wisconsin MMRT was established by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health and the Wisconsin ... the MMRT is supported through the Title V Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Block Grant administered by the federal Health ... Resources and Services Administration.. Members. The MMRT is composed of public health and health care experts who represent ...
The COVID-19 pandemic hit Kenya in March this year and so far, the impact of the pandemic on access to maternal health has not ... The COVID-19 pandemic hit Kenya in March this year and so far, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to maternal health ... Challenges that women facing as a result of the lockdown and curfew with respect to maternal health access and quality were ... Challenges that women facing as a result of the lockdown and curfew with respect to maternal health access and quality were ...
Read this FAQ for more information on the Integrated Maternal Health Services Program funding opportunity (HRSA-23-106). ... Can we apply for Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health (AIM) Capacity grant and the Integrated Maternal Health Services ... The AIM Capacity Program and the Integrated Maternal Health Services Program are part of HRSAs effort to address maternal ... health services model includes incentivizing providers and health care systems to support comprehensive maternal health care, ...
Novant Health Maternal-Fetal Medicine - Matthews offers high-risk prenatal care including ultrasounds, CVS, genetic counseling ... Our services Novant Health Maternal-Fetal Medicine - Matthews offers advanced obstetric care for patients with high-risk ... Dont miss out on health updates! Sign up to receive text message notifications and reminders from Novant Health. Learn More. ... Services we offer include:. *Genetic counseling to review your family history and determine the level of risk your fetus might ...
... have resided in California for at least six months before becoming eligible to receive prenatal and other medical care services ... Maternal and Child Health Access v. Department of Health Care Services Status: Closed Case ... Bay Area Legal Aid and Lucy Quacinella represented Maternal and Child Health Access, an advocacy group, in the case filed on ... AIM provides low cost health insurance coverage to uninsured, working poor pregnant women who might otherwise not be able to ...
Maternal, child and family health, Maternal, child and family health, Maternal, child and family health, Maternal, child and ... family health, Maternal, child and family health, Maternal, child and family health ... Child Health (MACH) Nursing Services - Tuggeranong in GREENWAY, ACT 2900 offers the following services - ... Maternal, child and family healthMaternal, child and family healthMaternal, child and family healthMaternal, child and family ...
National Maternal and Child Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement The National Maternal and Child Center ... Maternal and Child Health (MCHB). National Center for Family and Professional Partnerships (NCFPP) The NCFPP provides ... National Center for Health Insurance and Financing for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs The Catalyst Center ... The National Coordinating Center for the Regional Genetics Collaboratives brings quality genetic and newborn screening services ...
Health Resources & Services Administration. (2020). Maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program. HRSA maternal ... Health Resources and Services Administration & Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016). Coverage of maternal, infant ... Home visiting programs are an established public health service designed to promote maternal and infant health and family well- ... Health Resources & Services Administration, 2016) and greatly benefit from home visiting services (Administration for Children ...
Fetal and Pregnancy Health Services at Stanford Childrens Health provides nurturing, comprehensive and collaborative care for ... Fetal and Pregnancy Health Program key services. Fetal imaging and diagnostic services. Many of the fetal conditions we ... Our Services. The Fetal and Pregnancy Health Program at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Stanford offers integrated, ... We offer coordinated care after delivery, such as neonatal care for your baby, or adult specialty services at Stanford Health ...
Services and programs offered by MCFHS:. * Black Infant Health (BIH) Program. * Child Health and Disability Prevention (CHDP) ... Purpose: Maternal, Child, and Family Health Services (MCFHS) is a multidisciplinary, multicultural branch dedicated to working ... community and Health and Human Services Agency partners to promote health and to protect and support pregnant women, children, ... Facilities where this Service is offered:. *This is currently being determined. Please call the number listed for more details ...
... and child health through electronic community health information systems in Ethiopia. ... Behavioral Health. Capacity Building. Digital Health. Health Supply Chain Management. Health Systems Strengthening ... Improving Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Services through eCHIS in Ethiopias Oromia Region. May 23rd, 2022 ... We provide a broad range of services to the public and private health sectors to strengthen health systems around the United ...
The impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and reproductive health care services in governmental health institutions of ... The impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and reproductive health care services in governmental health institutions of ... The impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and reproductive health care services in governmental health institutions of ... The impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and reproductive health care services in governmental health institutions of ...
User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment ... This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, ... Effects of User Fee Exemptions on the Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services: A Review of Literature. Laurel E. Hatt, ... We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes ...
Most of these deaths can be prevented if women receive maternal health services. ... Kenya introduced free maternal health services a decade ago - its been a success, saving lives. Health ... Most of these deaths can be prevented if women receive maternal health services. These include care during pregnancy and ... Maternal and newborn deaths are a major public health problem in Kenya. In 2020 the maternal mortality ratio was 530 deaths per ...
Looking for an expert Director of Maternal Child Services in Healthcare Management, Nursing? Lucinda Harden has prior ... Director of Maternal Child Services, Freeman Health System. Experience at: Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, DYouville ...
Facility-level access to electricity and the efficiency of maternal and child health services Policy brief 13 Jun 2018. Energy ... More from Facility-level access to electricity and the efficiency of maternal and child health service Facility level access to ... Facility-level access to electricity and the efficiency of maternal and child health service ... electricity and the efficiency of maternal and child health service provision in Zambia Mashekwa Maboshe, Mundia Kabinga ...
New Grassley Proposal Seeks to Improve Maternal and Child Health Services. by Anthony Lamorena ... including stillbirth prevention activities and expanding the maternal health workforce;. *Modernizing maternal health care ... has introduced the Healthy Moms and Babies Act to improve maternal and child health care. The United States has a maternal ... The Healthy Moms and Babies Act will improve maternal and child health care by:. *Coordinating and providing "whole-person" ...
... ... maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) services: cost; cultural, gender, and traditional norms; lack of knowledge and ... newborn and child health (RMNCH) services in developing countries. This review focuses on nine different aspects as the ... Additionally, supply- and demand-side barriers often work in tandem, and where possible, multiple levels of the health system ...
The effect of enhanced public-private partnerships on Maternal, Newborn and child Health Services and outcomes in Nairobi-Kenya ... The effect of enhanced public-private partnerships on Maternal, Newborn and child Health Services and outcomes in Nairobi-Kenya ...
Scaling-Up a Statewide Health Workforce Information System to Improve Maternal and Child Health Services in Jharkhand, India ... India faces critical human resources for health challenges in health systems strengthening, including shortages of key cadres ... How Can Nurses Support Digital Health and Vice Versa? September 12, 2023. At UNGA, Civil Society Must Mobilize Global ... The state of Jharkhand had a very high number of rural vacancies and no data on the training status of health workers. And ...
Engender Health. COPE for maternal health services: a process and tools for improving the quality of maternal health services. ... Hulton et al6 defined quality of maternal healthcare as the degree to which maternal health services for individuals and ... Maternal near miss-towards a standard tool for monitoring quality of maternal health care. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol ... To improve quality of maternal health services, the government focused on three key, but inter-related strategies: (1) ...
Male Involvement in Reproductive, Maternal and Child Health Services: A Qualitative Study in Dhading District of Nepal Authors ... Maternal and Child Health Services: A Qualitative Study in Dhading District of Nepal. Social Inquiry: Journal of Social Science ... The mistrust created by the unavailability of health workers in the health facility, long distances to the health facility with ... Male Involvement, Maternal and Child Health, Antenatal Visit, Postnatal Visit, Qualitative Research Abstract. This study ...
Maternal and Family Health Services, Inc. (MFHS) welcomed Pennsylvania State Representative Phyllis Mundy and U. S. Congressman ... Maternal and Family Health Services Welcomes Representative Phyllis Mundy and Congressman Matthew Cartwright to Kingston WIC ... The program is administered by the PA Department of Health with funding from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.. The Nurse- ... is proven to help families develop the strengths and skills that will be the foundation for a lifetime of health and economic ...
Research Lab Services. *MCHRI Resources. *Quantitative Sciences Unit*Research Coordinator Services*Boilerplate Language* ... Support Childrens Health. *. Support Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Stanford and child and maternal health ... Stanford Medicine Childrens Health Center for Pediatric IBD & Celiac Disease - Seed Grant - Accepting Applications ... Stanford Medicine Childrens Health Center for Pediatric IBD & Celiac Disease - Postdoc & Early Career Support - Accepting ...
Research Coordinator Services. *Onboarding Checklist. *Drug and Device Development. *Service Request Form*Assessment Services* ... Support Childrens Health. *. Support Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Stanford and child and maternal health ... Project: iPSCs for studying transgenerational effects of maternal obesity on offspring cardiovascular health ... Study Title: The Association Between Self-Reported Parental Structures on California Birth Certificates and Perinatal Health ...
The California Department of Public Health is dedicated to optimizing the health and well-being of Californians ... To read more about how MIHA data are used to guide public health programs and services to improve the health of mothers and ... Mens Health. *. Senior Health. *. Womens Health. *. Youth and Young Adults Health. *. LGBT Health. ... Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Division , Maternal and Infant Health Assessment , Pages , default ...
  • The AIM Capacity Program and the Integrated Maternal Health Services Program are part of HRSA's effort to address maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. (hrsa.gov)
  • Today, the White House released the Biden-Harris Administration's Blueprint for Addressing the Maternal Health Crisis , a whole-of-government approach to combatting maternal mortality and morbidity. (whitehouse.gov)
  • This maternal health crisis is particularly devastating for Black women, Native women, and women in rural communities who all experience maternal mortality and morbidity at significantly higher rates than their white and urban counterparts. (whitehouse.gov)
  • The Biden-Harris Administration is committed to cutting the rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, reducing the disparities in maternal health outcomes, and improving the overall experience during and after pregnancy for people across the country. (whitehouse.gov)
  • To start, the Administration is calling on Congress to improve and expand coverage by closing the Medicaid coverage gap and requiring continuous Medicaid coverage for 12 months postpartum, as well as making the significant investments included in the President's FY23 budget to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Immediate availability of up-to-date and reliable information on health risks, vulnerability, morbidity, mortality and other health indicators is essential in order to assess and monitor developments in emergency settings, as well as to evaluate the impact of actions taken. (who.int)
  • As maternal mortality and morbidity rates stagnate or increase worldwide, there is an urgent need to address health system issues that impede access to high-quality care. (bvsalud.org)
  • When the U.S. Vice President issues a call to action and follow-up measures to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity -- an issue the industry has known about for decades -- it is past time for healthcare leaders to make concrete investments in solving our nation's longstanding maternal health crisis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A study modeling the coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions estimated a 8.3-38.6% increase in maternal deaths per month across 118 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) during the COVID-19 pandemic ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our team offers maternal-fetal interventions and therapies that include open and fetoscopic in utero spina bifida repair , fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion , fetal shunt placements , and fetal blood and platelet transfusions, among many others. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • 1 With the goal of reducing MMR to 155/100 000, the MOH wants to understand how interventions aimed at enhancing quality of care that have proven effectiveness in other settings, specifically the Standards Based Management-Recognition for Reproductive Health (SBM-R(RH)) initiative, can be successfully implemented in Malawi. (bmj.com)
  • In 2000, the Government of Malawi adopted the facility birth strategy and implemented a number of evidence-based interventions aimed at providing high-quality, facility-based maternal healthcare. (bmj.com)
  • Interventions such as early and planned antenatal care attendance and facility delivery with skilled health workers can potentially reduce maternal mortality rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effective interventions to promote maternal health service utilization should target the underlying individual, household, community and policy-level factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities. (nih.gov)
  • We regarded coverage of key maternal health interventions as the proportion of the target population who received an indicated intervention (eg, the proportion of women with eclampsia who received magnesium sulphate). (nih.gov)
  • Reported mortality in countries with a high or very high maternal mortality ratio was two-to-three-times higher than that expected for the assessed severity despite a high coverage of essential interventions. (nih.gov)
  • High coverage of essential interventions did not imply reduced maternal mortality in the health-care facilities we studied. (nih.gov)
  • If substantial reductions in maternal mortality are to be achieved, universal coverage of life-saving interventions need to be matched with comprehensive emergency care and overall improvements in the quality of maternal health care. (nih.gov)
  • Still there is a need for good-quality reproductive-health care and effective interventions in order to reduce maternal deaths. (medindia.net)
  • There is widespread consensus that improving the coverage and quality of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Health (RMNCH) these interventions should be the focus of policies, associated programmes, innovations and it feeds to achieving aspects of Sustainable Development Goal number 3. (who.int)
  • This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, including both supply-side and demand-side effects. (abtassociates.com)
  • We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes published since 1990. (abtassociates.com)
  • Kenya has seen an overall improvement in maternal and newborn health outcomes. (co.zw)
  • For far too many mothers, complications related to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum can lead to devastating health outcomes - including hundreds of deaths each year. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Through enhanced federal partnerships with state and local maternal health data collection entities, communities, hospitals, and researchers will have access to better data to they can analyze poor outcomes during pregnancy and make improvements to support healthy pregnancies. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Utilization of maternal health services is associated with improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of maternal health services also contributes to neonatal health outcomes as the health of the mother and the newborn is closely linked. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We assessed the overall performance of care (ie, the ability to produce a positive effect on health outcomes) through standardised mortality ratios. (nih.gov)
  • Improving the health of the next generation starts with eliminating gaping inequities in maternal health outcomes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The legislation, led by Rep. Lauren Underwood (D.-Ill.), MSN, MPH, and Sen. Cory Booker (D-N.J.), is unique in that it was written with significant input from women of color, particularly Black women, who face the most adverse maternal health outcomes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • As a result, it addresses the most basic foundations for more equitable and improved maternal health outcomes for all people. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Congress should also pass a universal extension of Medicaid coverage from 2 months to 12 months postpartum -- associated with significant improvements in maternal health outcomes -- to address this crisis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Increasingly, state legislatures are designating doula support as a Medicaid-covered service, and earlier this month, HHS announced the availability of $4.5 million for hiring, training, certifying, and compensating community-based doulas in areas with high rates of adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The reform improved a range of maternal health outcomes, including BMI, blood pressure, pain, and me mntal health, and it increased health-promoting behaviors, such as exercise and not smoking. (repec.org)
  • User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. (abtassociates.com)
  • We offer coordinated care after delivery, such as neonatal care for your baby, or adult specialty services at Stanford Health Care for you, if needed. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Further investment into the free maternity policy could potentially avert even more maternal and neonatal deaths. (co.zw)
  • This was not statistically significant because while some of the improvements could have been due to the free maternity policy, the remainder of the effect is possibly attributed to other mechanisms such as quality of care (neonatal and maternal), availability of antenatal care and identification of possible complications earlier on in pregnancy, which need to be explored in the future. (co.zw)
  • Skilled personnel have attended the maximum number of births that reduced perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths. (medindia.net)
  • The World Health Organization has recognised that user fees are a major barrier to care like this. (co.zw)
  • The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (who.int)
  • Data has been collected by the Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Programme and the Sexual and Reproductive Health Programme at the Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life course, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. (who.int)
  • World Health Organization Country Office for Ethiopia, Universal Health Coverage/Life Course, Health System Strengthening Team, Ethiopia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal and reproductive health care services in governmental health institutions of Dessie town, North-East Ethiopia, 2020 G.C. (medrxiv.org)
  • The Healthy Moms and Babies Act builds on Grassley's longstanding efforts to improve maternal and child health by delivering high-quality coordinated care, supporting women and babies with 21st century technology and taking other steps to reduce maternal mortality. (rstreet.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess trends in selected maternal and child health services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. (lu.se)
  • This is much higher than the global average of 223 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births . (co.zw)
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest maternal mortality ratio estimated at 846 deaths per 100,000 live births. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seven women die every day due to maternal complications, and one baby dies every hour. (amnesty.ca)
  • The MSI could be used to assess the performance of health facilities providing care to women with complications related to pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • According to the World Bank, Niger has a Maternal Mortality Ration (MMR) of 630 to 100,000 live births. (ipsnews.net)
  • Recruit maternal health care practitioners (e.g., obstetrics, family practice, certified nurse midwives) and workers to deliver pregnancy care management and care coordination (e.g., nurses, social workers, community health workers, doulas) to implement the integrated model serving pregnant and postpartum people with health disparities and limited access to basic social and health care services. (hrsa.gov)
  • Join PHS and community partners to learn more about services in the county and meet those who are working hard to reduce the disparities that jeopardize Black Maternal Health. (californiabreastfeeding.org)
  • Today's health disparities are as extreme within countries as between them. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Maternal and child health (MCH) programmes are the most logical and appropriate platforms for integration of mental health care in an equitable, accessible and holistic manner. (who.int)
  • Background: In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to managing COVID-19 cases, and this has been affecting the provision of maternal and child health services. (lu.se)
  • The Wisconsin MMRT mission is to increase awareness of the issues surrounding pregnancy-associated deaths and make recommendations to promote change among individuals, communities, and health care systems in order to eliminate preventable maternal deaths among Wisconsin residents. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The MMRT is composed of public health and health care experts who represent professional organizations involved in the delivery of health care to pregnant women in Wisconsin. (wisconsin.gov)
  • This study aims to add to the body of knowledge by investigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation strategies on access to health care services in informal settlements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other aspects of the maternity experience such as women's knowledge of COVID-19, their perceived risk of infection, access to health facilities, perceived quality of care were assessed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most respondents perceived improvements in quality of care due to short-waiting times, hygiene measures, and responsive health personnel. (frontiersin.org)
  • Train OB providers and workers that include culturally and linguistically appropriate services, trauma-informed care, implicit bias, motivational interviewing, and social determinants of health. (hrsa.gov)
  • Novant Health Maternal-Fetal Medicine - Matthews offers advanced obstetric care for patients with high-risk pregnancies due to preexisting health conditions, high-order multiple pregnancies and pregnancies in which fetal anomalies have been detected. (novanthealth.org)
  • On Dec. 16, 2008, the San Francisco Superior Court struck down a state law requiring that low-income working women must have resided in California for at least six months before becoming eligible to receive prenatal and other medical care services through California's Access for Infants and Mothers (AIM) insurance program. (aclunc.org)
  • AIM provides low cost health insurance coverage to uninsured, working poor pregnant women who might otherwise not be able to afford health care because they earn too much to qualify for the Medi-Cal program but too little to purchase health insurance. (aclunc.org)
  • This care can help prevent premature delivery and low birth weight and help ensure the health of the mother. (aclunc.org)
  • The Fetal and Pregnancy Health Program at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford offers integrated, individualized care to expectant mothers and babies. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • exemptions for delivery care may contribute to modest reductions in institutional maternal mortality but the evidence is very weak. (abtassociates.com)
  • More women - especially poor women - are now able to access maternal care. (co.zw)
  • We used data from Kenya's demographic health survey to evaluate the impact of the free maternity care policy on a key set of indicators. (co.zw)
  • This reduction shows the investments in public health initiatives (such as free maternity care and possibly free primary care), improved access to water and sanitation are bearing fruits. (co.zw)
  • Though not significant, it also plausibly shows that many women who were not accessing maternal care before the policy could consequently be accessing it as a result. (co.zw)
  • WASHINGTON - Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) has introduced the Healthy Moms and Babies Act to improve maternal and child health care. (rstreet.org)
  • This review focuses on nine different aspects as the barriers: gender, views of childbirth as natural, religion and superstition, education, knowledge and tradition, low quality care and lack of trust in service providers, cost, distance and accessibility, community-level barriers, and language. (ids.ac.uk)
  • We believe everyone everywhere should have the health care they need to thrive. (intrahealth.org)
  • This study attempts to explore the involvement of fathers of children under two years of age in Maternal and Child health care in the Dhading district of Nepal. (nepjol.info)
  • male parent's preference of health facility and the male's suggestions on how to improve the health care system for MCH care. (nepjol.info)
  • Involvement of the male in health care activities and providing them with health education opens a window of opportunity to help achieve Maternal and Child health-related goals. (nepjol.info)
  • Several factors can be attributed to antenatal care attendance, or lack thereof, including the cost of health care services. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maternal Nutrition and Health Care Program. (who.int)
  • Rural health care facilities will have more staff and capabilities to provide maternal care through increased funding from the expanding the Rural Maternity and Obstetrics Management Strategies Program and more robust training for rural health care providers. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Activist Fatou Wurie talks about her personal experiences of maternal health care there. (amnesty.ca)
  • Today, pregnant women across Sierra Leone are still struggling to get the health care they need. (amnesty.ca)
  • Ebola has placed a huge strain on our already weakened health care system. (amnesty.ca)
  • Many health care centres are only treating Ebola cases. (amnesty.ca)
  • What's more, the disease creates fear between health care workers and patients. (amnesty.ca)
  • And that's because people are staying away from health facilities due to myths about catching Ebola and a decrease in the quality of health care. (amnesty.ca)
  • The mission of MCHB is to improve the physical and mental health, safety and well-being of the maternal and child health population which includes all of the nation's women, infants, children, adolescents, and their families, including fathers and children with special health care needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the individuals served were 2.5 million pregnant women, 4.1 million infants, 27.6 million children, and 1.9 million children with special health care needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These block grants support vital immunizations and newborn screening tests, along with transportation and case management services that help families access care. (wikipedia.org)
  • States also use block grant funds to develop and implement community-based care systems for children with special health needs and their families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, MCHB supports 102 Healthy Start sites in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico that provide community-based outreach, case management, depression screening and educational activities for women in areas with high rates of infant mortality and shortages of health care providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm pleased HHS is investing $3.3 million in West Virginia maternal health and family services to ensure mothers, children and families can access the care they need and raise healthy children. (senate.gov)
  • Studies on the use of maternal care services have largely overlooked community and other contextual factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data from the 2005 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey - an interviewer-administered nationally representative survey - were analyzed to identify individual, household and community factors that were significantly associated with utilization of maternal care services among 2148 women who had a baby during the five years preceding the survey. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately three-fifths (60.3%) of the mothers used antenatal services at least once during their most recent pregnancy, while 43.5% had skilled attendants at delivery and 41.2% received postnatal care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Baby Your Baby offers education for a healthy pregnancy and encourages expectant mothers to see their health care provider before the 13th week of pregnancy. (daviscountyutah.gov)
  • You can also call (401) 459-2273 and ask to speak with a member of the BCBSRI Maternal Care Management Program. (bcbsri.com)
  • Therefore, the main aim of this study was assessing the availability of Maternal, Newborn care and Child health (MNCHS) services at primary health care unit during COVID-19 outbreak. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunization services were most available, while ANC and care for sick children were least available during COVID-19 at the HPs level. (bvsalud.org)
  • Learning from efforts to address the value, safety , and effectiveness of reproductive and maternal health care is essential to advancing quality improvement efforts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Systemic racism is a root cause of these drivers, and must be addressed alongside clinical care quality, coverage gaps, and the upstream adverse social drivers impacting maternal health. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Community-based perinatal health worker groups are an emerging model of care developed by local leaders in communities of color. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Our service provides ongoing care to improve the health, wellbeing and safety of families and the learning and development of children. (vic.gov.au)
  • The Maternal and Child Health 24-hour health line on 13 22 29 can give you information and advice about the care and health of your child aged birth to school age. (vic.gov.au)
  • The trends for the stated services began to increase during July-September 2020, the last quarter of national lockdown. (lu.se)
  • Conclusions: Most of the maternal and child health services performance declined following the onset of COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown, and most of the services began recovering during July-September 2020, the last quarter of national lockdown. (lu.se)
  • The Novel Coronavirus disease, commonly referred as COVID-19, was declared a public health emergency of international concern on 30th January 2020 and declared a global pandemic on the 11th March 2020 ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the United States, $400 million in federal funds are allocated annually to evidence-based home visiting programs through the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) (Health Resources & Services Administration, 2020 ). (springer.com)
  • This was evident in 2020, when after the implementation of an electronic community health information system (eCHIS), all of Aleltu's pregnant women accessed and received RMNCH services. (jsi.com)
  • Our Fetal and Pregnancy Health team uses the most advanced diagnostic and therapeutic options for mothers and fetuses with conditions that range from the routine to the very complex. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • To read more about how MIHA data are used to guide public health programs and services to improve the health of mothers and infants in California go to our Successes page. (ca.gov)
  • As a result, a high proportion of mothers choose to deliver at home, unassisted by skilled health workers, even if they attend antenatal clinics (ANC) [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the passing of Social Security Act in 1935, the federal government pledged its support of State efforts to extend health and welfare services for mothers and children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mothers and children of our state deserve access to the services and resources needed to lead healthy lives," Senator Capito said . (senate.gov)
  • The lifetime risk of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa is 1 in 22 mothers compared to 1 in 210 in Northern Africa, 1 in 62 for Oceania, 1 in 120 for Asia, and 1 in 290 for Latin America and the Caribbean [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disruption of essential health services (EHS) has an impact on the health of mothers , neonate and children in developing countries . (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the role of health insurance coverage in utilization of maternal health services in Tanzania. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Informal settlements in Kenya have been known to have higher rates of maternal mortality and also receive maternity services of varied quality. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once relevant maternal death, birth, and fetal death certificate data has been obtained, perinatal medical records, coroner/medical examiner reports (CME), police reports, and social services records are requested. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In these situations, we will work with your obstetrician or maternal-fetal medicine specialist to arrange ongoing advanced ultrasound imaging and other evaluations at one of our Perinatal Diagnostic Centers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • As members of the community, these perinatal health workers can bridge the trust chasm between healthcare organizations and those who have historically been marginalized by them. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), is one of six Bureaus within the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in Rockville, Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Michael Warren became Associate Administrator of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration, on October 15, 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • This conversion consolidated seven former Title V categorical child health programs into a single program of formula grants to States supported by a Federal special projects authority (U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • To provide more women with healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth, Kenya introduced free maternity health services in 2013. (co.zw)
  • Pregnant women can use these services at a range of healthcare facilities including those run by the government, faith-based organisations, nongovernmental organisations, or private providers. (co.zw)
  • Objective This implementation study will assess the quality of maternal healthcare in facilities where the SBM-R(RH) initiative has been employed, identify factors that support or undermine effectiveness of the initiative and develop strategies to further enhance its operation. (bmj.com)
  • Module 2 will quantitatively assess the quality and equity of maternal healthcare provided in facilities where the SBM-R(RH) initiative has been implemented, using the Malawi Integrated Performance Standards for Reproductive Health. (bmj.com)
  • All West Virginians deserve to have access to the healthcare services they need, no matter where they live. (senate.gov)
  • Staff are also expected to provide leadership in supporting workforce development for direct service providers in maternal health. (hrsa.gov)
  • And information on the health workforce is limited, fragmented, and generally not in a format that can be easily accessed, reviewed, and shared. (intrahealth.org)
  • Jharkhand's system customizes iHRIS, the world's leading open source software for health workforce information systems, currently used by 24 countries. (intrahealth.org)
  • Home visiting programs are an established public health service designed to promote maternal and infant health and family well-being. (springer.com)
  • The Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), is an annual, statewide-representative survey of women with a recent live birth in California. (ca.gov)
  • Previous research has indicated that pandemics, such as Ebola in West Africa, can devastate the provision of maternal health services in low-resilience health systems ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This project is the first known attempt to directly investigate whether facility level electrification improves the provision of maternal and child health services. (theigc.org)
  • Rather than simply correlate electrification with levels of utilisations, we study the relationship between electrification and levels of efficiency in the provision of maternal and child health services. (theigc.org)
  • Routine health management information system database was reviewed from Addis Ababa Health Bureau for the period from July 2019 to March 2021 across all quarters. (lu.se)
  • This programme is a step towards universal health coverage for Kenya. (co.zw)
  • The independent variable was health insurance coverage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Health insurance coverage and maternal health services were low in this nationally representative sample in Tanzania. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increasing access to and coverage of comprehensive high-quality maternal health services, including behavioral health services. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Services are available to all families regardless of income or insurance coverage. (daviscountyutah.gov)
  • Some self-funded health plans may also include coverage for doula services. (bcbsri.com)
  • There is an opportunity for all health plans to cover doula services for individuals in commercial lines of business, and to act on the community level through advocacy within their state legislatures and Medicaid Offices to extend Medicaid coverage to doula services. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? (bvsalud.org)
  • Planning for action by midwives : mobilising midwifery personnel for safe motherhood, report of a workshop on "enhancing national midwifery services" held in Accra, Ghana, 16-21 January 1989. (who.int)
  • Our staff are Registered Nurses, with additional qualifications in Midwifery and Maternal and Child Health. (vic.gov.au)
  • The MIHA project is supported by the California Department of Public Health using federal funds from the Title V Maternal and Child Health Block Grant and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. (ca.gov)
  • This data set presents country information about maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable disease. (who.int)
  • Closer coordination and joint work is needed between the health, water and sanitation, and nutrition "clusters" of the international response system. (who.int)
  • Data assessing progress on key maternal health indicators within informal settlements are also often scarce. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are commonalities and differences in the predictors of the three indicators of maternal health service utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With socioeconomic development, basic health indicators improve but so do countries' abilities to shoulder more of their own health expenditures. (cdc.gov)
  • A clear correlation exists between countries' gross domestic product and their health indicators, such as mortality rates in children less than 5 years of age (highest in low-income countries) or life expectancy (highest in high-income countries). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2019, the MOH, in collaboration with Oromia Regional Health Bureau (ORHB) and DUP, introduced eCHIS in the district. (jsi.com)
  • Administration of the Title V grant program was initially assigned to the Children's Bureau, giving maternal and child welfare equal status with the unemployment compensation and old-age provisions of the Social Security Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1969, the Children's Bureau was largely broken up, with the maternal and child health and crippled children's special projects, training, and research programs moving into the U.S. Public Health Service as the Office for Maternal and Child Health within the Health Services and Mental Health Administration (HSMHA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1973, upon the breakup of HSMHA, it was moved into the Bureau of Community Health Services of the Health Services Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa has the highest burden of maternal mortality in the world and sub-Saharan Africa is largely responsible for the dismal maternal death figure for that region, contributing approximately 98% of the maternal deaths for the region [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nigeria is a leading contributor to the maternal death figure in sub-Saharan Africa not only because of the hugeness of her population but also because of her high maternal mortality ratio. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In our cross-sectional study, we included women attending health facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that dealt with at least 1000 childbirths per year and had the capacity to provide caesarean section. (nih.gov)
  • While visiting the health centre near the chief's homestead, IPS spots a young woman making her way across the compound to the maternity room. (ipsnews.net)
  • when a woman comes to the health centre for whatever reason, she has to get the family planning right away, whether it is a routine health check-up or something serious. (ipsnews.net)
  • Even on Saturday or Sunday, if a woman comes to the health centre, she'll get it," Aissatoo says. (ipsnews.net)
  • Practical mother and child health in developing countries : a manual for the community health nurse and rural health centre staff / G. J. Ebrahim. (who.int)
  • I walked into a community health centre expecting to meet 50 traditional birth attendants for a training seminar. (amnesty.ca)
  • The new-born was still not breathing, his airway was blocked and the small health centre did not have the equipment they needed to save his life. (amnesty.ca)
  • Through 21st century technology and community-based efforts, we can prevent maternal mortality and high-risk pregnancies - regardless of a mom's zip code or economic background. (rstreet.org)
  • Reducing maternal mortality and high-risk pregnancies and improving our understanding of social determinants of health in pregnant and postpartum women. (rstreet.org)
  • In 2010 the estimated maternal mortality rate was 287 000 where as in 1990 it was 543 000. (medindia.net)
  • In December 1990, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Minority Health Professions Foundation responded to the growing concern of African- American and other minority communities about violence among youth by convening a conference entitled Forum on Youth Holence in Minority Communities: Setting the Agenda for Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Maternal health services. (who.int)
  • With an estimated 59,000 maternal deaths, Nigeria which has approximately two percent of the world's population contributes almost 10% of the world's maternal deaths [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many decisions are now made outside the World Health Assembly, the world's senior and most representative forum of global health discussion. (cdc.gov)
  • Global health is concerned with protecting the entire global community, not just its poorest segments, against threats to health and with delivering essential and cost-effective public health and clinical services to the world's population. (cdc.gov)
  • By 2025 more than half of the world's citizens will live in urban settings, all challenged by the need for basic infrastructure and services. (cdc.gov)
  • In this paper, we compare program activity for a universal postpartum home-visiting program (Family Connects) between pre-pandemic in-person services and post-pandemic onset virtual services. (springer.com)
  • The NCFPP provides assistance and support to the HRSA-funded Family-to-Family Health Information Centers (F2F HICs) and other MCHB programs related to family engagement and cultural and linguistic competence. (hrsa.gov)
  • MCHB administers the Title V Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Blockgrant Program (enacted in 1935 as part of the Social Security Act) and other maternal and child health programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the Title V MCH Services Block Grant, MCHB provides funds and direction to strengthen MCH infrastructure in state public health agencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCHB also collects survey data on the physical, behavioral and emotional health of women and children nationwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, MCHB publishes and disseminates the Women's Health and Child Health USA databooks. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPS has travelled here with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to visit a school that - on a continent where male involvement in maternal health is not the norm and, in fact, men are oftentimes not present during the duration of the pregnancy or the birthing process due to cultural reasons - is pretty unique. (ipsnews.net)
  • It is important to improve other pillars of health system to attain and sustain better maternal health in Tanzania and areas with similar contexts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review highlights potential and documented benefits (increased use of maternity services) as well as risks (decreased provider motivation and quality) of user fee exemption policies for maternal health services. (abtassociates.com)
  • Suggestions relating to maternity services in the Maldives / T. A. Stevens. (who.int)
  • We provide a broad range of services to the public and private health sectors to strengthen health systems around the United States. (jsi.com)
  • That's why we work every day to improve the performance of health workers around the world and strengthen the systems in which they work. (intrahealth.org)
  • This funding, which is through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), will help DHHR and WVU support infant and family home visiting programs, strengthen maternal and child health services, and bolster programs related to family engagement. (senate.gov)
  • ACT Health offer regular New Parent Groups, which involve a 4-week free group session facilitated by a Maternal and Child Health (MACH) Nurse. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • If you need to speak with a nurse, please call the 24-hour Maternal and Child Health Line on 132 229. (vic.gov.au)
  • Chat with a Maternal and Child Health Nurse or Lactation Consultant about breastfeeding, or any other issues with feeding your baby. (vic.gov.au)
  • These sessions offer an opportunity to visit a Maternal and Child Health nurse in between your child's Key Ages and Stage assessments. (vic.gov.au)
  • Maternal, Child, and Family Health Services (MCFHS) is a multidisciplinary, multicultural branch dedicated to working with community and Health and Human Services Agency partners to promote health and to protect and support pregnant women, children, families and communities. (sandiegocounty.gov)
  • Fever and bleeding, common during pregnancy, are also symptoms of Ebola, so health workers are reluctant to treat and admit pregnant women. (amnesty.ca)
  • Fetal imaging and diagnostic services. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Once tests have clarified your baby's diagnosis, you will meet with our Fetal and Pregnancy Health team members. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • When possible, based on maternal and fetal conditions, we may be able to coordinate ongoing monitoring with an expectant mother's local medical team in her own community if they choose. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • The United States has a maternal health crisis that particularly affects women of color and those living in rural America. (rstreet.org)
  • The Administration also recognizes that addressing the maternal health crisis in the United States requires immediate action. (whitehouse.gov)
  • That is why, in addition to urging Congressional action, the White House has mobilized over a dozen federal agencies to develop the White House Blueprint for Addressing the Maternal Health Crisis. (whitehouse.gov)
  • Each year, one in five WHO Member States experiences a crisis that endangers the health of its people. (who.int)
  • Although widely available, templates for rapid health assessment protocols are often forgotten in the flurry of crisis management. (who.int)
  • Congress has an opportunity to lay important groundwork for our nation's future by passing the Black Maternal Health Momnibus Act -- a suite of legislation designed to tackle the maternal health crisis among Black, Indigenous, and other people of color. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Insecurity, drought and trans-border issues contribute to this West African nation's fragility where 50 percent of its citizens have access to health services. (ipsnews.net)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic hit Kenya in March this year and so far, the impact of the pandemic on access to maternal health has not been established. (frontiersin.org)
  • Challenges that women facing as a result of the lockdown and curfew with respect to maternal health access and quality were also assessed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Less than half of women reported reduced access due to fear of contracting Coronavirus, Deprioritization of health services, economic constraints, and psychosocial effects were reported due to the imposed lockdown and curfew. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ACLU Foundation of Northern California, Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights, Bay Area Legal Aid and Lucy Quacinella represented Maternal and Child Health Access, an advocacy group, in the case filed on April 24, 2008. (aclunc.org)
  • Discuss topics and issues related to caring for your baby and - Find out how to access services available to parents in the community. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Clients can access this service by phoning Community Health Intake on (02) 5124 9977 between 8:00am - 5:00pm Monday to Friday, 8:00am - 3:30pm Wednesdays (excluding public holidays). (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Our work focuses on multidisciplinary, gender-sensitive development approaches to improve quality, access, and equity within health systems worldwide. (jsi.com)
  • This brief outlines how IntraHealth International worked with the government of Jharkhand to pilot and then scale-up statewide a web-based human resources information system to improve access to skilled health workers and high-quality services. (intrahealth.org)
  • Providers will be trained on mental health during pregnancy, and women will have access to a national, confidential, 24-hour, toll-free hotline if they are experiencing mental health challenges. (whitehouse.gov)
  • To ensure each family across Wyndham have access to the information from our MCH services, we have developed the below tool. (vic.gov.au)
  • Thus, the considerable variation in the maternal mortality estimates between different locations within the same region can be attributed, to a large degree, to the differences in the availability of and access to modern maternal health services [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Targeted case management is a service that assists Davis County families starting at child birth and through age 8 to gain access to needed medical, social, educational, and other services. (daviscountyutah.gov)
  • The overall goal of the service is not only to help Medicaid recipients access needed services, but to ensure that services are coordinated among all agencies and providers involved. (daviscountyutah.gov)
  • Over the last few years, however, through efforts from the community, Ministry of Health (MOH), and partners like the Ethiopia Data Use Partnership (DUP), there has been a transformation across technology, processes, and behaviors. (jsi.com)
  • MIHA collects self-reported information about maternal and infant experiences and about maternal attitudes and behaviors before, during and shortly after pregnancy. (ca.gov)
  • During COVID -19 pandemic , 30 (69.8%) of woreda health offices, 52 (56.5%) of health centers (HCs), 7 (44.4%) of hospitals , and 165 (48%) of health posts (HPs) had a defined list of EHS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Implementing COVID-19 prevention measures and assuring the community about the safety of service delivery is imperative to ensure continuity of the maternal and child health services. (lu.se)
  • As a strong supporter of the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program and stillbirth prevention efforts, I'll continue working with my colleagues to help expectant families. (rstreet.org)
  • This prevention program, transforming lives through the power of relationships, is proven to help families develop the strengths and skills that will be the foundation for a lifetime of health and economic stability. (mfhs.org)
  • While some regions show fast decline in maternal mortality ratios (MMR), others are stagnant and the rest display upward trends. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MIHA is a collaborative effort of the Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health (MCAH) and the Women, Infant & Children (WIC) Division of the California Department of Public Health and the Center for Health Equity at the University of California, San Francisco . (ca.gov)
  • Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Rhode Island (BCBSRI) members in fully insured health plans can be reimbursed for doula services up to $1,500. (bcbsri.com)
  • However, very few commercial plans cover doula services. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Such integration has the potential to improve both mental and physical health synergistically. (who.int)
  • Together we can improve health and well-being all over the world-for the long haul. (intrahealth.org)
  • Let's improve health for everyone everywhere-for the long haul. (intrahealth.org)
  • Innovative strategies such as social accountability are needed to improve both health service delivery and utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To improve maternal health, health insurance alone is however not enough. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased and innovative syphilis testing and treatment can reduce the number of babies born with syphilis and improve health during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • The California Breastfeeding Coalition's (CBC) mission is to improve the health and well-being of Californians by working collaboratively to protect, promote, and support lactation and human milk feeding. (californiabreastfeeding.org)
  • Maternal mortality is a current and important issue for obstetrics. (nih.gov)