Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Acrylic ResinsReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.PolyvinylsSutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Compomers: Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.TextilesReference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement: Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.IndiaViscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PolandDurapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Dental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Polypropylenes: Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Organically Modified Ceramics: Organic-inorganic hybrid polymers developed primarily for DENTAL RESTORATION. They typically contain a defined mixture of ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS; CERAMICS; and organic POLYMERS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.SingaporeMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.LithuaniaDental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Development of calcium phosphate cement for rapid crystallization to apatite. (1/4659)

The purpose of this study was to develop an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) cement which transforms to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in a relatively short period. We used calcium and phosphate solutions as the liquid phase for the alpha-TCP cement. The alpha-TCP powder was first mixed with CaCl2 solution, and then mixed with NaH2PO4 or Na2HPO3 solution for a total powder/liquid ratio of 1.8. The setting time became shorter with the increase in the concentration of calcium and phosphate solutions, reaching 5 min, whereas the setting time was longer than 30 min when distilled water was used as the liquid phase. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the cement was mostly transformed to HAP within 24 h when kept in an incubator. We concluded that alpha-TCP should be mixed with calcium and phosphate solutions since this results in a moderate setting time and fast transformation to HAP even if the method of mixing becomes a little complex.  (+info)

Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin. (2/4659)

We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures.  (+info)

Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion. (3/4659)

Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding. (4/4659)

New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys.  (+info)

Marginal adaptation of commercial compomers in dentin cavity. (5/4659)

The dentin cavity adaptation and setting characteristics of four commercial compomers were evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall contraction gap width in the cylindrical dentin cavity and measuring the compressive strength for a maximum of 14 days after setting. The dentin cavity wall was pretreated by the dentin adhesives according to each manufacturer's instructions or the experimental contraction gap-free dentin bonding system. Complete marginal integrity was obtained in only one compomer and two resin composites which were combined with the experimental dentin bonding system. The compressive strength of two resin composites and two compomers ten minutes after setting was comparable to that after 14 days which indicated that the compomers exhibited setting characteristics as rapidly as the resin composite. It was concluded that a high efficacy dentin bonding system is required for commercial compomers to prevent gap formation during irradiation caused by the rapid setting shrinkage.  (+info)

Influence of archwire and bracket dimensions on sliding mechanics: derivations and determinations of the critical contact angles for binding. (6/4659)

There is every indication that classical friction controls sliding mechanics below some critical contact angle, theta c. Once that angle is exceeded, however, binding and notching phenomena increasingly restrict sliding mechanics. Using geometric archwire and bracket parameters, the theta c is calculated as the boundary between classical frictional behaviour and binding-related phenomena. What these equations predict is independent of practitioner or technique. From these derivations two dimensionless numbers are also identified as the bracket and the engagement index. The first shows how the width of a bracket compares to its Slot; the second indicates how completely the wire fills the Slot. When nominal wire and bracket dimensions are calculated for both standard Slots, the maximum theta c theoretically equals 3.7 degrees. Thus, knowledge of the archwire or bracket alone is insufficient; knowledge of the archwire-bracket combination is necessary for theta c to be calculated. Once calculated, sliding mechanics should be initiated only after the contact angle, theta, approaches the characteristic value of theta c for the particular archwire-bracket combination of choice--that is, when theta approximately theta c.  (+info)

An ex vivo investigation into the bond strength of orthodontic brackets and adhesive systems. (7/4659)

The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of Adhesive Precoated Brackets (APC) with that of two types of uncoated bracket bases, Straight-Wire and Dyna-Lock. Two types of orthodontic adhesives were used, Transbond XT and Right-On. Three different curing times were evaluated with the APC brackets in order to find the best. Adhesive remnants on the enamel surface following debond were evaluated using the Adhesive Remnant Index (Artun and Bergland, 1984). Bond strengths ranged from 11.00 to 22.08 MPa. For both types of brackets Transbond produced a significant increase in bond strength compared to Right-On. The Dyna-Lock/Right-On combination produced the poorest results. APC brackets cured for 40 s had similar bond strengths to uncoated brackets fixed by means of Transbond. Overall, 79 per cent of specimens had less than half the tooth surface covered with adhesive following debond. Significantly more adhesive remained on tooth surfaces following debond of the Straight-Wire/Right-On group than any other bracket/adhesive combination. Bond strengths were higher with light-cured Transbond than with chemically-cured Right-On. When Transbond is used in association with APC brackets a 40-second cure time is recommended.  (+info)

Effect of permeability on indices of haemodialysis membrane biocompatibility. (8/4659)

BACKGROUND: Increases in plasma anaphylatoxins frequently are used as an index of haemodialysis membrane biocompatibility; however, their plasma levels may be influenced by the loss of anaphylatoxins into the dialysate compartment. METHODS: We compared the generation and compartmental distribution of anaphylatoxins, C3a and C5a, in a high flux and a low flux polysulfone membrane dialyser when whole human blood was recirculated through an in vitro haemodialysis circuit. RESULTS: Plasma C3a levels in high flux polysulfone (2.31 +/- 0.81 microg/ml) and low flux polysulfone (3.02 +/- 0.98 microg/ml) dialysers were comparable after 120 min (P = NS). In contrast, dialysate C3a in high flux polysulfone (0.65 +/- 0.31 microg/ml) accounted for 37.5 +/- 7.0% of the total detected (plasma + dialysate) C3a mass in the dialysers, while dialysate C3a in low flux polysulfone dialysers (0.01 +/- 0.01 microg/ml) accounted for only 0.3 +/- 0.3% of the total mass (P < 0.05; high flux vs low flux). Anaphylatoxin C5a was undetectable in the dialysate compartment of either dialyser examined. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that anaphylatoxins readily traverse certain high flux dialysis membranes; consequently, plasma C3a levels may not accurately reflect the C3-activating potential of these membranes.  (+info)

PMID: 11203649 Purpose: Fatigue behavior of luting cement film between model fixed partial dentures (FPD) and their dies was investigated to gain a better understanding of the mechanical properties of zinc-phosphate cement. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six brass dies were made, half of them with grooves and half without grooves. A cantilever FPD for each die was cast in Au-Pd-Ag alloy. Four linear strain gauges were attached to the marginal portions of each retainer. The FPDs were cemented to the dies using zinc-phosphate cement. A fatigue test machine was used to cyclically load the specimens with 50 or 100 N for 5.5 3 105 cycles (1 Hz) in 37 C water. During the fatigue test, strain measurements were made after every 0.5 3 105 load cycles to discover if strain response was altered. After completion of the fatigue test, ultimate tensile strength of each specimen was measured and statistically analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. Results: With or without grooves, strain responses were the same ...
Polyimide (PI) is a commonly used polymer in microelectronics. Recently, numerous PI-based flexible neural interfaces have been developed for reducing mechanical mismatch between rigid implant and soft neural tissue. Most approaches employ non-photosensitive PI, which has been proven earlier to be biocompatible. However, photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) would simplify device fabrication remarkably, but its biocompatibility has been only sparsely reported. In this study, cytotoxicity of spin-coated PSPI (HD Microsystems PI-2771) and conventional PI (HD Microsystems PI-2525) films were evaluated in vitro using BHK-21 fibroblasts according to the ISO-10993-5 standard. PSPIs were tested as cured at a temperature of 200 degrees C (PI-2771-200) and 350 degrees C (PI-2771-350). The PI film surfaces were characterized in terms of their roughness, energy and zeta potential which are hypothesized to affect cell-material interactions. The values of the total surface free energy (SFE), and its polar and ...
A sound knowledge of mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures is essential for modelling volcanological problems such as fracture of lava flows and dike emplacement. In particular, fracture toughness is a scale-invariant material property of a rock that describes its resistance to tensile failure. A new fracture mechanics apparatus has been constructed enabling fracture toughness measurements on large (60 mm diameter) rock core samples at temperatures up to 750-C and pressures up to 50 MPa. We present a full description of this apparatus and, by plotting fracture resistance as a function of crack length, show that the size of the samples is sufficient for reliable fracture toughness measurements. A series of tests on Icelandic, Vesuvian and Etnean basalts at temperatures from 30 to 600-C and confining pressures up to 30 MPa gave fracture toughness values between 1.4 and 3.8 MPa m1=2. The Icelandic basalt is the strongest material and the Etnean material sampled from the ...
This is an intensive course covering the basic concepts of fracture mechanics and fatigue, with emphasis on practical applications for metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. The course is suitable for those with no previous formal introduction to the science of fracture and no prior knowledge or experience is assumed.. All topics will be introduced from first principles and the emphasis will be on developing an understanding of concepts of fracture mechanics rather than presenting a "state-of-the-art" review. Lectures will be given by experts in the field with experience of teaching this material to practising engineers and materials scientists on post-experience courses. Supervised examples classes will enable delegates to work on the solution of typical problems and discuss these with the lecturers.. ...
The purpose of the research was to study both the stress intensity and the energy criteria of elastic fractures in order to incorporate the couple-stress effect which is induced by high stress gradient. The high stress gradient will be present whenever there is discontinuity in material geometry or constitution. Initial effort was conducted on a systematic reviewing and evaluation of the couple-stress theory of elasticity and the elastic theory of fracture mechanics.(*FRACTURE(MECHANICS)
It was concluded that H-CB is not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (JAPAN: Guidelines for Screening Mutagenicity Testing Of Chemicals) carried out under the experimental conditions. The test material did not induce any statistically significant, dose-related increases in the frequency of cells with structural or numerical chromosome aberrations either in the presence or absence of a liver enzyme metabolising system or after various exposure times. The test material was therefore considered to be non-c1astogenic to CHL cells in vitro (OECD Guideline 473 (In vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test)). The test material was not mutagenic to L5178Y cells following a 4-hour exposure in the absence and presence of metabolic activation under the conditions of the test. However, the test material was considered to be mutagenic to L5178Y cells following a 24-hour exposure in the absence of metabolic activation at dose levels with significant levels of test material-induced toxicity ...
We are very happy to announce our new partnership with CSC China Standard Certification in Beijing and Qingdao. Together with our well experienced and established representation through Nanjing Langmuir Trading CO.,LTD, the new partnership and technical cooperation with CSC will allow us to contribute to the development of test materials and refinement of test concepts and standards in China.. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the bioconcentration potential of the test material in fish under flow-through conditions. During the GLP compliant test the lethal and other effects in fish were determined during the exposure period of 28 days. Study Design The study was performed according to the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test) adopted on June 14, 1996 using two test material concentrations for exposure to Cyprinus carpio. Two environmental concentrations of the test material of 0.02 and 0.002 mg/L were used in this study. The exposure was concentration was maintained using SPAN 20 as solubiliser. The concentrations were verified analytically using a HPLC method with UV detection. Results There were no mortality and no signs of toxicity detected throughout the study in any dose group up to 28 days of exposure. Conclusion The test material showed no relevant toxic potential at concentrations above the limit of water ...
We are very happy to announce our new partnership with CSC China Standard Certification in Beijing and Qingdao. Together with our well experienced and established representation through Nanjing Langmuir Trading CO.,LTD, the new partnership and technical cooperation with CSC will allow us to contribute to the development of test materials and refinement of test concepts and standards in China.. ...
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The early rapid proliferation of epithelium is a pre-requisite for the rapid healing of wound surface of epithelium. In the present tests, the epithelial cells used for identifying test materials are taken from normal human skin, and the cells are cultured and grow in media containing the silicon and calcium microparticles of the present invention prepared according to the process of the Example 2. The specific combinations of chemical ingredients are pre-added in to the cell culture media used in the present tests at the concentrations as depicted in the Table of Fig. 3. One group serves as a control. Experimental groups with the test materials are compared to said control group to determine the induction effect of the test materials on the growth of cells. During the culture procedure, the media are replaced with fresh media having the same specific compositions every four days. Cell proliferation tests are conducted on the 12th and 20th day by counting the total number of cells grown in media ...
The objective of this work is to develop a solid scientific understanding of the creation and characteristics of surface fractures formed during the grinding and polishing of brittle materials, specifically glass. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the morphology, number density, and depth distribution of various surface cracks as a function of various grinding and polishing processes (blanchard, fixed abrasive grinding, loose abrasive, pitch polishing and pad polishing). Also, the effects of load, abrasive particle (size, distribution, foreign particles, geometry, velocity), and lap material (pitch, pad) were examined. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of indentation fracture mechanics and tribological interactions (science of interacting surfaces) leading to several models to explain crack distribution behavior of ground surfaces and to explain the characteristics of scratches formed during polishing. This project has greatly advanced the scientific knowledge of microscopic
Application of Fracture Mechanics to Polymers, Adhesives and Composites, Volume 33 (European Structural Integrity Society) by D R Moore
Fracture mechanics concepts are applied to gain some understanding of the hierarchical nanocomposite structures of hard biological tissues such as bone, tooth and shells. At the most elementary level...
The fracture mechanics parameter of the critical stress intensity factor (Kc) was determined by a modified compact tension test method, for the fracture of bovine tibia cortical bone at orientations of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 75° and 90° to the bone axis. It was established that, for a given loading rate, a variation in orientation from 0-90° produced average increases in Kc from 3.2 to 6.5 MN m−3/2 ...
EFM covers a broad range of topics in fracture mechanics to be of interest and use to both researchers and practitioners. Contributions are welcome...
(J. Soc. Mat. Sci., Japan), Vol. 52, No. 11, pp , Nov Fatigue Life Prediction of Coiled Tubing by Takanori KATO*, Miyuki YAMAMOTO*, Isao SAWAGUCHI** and Tetsuo YONEZAWA*** Coiled tubings,
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A column assembly for use in conjunction with a test machine, for inducing high-cycle fatigue (at kilohertz vibration rates) in a specimen of a material under test. The column assembly has isolation masses, a specimen grip, and two actuators, the latter for imparting dynamic forces to the test specimen. The actuators are arranged on the column assembly asymmetrically relative to the test specimen.
Hello to the Group, We have manufactured some PLA and believe this material in 3.0mm Ø clear is good enough for trial. the condition on free sample supply is that we need feedback -- good or bad photo for reference only Like last time we are offering some 10 mtr sections coiled in plastic bags for
In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost. As crosshead displacements are automatically measured in most modern material test machines, use of the crosshead measurements alone would be less expensive. Although much criticism exists on the accuracy of this approach in determining CTOD values, the method can still prove sufficiently accurate for many applications. The current paper aims to assess the magnitude of the errors that arise from using the crosshead displacement in fracture mechanics testing of steels with the Single Edge Notched Bending (SENB) specimen geometry. The results show that for steels with sufficiently large toughness, the use of the crosshead displacement to calculate J and convert to CTOD produces results within 10% of ...
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The Corrositex® assay is a standardized and quantitative in vitro test developed as a replacement for the dermal corrosivity rabbit test. The Corrositex kit, manufactured by In Vitro International (IVI), uses a proprietary biobarrier membrane to model the skin for evaluating the potential dermal corrosivity of a test material. A test material is evaluated based on its penetration through ...
6 mg/g n-3) fatty acids. The safflower ethyl esters contain approximately 72% linoleic, 8% oleic and 6% C16 (>2 mg/g n-3) fatty acids. The preparations are available in 1 g soft-gel capsules (100 capsules/bottle) or packaged in bulk in quantities suitable to investigators needs. o Deodorized Menhaden Oil Deodorized menhaden oil is prepared from oil that has been winterized and alkali refined; it is processed through a two stage wiped-film evaporator to remove cholesterol, volatile oxidation products and any traces of organic contaminants. The oil contains approximately 30% n-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride form; 14% EPA, 8% DHA, 8% other n-3. It contains 0.2 mg/g TBHQ as antioxidant, 2 mg/g tocopherols and 2.0 mg/g cholesterol. The deodorized oil is available in 1 g soft-gel capsules (100 capsules/bottle) or is packaged in bulk quantities suitable to investigates needs. Special requests for antioxidants-free oil will be considered, e.g., for studies involving varying levels of antioxidants. o ...
3D human reconstructed airway tissues (RHuA) provide researchers with a more physiological platform that offers apical and basal compartments for flexibility in modelling relevant exposures. We have tested the Tecan D300 digital dispenser to deliver precise amounts of very small vehicle droplets to coat the apical surface of an available RHuA.
Achieving Inter Services Selection Board (ISSB) commission exam in armed forces of Pakistan is the most reliable and fundamental step taken by the aspirants after completing intermediate/ Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC). To achieve the dream job, applicants have to go through a proper recruitment and selection process of the armed force Centre, called Inter Services Selection Board (ISSB). To know about the ISSB selection procedures, this write-up is highly recommended for the aspirants. After completion of intermediate (HSC) in Pakistan, students are offered to join armed forces through service commission…. ...
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This thesis describes a brittle fracture simulation method for visual effects applications. Building upon a symmetric Galerkin boundary element method, we first compute stress intensity factors following the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics. We then use these stress intensities to simulate the motion of a propagating crack front at a significantly higher resolution than the overall deformation of the breaking object. Allowing for spatial variations of the materials toughness during crack propagation produces visually realistic, highly-detailed fracture surfaces. Furthermore, we introduce approximations for stress intensities and crack opening displacements, resulting in both practical speed-up and theoretically superior runtime complexity compared to previous methods. While we choose a quasi-static approach to fracture mechanics, ignoring dynamic deformations, we also couple our fracture simulation framework to a standard rigid-body dynamics solver, enabling visual effects artists to ...
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SR Phonares II teeth are precision crafted with innovative next generation NHC (Nano Hybrid Composite) material. This new material has been optimized to deliver improved durability and esthetics. SR Phonares II features: Shape - Two new mandibular anterior moulds (L54, L55) Shade - Optimized A-D shading and two new bleach shades (BL1, BL2) Strength - Newly formulated NHC material delivers increased durability
View Notes - 383Q208 from CHE 383 at SUNY Stony Brook. CHE 383 Theory-Practice Quiz #2 Dec. 4, 2008 Name_ Lab day (circle): Monday Tuesday This quiz is based on material from the TLC, column
Besides the classical mechanical properties, the team of Materials Testing investigates the fatigue behavior of materials at very high numbers of load cycles. Due to the existing high frequency testing machines, it is possible to carry out fatigue tests in the very high cycle fatigue regime (VHCF) within a reasonable time. In connection with the existing analytical equipment, fast and well-founded assessments of material conditions or process parameters can be performed. This short-term diagnostics facilitates the active support of material and component developments.. In correlation with Industry 4.0 and digitally supported added value, the validation of these processes is gaining in importance. For this reason many studies focus on the process - property correlation of materials. The competence field of materials characterization and testing develops and analyzes test-based validation processes for the digital twin and understands itself as bridge builder between product or process simulation ...
stability. Their composition was evaluated using infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy type SEM with and EDAX module The cytotoxicity test for fibroblast growth using direct contact method was the in vitro biocompatibility evaluation for all studied films.. Cuvinte cheie: bioactivation; CoCr alloys; passive films; titanium. ...
D2134 - 93(2007) Standard Test Method for Determining the Hardness of Organic Coatings with a Sward-Type Hardness Rocker , hardness, hardness tests-,Sward hardness, surface hardness, Hardness tests--organic coatings, Organic coatings, Surface hardening/hardness, Sward hardness rocker,
The well - selected testing machines enable fatigue testing of materials samples and components at very high test frequencies (f ≤ 20 kHz), allowing a highly accelerated determination of cyclic material characteristics. Significantly shorter test times are advantageous, for example, in the development accompanying component validation or the time-critical analysis of different development approaches. This so-called short-term diagnosis allows to provide fast data for FE calculations or to evaluate different manufacturing parameters in relative comparison. Especially in the range of very high load cycles, the state (for example microstructural change due to heat treatment) of the investigated material can decisively influence the fatigue behavior. As a result, a lifetime prediction with known regulations such as the FKM guideline - Computational fatigue analysis for machine components, may be too conservative or the strength capacity of the material is overestimated. For the best possible ...
D.4 Containers for all coatings subject to the requirements of Subsections D.1, D.2 and D.5 shall carry a statement of the manufacturers recommendation regarding thinning of the coating. This recommendation shall not apply to the thinning of architectural coatings with water. The recommendation shall specify that the coating is to be employed without thinning or diluting under normal environmental and application conditions unless any thinning recommended on the label for normal environmental and application conditions does not cause a coating to exceed its applicable standard ...
Check the coolant level daily. Ensure it is within 2 in. (50 mm) of the filler neck or vehicle manufacturers recommendation. Add coolant, as necessary. ‪ Note: Do not overfill the coolant system.. Make a visual check for cooling system leaks. Check for an accumulation of coolant beneath the vehicle during periods when the engine is running and when the engine is stopped. ‪ Note: In order to ensure the integrity of the cooling system, it is recommended that a periodic cooling system pressure check be performed. Pressurize the cooling system 103-138 kPa (15-20 lb/in.2 ) using radiator cap and cooling system tester, J 24460-01 . Do not exceed 138 kPa (20 lb/in.2 ). Any measurable drop in pressure may indicate an external/internal leak. Whenever the oil pan is removed, the cooling system should be pressure checked as a means of identifying any internal coolant system leaks.. Clean the cooling system every 24 months using a good radiator cleaning combination in accordance with the instructions ...
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PREFACE. PART I INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL SCIENCE.. 1. What Is Materials Chemistry?. A. Different Types of Materials.. B. Uses of Materials.. C. Approaches to Producing New Materials, New Properties, and Uses.. D. Devices and Machines.. E. The Role of Chemistry in Materials Science.. F. A Broader Perspective.. G. Terminology.. H. Example Journals Where Materials Science Publications Can be Found.. I. Study Questions.. 2. Fundamental Principles that Underlie Materials Chemistry.. A. Why Are Different Materials Different.. B. The Role of Different Elements.. C. Different Types of Chemical Bonds.. D. Size of Molecular Units.. E. Different Shapes of Component Molecules and Infl uence of Solid-State Structure.. F. Suggestions for Further Reading.. G. Study Questions.. 3. Basic Synthesis and Reaction Chemistry.. A. Underlying Principles.. B. Starting Points for Materials Synthesis-Isolation of Elements.. C. Principles that Underlie Materials Synthesis.. D. Illustrative Chemistry of Selected Nonmetallic ...
The different blood tests and tube colors used during a laboratory test to collect a blood specimen can differ depending on what type of test is ordered by the health care professional and the manufacturers recommendations on which type of tube to choose for specific tests.
Invasion was calculated employing BioCoat MatriGel Invasion Chambers (BD Biosciences) in accordance to the manufacturers recommendations. The upper insert
Most sources consider Lovenox (enoxaparin) to be safe to take while nursing. This eMedTV page explores breastfeeding and Lovenox, including the manufacturers recommendations and why this drug is not thought to cause problems for a breastfed child.
Actual Exams OS X Support Essentials 10.10 training service - Apple 9L0-422 online test materials with real ACTC 9L0-422 practice exam questions.
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Methods: Ten cylindrical specimens of three commercial glass ionomers cements (Vidrion R - S.S. White, Maxxion R - FGM and Vitromolar DFL) were prepared (n=30) without surface finishing or protection. Twenty-four hours after preparation, the surface roughness measurements were obtained as the mean of three readings of the surface of each specimen by profilometry. The roughness values (Ra, μm) were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test ( ...
By means of vital staining with indicators a study has been made of the changes in reaction and in certain other attributes of a tissue abruptly rendered ischemic. Grafts of mouse skin have been employed as test material. It has been found that almost at once after implantation vigorous grafts become notably acid as compared with the normal skin and that they survive and "take" despite the acid condition, which remains at a maximum for several days. Weak or injured grafts on the contrary tend to be as alkaline as their surroundings, if not more so. Through experiments directed to the purpose reasons for this difference have been found in the lessened metabolic activities of the cells of the injured skin, and in an increased permeability which leads to a generalized suffusion of the damaged tissue with the alkaline lymph and an abnormally rapid escape of carbon dioxide from it. The influence of these factors to determine the reaction of tissues dying within the body has not been sufficiently ...
Use freetext template and delete/add elements as appropriate. Enter any details that could be relevant for evaluating this study summary or that are requested by the respective regulatory programme. Consult the programme-specific guidance (e.g. OECD HPVC, Pesticides NAFTA or EU REACH) thereof.. Note that any information that can be claimed confidential should be included in the subsequent field Confidential details on test material.. Explanations:. - Name of test material (as cited in study report): only if different from any other identifiers provided in the preceding fields.. - Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): specify. - Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): specify. - Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): provide if available. - InChl (if other than submission substance): provide if available. - Structural formula attached as image file (if other than submission substance): see Fig.: only if different from submission substance. ...
Right now, Im wondering if the local syntactians are using murals to post mid-term questions or something. Wouldnt that be great? Get the kids out of the classroom, present test materials in an engaging and aesthetically pleasing way, etc. Think what this very artist (who doesnt seem to be identified anywhere -- and I think its a set of people who do these) could do with some Upper Midwestern isoglosses! The Great Vowel Shift! fMRI scans of the brain during production of an irregular verb! My head is spinning ...
Backing materials for testing[edit]. Ballistic[edit]. One of the critical requirements in soft ballistic testing is measurement ... Biomedical testing for blunt force testing, very good tissue match Pig or Sheep animal testing[50] Live tissue Various Research ... Ballistic testing has a number of sources of variability: the armor, test backing materials, bullet, casing, powder, primer and ... Armor is more easily penetrated in testing when backed by harder materials, and therefore harder materials, such as Roma clay, ...
Glazes: Materials, Mixing, Testing, Firing." » Ceramic Arts Daily - Featured Tip of the Day. Ceramic Publications Company, 5 ... The combustible material results in smoke, which stains the unglazed portions of the pottery black. The amount of oxygen that ... Next, the clay is moved from the kiln to a container, usually a trashcan, which contains combustible organic materials such as ... The familiar technique of placing the ware in a container filled with combustible material is not a traditional Raku practice. ...
The American Society for Testing and Materials has set standards in order to judge the quality of a given fuel sample.[57] ... "American Society for Testing and Materials". ASTM International. Retrieved 2011-02-13.. ... train during summerlong test". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2009-03-01.. *^ "Disneyland trains running on biodiesel - UPI.com". www ... a b Fazal, M. A.; Haseeb, A. S. M.A.; Masiuki, H. H. Biodiesel feasibility study: An evaluation of material compatibility; ...
... o American Society for Testing and Materials. (1995). ASTM standardization news (Vol. 23, 1-7). American Society for Testing ... and OSHA maintains a list of approved testing laboratories, which are known as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories. [ ... Companies have to work with UL because they need testing to be able to sell in US. They are locked in and have few other chices ... Testing Section going "For profit"[edit]. Hi guys, I'm new to editing Wikipedia. ...
Calibration, quality control, and proficiency testing materials. *Test system troubleshooting and equipment maintenance ... CLIA-waived tests[edit]. Under CLIA, tests and test systems that meet risk, error, and complexity requirements are issued a ... reliability and timeliness of test results regardless of where the test was performed. Most Laboratory Developed Tests have ... although many waived tests are not done according to designed protocols - more than 50% of such tests are done incorrectly - ...
EN 10002 Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing *EN 10002-1 : Method of Test at Ambient Temperature ... Requirements, test methods and quality assurance. *EN 933-1: Test for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 1: ... General safety requirements and test methods. *EN 1177 : Impact absorbing playground surfacing. Safety requirements and test ... Safety requirements and testing, generally about earplugs.. *EN 353-1: Personal protective equipment against falls from a ...
"German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing. 2017-02-17. Retrieved 2017-09-06.. ... Review of Advanced Material Science. 26: 1-29.. *^ a b Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Beom Soo (2008-04-26). "Rapid biological synthesis ... and Korea's Testing and Research Institute for Chemical Industry and FITI Testing & Research Institute.[89] These various ... Advanced Materials. 14 (1): 80-82. doi:10.1002/1521-4095(20020104)14:1,80::aid-adma80,3.0.co;2-#.. ...
American Society Testing Materials. Gregory, Justin H.; Dukes, Michael D.; Miller, Grady L.; Jones, Pierce H. (2005-05-01). " ... 825-843 ASTM (2003). "D3385-03 Standard test method for infiltration rate of soils in field using double-ring infiltrometer.". ...
Nucleic acid test, for genetic material. *Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, a disease. *Nucleobase ascorbate transporter ( ...
for Testing and Materials (1986). A. Casel and H. Jorke, Appl. Phys. Lett., 50, 989 (1987) R. Holm, Electric Contacts, Almquist ...
American Society for Testing Materials. Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates (1 January 1956). Significance of ... It is described by American Society for Testing and Materials as follows: "Segregation in concrete is commonly thought as ... Ttti Chandigarh (1 July 2001). Civil Engineering Materials. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-460431-1. Retrieved 20 ... A Résumé of Present Information on the Significance of the Properties of Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and the Tests by ...
... geotechnical engineers employ construction-materials engineering and testing (CoMET) to observe subsurface materials as they ... Construction-materials engineering and testing (CoMET) comprises an array of licensed-engineer-directed professional services ... construction-materials engineering and testing; and other geoprofessional services. Each discipline involves specialties, many ... to encompass observation and testing of numerous additional materials (e.g., reinforced concrete, structural steel, masonry, ...
American Society for Testing \& Materials. p. 314. ISBN 9780803105898. Retrieved February 19, 2013. "XP/S-MP 150". TOP500. ... building upon the materials research that began in the nuclear reactors of the 1950s. In 1987 the High Temperature Materials ... detection methods for stolen or missing nuclear material and trade of nuclear material between the US and Russia. The GS&N's ... materials chemistry including synthesis and characterization of polymers and other soft materials; chemical biosciences; and ...
"ASTM D1835 - 11 Standard Specification for Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases". American Society for Testing & Materials. Archived ... One particular test, conducted by a professor at the University of New South Wales, unintentionally tested the worst-case ... and the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Propane/butane blends are also listed in these specifications. ... "Liquefied Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods". Gas Processors Association. Archived from the original on 21 June ...
Mechanical Testing of Materials Structures and Components; and Thermal Testing of Materials. Michael D. Johns is the vice ... They offer studies including both in vitro and in vivo testing of small molecule compounds, vaccines, biologics, and other test ... Current areas include: Non destructive evaluation of materials; Chemistry and Physics of Materials; Electrical, EO/IR, and ... Robert Piper at Southern Research synthesized the key starting material (a bromomethyl compound) which was used to prepare the ...
"DTDHandbook , Damage Tolerance Testing , Material Tests , Fracture Toughness Testing Methods , R-Curve". Afgrow.net. Retrieved ... Generally, materials display either a flat R curve or a rising R curve. For a flat R curve, material resistance is constant ... the test specimens must be of sufficient size to remain predominantly elastic throughout the test. The size requirement is to ... Materials with rising R curves are generally characterized by the value of G at the beginning of crack growth, but the precise ...
Development and Testing of Plastic Lumber Materials for Construction Applications. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4289-1323-3. . ... and other flow aid strategies for the specific material in use. Modern testing facilities are available to evaluate materials ... The new material pellets are formed in a mold and cooled. Pre-distribution testing can help determine the optimal combination ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.. Find sources: "Plastic lumber" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ...
DIN51 757 (04.1994): Testing of mineral oils and related materials; determination of density ... ρa is the density of the air at the ambient pressure and ρb is the density of the material of which the bottle is made (usually ... The reference material can be indicated using subscripts: RDsubstance/reference, which means "the relative density of substance ... displaystyle RD_{H_{2}O}={\frac {\rho _{\mathrm {Material} }}{\rho _{\mathrm {H_{2}O} }}}\ =RD,}. Helium gas has a density of ...
Material Testing Program EA (Edgewood Arsenal) numbers:. Further information: Edgewood Arsenal human experiments ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... "Assessment of Potential Long Term Health Effects on Army Human Test Subjects of Relevant Biological and Chemical Agents, Drugs ...
Material Testing Program EA (Edgewood Arsenal) numbers:. Further information: Edgewood Arsenal human experiments ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.. Find sources: "CB military symbol" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · ... "Assessment of Potential Long Term Health Effects on Army Human Test Subjects of Relevant Biological and Chemical Agents, Drugs ...
... :The Concept Paper of the CCR (Report). American Society for Testing and Materials. 2013. Trotter, ...
"ASTM International Standards". American Society for Testing and Materials. Pour point Cloud point Petroleum BP information. ... hence the automobile club suggest the creation of a new test standard. The ASTM no. for the test method to define Cold filter ... The tests according to EN 590 show that a CloudPoint of +1 °C can have a CFPP −10 °C. Current additives allow a CFPP of −20 °C ... This test gives an estimate for the lowest temperature that a fuel will give trouble free flow in certain fuel systems. This is ...
American Society for Testing and Materials) who produced ASTM D523 Standard test method for specular gloss in 1939. This ... Testing Materials 25, II, 396 (1925). CIE Publication No. 15.2, Colorimetry, Vienna, 1986 NPL Report Gloss Measurements at NPL ... For transparent materials, these values can also be increased due to multiple reflections within the material. For these ... For other materials, highly reflective in appearance (mirrors, plated / raw metal components), higher values can be achieved ...
American Society for Testing and Materials) International is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of ... American Society for Testing and Materials. "National Green Building Standard". Nahbgreen.org. Retrieved 2013-02-19. "ANSI / ... While the ACP is being tested as a credit, it will ultimately become a prerequisite that applies to all LEED projects. As a ... "USGBC Announces New LEED Pilot ACP Designed to Help Eliminate Irresponsibly Sourced Materials-Like Illegal Wood-From the ...
American Society for Testing and Materials. pp. 41-59. Retrieved 20 January 2015. "Epoxy Asphalt Polymer Concrete". ChemCo ... according to laboratory tests conducted at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The bridge was closed to traffic, for the first ... following the construction of several smaller test bridges using the same orthotropic deck technology. It was the first large- ...
After Sequenom launched its test on the market, several other companies began to market similar tests and cut prices. Sequenom ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... 2015),[1] was a controversial decision of the Federal Circuit in which the court applied the Mayo v. Prometheus test[2] to ... Senior Judge Linn concurred separately, saying that he was "bound by the sweeping language of the test set out in Mayo."[9] He ...
... construction materials and testing equipment manufacturers & construction materials and testing equipment suppliers from China. ... Buy quality construction materials and testing equipment products from construction materials and testing equipment ... Anti Weather Plastic Xenon Test Chamber Laboratory Material Weathering Test Equipment Standard of Xenon Test Chamber ●ISO 105- ... Anti Weather Plastic Xenon Test Chamber Laboratory Material Weathering Test Equipment Standard of Xenon Test Chamber ●ISO 105- ...
... to material selection and the final PPAP, for an optimized time to market. ... Automotive Materials Testing. Supporting you along the entire product development and automotive supply chain for an optimized ... Receiving independent and reliable test results: We verify material and product performance of various automotive components ... test specimen production via injection molding, as well as testing and certification of thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers ...
Materials testing - Measures of ductility: Ductility is the capacity of a material to deform permanently in response to stress ... When a material specimen is stressed, it deforms elastically (i.e., recoverably) at first; thereafter, deformation becomes ... Brittle materials, such as glass, cannot accommodate concentrations of stress because they lack ductility; they, therefore, ... Brinell test) or a steel or diamond cone (Rockwell test) into the surface of the test piece. Most hardness tests are performed ...
The microprocessor based integrated system provides test control, events sequencing, data acquisition, data red ... Laboratory testing of clutch friction materials simulates field conditions by the assimilation of microprocessor, solid state ... Microprocessor Based Testing of Friction Materials 821025. Laboratory testing of clutch friction materials simulates field ... The microprocessor based testing system described in this paper is used to quality audit and develop clutch friction materials ...
... is treated in this book from the physical fundamentals of ultrasonics and materials up to the most sophisticated methods. The ... Nondestructive testing of solid material using ultrasonic waves, for defects such as cavities, nonbonding, and strength ... Nondestructive testing of solid material using ultrasonic waves, for defects such as cavities, nonbonding, and strength ... The third part of the book presents test problems related to special materials or ranges of modern heavy industry, including ...
What salary does a Materials Testing Technician earn in your area? ... 52 Materials Testing Technician Salaries provided anonymously by employees. ... Materials Testing Technician Salaries. Job Title. Salary. TTL Materials Testing Technician salaries - 2 salaries reported. $16/ ... Cve Materials Test Engineer salaries - 2 salaries reported. $71,050/. yr. Allegheny Technologies (ATI) Test Material Processor ...
Download the IELTS for UKVI academic sample test papers today. ... Try our IELTS for UKVI Academic sample test materials for ... Sample test questions. Prepare for your IELTS test with free sample questions. Firefox is the preferred browser to experience ... Once downloaded, open Firefox and use the links below to view the sample test questions. You can end the test at any time by ... Once downloaded, open Firefox and use the links below to view the sample test questions. You can end the sample test questions ...
Develop & Test Materialsplus icon * Guidance & Toolsplus icon *Plain Language Materials & Resources ... the tools and resources on Visual Communication and Testing Messages and Materials to ensure your health information is ... Identify the most important factors that increase clarity and aid understanding of public messages and materials. ...
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Extended approvals from Volkswagen means UL can now perform numerous test methods from the facilities based in Melville, U.S., ... VW 52000 specifies the requirements for materials testing and for the evaluation and documentation of test results. ... The materials testing centers in Melville and Krefeld offer a broad set of services to the automotive industry to solve ... Krefeld, October 9, 2019 - UL, a leading global safety science company, officially announced two of its materials testing ...
The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Closed Loop Recovery Project aims to increase the recovery of target CRMs by 5% by 2020 and by ... Critical Raw Materials - Testing separation techniques to recover value from circuit boards * 1. The LIFE 2014 CRM Recovery ... Critical Raw Materials - Testing separation techniques to recover value from circuit boards ... Critical Raw Materials - Testing separation techniques to recover value from circuit boards ...
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Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) / Materials Testing FLIR cameras with Lock-In, Transient, and Pulse capability can perform ... It is also a great tool for thermal mapping of stress when performing materials testing. ... Thermal non-destructive testing can detect internal defects through target excitation and the observation of thermal ... NDT is widely used to evaluate the properties of a material, component, or system without causing damage. IR cameras can detect ...
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Yesterday we told you about ADOTs Pavement Materials Testing group and how it is responsible for testing aggregate and ... Materials engineers evaluate everything from the rocks that go into cement to the reflective beads used in paints that stripe ... A visit to the ADOT Materials Lab in Phoenix demonstrated how what taught in science, technology, engineering and mathematics ... You might think that highway construction is all about big machinery, heavy-duty vehicles, massive structures and materials by ...
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As a major supplier of polyester resins and synthetic materials for the thermoset composites industry, Reichhold Inc. (Research ... MATERIALS TEST & ANALYSIS SPECIAL REPORT: Making Hardness Tests a Moving Experience. Market Analysis: Material Testing ... Once the test sequence is started, no operator involvement is required. * The automated materials testing system allows ... As the testing service took off, Reichhold began to reevaluate its approach to testing. "We considered changes in the testing ...
A materials test reactor (MTR) is a high power research nuclear reactor. Materials testing reactors include: Dounreay Materials ... Testing Reactor, a Dido class reactor. Reactor Technology Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho, United States. ...
An Israeli TV reporter testing stab-proof material for a story about the innovation was accidentally stabbed when the material ...
... tested on a ZF-test rig. The rolling contact fatigue endurance limit of the Astaloy Mo-based material is approximately 1500 MPa ... tested on a ZF-test rig. The rolling contact fatigue endurance limit of the Astaloy Mo based material is approximately 1500 MPa ... Rolling Contact Fatigue Tests of Selectively Densified Materials 2001-01-3285. Selectively densified rollers from Distaloy DC-1 ... The case depth seems to be low for all materials, but the effect appears to be more severe for the Distaloy DC1 material. ...
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  • Designers asked materials engineers to devise quantitative tests capable of measuring the propensity of a material to propagate a crack . (britannica.com)
  • Materials engineers evaluate everything from the rocks that go into cement to the reflective beads used in paints that stripe roadways to the bolts that help hold bridges together. (azdot.gov)
  • Founded in 1913, ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for metals-centric materials scientists and engineers. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • The American Society for Testing and Materials was established in 1898 by engineers and scientists who sought solutions for breaks in rail lines. (si.edu)
  • Often these benefits are over-shadowed as many test engineers associate electrodynamic systems with lack of overall control, poor response to limits, and ineffective auto-tuning processes. (mts.com)
  • forum177 - Professional forum and technical support for engineers for ASTM (testing materials) Code Issues. (eng-tips.com)
  • MT provides knowledgeable reliability engineers and equipment specialists to develop test methodology and to plan customer reliability and maintainability test programs. (army.mil)
  • A sub-scale solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System, or SLS, booster design successfully was tested today by engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The 20-second firing tested new insulation materials on the 24-inch-diameter, 109-inch-long motor. (redorbit.com)
  • The test will help engineers develop and evaluate analytical models and skills to assess future full-scale SLS solid rocket motor tests. (redorbit.com)
  • Engineers from Marshall's Engineering Directorate designed the test motor with support from ATK Aerospace Systems of Huntsville, Ala. ATK of Brigham City, Utah, the prime contractor for the SLS booster, is responsible for designing and testing the SLS five-segment solid rocket motor. (redorbit.com)
  • Growing focus on noise control issues, combined with the emergence of sound quality in product design, makes acoustic material testing increasingly relevant to engineers, designers and manufacturers in a broad range of industries. (bksv.com)
  • Reducing your costs: Thanks to our accredited, independent testing centers, manufacturers are able to reduce their own costs, as they do not need their own laboratory. (ul.com)
  • The materials testing centers in Melville and Krefeld offer a broad set of services to the automotive industry to solve critical challenges and help companies to confirm compliance and deliver quality and performance. (ul.com)
  • Around the world, scientists at hundreds of universities and research centers for engineering, materials research, machine construction and many other specialist fields place their trust in instruments from Polytec. (polytec.com)
  • Performing non-metallic materials testing to explore the compatibility and durability of materials becomes a necessity where equipment is required to operate in rigorous environments. (intertek.com)
  • 4.1 The relative durability of materials in natural exposures can be very different depending on the location of the exposure because of differences in ultraviolet (UV) radiation, time of wetness, temperature, pollutants, and other factors. (astm.org)
  • Indeed, according to Bruno Belanger, Reichhold's physical testing manager, the number of specimens tested by the company has nearly doubled within the last two years. (qualitymag.com)
  • Measurements were made at different specimens with contact coupling transducers in pulse-echo testing method. (ndt.net)
  • A green ceramic step bar and a cylindrical ring with different blind holes were test specimens. (ndt.net)
  • As a result, they were unable to reliably tune and test anything but specimens with very limited variation. (mts.com)
  • The textures of Jades tested to date have ranged from medium to very fine grained material, outlining potential uses for those materials ranging from carving, ornamental use and fine jewelry, as well as collector's specimens. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Other specimens of similar size and possibly different geometry can also be tested using the same technique with minimal chamber modification. (techbriefs.com)
  • In order to minimize variability caused by these factors, it is recommended that test specimens, control specimens, and any applicable weathering reference material be placed on a single test panel or on test panels placed adjacent to each other during exposure. (astm.org)
  • When used, the control material shall meet the requirements of Terminology G113 , and be of similar composition and construction compared to test specimens. (astm.org)
  • Unless otherwise specified, use at least two replicate specimens of each test and control material being exposed. (astm.org)
  • When originators of a weathering test have the actual exposure conducted by a separate agency, the specific conditions for the exposure of test and control specimens must be clearly defined and mutually agreed upon between all parties. (astm.org)
  • The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. (mdpi.com)
  • Nondestructive testing of solid material using ultrasonic waves, for defects such as cavities, nonbonding, and strength variations, is treated in this book from the physical fundamentals of ultrasonics and materials up to the most sophisticated methods. (springer.com)
  • Thermal non-destructive testing can detect internal defects through target excitation and the observation of thermal differences on a target surface. (flir.com)
  • Now, a team of Penn State researchers has developed a fast, nondestructive optical method for analyzing defects in 2-D materials. (nsf.gov)
  • Now, a team of Penn State researchers in the Department of Physics and the Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials (2DLM) has developed a fast, nondestructive optical method for analyzing defects in 2D materials. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the semiconductor industry, for example, defects are important because you can control properties through defects," said Mauricio Terrones, professor of physics, materials science and engineering and chemistry. (innovations-report.com)
  • For the first time, we have established a direct relationship between the optical response and the amount of atomic defects in two-dimensional materials," said Victor Carozo, former postdoctoral scholar in Terrones' lab and first author of the work. (innovations-report.com)
  • Vincent Crespi, distinguished professor of physics, materials science and engineering and chemistry, Penn State, said "We can establish not just an empirical correlation between the presence of certain defects and modified light emission, but also identify the reason for that correlation through first-principles calculations. (innovations-report.com)
  • We also offer a broad range of mechanical, physical, chemical and non-destructive testing methods. (sgs.com)
  • In all, the company performs nearly 100 different tests for a wide variety of mechanical, flexural, tensile and other properties, on everything from raw materials through final products. (qualitymag.com)
  • To do so, it is necessary to be able to subject the test piece to mechanical stresses and to observe defect propagation, which requires the test piece to be accessible during testing. (esa.int)
  • In that way the test piece can be accessible in part during the test, but the characteristics of environment are difficult to control and cannot reproduce the real conditions encountered on a mechanical part while it is in use. (esa.int)
  • The described device is equipped with a drainage system and can include means for optical inspection of the test piece and also for the application of mechanical stress to the sample (traction stress in parallel direction). (esa.int)
  • LTI is accredited by the PRI Nadcap program in materials and nondestructive testing and by A2LA to ISO/IEC 17025 for mechanical, metallurgical and chemical testing, dimensional inspection and calibration services. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • The performance of materials is analyzed before and after ageing using optical, mechanical and physicochemical techniques. (cstb.fr)
  • For example, the disclosed instruments can measure mechanical properties of library members in rapid serial or parallel test. (google.com)
  • For example, the disclosed instruments can measure mechanical properties of library members in rapid serial or parallel test format, and can perform tests on small amounts of material, which are easily prepared or dispensed using art-disclosed liquid or solid handling techniques. (google.com)
  • Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. (mdpi.com)
  • Toughness is a desirable material property in that it permits a component to deform plastically, rather than crack and perhaps fracture. (britannica.com)
  • This method, says Yordy, eliminated the random edge chipping and fracture that we were recording when a plunge cutter and shell mill were tested in deeper features. (sme.org)
  • Especially when exiting the material in the deeper features with the shell mill, the relatively large decrease in torsion and compression would take the cutter out-of-load, bite the material and fracture the cutting edge," Yordy says. (sme.org)
  • It is also a great tool for thermal mapping of stress when performing materials testing. (flir.com)
  • Environmental testing of materials involves exposing a test piece of a material to a specific environment (chemical, thermal, etc.) in order to reveal any adverse effects on its properties. (esa.int)
  • It is invaluable to know the intrinsic thermal properties of envelope materials and components, as well as partition walls, to optimize building insulation . (cstb.fr)
  • The University of Bath is testing a number of waste materials to assess their thermal performance as potential materials for insulating buildings. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Professor Pete Walker (left) and Dr Shawn Platt (right) from the University are Bath are testing a number of waste materials to assess their thermal performance as potential materials for insulating buildings. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The research team at the University of Bath is testing and comparing the thermal performance of each of the insulation materials by constructing three identical prototype wall panels, each containing one of the materials. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This is the first time these materials will have been tested in such a robust scientific way allowing us to accurately assess their thermal performance against each other as well as against industry standard insulation. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The opportunity to exploit these waste and agricultural co-products is not something that should be ignored and we are hopeful that if their thermal performance is comparable or better than current insulation, industry will think seriously about using the materials in future construction. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Thermal analysis offers an accurate and cost-effective way to test materials that will be used for medical purposes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In a new live presentation, METTLER TOLEDO experts will review the benefits of various thermal analysis methods commonly used to test the properties, characteristics, and safety of potentially lifesaving new materials. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The products to be tested include e.g. frame profiles made of aluminium, wood as well as plastics and composite materials like metal profiles with thermal barrier with bracing systems. (ift-rosenheim.de)
  • For example, they put a module in for UV testing and put another new module for the damp heat test and a third module for the thermal cycling test, however, in the outdoor environment, these stresses are occurring on the module all at the same time. (pv-tech.org)
  • For example, we use the same module to put through the UV test first, then the damp heat and then the thermal cycling test. (pv-tech.org)
  • In aerospace and land-based turbine applications, high temperatures demand heat resistance, which is the major strength of materials like titanium, Ti-alloys, Inconel, and nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloys. (sme.org)
  • The European Space Agency (ESA) is interested in licensing a method and apparatus to perform tests on materials. (esa.int)
  • When compared to prior art, the described product and method are quite innovative as they allow the testing of a given sample in previously impossible conditions, such as keeping said sample accessible for stress testing while avoiding the test environment contamination or exposure to the noxious chemicals. (esa.int)
  • This method is used to ensure quality when manufacturing different building materials, since it is completely non-destructive. (polytec.com)
  • Based on the two-microphone transfer function test method, it includes PULSE Material Testing and Impedance Meter software, a LAN-XI generator module as the input module for the two microphones, and a generator for the impedance meter sound source and for control of the environmental parameters. (bksv.com)
  • The current IEC testing method (single aging stress tests) is insufficient to accurately determine the reliability and durability of components over time. (pv-tech.org)
  • The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Closed Loop Recovery Project aims to increase the recovery of target CRMs by 5% by 2020 and by 20% by 2030. (slideshare.net)
  • TESTING SEPARATION TECHNIQUES TO RECOVER VALUE FROM CIRCUIT BOARDS Outcomes of a CRM Recovery Trial in Scotland, UK The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Closed Loop Recovery Project aims to increase the recovery of target CRMs by 5% by 2020 and by 20% by 2030. (slideshare.net)
  • Based on the idea that a material's response to a load placed at one small point is related to its ability to deform permanently (yield), the hardness test is performed by pressing a hardened steel ball ( Brinell test ) or a steel or diamond cone ( Rockwell test ) into the surface of the test piece. (britannica.com)
  • Most hardness tests are performed on commercial machines that register arbitrary values in inverse relation to the depth of penetration of the ball or cone. (britannica.com)
  • Some hardness tests, particularly those designed to provide a measure of wear or abrasion, are performed dynamically with a weight of given magnitude that falls from a prescribed height. (britannica.com)
  • Intertek scientists and packaging experts work with clients to identify and isolate trace contamination, odours, coatings and more in package materials and final products. (intertek.com)
  • Testing methods being applied in the lab include proctor, used to determine moisture and density relationship, moisture content and particle size distribution (PSD). (sgs.com)
  • Field testing will include methods relevant to slump, flow and air content. (sgs.com)
  • Cellulose diacetate (general laboratory grade with 39.8% acetyl content, from Aldrich Chemical Company) and harbour marine sediment (certified reference material PACS-1 supplied by Laboratory of the Government Chemist) were finally chosen. (vam.ac.uk)
  • I'd like to put together a set of 'challenging' test files - content that is difficult to compress without artefacts or pumping. (soundonsound.com)
  • In particular, to assess the quality of cellular insulation , the laboratory tests rigid expanded foams, which can contain gases other than air. (cstb.fr)
  • This collaborative project between the University of Bath, University of Brighton, UniLaSalle in Rouen (France) and five other academic and non-academic partners, and funded under the Interreg VA France (Channel) England programme, is investigating the performance of a range of waste materials and bio-based co-products as alternative building insulation materials. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It is hoped that by using already existing waste materials or co-products, widespread use of such materials in the construction sector could lead to significant reductions in emissions associated with construction as well as reducing the dependency on natural resources used in traditional insulation such as glass wool and rock wool. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Previous ground tests of the motors included carbon insulation to protect the rocket's nozzle from the harsh environment and 5000-degree temperatures to which it is exposed. (redorbit.com)
  • QM-1 will include a new insulation material, provided by a new vendor, to line the motor's nozzle. (redorbit.com)
  • We have sophisticated analytic and computer modeling tools that tell us whether the new nozzle insulation will perform well, but nothing gives us better confidence than a hot-fire test. (redorbit.com)
  • The effect of materials in construction and as insulation makes a huge difference in the acoustic experience. (bksv.com)
  • Moving beyond non-metallic materials testing, we can provide your business with a full suite of related materials testing and selection services across a wide range of industries and locations worldwide. (intertek.com)
  • Thomas Wagner, Ph.D., automotive business manager, said, "Earning the extended approvals from Volkswagen is an important step in expanding UL´s automotive services globally and further establishing UL's position as a trusted partner in the automotive testing supply chain. (ul.com)
  • Contact us today to find out more about our comprehensive range of materials testing services. (sgs.com)
  • One of those services is testing. (qualitymag.com)
  • As a result, the company has experienced a jump in the demand for its testing services. (qualitymag.com)
  • On behalf of Siemens Power, AltaLink and ATCO Electric, Ellis Don Construction awarded SGS two contracts to provide construction materials testing services for soils, aggregates and concrete for the Alta Link WATL (Western Alberta Transmission Line) and ATCO EATL (Eastern Alberta Transmission Line) power transmission project. (sgs.com)
  • The range of services of the test institute is multifaceted. (ift-rosenheim.de)
  • Said device can be described as a sealed container able to ensure tight contact between edges of the opening and a portion of the surface of a material being tested. (esa.int)
  • In aforementioned tests it was only possible to have the test sample in a leaktight receptacle, guaranteeing the environment fidelity and safety, but making the sample inaccessible for interaction and testing during the exposure, or to carry out tests on a test piece in which a portion of its surface is exposed to a flow of testing liquid or gas. (esa.int)
  • As for the opening of the chamber contacting with the surface of the test piece, it is engineered to be leak tight, providing an adequate seal. (esa.int)
  • The source of the size effect may be from the amorphous zone developed on the surface of the material. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Clorox Healthcare, a provider of hospital disinfectants, has endorsed the four-step testing protocol as an "effective tool for assessing the integrity of a device or surface after repeated cleaning and disinfection," Eastman stated in a news release . (mddionline.com)
  • By providing experienced civil construction inspectors, SGS can assure Ellis Don, to whom is reported to directly, as well as component manufacturer Siemens and project owners ATCO and AltaLink that all materials being implemented are within specification to prevent potential failures of structures. (sgs.com)
  • See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_dispersion and the reference #2 in that URL to the paper by Ping for how it is measured). (ndt.net)
  • A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which has contained therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A diagnostic test indicator for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in sera comprising a bibulous material which contains therein the dried residue resulting from the impregnation thereof with 2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There has therefore existed, for a substantial period of time, the need for a simple testing mechanism for the determination of the concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids, especially the blood, which long-felt need is satisfied by the instant invention more fully discussed hereinbelow. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As mentioned briefly above, I have now discovered a novel test means for the determination of the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase in body fluids. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Table #: Concentration of [test material] in the solid and liquid phases at the end of adsorption equilibration period (mean s.d. (oecd.org)
  • You might think that highway construction is all about big machinery, heavy-duty vehicles, massive structures and materials by the ton - but it's not. (azdot.gov)
  • Unlike static tests, where loads are applied to the airplane structure to simulate both normal operation and extreme flight conditions, fatigue testing is a much longer process that simulates up to three times the number of flight cycles an airplane is likely to experience during a lifetime of service,' explains Jim Ogonowski, structures vice president, Boeing Commercial Airplanes. (materialstoday.com)
  • The major objective of this project was to develop mixture proportions for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) using clean coal ash obtained from atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). (astm.org)
  • In recent years, efforts to develop the Next Big Thing - whether in medicine, computer technology, pollution prevention or high-performance materials - have turned to some really, really small things: nanomaterials. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Systems analysts are assigned to each project to develop and implement a comprehensive test and evaluation program. (army.mil)
  • Throughout a given program, analysts review the test requirements, develop detailed test plans and monitor the collection of data during test and simulation activities. (army.mil)
  • books.google.com - A government publication that contains extensive information on the design, fabrication, and use of composite materials. (google.com)
  • This breakthrough, web-based solution lets you apply the remote connectivity advantages of mobile devices toward your test program. (mts.com)
  • Although the test has several advantages (see Table 1), there are also significant problems. (vam.ac.uk)