The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Sexual activities of animals.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Female parents, human or animal.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Sexual activities of humans.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Sounds used in animal communication.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.

Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: four American communities. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1/1163)

The contributions of different risk factors in predicting children's psychological and academic outcomes at the end of 1st grade were examined. Using a regression model, levels of ecobehavioral risk were assessed in the following order: specific demographics, broad demographics, family psychosocial status, mother's depressive symptoms, and neighborhood quality. Participants were 337 families from 4 American communities. Predictor variables were assessed in kindergarten, and teacher, parent, and child outcomes (behavioral and academic) were assessed at the end of 1st grade. Results indicated that (a) each level of analysis contributed to prediction of most outcomes, (b) 18%-29% of the variance was predicted in outcomes, (c) a common set of predictors predicted numerous outcomes, (d) ethnicity showed little unique prediction, and (e) the quality of the neighborhood showed small but unique prediction to externalizing problems.  (+info)

Regulation of maternal behavior and offspring growth by paternally expressed Peg3. (2/1163)

Imprinted genes display parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic expression that apparently regulates complex mammalian traits, including growth and behavior. The Peg3 gene is expressed in embryos and the adult brain from the paternal allele only. A mutation in the Peg3 gene resulted in growth retardation, as well as a striking impairment of maternal behavior that frequently resulted in death of the offspring. This result may be partly due to defective neuronal connectivity, as well as reduced oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus, because mutant mothers were deficient in milk ejection. This study provides further insights on the evolution of epigenetic regulation of imprinted gene dosage in modulating mammalian growth and behavior.  (+info)

Preparing for the next round: convalescent care after acute infection. (3/1163)

Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle.  (+info)

Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats. (4/1163)

The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance was estimated by weighing the ten-pup suckling litters on days 16-21 of lactation or by measuring maternal weight loss after a nursing spell on day 21. In 1d-LP rats, food consumption as well as lactational performance was lower than it was in nonpregnant lactating rats (L rats) and pregnant-lactating rats with a normal long delay of implantation of at least 6 days (LP rats). The time spent by the pups sucking at the nipples was not different among the three groups, but the number of milk ejections was diminished in 1d-LP dams. Restriction of daily food supply during days 16 to 21 of lactation diminished lactational performance more strongly in 1d-LP rats than it did in L rats; 1d-LP rats conserved protein stores and mobilized fewer minerals than did L rats. The weight and composition of the litter in vitro were not affected by the food restriction. In pregnant-lactating rats (LP and 1d-LP rats), the number of early resorptions was increased in comparison with pregnant rats, showing that lactation can affect the earlier stages of pregnancy. It was concluded that late pregnancy does not affect nursing behaviour, but suppresses lactation by restricting maternal food intake and mobilization of maternal stores. Measurements in serum indicate a causative role for oestradiol, but not for leptin.  (+info)

Second generation effects of maternal ethanol consumption on immunity to Trichinella spiralis in female rats. (5/1163)

The deleterious effects of maternal ethanol consumption on neonatal immune development and early immune responses has been well documented. However, the effects of such neonatal exposure to maternally consumed ethanol on the neonates' immune responses in their adult life, especially in combination with additional ethanol exposure, has received little attention. For these experiments, female rats were fed on either 6% ethanol or pair-fed isocaloric control Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets for 30 days prior to, and during, pregnancy and lactation. One day after weaning their pups, the mothers were infected with 1000 Trichinella spiralis larvae, and maintained on diets for an additional 20 days. At this time, they were challenged with 2000 T. spiralis larvae, killed 3 days later, and their immune status determined. These animals served as the first generation alcohol animals. Their female offspring served as the experimental second generation animals. These animals received maternal ethanol during pregnancy and lactation and control diet during their juvenile period (from weaning to 90 days of age). They were then subjected to a schedule of ethanol or pairfeeding, identical to the first generation dams. Two groups of second generation animals were established: Group 1 was exposed to ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods only, with no subsequent ethanol treatment; Group 2 received ethanol during their dam's pregnancy and lactation periods and then again throughout their adult experimental period. Our previous studies showed only minimal changes following a secondary challenge in T. spiralis-immunized rats; however, neonates born to alcohol-consuming mothers did show some depressed secondary immune responses when challenged soon after weaning. We chose to use a secondary immune challenge to assess further immune alterations in second generation adult animals. No differences between any of the ethanol and pair-fed groups were observed in intestinal worm burdens, which is similar to data previously reported for adult alcohol-consuming animals. However, second generation group 2 animals demonstrated significantly reduced proliferation responses to T. spiralis antigen and Concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation relative to the ethanol first generation and to the second generation Group 1 animals. This group also demonstrated significantly lower absorbencies in the ELISA assay for specific IgM and IgG anti-T. spiralis antibodies than the pair-fed, ethanol first and second generation Group 1 animals. The proportion of total T cells and cytotoxic T cells was significantly lower and the proportion of natural killer cells was elevated in both second generation ethanol Groups 1 and 2 relative to the ethanol first generation and pair-fed groups. In addition, Group 2 second generation animals showed significantly lower proportions of total leukocytes and T cells than Group 1 second generation animals. Although secondary immune responses to T. spiralis infection were not altered in rats exposed to ethanol only as adults, exposure to maternal ethanol does affect some specific immune responses in second generation adult life and maternal exposure may exert cumulative immune effects in concert with later consumption of ethanol by offspring born to alcoholic mothers.  (+info)

Maternal effort and male quality in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus. (6/1163)

Parental investment in reproduction is adjusted according to potential benefits in terms of offspring survival and/or mating success. If male quality affects the reproductive success of a female, then females mating with high-quality males should invest more in reproduction. Although the subject has been of general interest, further experimental verification of the hypothesis is needed. We studied whether female bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) adjusted their maternal effort according to male quality, measured as mating success. To enable the measurement of maternal effort during nursing separately from male genetic effects the litters were cross-fostered. Further, the genetic background of male quality was examined. Male quality did not correlate with litter size or offspring size at birth. Offspring growth was positively related to food consumption and milk production of mothers. However, these direct measurements of maternal effort were independent of male quality. Male mating success appeared to be significantly heritable indicating that there are genetic benefits. Still, females did not adjust maternal effort according to the genetic quality of their offspring. We suggest that female bank voles gain significant genetic benefits from mating with high-quality males whereas they cannot improve their reproductive success by increasing maternal effort.  (+info)

Butorphanol tartrate acts to decrease sow activity, which could lead to reduced pig crushing. (7/1163)

The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of an analgesic to sows immediately after farrowing would allow them to lie more restfully. Sows lying on their pigs, causing them to be "crushed," is a major cause of pig mortality. Most deaths due to crushing occur during the first 3 d postpartum. For modern, lean-type sows, farrowing crates are relatively hard and unforgiving, even though they may be equipped with plastic-coated, expanded metal flooring. Indeed, many sows develop pressure sores on their shoulders, and this may contribute to the sows' discomfort. These sores may cause a sow to change position frequently to alleviate pain, thus increasing its chances of crushing pigs. Sixteen production sows were assigned to either a control group (C, n = 8) with litter size 11.71+/-.78 or an experimental group (B, n = 8) with litter size 11.63+/-1.22. Pigs born to C and B sows weighed 1.60+/-.04 and 1.37+/-.04 kg, respectively. The C sows were given no treatment, whereas the B sows were administered an i.m. injection of butorphanol tartrate at a dose of .15 mg/kg BW every 6 h until 3 d after farrowing. Data were collected on all sows using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration upon the initiation of farrowing. To assess the degree of comfort of each sow, body position changes were recorded when sows switched between lying, sitting, and standing. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney equations. During the 72-h period, B sows tended to perform fewer position changes than C sows (P = .10). Specifically, position changes were fewer for B sows from 48 to 72 h postpartum (P<.06). There were no differences in position changes between treatments from 0 to 48 h postpartum (P>.50). There was no difference in the rate of crushing between treatments (C = 5, B = 5). The butorphanol did not seem to affect pig activity or normal behaviors or to create adverse effects, such as diarrhea. Although the sows given butorphanol showed a reduced number of position changes, the dose was intermediate, and a higher dose may have a greater effect. If pig mortality can be decreased, an analgesic protocol that is simple to administer and readily available to producers can be developed. Alternatively, using of more pliable flooring or an increase in sow body fat may allow sows to lie more stationary.  (+info)

Danger to pigs due to crushing can be reduced by the use of a simulated udder. (8/1163)

Sows that lie on their young, pig "crushing", is a significant cause of pig mortality in current production systems. Although mortality rates of pigs in farrowing crates are lower than mortality rates of pigs in pens, loss due to crushing is still estimated to be between 4.8 and 18%. During the first few days after parturition, pigs are highly attracted to the odor of their dam's udder. Thus, our research was designed to move the pigs away from the sow by competing with the sow's udder using a "simulated" udder. Fifteen Yorkshire x Landrace sows and their litters (11.4+/-.78 pigs) were assigned to either a control (C, n = 9) or an experimental group (SU, n = 6). The C pigs had access to a heat lamp, whereas the SU pigs' crate had a simulated udder. Data were collected using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration at the initiation of farrowing. When a sow stood, data were recorded by 1-min scan samples to record the number of pigs using either the heat lamp or the simulated udder. In addition, stillborn pigs, pig crushing, and death by other means also were recorded. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using generalized estimating equations. Results indicate that from 12 to 72 h postpartum, excluding 24 to 36 h postpartum, the estimated probability that pigs were in a safe area (simulated udder or heat lamp) was .89 for SU pigs, compared with only .72 for C pigs (P = .005). During the 24- to 36-h period, it was more probable to find pigs on a simulated udder (.77) than under only a heat lamp (.61, P = .016). Stillborn pigs, pig crushing, and death by other means were not different between treatments (mean = .87, .60, 1.2; P>.20). The simulated udder drew pigs away from the sow's udder better than heat lamps alone. Considering these findings, mortality of pigs due to crushing may be decreased substantially using a simulated udder. These results are promising, but further refinement should be done, including improved udder design and investigation of the attractiveness of various stimuli.  (+info)

The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clinical work on the mother-child relationship shows that the quality of maternal care from women with schizophrenia is generally inferior to that from healthy mothers. One important contributing factor recognized by both patients and their clinicians is antipsychotic medications. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to adversely affect maternal care. The PIs long-term goal is to understand the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs. The objective of this R03 application is to determine the behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of both typical and atypical antipsychotics on maternal behavior using a rat model. The project hypothesis is that at the clinical relevant dose, the disruptive effect of antipsychotics on maternal behavior primarily reflects a suppressive effect on maternal motivation and is mediated via the dopamine D2 receptor system. Rat maternal behavior is ...
Thyroid hormones (THs) play crucial roles in general and brain development. Even if the hypothyroidism is mild, it may alter brain function, resulting in irreversible behavioral alterations. Although various behavioral analyses have been conducted, the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment during in utero and postnatal periods on maternal behavior have not yet been studied. The present study examined in mice whether THs insufficiency during development induce behavioral changes. Pregnant C57BL/6j mice were divided into three groups, and each group was administered different dosages of PTU (0, 5, or 50 ppm) in drinking water during in utero and postnatal periods (from gestational day 14 to postnatal day 21). First, locomotor activity and cognitive function were assessed in the offspring at 10 weeks. Next, female offspring were mated with normal mice and they and their offspring were used to assess several aspects of maternal behavior (identifying first pup, returning all pups to nest, time spent
Maternal care is critical for the development and long-term success of offspring. Poor maternal care can have profound effects on offspring that can last into adult life. Despite our understanding of the role of endogenous estrogen in maternal behavior, the potential effects of exogenous estrogens (xenoestrogens) on maternal behavior and brain remain poorly understood. The active synthetic estrogen in contraceptive pills, 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), is widely used as a positive control for estrogenicity in endocrinology and toxicology studies. Another xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA) alters a broad range of physiological processes including neural development and reproduction. Due to public health concerns with BPA, alternative compounds have been developed for use in consumer products. One replacement, bisphenol S (BPS), has not been examined extensively, but has shown estrogenic properties. Biomonitoring studies indicate that human exposures to BPS are likely to be widespread. Among studies that have
Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either the lack of maternal behavior when dealing with the mothers own young or excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn kittens.
AMHERST, Mass. - In the first study of its kind, environmental health scientist Laura Vandenberg and neuroscientist Mary Catanese at the University of Massachusetts Amherst examined the effects of the compound bisphenol S (BPS) on maternal behavior and related brain regions in mice. They found subtle but striking behavior changes in nesting mothers exposed during pregnancy and lactation and in their daughters exposed in utero.. BPS, found in baby bottles, personal care products and thermal receipts, is a replacement chemical for BPA and was introduced when concern was raised about possible health effects of that plastic compound. Though studies have found human BPS exposure is likely low, it is widespread and has increased over the past 10 years, the authors note. As with BPA, there is evidence that BPS is an endocrine disruptor.. Assistant professor Vandenberg and Catanese, a recent graduate of UMass Amhersts neuroscience and behavior graduate program, report, BPS affects maternal behavior as ...
View Notes - April 9- Epigenetic programing by Maternal Behaviour from BIOL 430 at Queens University. Adil Geresu Ernie Lin Rudi Lin Outline Introduction Goal of this Study To investigate the
For surveillance during 1993-1999, the majority or all states observed increases in breast-feeding initiation, breast-feeding for at least 4 weeks, and back sleep position. Approximately one half of the states observed decreases for late or no entry into prenatal care and smoking during the last 3 m …
One of the main components of an organisms energy budget is its baseline level of energy metabolism. Individual differences in this cost of self-maintenance (termed in this chapter, resting metabolic rate, RMR) are substantial, but the causes and consequences of this variation are obscure. In Chapter 2, I review the published literature and show that maternal influences (along with other factors) can contribute substantially to variation in offspring RMR. Also, the RMR - fitness relationship appears to be modulated by environmental conditions (e.g. food supply), suggesting that the fitness consequences of a given RMR may be context-dependent. Thus, I propose that broad-scale variation in RMR might persist in natural populations, due to both spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions and the trans-generational influence of mothers ...
The presence of the hormone oxytocin in the central amygdala makes a mother rat willing to put her life in danger in order to protect her offspring.
A 15 year cohort study researching whether breastfeeding protect against substantiated child abuse and neglect, suggest that long-term breastfeeding can protect infants against neglect and abuse.
In the early Fall of 2013, I prepared to begin the first blood collection for my project. Choosing and ordering the correct medical devices and accessories began as soon as grant funds were approved. This included selecting tools such as catheters and extensions, ports, suture, anticoagulant-saline flush, veterinary wrap and betadine solution. The selection of appropriate animals for my study began months before, in early Spring. I spoke with numerous professionals for informal advice as well as formal training on topics ranging from choosing a reproductive synchronization protocol to installing and maintaining indwelling jugular catheters. Creating a detailed schedule to which undergraduate assistants would be assigned was a surprisingly involved task, as was coordinating their time commitments such that I had the help I needed, when I needed it, around the clock.. The first experimental block of ewes were brought to campus during the last week in October. They departed the first week in ...
Real and phantom pregnancy can greatly affect the social level of a dog and its ability to concentrate during Dog Training Course work.
Across species there is evidence that the quality of the early social environment can have a profound impact on neurobiology and behavior. In the present study we explore the effect of communal rearing conditions (3 dams with 3 litters per cage) during the postnatal period on offspring (F1) and grand-offspring (F2) anxiety-like and maternal behavior in Balb/c mice. Females rearing pups in communal nests exhibited increased levels of postpartum maternal care and communal rearing was found to abolish sex-differences in weaning weights. In adulthood, communally reared offspring were observed to display reduced anxiety-like behavior when placed in a novel environment. When rearing their own offspring under standard conditions, communally reared females demonstrated higher levels of motivation to retrieve pups, built higher quality nests, and exhibited higher levels of postpartum care compared to standard reared females. When exposed to an intruder male, communally reared females were more subordinate
A reciprocal cross-fostering model with an obese typical Chinese piglet breed and a lean Western breed was used to identify genetic and maternal effects on the ...
The nature vs. nurture theory is a very debatable subject, so debatable that many areas of interest have been developed to attempt to answer this question and/or decide on which factor has more influence. Nature is depicted as.
This tutorial is guest blogged by Mike Goss,CSCS, and Level II USATF, jumps, throws, and combined events. Mike is also in the Coaches Advisory for
The reader should probably be getting the idea by now: the approach SOTT.net takes to the Cassiopaean Experiment really is a case of 10% inspiration, 90%
Research suggests that the optimal wait time to conceive another baby is between 18 and 30 months after giving birth to your last. Too little time between pregnancies may increase the risk of premature birth and contribute to low birth weight, considered anything under 5 pounds 8 ounces. Until the early twentieth century the spacing of children was right in the middle of the recommendation; about two years. Then in the second half of the twentieth century child-spacing was shortened to about one year. What happened? According to research, a decline in, what has been labeled, ecological breastfeeding.. Ecological breastfeeding is a type of breastfeeding that is dependent on maternal behaviors. According to Natural Family Planning International, in ecological breastfeeding mother and baby are one, and the mother uses her breasts to satisfy the babys hunger and suckling needs. The term ecological breastfeeding was coined and developed by breastfeeding expert and co-founder of the Couple to ...
Even before POC theory arose, debates took place over whether infants wean themselves or mothers actively wean their infants. Furthermore, it was discussed whether maternal rejections increase infant independence. It turned out that both mother and infant contribute to infant independence. Maternal rejections can be followed by a short-term increase in infant contact but they eventually result in a long-term decrease of contact as has been shown for several primates: In wild baboons infants that are rejected early and frequently spend less time in contact whereas those that are not rejected stay much longer in the proximity of their mother and suckle or ride even in advanced ages. In wild chimpanzees an abrupt increase in maternal rejections and a decrease in mother-offspring contact is found when mothers resume estrus and consort with males. In rhesus macaques a high probability of conception in the following mating season is associated with a high rate of maternal rejection. Rejection and ...
Maternal Investment Influences Expression of Resource Polymorphism in Amphibians: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Resource-Use Phenotypes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Milk records of up to the first three lactations of artificially sired Holstein daughters and their dams were used to estimate heritability from both daughter-dam regression and paternal half-sib correlation. The within-herd estimates from records expressed as deviations from herd-mate averages were .37, .30, and .24 from daughter-dam regression for the first three lactations ; and the corresponding estimates from half-sib correlation were .24, .21, and .23. These results suggest a large maternal effect in the first lactation, a small amount in the second, and little in the third lactation. Analysis of the records not as deviations gave the same pattern for the daughter-dam regressions, but confounding of sires with year-seasons apparently biased the half-sib correlations upward. The consequences of considering unequal heritability for different lactations if the apparent difference is due to maternal effects is illustrated for selection for first-lactation breeding value from up to three records on the
Feeding sows with MINTREX has a positive effect on the offspring through the modulation of the expression of genes, helping the piglet reach its weaning...
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BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 New Mum Study is recording maternal experiences and infant feeding during the UK lockdown. This report from week 1 of the survey describes and compares the delivery and post-natal experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the lockdown. METHODS: Women living in the UK aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤12 months of age completed an anonymous online survey (https://is.gd/covid19newmumstudy). Information/links are shared via websites, social media and existing contacts. RESULTS: From 27.5.20-3.6.20, 1365 women provided data (94% white, 95% married/with partner, 66% degree/higher qualification, 86% living in house; 1049 (77%) delivered BL and 316 (23%) DL. Delivery mode, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation did not differ between groups. DL women had shorter hospital stays (p < 0.001). 39% reported changes to their birth plan. Reflecting younger infant age, 59% of DL infants were exclusively breast-fed/mixed fed versus 39% of BL (p < ...
it seems that this report constructs a theoretical viewpoint and then tries to squeeze the contrary observations of the real world into it - just like the naked emperor in Hans Andersons story, who in his vanity, and because enough courtiers agreed with him, considered himself clothed… In preparing this editorial I noticed that there seems to be no scientific literature on fetal behaviours that uses the maternal experience of quickening, or other aspects of fetal responsiveness, as its basis. This is a huge methodological gap… a sensible debate needs a solid base of rigorous empirical enquiry. As it stands, the report is an emperor with no clothes. We need to dress him. ...
it seems that this report constructs a theoretical viewpoint and then tries to squeeze the contrary observations of the real world into it - just like the naked emperor in Hans Andersons story, who in his vanity, and because enough courtiers agreed with him, considered himself clothed… In preparing this editorial I noticed that there seems to be no scientific literature on fetal behaviours that uses the maternal experience of quickening, or other aspects of fetal responsiveness, as its basis. This is a huge methodological gap… a sensible debate needs a solid base of rigorous empirical enquiry. As it stands, the report is an emperor with no clothes. We need to dress him. ...
Linkage of the cross-sectional Y6FU data to data collected in the longitudinal IFPSII provides a unique ability to examine associations between detailed early feeding and health information and health, development, weight and height, and dietary patterns at 6 years old. The large number of potential confounders in the database enables researchers who are conducting multivariate analyses to control for many factors that might affect the associations of interest. The large sample size can support various types of multivariate analyses. The use of questions that have previously been used in national and international surveys enables researchers to compare the Y6FU results with those from other studies.. The main limitation of the study is that the sample was not nationally representative of the US population. The original IFPSII data were biased toward mothers who were older, more highly educated, of higher income, white, and less likely to smoke than mothers from the nationally representative ...
Stanford biologists are studying rare poison frogs as a way to answer a fundamental question: Is there more than one way to build a maternal brain?
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Researchers at the University of Adelaide say addictive behavior such as drug and alcohol abuse could be associated with poor development of the so-called love hormone system in our bodies during early childhood. The idea resulted from a review of worldwide research into oxytocin, known as the love hormone or bonding drug because of its important role in enhancing social interactions, maternal behavior and partnership.
Using parental-offspring associations and theFTO gene as an instrumental variable for maternal adiposity, Debbie Lawlor and colleagues found that greater maternal BMI during offspring development does not appear to have a marked effect on offspring fat mass at age 9-11.
Another important issue is that some of that ambiguity and uncertainty comes from the language of genetics itself. For example, we may read that the debate is about sorting contributions of nature from those of nurture, and trying to estimate the relative importance, but what exactly is meant by nature and nurture? Sometimes the distinction is between what is inborn and what is acquired after birth; more often, it is between genes and environment. But not only does nurture affect prenatal development, we also need to ask what exactly is a gene, and what does it do? What do we mean by environment? Does it refer to factors beyond the organism that affect its development, to the milieu in which the fertilised egg develops, or to everything other than the DNA sequence? ...
Alastair Macdonald is Emeritus Professor of Clinical Outcomes Research at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at Kings College London.. Lucy Stephenson is Clinical Research Associate, Mental Health and Justice Project at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at Kings College London.. Psychiatric Mother and Baby Inpatient Units (MBUs) are preferred by patients and clinicians. MBUs provide specialist in-patient care for mothers who experience severe mental illness (SMI) without separation from their baby. There are only 17 such units in the UK, although more are now planned. Such investment needs to be justified by measurement of outcomes - for mothers and infants. We set out to describe maternal clinical outcomes, mother-infant interaction outcomes and their relationship in patients admitted to one MBU over 32 months in South London. The unit provided an individualised treatment programme from the multidisciplinary team, including nursery nurses. Care ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. and acts as a transcription factor regulating approximately 20% of the entire human genome. As such, the GR plays important regulatory roles in a diverse number of physiological processes. including metabolism, development. neurobiology and immunity. The organism of choice for this study was, the pig (Sus scrofa as it is an excellent model organism for both the study of human disease (both - are similar size and physiology) and from an agricultural standpoint with fatness and maternal aggression traits of interest in both disciplines. Excess fat in the body can cause many conditions including heart disease, stroke and cancer and forms a commercially important trait due to market preferences for different fat levels in the meat. Maternal aggression is a condition where sows bite and kill their offspring within 24 hours of birth. This is commercia1ly important as after an aggressive episode the sow is generally ...
In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknow
The way that mothers provision their offspring can have important consequences for their offsprings performance throughout life. Models suggest that maternally induced variation in life histories may have large population dynamical effects, even perhaps driving cycles such as those seen in forest Lepidoptera. The evidence for large maternal influences on population dynamics is unconvincing, principally because of the difficulty of conducting experiments at both the individual and population level. In the soil mite, Sancassania berlesei, we show that there is a trade-off between a females fecundity and the per-egg provisioning of protein. The mothers position on this trade-off depends on her current food availability and her age. Populations initiated with 250 eggs of different mean sizes showed significant differences in the population dynamics, converging only after three generations. Differences in the growth, maturation and fecundity of the initial cohort caused differences in the ...
Weve pushed the boundaries a lot further than what has been done before, Hudson said. Its been 100 to 150 million years since there was a common ancestor for paper wasps and honey bees, and during that time the DNA has changed a lot. But the proteins encoded by those genes that are important to the behaviors the researchers studied changed very little, Hudson said. This allowed for robust comparisons between the behavior-related genes in both species, and identification of those genes in the wasps that were important to the study ...
The period of pregnancy and childbirth is an important and sensitive time for mens upcoming parenthood. Research into fathers experiences of childbearing has received less attention compared to maternal experiences. The purpose of this thesis was to study the sources fathers use to obtain information about pregnancy and childbirth, fathers preference for the mode of birth of their baby, and fathers childbirth experience and their perception of postnatal care quality.In 2007, 1105 expectant fathers were enrolled in the study when their partner had reached the middle of pregnancy. The fathers were followed until one year after the birth of their baby. The fathers were living in the county of Västernorrland in Sweden and their babies were born in one of the three hospitals in the county. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and content analysis. An index was created from a combination of fathers experiences of postnatal care quality.iiiCommon sources of information ...
A systematic study was carried out to investigate the attachment of inorganic particles to fabric media in the presence of divalent cations and the dissolved or
In this episode of Mommy Brain Revisited I talk with Dr Joseph Lonstein a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University about his research on the neuroscience of postpartum an... - Listen to Anxiety and the Maternal Brain by Mommy Brain Revisited instantly on your tablet, phone or browser - no downloads needed.
The course contains an in-depth study of normal and abnormal behavior of farm and companion animals. Emphasis is placed upon the application of the course material as it applies to the practical aspects of the animal industry. Topics include developmental behavior, sexual and maternal behavior, aggression, ingestive behavior and behavioral disorders ...
The habenula has been implicated in the regulation of diverse behavioral functions, including learning and memory, reward, maternal behaviors, sleep, stress and affective states, and the behavioral effects of nicotine (Klemm, 2004; Lecourtier and Kelly, 2007). However, most prior studies have disrupted habenula function with lesions of the entire nucleus or the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), the output tract for the entire nucleus, and thus have not allowed the specific functions of MHb and LHb, or their subnuclei, to be discerned. The distinct neurotransmitter properties of the dMHb, characterized by the expression of the neuropeptide SP, and the specific projection of the dMHb to the lateral subnucleus of the IP, have been known for ,30 years (Swanson and Cowan, 1979; Lecourtier and Kelly, 2007; Quina et al., 2009), yet no unique function has been assigned to this structure. To determine the role of the dMHb in behavior, we have created two mouse models: a developmental/genetic ablation model of ...
Early identification of problems with psychosocial stress regulation is important for supporting mental and physical health. However, we currently lack knowledge about when reliable individual differences in stress-responsive physiology emerge and which aspects of maternal behavior determine the unf …
First-time mothers are suffering through a litany of undiagnosed, under-reported and untreated health issues in every aspect of their lives, a major research project has revealed.
The mechanistic factors responsible for the increase in allergic diseases are still not fully understood, but a reduced microbial stimulation seems to be one of the key issues. Research is now aiming at investigating the relationship between the innate immune system, involving the toll-like receptors, and allergy development. Further, the maternal influence on the child, possibly through in utero effects, but also through the breast milk, has shown to be of great importance. This thesis aimed at understanding how the maternal immune system is influenced by early exposures and allergic disease, but also to investigate the consequences of the maternal phenotype on the innate immune system of the developing child.. The Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern in allergic diseases has been extensively studied. Here we were interested in comparing the innate cytokines in allergic and non-allergic women, and to see if the allergic status was influencing the effect of pregnancy differently. We demonstrate that IL-1β, ...
Reproduction and development Two modes of reproduction asexual: one parent; offspring are clonal sexual: two parents produce gametes, which fuse to form a zygote
Information on this site is provided for educational purposes. It is not meant to and cannot substitute for advice or care provided by an in-person medical professional. The information contained herein is not meant to be used to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease, or for prescribing any medication. You should always consult your own healthcare provider if you have a health problem or medical condition.. ...
Within these colonies are monogamous family groups called clans, led by a single breeding pair and their numerous, non-breeding family members. These helpers (which may be siblings of the parents, adult offspring, or even in some cases completely unrelated birds) contribute greatly to the raising of offspring that are not their own. They assist in nest building, they bring food to the mother, and they even incubate and feed the young! All in all, about half of all nesting attempts have assistance from helpers ...
This weeks report on viruses and intruders will focus on three worms Mytob.CX, Mytob.CU and Sdbot.DKE, two Trojans, Whiter.F and Kelvir.AS, a vulnerability, MS05-024, and a hacking tool, QuickKeylog.
Nature, Nurture, and Thought Those of us who pay attention to such things know that what is commonly called the nature vs. nurture debate continues to generate interest and controversy and that, despite claims to the contrary by advocates of one side or the other, it is neither settled nor ever likely to be. This lack…
Nurture Liquid information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wanbury, Nurture Liquid indications, usages and related health products lists
Is it possible at present to provide a definitive answer about the role nature (hereditary) and nurture (non-hereditary) plays in allergies? Find out more here.
Russ Miles discusses how to nurture the skill of learning by understanding it, valuing it and enhancing it in order to achieve an agile transformation within the organization.
Role in maternal behavior[edit]. The PAG may be specifically involved in human maternal behavior. The PAG contains a high ... Role in defensive behavior[edit]. Dorsal PAG neurons are activated during various defensive behaviors.[5] Stimulation of the ... It also plays a role in female copulatory behavior (see lordosis behavior) via a pathway from the ventromedial nucleus of the ... Role in reproductive behavior[edit]. Neurons of the PAG are excited by endorphins and by opiate analgesics. ...
Maternal behavior: Female rats given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior.[59] By ... eating behavior. • response to ether. • positive regulation of female receptivity. • sleep. • maternal aggressive behavior. • ... maternal behavior. • negative regulation of blood pressure. • memory. • positive regulation of norepinephrine secretion. • ... social organism behavior. • response to glucocorticoid. • grooming behavior. • response to prostaglandin E. • ...
"Maternal behavior in pigs". Hormones and Behavior. Reproductive Behavior in Farm and Laboratory Animals11th Annual Meeting of ... Algers, Bo; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin (2007-06-01). "Maternal behavior in pigs". Hormones and Behavior. 52 (1): 78-85. doi:10.1016/ ... Internal hormonal changes and the completion of one nesting phase are indicators of this maternal behaviour.[52] The onset of ... Nest-building behaviour is an important part in the process of pre and post-partum maternal behaviour. Nest building will occur ...
"Maternal behavior in pigs". Hormones and Behavior. Reproductive Behavior in Farm and Laboratory Animals11th Annual Meeting of ... Algers, Bo; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin (1 June 2007). "Maternal behavior in pigs". Hormones and Behavior. 52 (1): 78-85. doi:10.1016 ... Maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs occurs on days 11 to 12 of pregnancy and is marked by progesterone production from a ... "Rooting & Nudging Behaviors in Mini Pigs". americanminipigassociation.com. 8 June 2016. "Kunekune pigs are just right for farm ...
1. Improvements in maternal and prenatal health, 2. Infant health, 3. Child health and development, 4. Parenting related to ... Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Viswanath, K. (Eds.) (2008). Health Behavior and Health Education (4th edition). San Francisco, CA: ... Home visitors are trained professionals who focus on early childhood and maternal health; they may be nurses, social workers, ... Their scope of practice includes children and maternal health, parenting and family education, child abuse and neglect. Home ...
Curley, JP, FA Champagne, and P Bateson (2007) Communal nesting induces alternative emotional, social and maternal behavior in ... "Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. McGowan PO ... Such maternal risk factors linked to late-onset PAH includes placental dysfunction, hypertension, obesity, and preeclampsia. ... Branchi I, D'Andrea I, Fiore M, Di Fausto V, Aloe L, Alleva E (October 2006). "Early social enrichment shapes social behavior ...
"Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". primary. Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. ... is up-regulated in response to high maternal care in rodents, and down-regulated in response to low maternal care (a form of ... Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 13 (1): 25-37. doi:10.1111/gbb.12104. PMID 24219237. Zhang X, Clark AF, Yorio T (March 2008). " ... Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 17 (3): e12423. doi:10.1111/gbb.12423. PMID 28873274. Bartlett AA, Singh R, Hunter RG (2017). ...
"Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". Nat. Neurosci. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. Meaney MJ (2001 ... "Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". Nat. Neurosci. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. Champagne FA, ... "Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in ... maternal care, and gene expression. His research team has "discovered the importance of maternal care in modifying the ...
Szyf M, Weaver I, Meaney M (Jul 2007). "Maternal care, the epigenome and phenotypic differences in behavior". Reproductive ... Recent research has also shown the relationship of methylation of the maternal glucocorticoid receptor and maternal neural ... Crews D (Mar 2011). "Epigenetic modifications of brain and behavior: theory and practice". Hormones and Behavior. 59 (3): 393-8 ... "Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. Kaminsky Z ...
"Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". primary. Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. ...
Larsen CM, Grattan DR (February 2012). "Prolactin, neurogenesis, and maternal behaviors". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 26 (2 ... Prolactin plays an important role in maternal behavior. In general, dopamine inhibits prolactin but this process has feedback ... "Null mutation of the prolactin receptor gene produces a defect in maternal behavior". Endocrinology. 139 (10): 4102-7. doi: ... Prolactin promotes neurogenesis in maternal and fetal brains. The primary function of prolactin in fish is osmoregulation, i.e ...
"Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-854. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. Hammen, ... Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F. (2008-11-07). "Genes and Social Behavior". Science. 322 (5903): 896- ...
Algers, B. Uvnas-Moberg, K. (2007). "Maternal behaviour in pigs" (PDF). Hormones and Behavior. 52 (1): 78-85. doi:10.1016/j. ... Nesting behavior is also present in many invertebrates. The best known example of nesting behavior in insects is that of the ... External factors also interact with hormones to influence maternal nest-building behavior. Pregnant rabbits that have been ... Silver, Rae (1978). "The Parental Behavior of Ring Doves: The intricately coordinated behavior of the male and female is based ...
"Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior" (PDF). Nature Neuroscience. 7 (8): 847-54. doi:10.1038/nn1276. PMID 15220929. ... A lack of HDAC5 leads to an increase in depressive behaviors. This is thought to be due to the fact that HDAC2 targets have ... In rats, it has been shown that individuals less susceptible to depressive behavior have increased binding of NGFI-A to the ... H3K9 and H3K27 have less methylation when depressive behavior is seen. The hippocampus also experiences a number of histone ...
... in maternal behavior. On her way to elucidating the biological underpinnings of maternal behavior, Marlin first explored ... "How Oxytocin Changes Behavior". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2020-04-14. "Hormone oxytocin jump-starts maternal behavior". Los ... "How Oxytocin Changes Behavior" Features in the Los Angeles Time - "Hormone Oxytocin Jump Starts Maternal Behavior" NIH ... These results suggest a role for oxytocin in enabling learning of maternal behaviors during parenthood. Marlin and her ...
Extra hormonal factors in maternal behavior. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1938, 38, 66 70. C.P. Leblond et P. Sue. Passage de ... Extra hormonal factors in maternal behavior. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1938, 38, 66 70. Leblond CP. The time dimension in cell ... where he carried out studies on factors influencing maternal behavior. It was here that he met his wife Gertrude Sternschuss, ...
Lévy, F.; Keller, M.; Poindron, P. (2003). "Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in mammals". Hormones and Behavior. 46 (3 ... Physiology and Behavior (57) 1: 97-104. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q ... The main olfactory system in sheep is quite significant in the developing appropriate maternal behaviors in sheep.[17] ... Olfactory cues from the baby lamb are important in establishing maternal behavior and bonding. After birth, the smell of ...
Morrissey, Taryn W (2013). "Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Weight-Related Parenting Behaviors". Maternal and Child Health ... All of these behaviors have been correlated with higher child BMI. However, identifying maternal depression early can reduce ... Maternal depressive symptoms may be related to children's nutrition and physical activity, which in turn help determine weight ... Such behavior reinforces negative stereotypes of obese people and further damages peer relationships. One possible explanation ...
doi:10.1111/j.1744-7410.2003.tb00095.x. Poinar, George O. (2011). "Eggs, Oviposition, and Maternal Care in Amber". In Arthur J ... eds.). Fossil Behavior Compendium. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439859230. v t e. ...
Her early work emphasized sensitive and responsive parenting (i.e., maternal sensitivity), defined as the ability to perceive ... Infant Behavior and Development. 20 (2): 247-258. doi:10.1016/s0163-6383(97)90026-6. Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Bornstein, ... Tamis-LeMonda, C. S.; Bornstein, M. H.; Baumwell, L. (2001). "Maternal responsiveness and children's achievement of language ... Baumwell, Lisa; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Bornstein, Marc H. (1997). "Maternal verbal sensitivity and child language ...
"Early maternal behavior in the Florida panther". The American Midland Naturalist. 122 (1): 34-43. doi:10.2307/2425680. JSTOR ... Kilgo, J. E. (1998). "Influences of Hunting on the Behavior of White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Conservation of the Florida ... Female panthers frequently shift both their home range and movement behavior due to their reproductive rates. Panther kittens ... The presence of these viruses is likely related to mating behaviors and territory sympatry. Although, since Florida panthers ...
Langlois, Judith; Jean Ritter; Rita Casey; and Douglas (1995). "Infant attractiveness predicts maternal behaviors and attitudes ... Ethology links the study of animal behavior and biological perspectives to human behavior and social organization. Ethologist ... and facial configuration of an infant is a strong predictor of maternal affection and behavior toward the child. Recent ... but several studies suggest attractiveness plays no major role in determining maternal attitudes. A study of mothers of infants ...
Lévy F, Keller M, Poindron P (September 2004). "Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in mammals". Hormones and Behavior. ... Lévy F, Keller M (June 2009). "Olfactory mediation of maternal behavior in selected mammalian species". Behavioural Brain ... As with other behaviors that affect Darwinian fitness, reward pathways in the brain may reinforce the expression of paternal ... The Maternal Relief hypothesis: Males provide care infants to help reduce reproductive burdens of the female, ultimately ...
Basic level assumption: A new word refers to objects that are alike in basic ways (appearance, behavior, etc.). In other words ... Nathanson, A. I.; Rasmussen, E. E. (2011). "TV viewing compared to book reading and toy playing reduces responsive maternal ... The infant is more likely to produce vocalizations in response to a nonverbal behavior such as touching or smiling.[citation ... Harding, 1983, devised the major criteria that come along with the behavior of prelinguistic gestures and their intent to ...
As pups, young rats use different types of ultrasonic cries to elicit and direct maternal search behavior, as well as to ... When lactating, female rats display a 24-hour rhythm of maternal behavior, and will usually spend more time attending to ... White, N; Adox, R; Reddy, A; Barfield, R (1992). "Regulation of rat maternal behavior by broadband pup vocalizations". ... Grota, L. J.; Ader, R. (1969). "Continuous recording of maternal behavior in Rattus norvegicus". Animal Behaviour. 17 (4): 722- ...
Females exhibit pre-retrieval peaks in maternal vigilance. This behavior is conspicuous. Females all but cease other activities ... Several females in our observations engaged in "sham" feeding behavior, in which they lowered their heads to the ground as if ... Estes, R. D. (1967). "The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles". Journal of Mammalogy. 48 (2): 189-209. doi: ... ISBN 978-1-4008-5280-2. Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates ...
Another explanation is that selection for allomaternal behavior may just be a by-product of selection for maternal behavior, ... Primate Social Behavior. University of Michigan. Altmann, J.; Samuels, A. (1992). "Costs of maternal care: infant-carrying in ... This behavior makes the allowance of allocare by mothers riskier. Higher levels of abuse in allomaternal infant handling and a ... Hsu, M. J., Lin, S. I., Lin, J. F., Lin, T. J., & Agoramoorthy, G. (2015). Non-Maternal Infant Handling in Wild Formosan ...
"Estrogen implants in the medial preoptic area stimulate maternal behavior in male rats". Hormones and Behavior. 33 (1): 23-30. ... Large lesions of the mPOA disrupt the onset of maternal behavior, nest-building, and pup retrieval, with the lateral ... Numan M (1988). "Neural basis of maternal behavior in the rat". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 13 (1-2): 47-62. doi:10.1016/0306- ... In females, studies have examined the influence of the mPOA on precopulatory and appetitive behaviors. Precopulatory behaviors ...
Rongstad, Orrin J.; Tester, John R. (1971). "Behavior and maternal relations of young snowshoe hares". Journal of Wildlife ...
This maternal vocalization is highly attractive to their young. The repetition and frequency modulation of these quacks form ... The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... Dyer, Antoinette B.; Gottlieb, Gilbert (1990). "Auditory basis of maternal attachment in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) under ...
Approximately 160 babies were born with birth defects due to maternal use of isotretinoin during pregnancy.[186][187] ... The data examining the association between maternal topical retinoid exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy and adverse ...
Nepal has made significant progress in improving maternal health. Maternal mortality rate was reduced from 748 per 100,000 live ... Karki, Yagya B.; Agrawal, Gajanand (May 2008). "Effects of Communication Campaigns on the Health Behavior of Women of ... Neonatal and maternal tetanus was already eliminated on 2005 and Japanese encephalitis is in control status. Measles case based ... An analysis of the causes of stunting in Nepal reveals that around half is rooted in poor maternal nutrition and half in poor ...
Panic attacks and anxiety can occur; also, delusional behavior may be seen, including somatoform delusions, sometimes ... "Maternal Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy outcome". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 14 (6): e494-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Violent behavior. Risperidone prescription Depression. Feelings of sadness. Very rare. Most severe. 20 years of age. ... In these cases, the disorder is typically inherited from the maternal parent. Because RPS6KA3 is located on the X chromosome, ... all of which are involved in cognitive function and behavior. There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic ... When affected individuals display aggressive or destructive behavior that could harm themselves or others, the antipsychotic ...
All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and Metabolism of the mouse. For example, mice with the Mini ... HAO1 and BMP2 also display pleiotropic effects with commonly desired domestic chicken behavior; those chickens who express ... higher levels of these two genes in bone tissue produce more eggs and display less egg incubation behavior.[40] ...
Larger lizards, like the monitors, are known to exhibit complex behavior, including cooperation.[110] Crocodiles have ... The degree of viviparity varies; some species simply retain the eggs until just before hatching, others provide maternal ... When caught out, snake species adopt different defensive tactics and use a complicated set of behaviors when attacked. Some ... and sometimes switch between monogamy and promiscuity in their sexual behavior.[citation needed] One study found that wood ...
... overt behaviors like wandering and restlessness, reductions in agitated behaviors, and improvements to cognitive defects, ... Studies have shown that by combining live music, such as harp music, with the Kangaroo Care, maternal anxiety is reduced. This ... It was found that there was a significant change in grief symptoms and behaviors with the experimental group in the home, but ... Like many of the other disorders mentioned, some of the most common significant effects can be seen in social behaviors, ...
... a critical review of the maternal mediation hypothesis". Hormones and Behavior. 50 (5): 667-80. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.015 ... Nurturant maternal care, in turn, may enhance HPA functioning in at least two ways. First, maternal care is crucial in ... Thus, if a developing child (i.e., fetus to neonate) is exposed to ongoing maternal stress and low levels of maternal care (i.e ... and behavior. Whereas maternal care improves cardiac response, sleep/wake rhythm, and growth hormone secretion in the neonate, ...
Maternal and newborn health practitioners[edit]. Main articles: Obstetrics, Midwifery, and Birth attendant ... physical and behavior therapists, as well as allied health professionals such as phlebotomists, medical laboratory scientists, ... A maternal and newborn health practitioner is a health worker who deals with the care of women and their children before, ... "Human resources for maternal, newborn and child health: from measurement and planning to performance for improved health ...
maternal behavior. • dopamine transport. • hippocampus development. • response to drug. • neuronal action potential. • long- ... grooming behavior. • behavioral response to cocaine. • locomotory behavior. • dentate gyrus development. • transmission of ... mating behavior. • behavioral fear response. • activation of adenylate cyclase activity. • dopamine receptor signaling pathway ... adult walking behavior. • Перистальтика. • cellular response to catecholamine stimulus. • adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine ...
P.S. Our legal system still works!"[147] The gender gap has partly been explained by "the maternal instinct". The idea of a ... She received 1043 days credit[109] for time served plus additional credit for good behavior, resulting in her release on July ... While we don't know what is true and maybe never will, it is worth taking a look at the narcissistic family when maternal ... and her maternal grandparents, George and Cindy Anthony. On July 15, 2008, she was reported missing in a 9-1-1 call made by ...
... s will store extra seeds in seed caches.[8] This caching behavior affects the range-land and croplands where the ... Offspring remain in the mound for 1-6 more months in the maternal caches.[14] ... Schroder, G. D. (August 1979). "Foraging Behavior and Home Range Utilization of the Bannertail Kangaroo Rat". Ecology. ... Newmark, J. E.; Jenkins, S. H. (April 2000). "Sex Differences in Agonistic Behavior of Merriam's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys ...
... culture and behavior. Blackness can be contrasted with "acting white", where black Americans are said to behave with assumed ... "Documenting President Barack Obama's Maternal African-American Ancestry: Tracing His Mother's Bunch Ancestry to the First ...
As pups, young rats use different types of ultrasonic cries to elicit and direct maternal search behavior,[18] as well as to ... "Norway Rat Behavior Repertoire". ratbehavior.org.. *^ a b Barnett, S. (1975). The Rat: a study in behavior (pp. 52-115). ... Grota, L. J.; Ader, R. (1969). "Continuous recording of maternal behavior in Rattus norvegicus". Animal Behaviour. 17 (4): 722- ... When lactating, female rats display a 24-hour rhythm of maternal behavior, and will usually spend more time attending to ...
Captivity in animals drives them away from their natural instincts and behaviors. Some gummivores are commonly held captive and ... of gums in early mammals or their precursors might be a cause for development of mammary glands in mammals along with maternal ... Plavcan, J. M., & Kay, R. (1962). Reconstructing behavior in the primate fossil record. (pp. 165-170). New York, NY: Kluwer ...
Sexual behavior is another reason for clitoridectomies. Author Sarah Rodriguez stated that the history of medical textbooks has ...
Shiv B, Lowenstein G, Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio A (2005). "Investment behavior and the negative side of emotion". ... Audio of António Damasio 2003 lecture, "Emotion, Feeling, and Social Behavior: The Brain Perspective" at Walter Chapin Simpson ...
Extant strepsirrhines have an epitheliochorial placenta,[47] where the maternal blood does not come in direct contact with the ... Analyses of extinct adapiforms postcranial skeletons suggest a variety of locomotor behavior.[139] The European adapids Adapis ...
... is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape. It occurs in ... "BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample". PLoS ONE. 10 (12): e0143427. Bibcode:2015PLoSO.. ... "Prevention of Mental Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Problem Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective. National Academies Press. ... behavior such as hostility.[38] Furthermore, when compared to anxiety levels and cognitive effort (e.g., impression management ...
The maternal mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Inuit dogs were classified as haplotype A31 that indicates a common female ...
Behavior is linked to genetics which therefore means that when a behavioral trait is selected for, a physical trait may also be ... Often, juvenile behaviors are selected for in order to domesticate more easily a species; aggressiveness in certain species ... Thiessen, D.D. (1997). Bittersweet destiny: the stormy evolution of human behavior. Transaction Publishers, N.J. ... with the reduced need for behaviors like aggression there is no need for developed traits that would help in that area. Traits ...
Theory of planned behavior. *Transtheoretical model. Organizations,. education. and history. Organizations. *Europe *Centre for ... Maternal health. *Medical anthropology. *Medical sociology. *Mental health. *Pharmaceutical policy. *Public health intervention ...
Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws[186] ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma ( ... "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated ...
"Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Childhood Obesity". Retrieved 6 November 2016. March, Penny D., and Carita Caple. " ... It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among ... There can also be complications, such as maternal hemorrhage. Some studies show that the probability of premature birth is ... A recent study has proposed that maternal smoking during pregnancy can lead to future teenage obesity. While no significant ...
In contrast to their behavior during Pius's campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes.[15] ... His maternal grandparents were the senator Gaius Avidius Nigrinus and the unattested noblewoman Ignota Plautia. Although ...
Bullough, V.L. (1990). History in adult human sexual behavior with children and adolescents in Western societies (Pedophilia: ... On 1 October 1892, Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school.[10]:13 After his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court ... at the residence of his maternal grandparents.[10]:11 His father, K. Srinivasa Iyengar, originally from Thanjavur district, ... he was sent back to his maternal grandparents, then living in Madras. He did not like school in Madras, and tried to avoid ...
While it's unknown if she is aware that her maternal grandfather was a knight, she doesn't know that in fact both her ... She also opposes some of Jane's tomboyish looks and behaviors, to the point that she forbids Jane from attending a royal ball ... When confronted with his family's past actions, Sir Theodore begs for Dragon's forgiveness for his ancestors' cruel behavior. ... He is also very attracted to cows and finds their general shape and behavior amusing, especially their mooing. ...
Behavior[edit]. The titan triggerfish can move relatively large rocks when feeding and is often followed by smaller fish, in ... Kawase, H. (2003). "Maternal egg care in the bridled triggerfish, Sufflamen fraenatus (Balistidae) at Hachijojima island, Japan ... This behavior of female triggerfish is called 'tending,' and males rarely perform this behavior. A male triggerfish stays ... Male and female triggerfish perform certain pre-spawning behaviors: blowing and touching.[8] A male and female blow water on ...
Self-report sexual risk behaviors. Pregnancy. *Abortion. *Birth spacing. *Maternal health. *Obstetrics ...
Similarly, with the possible exception of drinking alcohol-our results do not indicate that maternal employment during ... during a childs first three years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: ... little evidence that mothers employment early in the childs life has lasting consequences on participation in risky behaviors ... This paper examines the impact of maternal employment ... "Effects of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Behavior and ...
Disclaimer All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the electronic PDF version and/or the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.. **Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to [email protected] Page converted: 4/18/2002. ...
... Details 29 September 2007 ... "In Polistes metricus wasps you have behavior thats more similar to what you might see in a maternal ancestor," Toth said. " ... Behavioral scientists have long noted the similarity between the maternal behaviors of some wasps and the nurturing and ... This method allowed them to positively identify in the wasps 32 genes known to be behavior-related in honey bees.. With these ...
In this study we show that in rats, prevention of weaning from maternal milk results in depressive-like behavior, which is ... Depressive-like behavior was studied using the forced-swim test on postnatal day (PND) 25 in rats either weaned on PND 21, or ... Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis. *Pamela Farshim1,2. na1, ... How to cite this article: Farshim, P. et al. Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis. ...
The Impact of a Brief Intervention on Maternal Smoking Behavior. Judith A. Groner, Karen Ahijevych, Lindsey K. Grossman, Leslie ... The Impact of a Brief Intervention on Maternal Smoking Behavior Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Impact of a Brief Intervention on Maternal Smoking Behavior. Judith A. Groner, Karen Ahijevych, Lindsey K. Grossman, Leslie ...
How severe maternal inflammation can lead to autism-like behavior Immune molecules in infected mothers tied to brain and ... How severe maternal inflammation can lead to autism-like behavior. Massachusetts Institute of Technology ... "And if it is responsible, what is being dysregulated within this patch to produce this behavior?" ... They also plan to investigate whether genetic makeup influences mices susceptibility to maternal inflammation, because autism ...
Epigenetic Programming by Maternal Behavior in the Human Infant. Barry M. Lester, Elisabeth Conradt, Linda L. LaGasse, Edward Z ... Epigenetic Programming by Maternal Behavior in the Human Infant. Barry M. Lester, Elisabeth Conradt, Linda L. LaGasse, Edward Z ... Epigenetic Programming by Maternal Behavior in the Human Infant. Barry M. Lester, Elisabeth Conradt, Linda L. LaGasse, Edward Z ... Epigenetic Programming by Maternal Behavior in the Human Infant Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Health Organization has identified four behavioral health priorities as risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in maternal ... implementing an effective behavior-analytic intervention and addressing social validity concerns to change maternal behaviors ... A behavior analytic framework to inform research and practice. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, 103-114. https ... Cooper, W., Heron, J. O., & Heward, T. E. (Eds.). (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ...
... problems are classified as either excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn pups or the lack of maternal behavior ... Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn pups or the lack of ... maternal behavior when dealing with the mothers own young. (Other types of maternal behavior problem also exist, but they are ... The lack of maternal behavior shown by mothers with newborn pups, especially after caesarean section, has been attributed to ...
Maternal Behavior Testing.. Pup retrieval behavior was tested in home cages on day 3 of lactation in groups of Prlrlox/lox (n ... Prolactin action is required for maternal behavior. Rosemary S. E. Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R. Ladyman, Hollian R. Phillipps, ... Prolactin action is required for maternal behavior. Rosemary S. E. Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R. Ladyman, Hollian R. Phillipps, ... Maternal behavior in the home cages (with their own pups) was recorded 6-24 h after parturition in groups of Prlrlox/lox (n = 4 ...
Maternal PRL and nurturing behavior in offspring. Taku James Sairenji, Jun Ikezawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shinnosuke Masuda, Kaoru ... Maternal PRL and nurturing behavior in offspring. Taku James Sairenji, Jun Ikezawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shinnosuke Masuda, Kaoru ... This evidence strongly implies that PRL-Rs are necessary to develop maternal behavior and also suggest that maternal lactogenic ... Maternal prolactin during late pregnancy is important in generating nurturing behavior in the offspring. Taku James Sairenji, ...
... maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The ... genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene- ... The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal ... Other potential maternal cues that were not considered in this report include maternal antibodies57, maternal-fetal HPA axis ( ...
Learn more about the Maternal Behavior Pathway from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics ... Maternal Behavior Pathway Bioinformatics. Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Maternal Behavior ... Social Behavior, Parental Behavior. The Maternal Behavior Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including ... Explore more on Maternal Behavior below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.. ...
... and population-based surveillance of maternal behaviors and experiences that affect maternal and infant health. Acknowledgments ... Information regarding maternal behaviors and experiences is needed to monitor trends, to enhance the understanding of the ... Various maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy are associated with adverse health outcomes for ... Prevalence of Selected Maternal Behaviors and Experiences, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 1999. Laurie F ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review.. Wakschlag LS1, Pickett KE, Cook E Jr ... We analyzed studies of maternal prenatal smoking and offspring antisocial behavior within a causal framework. ... Recent research suggests that in utero exposure to maternal smoking is a risk factor for conduct disorder and delinquency. We ... an etiologic role for prenatal smoking in the onset of antisocial behavior. The possibility of identifying a preventable ...
Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, ... Fergusson, D., Lynskey, M., & Horwood, J. (1993). The effects of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior. ... Child working memory, maternal education, and sibling IC did not uniquely predict child aggressive behaviors. Moderation ... Aggressive Behaviors in Young Siblings: Associations with Executive Functions and Maternal Characteristics. ...
... maternal separation) lead to later life changes in social behaviors and increased depressive and anxious behaviors (Harlow and ... self-comforting behaviors (thumb-sucking and toe-sucking), and typical social behaviors. Increased self-comforting behavior in ... Acute separation behaviors.. At the time of maternal separation, each monkey (four 1 week separated and four 1 month separated ... Monkeys experiencing maternal separation at 1 week of age show fewer social behaviors and an increase in self-comforting ...
Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 ... There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, ... Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior. André T. Gotardo 1. ... "Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior." Toxins 8, no. 3: 74. ...
... behavior, and social norms that influence health or development outcomes, known collectively as social and behavior change (SBC ... USAIDs maternal and child health social and behavior change programs are guided by Accelerator Behaviors-behaviors with the ... Home » What We Do » Global Health » Cross-Cutting Areas » Social and Behavior Change » Social and Behavior Change: Maternal and ... In USAIDs 25 maternal and child health priority countries, millions of lives could be saved through social and behavior change ...
This maternal behavior is unique from all other vertebrate classes. The basic maternal care patterns in mammals involve the ... Maternal care begins during fertilization and pregnancy however, the most prominent array of maternal behaviors are exhibited ... the medial pre optic area of the brain is responsible for the initiation of maternal behaviors. In a non maternal female, this ... The maternal behavior in these species is primarily focussed on providing warmth for the young since they are unable to ...
METHODS: Multivariate analyses of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey and the ... Womens behavior during pregnancy, which can affect the health of their infant, may be influenced by their attitude toward the ... Health Behavior*. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Mothers / psychology*. Patient Compliance. Pregnancy / psychology*. ... CONTEXT: Womens behavior during pregnancy, which can affect the health of their infant, may be influenced by their attitude ...
... and decreased licking behavior. The decrease in maternal behavior was significantly correlated with a decrease in cogni... ... and decreased licking behavior. The decrease in maternal behavior was significantly correlated with a decrease in cognition. ... These results indicate that insufficiency of THs during in utero and postnatal periods impairs maternal behavior, which may be ... treatment during in utero and postnatal periods on maternal behavior have not yet been studied. The present study examined in ...
Its a complex blend of hormonal-induced and learned behavior ... Understanding maternal behavior in cattle can be beneficial in ... "The smell and taste of birth fluids is another strong attractant that drives maternal behavior and stimulates the cow to lick ... Simply placing the newborn in front of the mother may not be sufficient stimulus to start maternal behavior, especially for ... And, dont totally dry a newborn because birth fluids are a strong stimulus in eliciting maternal behavior," he says. ...
Preterm behavior, maternal adjustment, and competencies in the newborn period: What influence do they have at 12 months ... development and behavior) were assessed, together with maternal adjustment (parenting stress and depression). Mother-infant ... This article examines whether preterm newborns behavior and their mothers adjustment to the premature birth and infant ... Regression analyses indicated that in the newborn period, maternal positive reappraisal and a planful coping style, more ...
These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA ... Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ( ... Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in ... The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum ...
TODDLER SOCIOEMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN A NORTHERN PLAINS INDIAN TRIBE: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MATERNAL PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING. ... TODDLER SOCIOEMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN A NORTHERN PLAINS INDIAN TRIBE: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MATERNAL PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING. Infant ...
Transactional processes in child disruptive behavior and maternal depression: A longitudinal study from early childhood to ... Fergusson D. M., Lynskey M. T., & Horwood L. J. (1993). The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior ... Maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems in a nationally representative normal birthweight sample. Maternal and ... Boyle M. H. P., & Pickles A. R. (1997). Influence of maternal depressive symptoms on ratings of childhood behavior. Journal of ...
Association Between Infants Regulatory Behaviors And Maternal Mental Health May Predict Unexplained Physical Symptoms In Older ... Association Between Infants Regulatory Behaviors And Maternal Mental Health May Predict Unexplained Physical Symptoms In Older ... "Association Between Infants Regulatory Behaviors And Maternal Mental Health May Predict Unexplained Physical Symptoms In Older ... Sciences, E. (2012, September 29). "Association Between Infants Regulatory Behaviors And Maternal Mental Health May Predict ...
Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in ... CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in ... In study I, stability of maternal symptoms of depression and the impact on child behavior at age 12 were investigated. The ... Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.. ...
Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. ... Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were ... Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were ... Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents ...
  • Depressive-like behavior was studied using the forced-swim test on postnatal day (PND) 25 in rats either weaned on PND 21, or left with their mother until PND 25 (non-weaned). (nature.com)
  • Although various behavioral analyses have been conducted, the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment during in utero and postnatal periods on maternal behavior have not yet been studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • On postpartum day 2, dams who had been exposed 50 ppm PTU during in utero and postnatal periods displayed a significantly longer time identifying the first pup and returning all three pups back to the nest, less time nursing, and decreased licking behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that insufficiency of THs during in utero and postnatal periods impairs maternal behavior, which may be partly induced by impaired cognitive function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preterm behavior, maternal adjustment, and competencies in the newborn period: What influence do they have at 12 months postnatal age? (wiley.com)
  • At 12 months of postnatal age, child competencies (development and behavior) were assessed, together with maternal adjustment (parenting stress and depression). (wiley.com)
  • We devised our own study, with a goal of measuring these infant behaviors with a standardized neurobehavioral exam over the first postnatal month. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • This would enable us to characterize the course of behaviors during the postnatal period and to see if that course differed between infants exposed to antidepressants in utero compared with those whose mothers were depressed during pregnancy but chose not to take medication. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Associations of Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Offspring Cognition and Behavior in Mid-Childhood: A Prospective Cohort Study. (populationmedicine.org)
  • This study investigates the specific periods of prenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in association with child development using reports from teachers and mothers. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Our findings indicate associations between EBF intention and postnatal breastfeeding behaviors, suggesting the importance of prenatal intention and psychosocial factors in supporting optimal infant feeding behaviors. (emory.edu)
  • This study used bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses to examine both curative and preventive health-seeking behaviors in seven areas of maternal and child health care: antenatal care, postnatal care, child delivery care, mother's receipt of Vitamin A postpartum, newborn baby care, care during recent child fever/cough episodes, and maternal coverageby tetanus toxoid (TT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • By engaging women through SMS at key touch points, we can improve maternal outcomes by targeting critical behaviors related to antenatal and postnatal care. (jacarandahealth.org)
  • However, it remains unclear whether the altered brain programming induced by advanced maternal age is mediated by pre- or postnatal factors. (edu.pl)
  • These effects were not reversed by the postnatal maternal care provided by the young foster mothers, suggesting that the altered brain programming is already established at birth, consistent with prenatal effects related to maternal aging. (edu.pl)
  • These risk factors also significantly affect pregnant and immediately postpartum mothers, doubling the health risk and economic burden by adversely affecting maternal and birth or infant outcomes. (springer.com)
  • This article outlines some of the critical variables in implementing an effective behavior-analytic intervention and addressing social validity concerns to change maternal behaviors in a sustainable manner, along with specific research topics needed in the field to prevent adverse maternal, birth, and infant outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: maternal and pediatric health outcomes and costs. (springer.com)
  • Various maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy (e.g., unintended pregnancy, late entry into prenatal care, cigarette smoking, not breast-feeding) are associated with adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. (cdc.gov)
  • Information regarding maternal behaviors and experiences is needed to monitor trends, to enhance the understanding of the relations between behaviors and health outcomes, to plan and evaluate programs, to direct policy decisions, and to monitor progress toward Healthy People 2000 and 2010 objectives. (cdc.gov)
  • Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, academic failure, and substance abuse. (springer.com)
  • Interventions which directly affect knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and social norms that influence health or development outcomes, known collectively as social and behavior change (SBC) interventions, are vital to the success of the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) global health programs. (usaid.gov)
  • Simple behaviors practiced at the individual, household, and community levels can save lives and improve health outcomes. (usaid.gov)
  • Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. (ebscohost.com)
  • 7. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lynskey MT. Maternal smoking before and after pregnancy, effects on behavioral outcomes in middle childhood. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing behaviors. (uio.no)
  • This study demonstrates the effects of maternal inflammation in pregnancy on long-term behavior outcomes in female offspring, revealing a behavior profile similar to male counterparts. (eneuro.org)
  • Importantly maternal depression was more strongly associated with internalizing behavior outcomes in those youth whose parents also reported low levels of marital satisfaction. (emory.edu)
  • While maternal depression was related to mother psychological control, secure attachment, fearful attachment, and self-esteem and low marital satisfaction was related to father psychological control, none of these factors explained the effects of maternal depression and low marital satisfaction on young adult outcomes. (emory.edu)
  • Influencing behavior is essential to improving maternal health outcomes in Kenya. (jacarandahealth.org)
  • RAND's research on maternal health throughout the world includes studies of prenatal obstetric care for low-income women, the effects of public assistance on birth outcomes, maternal and infant mortality, family planning and birth spacing, prenatal substance use, and maternal mental health. (rand.org)
  • The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4 , coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (nature.com)
  • Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. (nature.com)
  • ASD has a complex etiology with large genetic and significant environmental components with prenatal maternal stress 7 having been shown to be an important non-genetic factor associated with development of ASD. (nature.com)
  • We analyzed studies of maternal prenatal smoking and offspring antisocial behavior within a causal framework. (nih.gov)
  • Existing evidence provides consistent support for, but not proof of, an etiologic role for prenatal smoking in the onset of antisocial behavior. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate a need to pay attention to social and demographic factors that contribute to late recognition of pregnancy, delayed entry into prenatal care, and continued smoking during pregnancy as well as the wantedness of the pregnancy in the design of maternal-child health programs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study examined the relationship between two components of the content of prenatal care: maternal reports of health behavior advice received and initial prenatal care procedures performed during the first two visits and low birth weight in a national sample of women. (unc.edu)
  • Background: There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. (ebscohost.com)
  • In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. (ebscohost.com)
  • Results: Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. (ebscohost.com)
  • BackgroundPrenatal programming by maternal dietary protein deprivation and prenatal dexamethasone result in a reduction in nephron number and hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults.MethodsTo determine whether prenatal dietary protein deprivation results in a reduction in nephron. (ebscohost.com)
  • Maternal prenatal substance use and behavior problems among children in the U.S. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Maternal prenatal substance use and behavior problems among children in the U.S. Published in: Journal of Mental Health Policy & Economics , Vol. 10, (2007): pp. 189-206. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Prenatal exposure to smoking and alcohol-use is found to be correlated with various adverse consequences for children, including behavior problems. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We investigate the relationship between prenatal substance use and children's behavior problems using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey (CNLSY). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Specifically, we investigate whether prenatal cigarette use and alcohol-use affect children's behavior problems when they are 4-6 years old, and when they are 8-10 years old. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Our results suggest that the relationship between prenatal smoking and behavior problems are driven by underlying confounding factors, but prenatal alcohol-use may indeed cause behavior problems in children, though there may still be some bias in the results. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 13. Wakschlag L, Leventhal B, Pine D, Pickett K, Carter A. Elucidating early mechanisms of developmental psychopathology: the case of prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behavior at age 6 to 7 years: I. dose-response effect. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • For example, high prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with poorer scores on the BRIEF Behavior Regulation Index and some SDQ scales based on reports from teachers and mothers. (populationmedicine.org)
  • High prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with poorer behavioral development. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Objective: To assess whether MFA together with history of substance use, living marital status, planned pregnancy status, and timing of HIV diagnosis predict three desirable maternal health behaviors (pregnancy care, adherence to prenatal antiretroviral therapy-ART, and infant's screening clinic care) among pregnant women with HIV/AIDS. (fiu.edu)
  • Prenatal maternal intention to EBF was associated with EBF (aOR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.80) and full breastfeeding (aOR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.98-1.70) at age 3 mo, adjusting for covariates. (emory.edu)
  • 0.05) with any other prenatal maternal psychosocial constructs examined, controlling for covariates. (emory.edu)
  • Births by Maternal Behaviors - 1-Year Data reports the annual number and percentage of births in certain categories by maternal behavior characteristics (smoking status during pregnancy and initiation of prenatal care). (ctdata.org)
  • Oxytocin (OT) and its receptor (OTR) have been implicated as key regulators of anxiety, stress and social behaviors and exert potent antidepressant effects 7 . (nature.com)
  • The lack of maternal behavior shown by mothers with newborn pups, especially after caesarean section, has been attributed to gradual decrease in oxytocin , which is important during the sensitive period of acceptance of dam 's own neonates. (petmd.com)
  • The Maternal Behavior Pathway complements our catalog of research reagents including antibodies and ELISA kits against PRL, OXYTOCIN, FOS, OXT, AVP. (novusbio.com)
  • D3 knockout mice showed impaired maternal behavior, increased aggression toward their offspring, and low levels of oxytocin and vasopressin with altered expression of their receptors ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes in progesterone and estrogen levels initiate the birth process, but rising oxytocin levels released during calving trigger maternal behavior. (beefmagazine.com)
  • This pattern of behavior changes dramatically if an oxytocin antagonist is very precisely injected into the central amygdala. (elifesciences.org)
  • Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent MB in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression, and oxytocin levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The PAG contains a high density of vasopressin and oxytocin receptors, and it has direct connections with the orbitofrontal cortex , which might mediate the role of the PAG in maternal love. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers learned from other studies that the auditory cortex, which controls the handling of sound in the maternal brain, stores memories of crying help for young rats, the auditory cortex is divided into left and right sides and the team found oxytocin receptors on both sides As well as oxytocin-synthesizing neurons. (antmedic.com)
  • Confirming the results of previous studies in mice, the researchers found behavioral abnormalities in the offspring of the infected mothers, including deficits in sociability, repetitive behaviors, and abnormal communication. (eurekalert.org)
  • All mothers abandoned their pups, showing that prolactin action on MPOA neurons is necessary for the normal expression of postpartum maternal behavior in mice. (pnas.org)
  • Moderation analyses revealed an interaction between maternal depression symptoms and maternal education, such that the effect of depression symptoms on child aggressive behaviors was particularly evident amongst highly educated mothers. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, monkeys whose mothers are removed from the stable social group at 1 week of age initially show increases in contact-comforting behaviors and decreases in social-contact behaviors ( Cameron, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Correlates of maternal behavior in mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. (rti.org)
  • Once the young reach a point in their sensory, and motor development and no longer require the nutrients from their mothers milk, they will leave the nest and the mother will discontinue her maternal care behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A unique characteristic in the maternal behavior in primates is that the mothers carry their young until their locomotive abilities develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Older cows tend to be more consistent mothers and have more maternal drive than heifers, but hormones are the key factor. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. (nih.gov)
  • Maternal mental health was assessed by self-report 1-5 weeks after child birth, and researchers checked whether mothers had been diagnosed with a mental disorder during the infant's first year of life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. (diva-portal.org)
  • Female rats are generally considered less territorial than males, but their behavior changes once they become mothers (also known as 'dams') and they can become aggressive towards potentially dangerous intruders, even if this will also place the dam in danger ( Bosch, 2013 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Particularly we describe how the mothers' interactions with their infants related to a hypomanic, action -oriented style of psychological defense against depression , and how the parents' conflicts and behavior subsequently emerged in the childrens' developing personalities. (pep-web.org)
  • Mothers also reported their child's internalizing behaviors at 18 months, 36 months, and 5 years. (uio.no)
  • Teachers and mothers reported child executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). (populationmedicine.org)
  • Background: Mothers with HIV often face personal and environmental risks for poor maternal health behaviors and infant neglect, even when HIV transmission to the infant was prevented. (fiu.edu)
  • Using the strengths perspective in social work, which embeds MFA within a socio-ecological conceptual framework, it is hypothesized that high levels of maternal-fetal attachment may protect mothers and infants against poor maternal health behaviors. (fiu.edu)
  • Specifically, Genotypic differences emerged under conditions of low maternal sensitive responsiveness: OT levels increased over time for children with the GG genotype when maternal sensitive responsiveness was low, but no such genotypic differences were evident when mothers were highly sensitive responsive. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • mothers (M age = 27.8, SD = 6.5) reported PPD symptoms every 3 weeks from 6 to 24 weeks and infant behavior problems at 36 months. (elsevier.com)
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clinical work on the mother-child relationship shows that the quality of maternal care from women with schizophrenia is generally inferior to that from healthy mothers. (nebraska.edu)
  • These mothers and babies keep each other in their left visual fields during maternal care, which aids right-hemisphere processing. (the-scientist.com)
  • Sexual behavior among adolescents with HIV-positive mothers was less prevalent than among other adolescents, but was more likely to occur with adolescent alcohol use, lack of parental monitoring, and poorer physical functioning of HIV-positive mothers. (rand.org)
  • Offspring conceived by old mothers exhibited increased ultrasound vocalization activity during separation from the foster mother, increased anxiety-like behaviors in adult life, and altered patterns of hippocampal gene expression, compared to controls. (edu.pl)
  • Behavioral scientists have long noted the similarity between the maternal behaviors of some wasps and the nurturing and provisioning activities of workers. (enn.com)
  • At this point, the researchers discovered, behavioral gene expression in her brain changes, becoming distinct from that seen during her maternal period. (enn.com)
  • Maternal care in humans may impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response through behavioral programming and manifest as offspring epigenetic change. (aappublications.org)
  • This partial replication of rodent work reveals that maternal care alters the human infant epigenome through behavioral programming and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 Critically, if the subsequent litters born to dams that display these different behaviors are switched at birth, the altered stress responsivity and behavioral conditioning has been shown to be dependent on maternal behavior. (aappublications.org)
  • The World Health Organization has identified four behavioral health priorities as risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in maternal populations: tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. (springer.com)
  • Among other behavioral interventions, the use of incentives based on the principles of reinforcement has been a successful yet controversial way to change health behaviors. (springer.com)
  • Maternal behavioral problems are classified as either excessive maternal behavior in the absence of newborn pups or the lack of maternal behavior when dealing with the mother's own young. (petmd.com)
  • Though no genetic component has yet been attributed to these behavioral problems,the fact that Jack Russell terriers seem to be predisposed to the behavior indicate the possibility of a genetic component. (petmd.com)
  • Our data establish a critical role for prolactin-induced behavioral responses in the maternal brain, ensuring survival of mammalian offspring. (pnas.org)
  • Given that this 3 week difference in the timing of the maternal-infant bond disruption produces these behavioral extremes, this paradigm is ideally suited for examinations of the brain substrate associated with the development of social and anxious behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. (nih.gov)
  • Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed. (nih.gov)
  • In line with these observations, behavioral- and learning tasks with mice that were exposed to maternal inflammation revealed reduced home cage activity, reduced anxiety and reduced learning performance in a T-maze. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Behavioral analysis revealed that MIA on gestational day 16 but not gestational day 12 resulted in biphasic impairments in motor behavior. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • We used a standardized neurobehavioral assessment (called the NNNS: NICU Network Neurobehavioral Assessment), in which a trained observer spends 30-60 minutes testing the infants' reflexes, motor tone, and social and behavioral responses to various stimuli, and records behaviors that may indicate stress, such as hiccups, startles, tremors, or back arching. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Researchers analyzed two European pregnancy study groups comprising about 7,500 parents and children, and found no consistent link between pre-pregnancy maternal overweight and nonverbal skills, verbal skills, behavioral problems as a whole, hyperactivity, and attention issues in kids. (medicinenet.com)
  • There were some initial hints of an association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and verbal skills, total behavioral problems, and externalizing problems such as aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity, but this link was not substantiated between the two study groups. (medicinenet.com)
  • We find little consistent evidence for intrauterine effects of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight on childhood verbal skills, nonverbal skills and behavioral problems," conclude study researcher Marie-Jo Brion, PhD, of the University of Bristol and colleagues. (medicinenet.com)
  • Manju Monga MD, Berel Held Professor and division director of maternal-fetal medicine at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Houston, says "this study does not appear to support other studies that suggest an association between maternal obesity and early childhood intelligence/verbal skills or behavioral problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • I would say if there is a link between maternal weight and the risk of future cognitive or behavioral problems, it is much more likely to be socioeconomic," she says. (medicinenet.com)
  • The objective of this R03 application is to determine the behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of both typical and atypical antipsychotics on maternal behavior using a rat model. (nebraska.edu)
  • This project is innovative in that both behavioral (mother-pup separation, repeated drug administration and testing) and pharmacological means (chlordiazepoxide) will be employed to tease apart the specific antipsychotic effects on various distinct behavioral processes involved in rat maternal behavior. (nebraska.edu)
  • Overall, these results indicate that THs act in multiple regions of the brain during development and adulthood, affecting various behaviors throughout life. (frontiersin.org)
  • Maternal Psychological Distress and Offspring Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood. (cambridge.org)
  • Maternal inflammation induces immune activation of fetal microglia and leads to disrupted microglia immune responses, behavior, and learning performance in adulthood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on embryonic development that persist during adulthood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data show that exposure to maternal inflammation during late gestation results in long term changes in microglia responsiveness during adulthood, which is different in nature in hippocampus compared to total brain microglia. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To this end we tested the effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on rat social play behavior in adolescence and social interaction in adulthood. (eur.nl)
  • Only complex housed males truly showed more social play behavior here, while showing less social interest in adulthood. (eur.nl)
  • We conclude that MD has mild negative effects on social behavior in adolescence and adulthood, which are not counteracted by complex housing. (eur.nl)
  • a lack of social play after short isolation periods, while increasing play behavior after a prolonged period of isolation in adolescence, and less social interest, paired with intact social discrimination in adulthood. (eur.nl)
  • In addition, persistent aggression in toddlerhood, preschool, and early childhood may develop into disruptive, problem behavior in adolescence and adulthood. (uncg.edu)
  • In this study we show that in rats, prevention of weaning from maternal milk results in depressive-like behavior, which is accompanied by changes in the gut bacteria and host metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Seminal work from Rosenblatt ( 1 ), published 50 y ago, showed that maternal behavior can be exhibited in ovariectomized, hypophysectomized rats, suggesting an underlying neural basis that was not dependent on hormonal inputs. (pnas.org)
  • In rats, maternal behaviors, particularly licking and grooming, regulate the development of the offspring's endocrine, emotional, and cognitive responses to stress ( 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined the independent and combined effects of maternal stress and terbutaline (used to arrest preterm labor), autism risk factors in humans, on measures of both autistic-like behavior and epilepsy in Sprague-Dawley rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • Prolonged estrogen-progesterone treatment of nonpregnant ovariectomized rats: factors stimulating home-cage and maternal aggression and short-latency maternal behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous research has shown that injection of morphine into the ventral tegmental area(VTA) facilitates the onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rats, and injection of the opioid antagonist naltrexone into the VTA disrupts the onset of maternal behavior in parturient rats. (cogprints.org)
  • Ingestion of amniotic fluid (and therefore POEF) facilitated the onset of maternal behavior in rats receiving an intra-VTA microinjection of an otherwise subthreshold dose of morphine (0.01 μg). (cogprints.org)
  • We present the behavior profile of adult female offspring produced using a maternal immune activation (MIA) model where pregnant rats receive an immune stimulant and the offspring typically show various abnormalities consistent with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism. (eneuro.org)
  • Overall, female offspring of polyI:C-treated dams display an array of behavior abnormalities relevant to psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia similar to those previously reported in male rats. (eneuro.org)
  • Measures included laboratory-assessed working memory and IC, parent-reported aggressive behaviors, as well as self-reported maternal depression symptoms and education. (springer.com)
  • Using multilevel regression analyses, low child IC and greater maternal depression symptoms were associated with increased child aggressive behaviors. (springer.com)
  • The current analysis moved beyond a main effects model of maternal depression and extended previous findings on the importance of child IC to aggressive behaviors by using a multiple-child-per-family framework. (springer.com)
  • Increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice with hypothyroidism have also been reported ( 7 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Transactional Associations Among Maternal Depression, Parent-Child Coercion, and Child Conduct Problems During Early Childhood. (cambridge.org)
  • Maternal Depression and Parenting Practices Predict Treatment Outcome in Italian Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder. (cambridge.org)
  • Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study. (cambridge.org)
  • It is believed that maternal anxiety and depression can influence the child's capacity to self-regulate, but infant problems can also exaggerate parental problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). (diva-portal.org)
  • Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. (diva-portal.org)
  • We wondered which brain areas would be less active in parents who delivered by caesarean section, given that this mode of delivery has been associated with decreased maternal behaviours in animal models, and a trend for increased postpartum depression in humans,' said lead author Dr. James Swain, Child Study Centre, Yale University. (hugthemonkey.com)
  • A group of researchers had this same question and conducted a study to see whether or not maternal depression was associated with infant crying, specifically inconsolable crying, or "crying that cannot be soothed. (secretsofbabybehavior.com)
  • In a group of 587 postpartum women, infant crying was assessed at 5-6 weeks of age followed by a maternal depression assessment at 8 weeks postpartum. (secretsofbabybehavior.com)
  • She will focus on the effects of maternal depression treatment on children. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Four groups of infants were included in the study: exposure to SSRI-only, exposure to SSRI+benzodiazepine, exposure to maternal depression with no pharmacological treatment, and no exposure to maternal depression or psychotropics. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • We expected infants in the non-treated maternal depression group and in the two SSRI-exposed groups to have worse scores for arousal, attention, and lethargy compared to control group across all time points. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • This study examined the separate and combined effects of maternal depression and low marital satisfaction on young adult's internalizing problems. (emory.edu)
  • Results indicated that maternal depression and marital satisfaction had both separate and combined effects on youth internalizing behaviors. (emory.edu)
  • Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. (ovid.com)
  • Preliminary experiments examined the persistence of stimulation of aggression by the 16-day treatment in the absence of exposure to pups eliciting maternal care, and whether an abbreviated, 1-week treatment stimulates aggression equally. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The full 16-day E/P/EB treatment stimulated higher levels of home-cage and maternal aggression, and shorter maternal behavior latencies than abbreviated and partial treatments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a result, Bangladesh's first national comprehensive Health, Nutrition and Population social and behavior change communication strategy was launched in 2016, as well as an eToolkit for health field workers . (usaid.gov)
  • Straley, Megan E and Van Oeffelen, Wesley and Theze, Sarah and Sullivan, Aideen M and O'Mahony, Siobhain M and Cryan, John F and O'Keeffe, Gerard W (2016) Distinct alterations in motor & reward seeking behavior are dependent on the gestational age of exposure to LPS-induced maternal immune activation. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • The 2016 and 2018 SBCC Summits were prime opportunities to share the work of MCSP and its predecessor, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program. (mcsprogram.org)
  • Such early life influences can have a profound impact on brain development, structure and function and thus affect behavior. (nature.com)
  • The researchers also found that blocking this signal could restore normal behavior and brain structure. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. (pnas.org)
  • The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon. (nature.com)
  • Maternal behavior tests have been used extensively as a parameter for brain development and stress responses ( 19 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies have also shown that type 3 deiodinase (D3), which is a critical factor in regulating TH availability in the brain, may be also involved in controlling maternal behavior ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite our understanding of the role of endogenous estrogen in maternal behavior, the potential effects of exogenous estrogens (xenoestrogens) on maternal behavior and brain remain poorly understood. (umass.edu)
  • Among studies that have reported effects of endocrine disruptors on maternal behavior, none have concurrently examined effects on the regions of the brain important to maternal behaviors. (umass.edu)
  • We hypothesized that low doses of two xenoestrogens, EE2 and BPS, would disrupt maternal behavior and affect regions of the brain important for maternal behavior. (umass.edu)
  • The work summarized in this dissertation indicates that low doses of the synthetic estrogens EE2 and BPS alter aspects of behavior and brain in pregnant/lactating females, providing evidence that adults are susceptible to the disruptive effects of these compounds during these vulnerable periods. (umass.edu)
  • The availability of LCPUFA for fetal and infant brain development depends nearly exclusively on maternal fatty acid provision via placental transfer in utero and breast milk after birth. (fatsoflife.com)
  • Low doses of 17α-ethinyl estradiol alter the maternal brain and induce stereotypies in CD-1 mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results support the theory that variations in delivery conditions such as with caesarean section, which alters the neurohormonal experiences of childbirth, might decrease the responsiveness of the human maternal brain in the early postpartum. (hugthemonkey.com)
  • Jeffrey Borenstein, M.D., serves as the President & CEO of the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, the largest private funder of mental health research grants. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused by mental illness by awarding grants that will lead to advances and breakthroughs in scientific research. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • GREAT NECK, N.Y.) Two recipients of NARSAD Grants from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation have provided new insights into the link between childhood stress and the development of mental illness. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Using animal models, Dr. Brenhouse's research revealed that maternal separation causes a reduction of key interneurons in the prefrontal cortex of the brain which affect mental health, and that this reduction does not occur until adolescence. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Since 1987, the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation has awarded close to $300 million in over 4,000 NARSAD Grants to scientists worldwide. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • We are very pleased with the recent discoveries made by Drs. Brenhouse and Danese," said Benita Shobe, Brain & Behavior Research Foundation President and CEO. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The periaqueductal gray ( PAG , also known as the central gray ) is a brain region that plays a critical role in autonomic function, motivated behavior and behavioural responses to threatening stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • First author Dr. David Gyllenberg of the University of Turku, Finland, thinks the importance of this paper is that it "links the finding to an extensive literature on maternal hypothyroxinemia during gestation altering offspring brain development. (psychcentral.com)
  • As rodent models of maternal hypothyroxinemia have been developed and schizophrenia is largely considered a disorder of brain development, I hope this paper can inform future animal studies examining molecular and cellular deviations that are relevant to schizophrenia," said Gyllenberg. (psychcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate, for the first time, oppositional effects of imprinted genes on brain and behavior. (genetics.org)
  • Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. (diva-portal.org)
  • Inconsolable Infant Crying and Maternal Postpartum Depressive Symptoms. (secretsofbabybehavior.com)
  • Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in the peri-pregnancy periods may be associated with poorer child development, but research is often limited to only maternal assessments of behavior and cognition. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Among infants with higher RSA, there may be a positive relation between depressive symptoms across the first 6 months postpartum (PPD) and later behavior problems, and toddlers' dysregulation during mother-child interactions may partially explain the effects. (elsevier.com)
  • Now, classic animal studies reveal that variations in maternal care can have profound effects on early development, stress regulation, and behavior. (aappublications.org)
  • These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. (nih.gov)
  • Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior (MB), although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thomas and Palmiter, 1997 ), it is surprising to find so little data on the effects of alterations in various neurotransmitter systems on maternal behavior (MB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Poor maternal care can have profound effects on offspring that can last into adult life. (umass.edu)
  • However, little is known about the transfer of maternal glucocorticoids into yolk and their effects on offspring. (washington.edu)
  • Chicks that hatched from eggs laid by females implanted with corticosterone grew more slowly than controls, and showed higher plasma corticosterone response to capture and restraint as adults.To determine whether the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone were mediated by transfer of the steroid itself to yolk, yolk corticosterone concentration was manipulated directly. (washington.edu)
  • Male, but not female, chicks that hatched from eggs injected with corticosterone grew more slowly than controls, and female, but not male, offspring showed a decreased corticosterone response as adults.Finally, eggs were injected with corticosterone and chick performance in a maze, and adult expression of anxiety behavior were quantified to investigate the effects of elevated yolk corticosterone on cognitive ability and behavior. (washington.edu)
  • There was no effect of corticosterone treatment on anxiety behavior in adults.Thus, I show that high maternal corticosterone is transferred to avian egg yolk and that it has lasting effects on offspring development and adult phenotype. (washington.edu)
  • Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study examines the effects of targeted preventive interventions for pregnant women with elevated alcohol risk on infant health and maternal behavior. (hhs.se)
  • The detrimental effects of alcohol exposure in utero are well documented and universal alcohol prevention programs are an important part of national strategies to promote maternal and child health. (hhs.se)
  • We estimate effects by gender and focus on behaviors that are important for socioeconomic and health trajectories and represent early observable consequences of the reforms for the next generation. (iza.org)
  • We find that: (1) Welfare reform had no favorable effects on any of the youth behaviors examined. (iza.org)
  • Overall, the results from this study suggest that the intergenerational effects of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors were unfavorable, particularly for boys, and do not support longstanding arguments that incentivizing maternal employment by limiting cash assistance leads to responsible behavior in the next generation. (iza.org)
  • Furthermore, the possibility to correct any long-term emotional and cognitive effects of maternal nutritional deficits in omega-3 LCPUFA by supplementation is also an important therapeutic option to assess. (fatsoflife.com)
  • The results of studies carried out to address the long-term effects of maternal nutritional inadequacy or nutritional intervention studies in ADHD are not unambiguous . (fatsoflife.com)
  • Furthermore, physiological emotion regulation moderated the effects of maternal control and observed emotion regulation on the probability of membership in the profiles. (uncg.edu)
  • In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. (uzh.ch)
  • In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. (uzh.ch)
  • Three-wave cross-lagged models examined reciprocal effects between child behavior and maternal well-being (psychological distress, physical health functioning, and life satisfaction). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This suggests that the effects of early life stress caused by maternal separation are not inevitable. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Studies from evolutionary biology suggest that such 'maternal effects' are common and often associated with variations in the quality of the maternal environment. (isharonline.org)
  • This preclinical project is designed to determine the important psychological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying the adverse side effects of antipsychotic medication on human mothering behavior. (nebraska.edu)
  • We quantified contributions of childhood growth and concomitant maternal eating habits to the association of maternal ppBMI with eating disorder behaviors in terms of interventional disparity effects for multiple mediators. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Maternal deprivation is a scientific term summarising the early work of psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby on the effects of separating infants and young children from their mother (or mother substitute) although the effect of loss of the mother on the developing child had been considered earlier by Freud and other theorists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, acute deletion of Prlr in all MPOA neurons of adult female mice resulted in profound deficits in maternal care soon after birth. (pnas.org)
  • Next, female offspring were mated with normal mice and they and their offspring were used to assess several aspects of maternal behavior (identifying first pup, returning all pups to nest, time spent nursing, and licking pups). (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together with previous work showing that mice lacking maternal Nesp55 make more impulsive choices, this suggests that impulsive choice behavior is a substrate for the action of genomic imprinting. (genetics.org)
  • Recent research suggests that in utero exposure to maternal smoking is a risk factor for conduct disorder and delinquency. (nih.gov)
  • maternal exposure to specific environmental factors may also increase risk ( Kim and Leventhal, 2015 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Methods: We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. (ebscohost.com)
  • Maternal smoking during early pregnancy appeared to be the critical period for exposure. (uio.no)
  • Distinct alterations in motor & reward seeking behavior are dependent on the gestational age of exposure to LPS-induced maternal immune activation. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Some of these signs were similar to infants who show withdrawal behaviors after in utero opiate exposure, so it was suggested that these infants were experiencing withdrawal from the antidepressants medication. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Background: Numerous human epidemiologic and animal studies indicate that children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) is associated with increased rates of child behavior problems. (nyu.edu)
  • Objective: To investigate the relation between children's exposure to SHS in their homes and rates of child behavior problems in Slovakia, an area where such investigation has not been previously investigated and where rates of adult smoking are substantially higher than they are in the United States. (nyu.edu)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition characterised by deficits in two core domains: impairments in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors 1 . (nature.com)
  • Either maternal stress or terbutaline resulted in autistic-like behaviors in offspring (stereotyped/repetitive behaviors and deficits in social interaction or communication), but neither resulted in epilepsy. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aim 2 will identify the neurochemical basis (dopamine versus serotonin) of clozapine-induced maternal behavior deficits. (nebraska.edu)
  • Direct associations between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school were explored in this cross-sectional study of 360 kindergarten children. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, mediated pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to maternal harsh punishment to child aggressive-disruptive behavior were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Moderation analyses explored how the overall frequency of marital disagreement might buffer or exacerbate the impact of aggressive marital conflict on maternal harsh punishment and child aggressive-disruptive behavior. (elsevier.com)
  • Hierarchical regressions revealed direct pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school and a partially mediated pathway linking aggressive marital conflict to child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home. (elsevier.com)
  • Further analyses revealed that rates of marital disagreement moderated the association between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home, with an attenuated association at high rates of marital disagreement as compared with low rates of marital disagreement. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child's first three years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. (repec.org)
  • Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we find little evidence that mother's employment early in the child's life has lasting consequences on participation in risky behaviors. (repec.org)
  • We explore maternal employment, supervision, and child's employment when not in school as potential mediators. (iza.org)
  • As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. (uzh.ch)
  • Severe pre-maternal overweight status may reflect some other underlying factor that may affect a child's development, he says. (medicinenet.com)
  • The study had information on parentally and self-reported eating disorder behaviors at age 13/14 years (n=3,529), maternal ppBMI and eating habits at age 8, child's birth weight, BMI from age 7 to 12, pubertal development at 11, and relevant confounders. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This change in the behavior of the dams has important implications for the pups. (elifesciences.org)
  • In a normal situation, a dam does not freeze in the presence of her pups and instead displays an array of active defensive behaviors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Maternal behavior latency was determined by the first of two consecutive tests wherein the subject displayed pup retrieval, pup licking in the nest, and crouching over all foster pups, during the 15-min observation. (cogprints.org)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Patterson GR, DeBaryshe BD, Ramsey E. A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Goal 5 has two main targets: to reduce the 1990 maternal mortality ratio by 75% and to achieve universal access to reproductive health care, including family planning and antenatal care, by 2015. (healthcanal.com)
  • THs have also been implicated in maternal behavior by regulating hippocampal serotonin activity and glucocorticoid expression ( 20 , 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Hippocampal gliosis (GFAP reactivity) was correlated with both abnormal behavior and spontaneous seizures. (jneurosci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both the intendedness of a pregnancy and the mother's social and demographic characteristics are important predictors of pregnancy-related behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusions: We found evidence supporting a potential role for MSDP in increasing internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in offspring. (uib.no)
  • Conclusions: Despite expressed maternal intentions to exclusively breastfeed during pregnancy and universal breastfeeding initiation, prevalences of both exclusive and full breastfeeding at 3 mo remain lower than WHO recommendations. (emory.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although maternal ppBMI is associated with developing eating disorders, its role needs to be understood in the context of childhood factors, in particular childhood growth. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The limited empirical data and lack of comprehensive theory to account for the conclusions in Maternal Care and Mental Health led to the subsequent formulation of attachment theory by Bowlby. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study scheduled for publication in The Journal of Pediatrics finds that infants with regulatory problems (i.e., feeding, sleeping, and tactile reactivity) and/or maternal psychiatric problems may have an increased risk of FSS in later childhood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The existing guideline on how to develop and conduct research in incentive-based interventions for maternal health lacks enough information on the specific variables to control for to maintain the intervention's effectiveness. (springer.com)
  • In USAID's 25 maternal and child health priority countries, millions of lives could be saved through social and behavior change interventions by 2020. (usaid.gov)
  • Dr. Rask suggests, "Interventions should include strategies to improve maternal mental health and parents' ability to handle the infant's regulatory problems, as well as strategies that focus on infants who have multiple regulatory problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Targeted interventions that educate men about danger signs and pregnancy complications correlates with behavior change and increased facility births. (newsecuritybeat.org)
  • Identifying effective interventions to prevent harmful maternal alcohol consumption is of great importance. (hhs.se)
  • The principles, along with a synopsis of the methods and brief discussion, are in Annex 6 of An Evidence Map of Social, Behavioural and Community Engagement Interventions for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health , released by WHO in November 2017. (mcsprogram.org)
  • The Program developed interpersonal counseling approaches and engaged community support groups to improve understanding of optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and prevention of maternal anemia, and to increase uptake of nutrition practices and interventions (such as exclusive breastfeeding, optimal complementary feeding, and maternal iron-folic acid supplementation). (mcsprogram.org)
  • We sought to determine if variations in maternal care alter DNA methylation in term, healthy, 5-month-old infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Relationship of Maternal Psychological Distress Classes to Later Mother-Infant Interaction, Home Environment, and Infant Development in Preterm Infants. (cambridge.org)
  • Such behaviors are indicative of a eusocial society, in which some individuals lose, or sacrifice, their reproductive functions and instead work to benefit the larger group. (enn.com)
  • During the side session Male Involvement in Reproductive and Maternal and Newborn Health six field experts (in which half the panelists and audience members were men! (newsecuritybeat.org)
  • Through use of the community action cycle, group-based dialogue and learning approaches, information and communication technologies, quality improvement approaches, and engagement of community champions, we improved quality of care and cultivated an enabling environment for optimal practices and use of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) services and gender equity initiatives. (mcsprogram.org)
  • To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. (ovid.com)
  • Beyond simply delivering a message, Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) is the systematic application of theory-based, research-driven communication strategies to address individual level change and change within broader environmental and structural levels. (mcsprogram.org)
  • Similarly, with the possible exception of drinking alcohol-our results do not indicate that maternal employment during adolescence is correlated with increased involvement in risky activities. (repec.org)
  • However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. (ovid.com)
  • Smoking during pregnancy: Association with childhood temperament, behavior, and academic performance. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In addition, the findings suggest specific mechanisms operating among multiple indices of emotion regulation and between emotion regulation and maternal behavior in relation to aggressive behavior in early childhood that should be examined in the future. (uncg.edu)
  • Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. (uzh.ch)
  • We aimed to assess the association between MSDP and childhood internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in a very large, well-characterized cohort study. (uio.no)
  • Associations between MSDP and childhood internalizing behaviors, including dose-response and timing of smoking in pregnancy, were assessed at each time point. (uio.no)
  • However, she tells WebMD in an email, "Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy and postpartum complications such as fetal neural tube defects , gestational diabetes , preeclampsia , cesarean delivery , postoperative infection, fetal macrosomia (large babies) and childhood obesity , so optimization of maternal weight prior to conception is recommended. (medicinenet.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Maternal characteristics and childhood growth have been identified as risk factors for eating disorders. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We address this by investigating whether the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) with adolescent eating disorder behaviors can be explained by childhood growth and/or a concurrent environmental pathway captured by maternal eating habits. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The relatively small size of the remaining associations, once growth factors are hypothetically equalized across levels of maternal ppBMI, suggests that childhood growth is a potential area for prevention. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Variations in early maternal care in rodents, including nursing, affect epigenetic changes (DNA methylation) in the glucocorticoid receptor gene of offspring. (aappublications.org)
  • Each of these manipulations, however, produced only subtle impacts on maternal care, suggesting that this distributed circuit is robust with respect to alterations in prolactin signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Maternal care is critical to survival of dependent offspring in mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Families and health care workers who are able to integrate these healthy behaviors into their communities ensure the sustainability of USAID's maternal and child survival efforts beyond our development assistance. (usaid.gov)
  • Parental care is a term which encompasses a series of behaviors displayed by parents when caring for their offspring which are essential for the survival and fitness of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parental care encompasses behaviors that aide in the evolutionary success of the offspring (like nest building), and parental investment, which is a measure of expenditure (time, energy, etc.) exerted by the parent in an attempt to provide evolutionary benefits to the offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several species that exhibit biparental care, where behaviors and/or investment in the offspring is divided equally amongst the parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in species who exhibit biparental care, the maternal role is essential since the females are responsible for the incubation and/or delivery of the young. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although maternal care is essential in many classes of vertebrates, it is the most prevalent in mammals, since the care from the mother is essential for feeding and nourishing their young. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal care begins during fertilization and pregnancy however, the most prominent array of maternal behaviors are exhibited by the mother after the birth of their offspring and until the offspring are capable of being independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration that the offspring stays with the mother and receives care, and the types of care behavior displayed by the mother varies amongst different species, forms of reproduction, and the level of development in the offspring at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic maternal care patterns in mammals involve the internal incubation during gestation, the delivery of young, and maternal care until the young are weaned. (wikipedia.org)
  • This variation in maturation at birth requires different maternal care from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal care is critical for the development and long-term success of offspring. (umass.edu)
  • This is their way of life and I think it's poignant that today's sessions emphasize community based care, family planning, accountability, behavior change, and culture. (newsecuritybeat.org)
  • However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). (nih.gov)
  • Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. (nih.gov)
  • Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Oster G, Delea TE, Colditz GA. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and expenditures on neonatal health care. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. (uzh.ch)
  • This could imply that our current, intense breeding for production traits without including maternal behavior is resulting in a decline of ewes expressing good maternal care. (slu.se)
  • The MFA model predicted maternal health behaviors for pregnancy care (R 2 = .37), with MFA, marital living status, and planned pregnancy status independently contributing ( = .50, = .28, = .23, respectively). (fiu.edu)
  • Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors. (isharonline.org)
  • Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to adversely affect maternal care. (nebraska.edu)
  • Knowledge gained from this project is expected to enhance understanding of the extent to which antipsychotic drugs impact the quality of maternal care and the nature of such impact. (nebraska.edu)
  • There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior , indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • To address this, we need innovations that are designed to encourage behavior change at key moments along the continuum of maternal health care. (jacarandahealth.org)
  • Researchers analyzed data on child and maternal health care use from 34 African countries and found that private sector participation in the health care system is associated with increased access to health care facilities and reduced disparities in care. (rand.org)
  • Ensuring high quality intrapartum care in developing countries is a crucial component of efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. (rand.org)
  • The result was the monograph Maternal Care and Mental Health published in 1951, which sets out the maternal deprivation hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health Bowlby sought new understanding from such fields as evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology, cognitive science and control systems theory and drew upon them to formulate the innovative proposition that the mechanisms underlying an infant's ties emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bowlby claimed to have made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" in Maternal Care and Mental Health in his later work Attachment and Loss published between 1969 and 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sigmund Freud may have been among the first to stress the potential effect of loss of the mother on the developing child, but his concern was less with the actual experience of maternal care than with the anxiety the child might feel about the loss of the nourishing breast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dorsal PAG neurons are activated during various defensive behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1 ) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. (ebscohost.com)
  • We use a uniquely broad behavior testing battery to show that female offspring from inflammation-exposed pregnancies display an array of abnormal behaviors related to symptom domains of schizophrenia, similar to their male littermates. (eneuro.org)
  • 2) to what extent clozapine (as the representative of atypical antipsychotic drugs) disrupts maternal behavior via the blocking of dopamine D2 receptors and/or 5-HT2A receptors. (nebraska.edu)
  • The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing, state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver a live-born infant. (cdc.gov)
  • behaviors relevant to the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. (eneuro.org)
  • The association remained even after adjusting for variables strongly related to schizophrenia such as maternal psychiatric history and smoking. (psychcentral.com)
  • Senior author Dr. Alan Brown, professor of psychiatry epidemiology at Columbia University Medical Center, emphasized that "this work adds to a body of literature suggesting that maternal influences, both environmental and genetic, contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. (psychcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. (bvsalud.org)
  • This investigation employed a family study design to examine child, mother and sibling predictors of early-emerging aggressive behaviors. (springer.com)
  • Results revealed that children showed substantial sibling similarity in aggressive behaviors. (springer.com)
  • Child working memory, maternal education, and sibling IC did not uniquely predict child aggressive behaviors. (springer.com)
  • A promising direction for future research includes assessing whether efforts to increase child IC are successful in reducing child aggressive behaviors. (springer.com)
  • Amitriptyline and desipramine differentially reduced MB, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aggressive behavior typically peaks in toddlerhood and decreases by school entry. (uncg.edu)
  • At 2, 4, and 5 years of age mother's reported on children's aggressive behavior. (uncg.edu)
  • The results reinforce theory that suggests emotion regulation and maternal behavior display moderational relations to aggressive behavior problems. (uncg.edu)
  • 20. Chatterji P, Markowitz S. The impact of maternal alcohol and illicit drug use on children's behavior problems: evidence from the children of the NLSY. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Conversely, when there is an absence of newborns, excessive maternal behavior is due to the increased progesterone levels resulting from estrus in un-bred bitches, followed by an immediate and sharp decline in the progesterone levels. (petmd.com)
  • Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development ," The Review of Economics and Statistics , MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 474-481, August. (repec.org)
  • Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development ," NBER Working Papers 3536, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • The hypothesis that women's behaviors during pregnancy that have the potential to influence their baby's health are influenced by their attitudes toward the pregnancy was examined through use of data from two US surveys: the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (n = 9122 births) and the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 2586 births). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ingestion of amniotic fluid enhances the facilitative effect of opioid activity (unilateral morphine injection) in the VTA on the rate of onset of maternal behavior. (cogprints.org)
  • In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. (uzh.ch)
  • The project hypothesis is that at the clinical relevant dose, the disruptive effect of antipsychotics on maternal behavior primarily reflects a suppressive effect on maternal motivation and is mediated via the dopamine D2 receptor system. (nebraska.edu)
  • Choi and her husband, Jun Huh, were graduate students at Caltech when they first heard about this study during a lecture by Caltech professor emeritus Paul Patterson, who had discovered that an immune signaling molecule called IL-6 plays a role in the link between infection and autism-like behaviors in rodents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Maternal Behavior Pathway and Anxiety Disorders, Stress, Psychological, Depressive Disorder, Malnutrition, Nervousness. (novusbio.com)
  • The study of the Maternal Behavior Pathway has been mentioned in research publications which can be found using our bioinformatics tool below. (novusbio.com)
  • We have 1476 products for the study of the Maternal Behavior Pathway that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits. (novusbio.com)
  • It also plays a role in female copulatory behavior (see lordosis behavior ) via a pathway from the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, observed and physiological measures of child temperamental reactivity and emotion regulation and maternal behavior were assessed in toddlerhood. (uncg.edu)
  • The research team focused on the expression of behavior-related genes in Polistes metricus paper wasps, a species for which little genetic data was available when the study was begun. (enn.com)
  • Although genetic predisposition can play a substantial role, our objective was to investigate whether maternal environmental factors alone could be sufficient. (jneurosci.org)
  • The aim of this current review was to investigate the genetic value of incorporating maternal behavior as an indirect selection trait for lamb survival in breeding programs. (slu.se)
  • With the low genetic parameters found it is suggested that selection for maternal behavior to improve lamb survival would have slow genetic progress. (slu.se)
  • The decrease in maternal behavior was significantly correlated with a decrease in cognition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dad's weight was not associated with any behavior or cognition problems in offspring either, the new study shows. (medicinenet.com)
  • Certain socioeconomic or post-pregnancy factors such as lower socioeconomic status may increase the risk of behavior and cognition issues in offspring. (medicinenet.com)
  • I agree, the context of social and cultural norms is an underlying factor that must be taken into consideration when implementing maternal and child health (MNCH) programs. (newsecuritybeat.org)
  • Specifically, findings suggested that while early behavior problems are not a risk factor for later maternal well-being, maternal psychological distress, physical health limitations, and lower life satisfaction are risk factors for later child behavior problems. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The PAG may be specifically involved in human maternal behavior . (wikipedia.org)
  • Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. (ovid.com)
  • Links between early baseline cortisol, attachment classification, and problem behaviors: A test of differential susceptibility versus diathesis-stress. (cambridge.org)
  • Is there a bidirectional relationship between maternal well-being and child problem behaviors in autism spectrum disorders? (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Results indicated that the relationships between maternal well-being and child problem behaviors were not bidirectional. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • There are so many variables that exacerbate the maternal mortality cycle, but evidence presented here provides REAL solutions. (newsecuritybeat.org)
  • In India for example data obtained by the Sample Registration System shows there was an overall reduction in the maternal mortality ratio by 24% during the period from 1997-2003. (healthcanal.com)
  • The state of Kerala reported a maternal mortality ratio in 2001-2003 of 110 maternal deaths, in contrast with Uttar Pradesh, which reported a rate of 517. (healthcanal.com)
  • Estimates from the United Nations suggest a reduction in maternal mortality ratio from 200 per 100 000 live births in 1990 to 110 per 100 000 in 2005. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition, data produced by the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand suggests that the maternal mortality ratio has reduced even more. (healthcanal.com)
  • Health professionals have an important part to play in reducing maternal mortality however the issues need to be addressed from a broader perspective and political commitment is essential. (healthcanal.com)
  • Since 2003, MacArthur has invested more than $17 million in programs aimed at reducing postpartum hemorrhage in countries where maternal mortality is high. (macfound.org)
  • Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. (pnas.org)
  • Their hormone pump is already primed, and maternal hormones are reaching a level that makes them receptive to any new calf, even if it's not theirs. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Five experiments were performed to determine the extent to which hormones influence maternal behavior of the female mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16 , 414-422. (springer.com)
  • Maternal and Child Nutrition, 13 , 13. (springer.com)
  • Maternal child neglect is an increasingly prevalent public health issue, but the underlying biologic processes causing this phenomenon are still largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • USAID's maternal and child health social and behavior change programs are guided by Accelerator Behaviors -behaviors with the most potential to reduce the risk of preventable maternal and child deaths and also have low uptake in a particular environment. (usaid.gov)
  • These behaviors maximize investments, accelerate progress on maternal and child survival, and strengthen health programs' long-term sustainability. (usaid.gov)
  • These projects' approaches to maternal and child health enhance the impact and sustainability of health service delivery and other development programs by positively shifting health-seeking behaviors, conducting research, improving provider behaviors, and fostering supportive social norms. (usaid.gov)
  • USAID's partnership with the Peace Corps helps promote healthy behaviors in 12 USAID maternal and child health priority countries. (usaid.gov)
  • Regression analyses indicated that in the newborn period, maternal positive reappraisal and a planful coping style, more knowledge of child development, and previous experience with baby-sitting were associated with better infant development ( p =.002), maternal adjustment ( p =.012), and mother-child relationship ( p =.002) at 12 months. (wiley.com)
  • Does having a difficult child lead to poor maternal mental health? (cambridge.org)
  • Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. (ovid.com)
  • Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. (ovid.com)
  • The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. (ovid.com)
  • However, it is not clear whether this relationship is an artifact of underlying confounding factors that impact both the mother's decision to smoke/drink during pregnancy and subsequent child behavior. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We assessed the association between MSDP and internalizing behaviors in offspring utilizing information drawn from 90,040 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. (uio.no)
  • Well-known publications include: International Journal of Public Health, AIDS and Behavior, Maternal and Child Health Journal, Implementation Science, Advances in Prevention Science, and SpringerBriefs in Public Health. (springer.com)
  • As USAID's flagship global program in maternal, newborn and child health, MCSP had the opportunity to reach women and their families throughout Asia and Africa with contextualized SBCC approaches at both facility and community levels. (mcsprogram.org)
  • Information was collected about child and family sociodemographic characteristics (child age and gender, household income and residence, and maternal and paternal educational and smoking status), and child behavior problems were assessed using the well-utilized parent-reported Child Behavior Problem Index. (nyu.edu)
  • Maternal mental health and child health and development in low and middle income countries : report of the meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 30 January - 1 February, 2008. (who.int)
  • METHODS: Multivariate analyses of data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey and the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth were conducted to investigate whether women with unplanned births differ from other women in their pregnancy behavior, independent of their social and demographic characteristics. (biomedsearch.com)