The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.
Inflammation of the honeycomb-like MASTOID BONE in the skull just behind the ear. It is usually a complication of OTITIS MEDIA.
A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Idiopathic inflammation of the VESTIBULAR NERVE, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of VERTIGO; NAUSEA; and imbalance. The COCHLEAR NERVE is typically spared and HEARING LOSS and TINNITUS do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)
Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.
Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.
A non-neoplastic mass of keratin-producing squamous EPITHELIUM, frequently occurring in the MENINGES; bones of the skull, and most commonly in the MIDDLE EAR and MASTOID region. Cholesteatoma can be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatoma is not a tumor nor is it associated with high CHOLESTEROL.
A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Transplant comprised of an individual's own tissue, transferred from one part of the body to another.
A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the LATERAL SINUSES. This condition is often associated with ear infections (OTITIS MEDIA or MASTOIDITIS) without antibiotic treatment. In developed nations, lateral sinus thrombosis can result from CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; THROMBOPHILIA; and other conditions. Clinical features include HEADACHE; VERTIGO; and increased intracranial pressure.

Noise level of drilling instruments during mastoidectomy. (1/118)

Exposure to intense noise has been identified as a potential risk in the development of hearing impairment. Social concern about excessive noise is increasing and this also extends to the operating room. A noise level study was performed in the operating room during mastoidectomy with a sound level meter and it was analyzed by a sound-analyzing program. The drilling instruments used included the Stryker, Midas, M.P.S. and Med-Next. The operator was exposed to sound levels from 69 to 83 dBA. The loudest drilling instrument was the Midas and it produced an average sound level of 83 dBA to the operator. The mean exposure time was 41 minutes during mastoidectomy. This is below the occupational noise-level regulations in Korea. However, considering that individual susceptibility to noise varies and that the otologic surgeon is repeatedly exposed to prolonged drilling noise, ear protection is recommended for the operators of high-speed drilling instruments.  (+info)

Random errors in localization of landmarks in postero-anterior cephalograms. (2/118)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the random error in localization of the most common landmarks in postero-anterior cephalograms (PAC). The study took place at the Department of Orthodontics of Aarhus University during the period 1993-1995. The material consisted of 30 standardized PAC taken in natural head position. Five examiners had to identify 34 landmarks on each cephalogram. Subsequently, all examiners had to identify again the same 34 landmarks on one randomly selected cephalogram five times with a time interval of at least 24 hours. All landmarks were digitized, related to an X-Y co-ordinate system, and an arithmetical mean was calculated. The accuracy of digitizing was evaluated by digitizing one randomly selected cephalogram 10 times. The main findings of this study are: (1) The digitizing error is negligible compared to the errors introduced by landmark identification. (2) Each landmark has its own characteristic pattern of variance, which is very similar on both sides. (3) Significant differences in accuracy exist between the various postero-anterior landmarks. The six most accurate landmarks are mastoid left (l) and right (r), latero-orbitale (l) and (r), and antegonion (l) and (r). The six least accurate landmarks are coronoid (l) and (r), condylar (l) and (r), and mandibular foramen (l) and (r). (4) A significant difference in the accuracy of landmark identification between the five examiners was only seen for seven of the 34 landmarks. (5) No evidence was found that one examiner was consistently better/worse than the others. (6) No improvement in the accuracy was found after repeated identification, thus there seems to be no short-term 'learning process'. Refereed Paper  (+info)

Multisensory cortical signal increases and decreases during vestibular galvanic stimulation (fMRI). (3/118)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal increases (activations) and BOLD signal decreases ("deactivations") were compared in six healthy volunteers during galvanic vestibular (mastoid) and galvanic cutaneous (neck) stimulation in order to differentiate vestibular from ocular motor and nociceptive functions. By calculating the contrast for vestibular activation minus cutaneous activation for the group, we found activations in the anterior parts of the insula, the paramedian and dorsolateral thalamus, the putamen, the inferior parietal lobule [Brodmann area (BA) 40], the precentral gyrus (frontal eye field, BA 6), the middle frontal gyrus (prefrontal cortex, BA 46/9), the middle temporal gyrus (BA 37), the superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32) as well as in both cerebellar hemispheres. These activations can be attributed to multisensory vestibular and ocular motor functions. Single-subject analysis in addition showed distinctly nonoverlapping activations in the posterior insula, which corresponds to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex in the monkey. During vestibular stimulation, there was also a significant signal decrease in the visual cortex (BA 18, 19), which spared BA 17. A different "deactivation" was found during cutaneous stimulation; it included upper parieto-occipital areas in the middle temporal and occipital gyri (BA 19/39/18). Under both stimulation conditions, there were signal decreases in the somatosensory cortex (BA 2/3/4). Stimulus-dependent, inhibitory vestibular-visual, and nociceptive-somatosensory interactions may be functionally significant for processing perception and sensorimotor control.  (+info)

Unexpected reflex response to transmastoid stimulation in human subjects during near-maximal effort. (4/118)

1. In human subjects, a high-voltage electrical pulse between electrodes fixed over the mastoid processes activates descending tract axons at the level of the cervico-medullary junction to produce motor responses (cevicomedullary evoked responses; CMEPs) in the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles. 2. During isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the elbow flexors, CMEPs in the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles are sometimes followed by a second compound muscle action potential. This response can be observed in single trials (amplitude of up to 60 % of the maximal M wave) and follows the CMEP by about 16 ms in both muscles. The response only occurs during very strong voluntary contractions. 3. The second response following transmastoid stimulation appears with stimulation intensities that are at the threshold for evoking a CMEP in the contracting muscles. The response grows with increasing stimulus intensity, but then decreases in amplitude and finally disappears at high stimulation intensities. 4. A single stimulus to the brachial plexus during MVCs can also elicit a second response (following the M wave) in the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles. The latency of this response is 3-4 ms longer than that of the second response observed following transmastoid stimulation. This difference in latency is consistent with a reflex response to stimulation of large-diameter afferents. 5. The amplitude of the second response to transmastoid stimulation can be reduced by appropriately timed subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimuli. This result is consistent with intracortical inhibition of the response. 6. We suggest that transmastoid stimulation can elicit a large transcortical reflex response in the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles. The response travels via the motor cortex but is only apparent during near-maximal voluntary efforts.  (+info)

Mastoid air sinus abnormalities associated with lateral venous sinus thrombosis: cause or consequence? (5/118)

BACKGROUND: Mastoiditis is a known cause of lateral venous sinus thrombosis (LST). We have encountered patients with LST associated with mastoid abnormality on MRI without any clinical signs of infection; the significance of these abnormalities is uncertain. This study examines the relationship of LST and mastoid air sinus abnormalities systematically. SUMMARY OF REPORT: We performed a retrospective clinical and radiological review of a series of 26 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Mastoid abnormalities were detected ipsilateral to 9 of 23 thrombosed lateral sinuses (39%) and 0 of 29 unaffected lateral sinuses (P<0.001). No patient had clinical evidence of mastoiditis. Eight of 9 patients with mastoid abnormalities were treated without antibiotics; all made uneventful clinical recoveries. Repeated MRI in 1 patient revealed reversal of the mastoid changes. CONCLUSIONS: The mastoid changes observed are likely to be due to venous congestion as a consequence of LST, not mastoiditis.  (+info)

Comparison of human ocular torsion patterns during natural and galvanic vestibular stimulation. (6/118)

Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is reported to induce interindividually variable tonic ocular torsion (OT) and superimposed torsional nystagmus. It has been proposed that the tonic component results from the activation of otolith afferents. We tested our hypothesis that both the tonic and the phasic OT are mainly due to semicircular canal (SCC) stimulation by examining whether the OT patterns elicited by GVS can be reproduced by pure SCC stimulations. Using videooculography we measured the OT of six healthy subjects while two different stimuli with a duration of 20 s were applied: 1) transmastoidal GVS steps of 2 mA with the head in a pitched nose-down position and 2) angular head rotations around a combined roll-yaw axis parallel to the gravity vector with the head in the same position. The stimulation profile was individually scaled to match the nystagmus properties from GVS and consisted of a sustained velocity step of 4-12 degrees /s on which a velocity ramp of 0.67-2 degrees /s(2) was superimposed. Since blinks were reported to induce transient torsional eye movements, the subjects were also asked to blink once 10 s after stimulus onset. Analysis of torsional eye movements under both conditions revealed no significant differences. Thus we conclude that both the tonic and the phasic OT responses to GVS can be reproduced by pure rotational stimulations and that the OT-related effects of GVS on SCC afferents are similar to natural stimulations at small amplitudes.  (+info)

Diffusion-weighted imaging for differentiating recurrent cholesteatoma from granulation tissue after mastoidectomy: case report. (7/118)

Identification of recurrent cholesteatoma and differentiation from postoperative granulation tissue is important in a patient who has undergone mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma. We describe the diffusion-weighted imaging findings and apparent diffusion coefficient values in a case of recurrent cholesteatoma. This case suggests possible differentiation of cholesteatoma from granulation tissue on the basis of diffusion-weighted imaging findings.  (+info)

Vibration-induced ocular torsion and nystagmus after unilateral vestibular deafferentation. (8/118)

Vibration is an excitatory stimulus for both vestibular and proprioceptive afferents. Vibration applied either to the skull or to the neck muscles of subjects after unilateral vestibular deafferentation induces nystagmus and a shift of the subjective visual horizontal. Previous studies have ascribed these effects to vibratory stimulation of neck muscle proprioceptors. Using scleral search coils, we recorded three-dimensional eye movements during unilateral 92 Hz vibration of the mastoid bone or of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in 18 subjects with chronic unilateral vestibular deficits after vestibular neurectomy or neuro-labyrinthitis. Nine subjects had lost function of all three semicircular canals (SSCs) on one side, and the other nine had lost function of only the anterior and lateral SSCs. Vibration of the mastoid bone or of the SCM muscle on either side induced an ipsilesional tonic shift of torsional eye position of up to 6.5 degrees during visual fixation, as well as a nystagmus with horizontal, vertical and torsional components in darkness. Subjects who had lost function of all three SSCs on one side showed a larger shift in ocular torsion in response to SCM vibration than did subjects who had lost function of only two SSCs. The difference between ocular torsion produced by ipsilesional muscle or bone vibration was not significantly different from that produced by contralesional bone or muscle vibration. The vibration-induced nystagmus rotation axis tended to align with the pitch (y) axis of the head in subjects who had lost only anterior and lateral SSC function, and with the roll (x) axis of the head in subjects who had lost function of all three SSCs. We propose that the previously described vibration-induced shift of the subjective visual horizontal can be explained by the vibration-induced ocular torsion, and that the magnitude of ocular torsion is related to the extent of the unilateral vestibular deficit. While altered proprioceptive inputs from neck muscles might be important in the mechanism of vibration-induced ocular torsion and nystagmus after unilateral vestibular deafferentation, vibratory stimulation of vestibular receptors in the intact labyrinth also appears to have an important role.  (+info)

The mastoid is a term used in anatomy and refers to the bony prominence located at the base of the skull, posterior to the ear. More specifically, it's part of the temporal bone, one of the bones that forms the side and base of the skull. The mastoid process provides attachment for various muscles involved in chewing and moving the head.

In a medical context, "mastoid" can also refer to conditions or procedures related to this area. For example, mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, while a mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part or all of the mastoid process.

Mastoiditis is a medical condition characterized by an infection and inflammation of the mastoid process, which is the bony prominence located behind the ear. The mastoid process contains air cells that are connected to the middle ear, and an infection in the middle ear (otitis media) can spread to the mastoid process, resulting in mastoiditis.

The symptoms of mastoiditis may include:

* Pain and tenderness behind the ear
* Swelling or redness of the skin behind the ear
* Ear drainage or discharge
* Fever and headache
* Hearing loss or difficulty hearing

Mastoiditis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as possible surgical intervention if the infection does not respond to medication or if it has caused significant damage to the mastoid process. If left untreated, mastoiditis can lead to complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or even death.

Cholesteatoma, middle ear is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal growth of skin cells (keratinizing squamous epithelium) within the middle ear space. This skin cells accumulation forms a pearly, white, or gray mass that can erode and destroy surrounding structures such as the ossicles (the tiny bones in the middle ear), the mastoid process (a bony prominence behind the ear), and even the inner ear or brain.

Cholesteatomas can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). Acquired cholesteatomas are more common and usually result from repeated middle ear infections that cause a retraction pocket of the eardrum, which then traps skin cells leading to their abnormal growth. Symptoms of cholesteatoma may include hearing loss, ear drainage, ear pain, vertigo, or facial weakness. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cholesteatoma and restoration of any damaged structures.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

The middle ear is the middle of the three parts of the ear, located between the outer ear and inner ear. It contains three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear also contains the Eustachian tube, which helps regulate air pressure in the middle ear and protects against infection by allowing fluid to drain from the middle ear into the back of the throat.

The ear canal, also known as the external auditory canal, is the tubular passage that extends from the outer ear (pinna) to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is lined with skin and tiny hairs, and is responsible for conducting sound waves from the outside environment to the middle and inner ear. The ear canal is typically about 2.5 cm long in adults and has a self-cleaning mechanism that helps to keep it free of debris and wax.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Vestibular neuronitis, also known as vestibular neuritis, is a medical condition that affects the inner ear's vestibular system. It is characterized by sudden and severe vertigo (a spinning sensation), nausea, vomiting, and unsteadiness, typically lasting for several days to weeks.

The condition results from an inflammation of the vestibular nerve, which carries information about balance and motion from the inner ear to the brain. The exact cause of the inflammation is not always clear, but it is thought to be due to a viral infection or an autoimmune response.

Vestibular neuronitis is differentiated from labyrinthitis, another inner ear disorder, by the absence of hearing loss in vestibular neuronitis. In labyrinthitis, there may be hearing loss as well as vertigo and balance problems. Treatment for vestibular neuronitis typically involves medication to manage symptoms such as nausea and vertigo, along with physical therapy exercises to help retrain the brain to maintain balance.

Caloric tests are a type of diagnostic test used in otology and neurotology to evaluate the function of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and eye movements. The tests involve stimulating the vestibular system with warm or cool air or water, and then observing and measuring the resulting eye movements.

During the test, the patient sits in a chair with their head tilted back at a 30-degree angle. A special goggles device is placed over their eyes to measure and record eye movements. Then, warm or cool air or water is introduced into each ear canal, alternately, for about 20-30 seconds.

The stimulation of the inner ear with warm or cold temperatures creates a difference in temperature between the inner ear and the brain, which activates the vestibular system and causes eye movements called nystagmus. The direction and intensity of the nystagmus are then analyzed to determine if there is any damage or dysfunction in the vestibular system.

Caloric tests can help identify lesions in the vestibular system, such as vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis, and can also help differentiate between peripheral and central vestibular disorders.

Ear diseases are medical conditions that affect the ear and its various components, including the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), ear pain, and discharge. Some common ear diseases include:

1. Otitis externa (swimmer's ear) - an infection or inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal.
2. Otitis media - an infection or inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by a cold or flu.
3. Cholesteatoma - a skin growth that develops in the middle ear behind the eardrum.
4. Meniere's disease - a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders - problems with the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, which can cause ear pain and other symptoms.
6. Acoustic neuroma - a noncancerous tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss.

Treatment for ear diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, surgery, or other therapies. If you are experiencing symptoms of an ear disease, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist).

Cholesteatoma is a type of skin growth that occurs in the middle ear behind the eardrum. It is not a cancerous or precancerous growth but can still cause significant damage to the surrounding structures if left untreated. Cholesteatomas typically begin as small collections of dead skin cells, which then accumulate and expand over time, forming a sac-like structure that can erode the bones of the middle ear and lead to hearing loss, balance problems, and even facial paralysis in severe cases.

Cholesteatomas can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). Acquired cholesteatomas are more common and typically result from repeated ear infections or trauma to the eardrum that causes a pocket or retraction of the eardrum to form, which then traps skin cells and debris. Over time, these cells can multiply and become a cholesteatoma.

Treatment for cholesteatoma typically involves surgical removal of the growth, as well as any damaged bone or tissue. In some cases, additional procedures may be necessary to restore hearing function. Regular follow-up care is also important to monitor for recurrence and ensure proper healing.

Dysgeusia is a medical term that refers to a distortion in the ability to taste. It can cause food and drinks to have a metallic, rancid, or bitter taste. Dysgeusia is different from ageusia, which is the complete loss of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a reduced ability to taste.

Dysgeusia can be caused by various factors, including damage to the nerves responsible for taste, exposure to certain chemicals or medications, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment for dysgeusia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the symptom, changing the medication or adjusting the dosage may help. In other cases, addressing the underlying medical condition may improve taste perception.

Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to reconstruct or repair the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and/or the small bones of the middle ear (ossicles). The primary goal of this surgery is to restore hearing, but it can also help manage chronic middle ear infections, traumatic eardrum perforations, or cholesteatoma (a skin growth in the middle ear).

During the procedure, a surgeon may use various techniques such as grafting tissue from another part of the body to rebuild the eardrum or using prosthetic materials to reconstruct the ossicles. The choice of technique depends on the extent and location of the damage. Tympanoplasty is typically an outpatient procedure, meaning patients can return home on the same day of the surgery.

An autograft, also known as an autologous graft, is a type of graft in which tissue is transferred from one part of the body to another in the same individual. In other words, the tissue is taken from the patient themselves and then transplanted to a different site on their own body. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to repair damaged or missing tissue due to injury, disease, or surgery.

There are several types of autografts, including:

* Skin grafts: In this type of autograft, healthy skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body that has been damaged or lost its own skin due to burns, injury, or surgery.
* Bone grafts: In this type of autograft, bone tissue is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body to repair a fracture or fusion, or to provide support for dental implants.
* Tendon grafts: In this type of autograft, tendons are taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body to replace damaged or torn tendons.
* Cartilage grafts: In this type of autograft, cartilage tissue is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body to repair damaged or missing cartilage due to injury or disease.

Autografts are generally considered to be the "gold standard" for grafting procedures because they have a lower risk of rejection compared to allografts (grafts from another individual) and xenografts (grafts from an animal). However, there are some risks associated with autografts, including infection, bleeding, and pain at the donor site.

Osteoblastoma is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation. It typically affects children and young adults, with around two-thirds of cases occurring in individuals under 30 years old.

Osteoblastomas usually develop in the long bones of the body, such as the femur (thigh bone) or tibia (shin bone), but they can also occur in the vertebrae of the spine. The tumor tends to grow slowly and may cause symptoms like pain, swelling, or tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, it can lead to pathological fractures (fractures caused by weakened bone structure).

While osteoblastomas are generally not life-threatening, they can be locally aggressive and cause significant morbidity if left untreated. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by curettage (scraping) and bone grafting to fill the void created by the tumor excision. In some cases, adjuvant therapies like cryosurgery or radiation therapy may be used to ensure complete tumor eradication.

Lateral sinus thrombosis, also known as sigmoid sinus thrombosis, is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the lateral or sigmoid sinus, which are venous structures located in the skull that help drain blood from the brain.

The lateral sinuses are situated near the mastoid process of the temporal bone and can become thrombosed due to various reasons such as infection (often associated with ear or mastoid infections), trauma, tumors, or other underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Symptoms of lateral sinus thrombosis may include headache, fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, and signs of increased intracranial pressure such as papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). Diagnosis is typically made with the help of imaging studies like CT or MRI scans, and treatment often involves anticoagulation therapy to prevent clot expansion and potential complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the clot or manage any underlying conditions.

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Where are the mastoid air cells located in the ear?. In this Article. Mastoiditis is a bacterial infection of the mastoid air ... The mastoid bone, which is full of these air cells, is part of the temporal bone of the skull. The mastoid air cells are ... What does fluid in mastoid air cells mean?. Fluid signal in the mastoid can be such an incidental finding on MRI of the brain. ... Can Mastoids be removed?. Mastoidectomy is surgical removal of infected mastoid air cells. This procedure involves opening the ...
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Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid antrum mucus lining and the mastoid air cells in the mastoid process. Mastoiditis is ... Mastoid Process Disease. A mastoid process can be affected by one or more diseases, just as any other part of the body. The ... Mastoid Process Anatomy. The mastoid process is a smooth, conical projection of bone with several structures that allow it to ... Mastoid Process Location. On the underside of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, behind the external auditory meatus, is ...
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Getting an order for mastoids is rare these days. But it still happens occasionally, and when it does dont be ashamed to pull ... Tissue thickness, superimposing shadows, and awkward patient positioning make the mastoid process a difficult body part to ...
Middle Ear & MastoidScott Stocker2020-08-19T20:47:42-07:00 Middle Ear & Mastoid. ...
Mastoid segment. The second genu marks the beginning of the mastoid segment. The second genu is lateral and posterior to the ... The nerve continues vertically down the anterior wall of the mastoid process to the stylomastoid foramen. The mastoid segment ... For example, a line drawn between the mastoid tip and the angle of the mandible can serve as a useful landmark for the superior ... In the newborn, the facial nerve anatomy approximates that of an adult, except for its location in the mastoid, which is more ...
CT Scan - CECT Mastoid in Delhi , MDRC India
Compumedics Limited Global Corporate HQ 30-40 Flockhart Street, Abbotsford 3067, Victoria, Australia. Tel: +61 (0) 3 8420 7300. Fax: +61 (0) 3 8420 7399. ...
Mastoid Process - Normal Lump Behind the Ear:. *The mastoid process is a bony lump you can feel behind the lower ear. ... Mastoid Process. The bony lump felt behind each lower ear.. *Xiphoid Process. A small hard lump felt at the lower end of the ... The mastoid is filled with air cells that connect to the inner ear. ...
Role of mastoid process in gender determination-A retrospective analysis using computed tomography. Author: Dr. Deepa Gaayathri ... Results: Dimensions of mastoids in CT images of males were found to be higher when compared to females. Conclusion: The results ... Aim & Objectives: To assess the role of mastoid process in gender determination by analyzing its dimensions in a computed ... Radiographic linear measurements were made using customized DICOM software to accurately analyze the dimensions of mastoids in ...
The mastoid bone is located just behind the ear. ... The mastoid bone is located just behind the ear. ... Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. ... Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. ... Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid bone is located just behind the ear. ... Surgery to remove part of the bone and drain the mastoid (mastoidectomy) may be needed if antibiotic treatment does not work. ...
R ear pain, purulent drainage, R mastoid tenderness and shortness of breath. Coccidioides cultured from mastoid tissue (along ... Histopathologic examination of mastoid biopsy demonstrated spherules of Coccidioides. CF titer 1:8; ID positive for IgG.. ... Histopathologic examination of mastoid biopsy demonstrated spherules of Coccidioides; biopsy of same grew C. immitis.. ... Mastoid atticotomy, irrigation with amphotericin B (continued 3 weeks after final surgery); facial nerve decompression and ...
Spire St Anthonys Hospital consultants. If you already have a consultants name in mind, find out more about them here.
Diseases of the ear and mastoid process; I00-I99: Diseases of the circulatory system; J00-J90: Diseases of the respiratory ...
Researchers Find Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in Middle Ear and Mastoid. July 30, 2020 ...
Part 1 of Appleton and Lange practice exam for CST (first 1-100)
The infection may spread from the ear to the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid bone fills with infected materials and its ... How do you get rid of mastoid fluid?. Antibiotics will be given through an IV (intravenous line) to treat the infection. ... What causes fluid in mastoid?. Mastoiditis is usually caused by a middle ear infection (acute otitis media). ...
Parts of your head youll need to know for this are the mastoid, nasion, and inion. The mastoid is the bone behind your ear: ... find your left mastoid. Clear away any hair, and tape the ground electrode to the skin there. Next, tie the bandana tight ...
internal orbtial meatus/facial canal/stylo-mastoid foramen. XII. hypoglossal canal. III. superior orbital fissure. ...
Following trans-mastoid resection, the defect was repaired using processed allograft. Pathologic analysis was consistent with a ... CT and MRI demonstrated an irregular mass in the right facial nerve canal from the intra-tympanic segment to the stylo-mastoid ...
  • The lateral angles are the areas on both sides of the squamous part of occipital bone where the mastoid and lambdoid borders meet. (elsevier.com)
  • In the lateral part of the jugular fossa of the temporal bone is the mastoid canaliculus for the entrance of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mastoid bone, which is full of these air cells, is part of the temporal bone of the skull. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • At the base of the mastoid area of the temporal bone, the mastoid process is a smooth conical projection of bone. (studyachievement.com)
  • On the underside of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, behind the external auditory meatus, is the mastoid process. (studyachievement.com)
  • The mastoid air cells present in the mastoid process also serve their own functions, including protecting the temporal bone and the middle and inner ear from trauma, and regulating air pressure. (studyachievement.com)
  • Mastoidectomy is surgical removal of infected mastoid air cells. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • In the event that this does not work, mastoidectomy can be performed to remove part of the mastoid process and drain it. (studyachievement.com)
  • Surgery to remove part of the bone and drain the mastoid ( mastoidectomy ) may be needed if antibiotic treatment does not work. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What causes bacteria to travel to the mastoid bone? (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • Bacteria from the middle ear can travel into the air cells of the mastoid bone. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • In some patients, the infection spreads beyond the mucosa of the middle ear cleft, and they develop osteitis within the mastoid air-cell system or periosteitis of the mastoid process, either directly by bone erosion through the cortex or indirectly via the emissary vein of the mastoid. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • The petrosquamous suture travels vertically from the superior border of the mastoid area to the parietal bone. (studyachievement.com)
  • The mastoid process is a smooth, conical projection of bone with several structures that allow it to perform its specific functions. (studyachievement.com)
  • Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mastoid bone is located just behind the ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The infection may spread from the ear to the mastoid bone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgeons remove the mastoid bone behind the ear and drill into the bone in the mastoid cavity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Optimal bone stimulator placement was determined to be over the mastoid process, followed by the mandible and the zygomatic arch. (avma.org)
  • Usually, symptoms of mastoiditis appear days to weeks after acute otitis media develops, as the spreading infection destroys the inner part of the mastoid process. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • Mastoiditis is a bacterial infection of the mastoid air cells surrounding the inner and middle ear. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • Untreated, aditus ad antrum and mastoid antrum can spread to the mastoid area, leading to mastoiditis. (studyachievement.com)
  • Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid antrum mucus lining and the mastoid air cells in the mastoid process. (studyachievement.com)
  • equivocal is supported by clinical correlation, specifically, physician documentation of antimicrobial treatment for mastoid infection. (cdc.gov)
  • A mastoid air cell/Lenoir is a hollow area within the mastoid process located in its superior, inferior, and anterior areas. (studyachievement.com)
  • The mastoid process provides an area of attachment to several important head muscles. (studyachievement.com)
  • From the superior nuchal line to the mastoid process, the occipitofrontalis muscle anchors on the rough outer surface of the mastoid process. (studyachievement.com)
  • A mastoid process can be affected by one or more diseases, just as any other part of the body. (studyachievement.com)
  • Cholesteatomas are abnormal growths of skin cells in the middle ear or mastoid process. (studyachievement.com)
  • Aim & Objectives: To assess the role of mastoid process in gender determination by analyzing its dimensions in a computed tomographic image. (journalcra.com)
  • She showed restrictions through the cervical vertebrae and thickening in the tissue below the mastoid process. (spafinder.com)
  • as, the mastoid process. (byu.edu)
  • This procedure involves opening the mastoid air cells by making a postauricular incision and entering the mastoid by removing the mastoid cortex using a drill. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • One of the more common theories about how cholesteatomas form involves retraction of the pars flaccida from negative middle ear pressure, resulting in invagination of squamous epithelium into the middle ear and mastoid. (medscape.com)
  • In the newborn, the facial nerve anatomy approximates that of an adult, except for its location in the mastoid, which is more superficial. (medscape.com)
  • In only a small number of patients, this relates to inflammatory disease of the middle ear or mastoid. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • Aditus ad antrum and mastoid antrum connect them with the middle ear. (studyachievement.com)
  • QUOTE="njbrown, post: 501022, member: 58309"] thankyou [/QUOTE] When I put retained tube through codify it is giving me H74.8X other specified disorders of middle ear and mastoid. (aapc.com)
  • Sensory examination is normal, but the external auditory canal and a small patch behind the ear (over the mastoid) may be painful to the touch. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ear defects may involve the skin of the anterior closed primarily by advancing the mastoid skin. (bvsalud.org)
  • How serious is mastoid surgery? (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • How long does mastoid surgery take? (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • The average cash price for eardrum repair with mastoid removal care in Utah is $6,085 at a surgery center versus $9,483 at an outpatient hospital. (sidecarhealth.com)
  • While a surgery center may offer fewer complimentary services, and may not have the full range of support services that outpatient hospital provides, it may still be worth the (36%) you'd save when comparing the cost of eardrum repair with mastoid removal performed at an outpatient hospital. (sidecarhealth.com)
  • In this region, the cartilage, and/or the skin of the retroauricular way, the ear is adhered to the mastoid region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mastoid air cell opacification can occur in a number of situations and can include a spectrum of inflammatory, neoplastic, vascular, fibro-osseous, and traumatic changes. (idsemergencymanagement.com)
  • Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that mastoids are one of the tools for gender identification, yielding a good level of accuracy by using computed tomographic images. (journalcra.com)
  • Referenslista, som gavs i vår förra rapport i mars 2019, och som också i en uppdaterad form inkluderas i denna rapport, visar biofotonikrelaterade publikationer från vår grupp vid SCNU med gemensam affiliering till Lunds Universitet. (lu.se)
  • Conclusion The commonest predisposing factors for CVST are sinus/mastoid infections. (bmj.com)
  • Congenital cholesteatoma of mastoid origin is rare and can present a diagnostic challenge. (nih.gov)
  • Primary acquired cholesteatoma involves retraction of the pars flaccida from negative middle ear pressure, resulting in invagination of squamous epithelium into the middle ear and mastoid. (medscape.com)
  • Most mastoid infections are caused by pneumococcus bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The average cash price for eardrum repair with mastoid removal care in California is $6,763 at a surgery center versus $10,539 at an outpatient hospital. (sidecarhealth.com)
  • While a surgery center may offer fewer complimentary services, and may not have the full range of support services that outpatient hospital provides, it may still be worth the (36%) you'd save when comparing the cost of eardrum repair with mastoid removal performed at an outpatient hospital. (sidecarhealth.com)
  • Mastoid surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the newborn, the facial nerve anatomy approximates that of an adult, except for its location in the mastoid, which is more superficial. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital cholesteatomas arising in the mastoid are rare and typically present late. (nih.gov)
  • Congenital cholesteatomas arising in the mastoid is a rare finding and even among reported cases, not all are clearly mastoid in origin. (nih.gov)