Mastectomy, Modified Radical
Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating
Tissue Expansion Devices
Mastectomy, Extended Radical
Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Lymph Node Excision
Combined Modality Therapy
Organ Sparing Treatments
Paget's Disease, Mammary
Carcinoma in Situ
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
Breast Neoplasms, Male
Sex Reassignment Surgery
Neoplasms, Second Primary
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Initial experience with sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. (1/1289)BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an important procedure in the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection is still performed in over half of breast cancer patients having histologically negative nodes, regardless of the morbidity in terms of axillary pain, numbness and lymphedema. The first regional lymph nodes draining a primary tumor are the sentinel lymph nodes. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising surgical technique for predicting histological findings in the remaining axillary lymph nodes, especially in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer, and a worldwide feasibility study is currently in progress. METHODS: Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy were performed in the axilla by subcutaneous injection of blue dye (indigocarmine) in 88 cases of stage 0-IIIB breast cancer. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified by detecting blue-staining lymph nodes or dye-filled lymphatic tracts after total or partial mastectomy. Finally, axillary lymph node dissection was performed up to Levels I and II or more. RESULTS: Sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified in 65 of the 88 cases (74%). In the final histological examination, the sentinel lymph nodes in 40 cases were negative, including four cases with non-sentinel-node-positive breast cancer (specificity, 100%; sensitivity, 86%). In nine (31%) of the 29 cases with histologically node-positive breast cancer, the sentinel lymph nodes were the only lymph nodes affected. Axillary lymph node status was accurately predicted in 61 (94%) of the 65 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although it was the initial experience at the National Cancer Center Hospital East, sentinel node biopsy proved feasible and successful. This method may be a reasonable alternative to the standard axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early breast cancer. (+info)
Benign papillary lesions of the breast: sonographic-pathologic correlation. (2/1289)We reviewed the sonographic findings of 42 benign papillary lesions of the breast and correlated them with pathologic findings. Sonography detected 95% of papillomas (22 intraluminal masses, four extraductal masses, nine purely solid masses, and five mixed type masses). The sonographic margins of the mass were well defined in 20 lesions and poorly defined in 14 lesions. Poorly defined margins on sonography were frequent in papillomas with pathologic pseudoinvasion and in juvenile papillomatosis. Most benign papillary lesions of the breast have the sonographic findings suggestive of intraductal origin. The sonographic findings of papillary lesions correlated well with pathologic findings. (+info)
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy. (3/1289)This activity is designed for primary care physicians. GOAL: To appreciate the significant advances and current techniques in breast reconstruction after mastectomy and realize the positive physical and emotional benefits to the patient. OBJECTIVES: 1. Understand basic and anatomic principles of breast reconstruction. 2. Discuss the options for breast reconstruction: a) immediate versus delayed; b) autologous tissue versus implant; and c) stages of reconstruction and ancillary procedures. 3. Provide a comprehensive overview of the risks and benefits of, as well as the alternatives to, each approach so primary care physicians can counsel patients effectively. (+info)
Early rehabilitation program in postmastectomy patients: a prospective clinical trial. (4/1289)The purpose of this study was to determine whether 20 patients who received an early postmastectomy rehabilitation treatment program showed more improvement in range of shoulder motion and functional activities than 13 patients who received instruction for exercise only. Data were obtained at preoperatively, three days after operation, at discharge and at postdischarge one month for each patient on parameters such as range of motion of the ipsilateral shoulder joint, upper extremity circumferential measurements, as well as 10 elements of shoulder function. Postoperatively, both groups showed an increased range of motion of the shoulder joint and improved functional activities, but the group that received postoperative rehabilitation management had a better range of shoulder motion and less difficulty in five items for functional assessment. This study also showed that an early rehabilitation program did not increase postoperative complications. We concluded that an early rehabilitation program or intensive instruction program only by a well-trained physical therapist or physiatrist was beneficial to postmastectomy patients in regaining the function and range of shoulder motion, and significantly better in a rehabilitation group. (+info)
Comparison of microvascular filtration in human arms with and without postmastectomy oedema. (5/1289)Oedema is caused by impaired lymphatic drainage and/or increased microvascular filtration. To assess a postulated role for the latter in postmastectomy oedema, filtration was studied in the forearms of 14 healthy subjects and 22 patients with chronic, unilateral arm oedema caused by surgical and radiological treatment for breast cancer. A new non-contact optical device (the Perometer) and a conventional mercury strain gauge were used simultaneously to record forearm swelling rates caused by microvascular filtration during applied venous congestion. Filtration rate (FR) per 100 ml tissue was measured over 10-15 min at a venous pressure of 30 cmH2O, a pressure reached in the dependent forearm (FR30), and then at 60 cmH2O (FR60). Apparent filtration capacity of 100 ml soft tissue (CFCa) was calculated from FR60 - FR30/30, after adjustment for bone volume. The Perometer and strain gauge gave similar results in normal and oedematous arms. Mean CFCa in healthy subjects was (3.8+/-0.4) x 10(-3) ml (100 ml)-1 cmH2O-1 min-1, close to literature values. In the patients, FR30 was 47 % lower in the oedematous forearm than in the opposite, unaffected forearm (P = 0.04). FR60 showed a similar trend but did not reach significance (P = 0.15). The values of CFCa of (2.2+/-0.5) x 10(-3) ml (100 ml)-1 cmH2O-1 min-1 in the oedematous arm and (2.8+/-0.5) x 10(-3) ml (100 ml)-1 cmH2O-1 min-1 in the unaffected arm were not significantly different (P = 0.47). When differences in arm volume on the two sides were taken into account, the total fluid load on the lymphatic system of the oedematous forearm was (411.0+/-82.2) x 10(-3) ml min-1 at 30 cmH2O and (1168+/-235.6) x 10(-3) ml min-1 at 60 cmH2O, similar to the normal side, namely (503.7+/-109.3) 10(-3) ml min-1 and (1063+/-152.0) x 10(-3) ml min-1, respectively (P >/= 0.50). The filtration capacity of the entire oedematous forearm (CFCa scaled up by total soft tissue volume), (25.4+/-6.2) x 10(-3) ml cmH2O-1 min-1, was not significantly greater than that of the normal forearm, (18.3+/-2.6) x 10(-3) ml cmH2O-1 min-1 (P = 0.40). The results indicate that no major change occurs in the microvascular hydraulic permeability-area product of the forearm, or in the total filtration load on the lymph drainage system during dependency, in the arm with postmastectomy oedema compared with the normal arm. This argues against a significant haemodynamic contribution to postmastectomy oedema. (+info)
Moral concerns of different types of patients in clinical BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing. (6/1289)PURPOSE: Implementing predictive genetic testing for a severe and common chronic disease such as breast cancer may raise unique ethical problems. Here we report on moral concerns experienced by patients in the setting of genetic counseling based on BRCA1/2 gene testing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were members of breast or breast/ovarian cancer families in a consecutive series of 100 families who received counseling at a familial cancer clinic. The patients' moral concerns were identified using the grounded theory approach in the qualitative analysis of verbal transcripts of 45 counseling sessions. Included were sessions with patients who had breast and ovarian cancer, as well as their male and female relatives, before and after the specific BRCA1/2 gene mutation was identified in the family, and before and after those who opted for mutation analysis were informed of their carrier status. RESULTS: There is an association of BRCA1/2 gene mutation carrier status and specific topics of moral concern. The moral preoccupations of patients with breast and ovarian cancer (probable carriers) related to their being instrumental in the detection of the specific mutation segregating in the family. The preoccupations of possible carriers concerned their own offspring. Individuals who tested positive (proven carriers) were concerned with issues of confidentiality. Patients who tested negative (proven noncarriers) were concerned with helping siblings and other relatives. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the moral concerns of subjects in the study sample may help health care providers be aware of the moral concerns of their own patients. This report may also contribute to the debate on predictive testing for familial adult-onset diseases from the patient's perspective. (+info)
Significance of thymidine phosphorylase as a marker of protumor monocytes in breast cancer. (7/1289)Tumor-associated monocytic cells (TAMs) are a major component of the stroma responsible for tumor formation. TAMs generate various kinds of mediators for their function, one of which is thymidine phosphorylase (TP). TP is an angiogenic enzyme that is known to be up-regulated in tumor tissues. Here, we focused on the clinical implication of TP expression in TAMs by studying 229 primary breast carcinoma tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that monocytic TP+ tumors had a significantly worse prognosis than did monocytic TP- tumors (P < 0.01, log-rank test). A multivariate analysis confirmed that monocytic TP status provided an independent prognostic value (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, of interest was that monocytic TP status could categorize the CD68+ patients, who had an extensive accumulation of CD68+ TAMs, into two subgroups with strikingly contrasting prognoses: a good prognostic monocytic TP- group and a poor prognostic monocytic TP+ group. This indicates that there are both antitumor and protumor types of TAM. Subanalysis showed that microvessel density was significantly increased in CD68+/monocytic TP+ tumors compared with CD68+/monocytic TP- tumors. Experimentally, TAMs are known to function in diverse manners, antitumor and protumor; however, little is known about clinically recognizable markers to characterize the TAMs in histological sections. TP might be such a marker, which would be useful for identifying the character of TAMs, particularly the protumor phenotype. (+info)
An audit of breast cancer pathology reporting in Australia in 1995. (8/1289)To measure the quality of pathology reporting of breast cancer and establish a baseline against which future changes can be measured, we audited item completeness in breast cancer reports in Australia in 1995 before the release of specific recommendations from the Australian Cancer Network. Tumour type and size were given in reports of invasive breast cancer for 93% of women, 70% had, in addition, grade and clearance of the margins while only 28% had all recommended information. The most complete items in reports were histological type of breast cancer (99.6% of cases), tumour size (94%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 92-95) and margins of excision (87%, 95% CI 85-89). Histological grade (84%, 95% CI 82-86 of cases) and presence or absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (79%, 95% CI 77-81) were less complete and vessel invasion (61%, 95% CI 58-63) and changes in non-neoplastic breast tissue adjacent to the breast cancer (68%, 95% CI 66-71) the least complete. Less than half the reports of DCIS reported on tumour size (49%, 95% CI 42-57), presence or absence of necrosis (41%, 95% CI 34-49) or nuclear grade (39%, 95% CI 31-46). Around 1500 reports were identified as issued by 147 laboratories and 392 pathologists; 69% of pathologists issued fewer than two reports a month in the audit. We concluded that infrequency of reporting may have contributed to incompleteness of reporting. In addition, we found significant variation across Australian states with some indication that reporting was consistently poor in one state. The audit highlighted areas for improvement for breast cancer reporting in Australia. Research evidence suggests that multifaceted strategies are needed to assist practitioners with implementing more uniform reporting standards. (+info)
Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Breast implants are medical devices that are used to enhance the size, shape, or contour of a woman's breasts. They are typically made of silicone or saline and are inserted into the breast tissue to create a fuller, more rounded appearance. Breast implants can be used for a variety of reasons, including to increase breast size after weight loss or pregnancy, to correct a breast deformity, or to enhance breast symmetry. They are typically placed during surgery and can be removed or replaced if necessary. It is important to note that breast implants are not without risks and complications, and patients should carefully consider the potential benefits and risks before deciding to undergo breast implant surgery.
Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating (CIN) is a type of cancer that originates in the lining of the milk ducts in the breast. It is also known as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). CIN is considered a pre-cancerous condition because it has the potential to develop into invasive breast cancer if left untreated. However, it is important to note that not all cases of CIN will progress to invasive cancer. CIN is typically detected through a mammogram, which is an X-ray of the breast. If CIN is detected, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the disease. Treatment for CIN may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the specific circumstances of the case. It is important for women to be aware of the signs and symptoms of breast cancer and to have regular mammograms as part of their routine healthcare. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer can improve outcomes and increase the chances of a successful recovery.
The axilla, also known as the armpit, is a hollow, funnel-shaped space located at the base of the neck, between the upper arm and the chest. It is bounded by the collarbone (clavicle) in front, the first rib and the scapula (shoulder blade) behind, and the pectoralis major muscle on the sides. The axilla contains several important structures, including the axillary artery, axillary vein, brachial plexus of nerves, and lymph nodes. It is a common site for the insertion of surgical incisions, such as for lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection.
Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of cancer that starts in the milk ducts of the breast. It is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all breast cancer cases. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of this cancer, where cancer cells are found in the lining of the milk ducts but have not spread to nearby tissues or lymph nodes. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a more advanced form of the cancer, where cancer cells have invaded the surrounding breast tissue. The diagnosis of ductal carcinoma is usually made through a combination of a physical examination, imaging tests such as mammography or ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for ductal carcinoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the stage and severity of the cancer.
Neoplasm recurrence, local refers to the return of cancer cells to the original site of the tumor after treatment. This can occur even if the cancer has been completely removed through surgery or other treatments. Local recurrence is typically treated with additional surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the cancer. It is important to note that local recurrence does not necessarily mean that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
A seroma is a collection of fluid that forms in the space between tissues or organs in the body. It is typically a clear, yellowish fluid called serous fluid, which is produced by the body's lymphatic system or as a result of injury or surgery. Seromas can occur in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, chest, and limbs. They are usually harmless and can resolve on their own over time, but in some cases, they may require medical intervention. Seromas can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, surgery, infection, and certain medical conditions such as lymphedema. They can also be a complication of certain medical procedures, such as liposuction or breast augmentation. Treatment for seromas may include draining the fluid, applying compression dressings, and taking medications to reduce inflammation. In some cases, additional medical intervention may be necessary to prevent the recurrence of the seroma.
In the medical field, the term "breast" refers to the female reproductive gland that produces milk for nursing infants. It is located on the chest and is composed of glandular tissue, fat, and connective tissue. The breast is also home to the lactiferous ducts, which carry milk from the glands to the nipple. In men, the breast tissue is much less developed and is primarily composed of fat and connective tissue. In some cases, men may develop breast tissue due to hormonal imbalances or other medical conditions.
Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a cancer treatment approach that involves using two or more different types of treatments simultaneously or in sequence to achieve a better therapeutic effect than any single treatment alone. The goal of CMT is to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment while minimizing side effects. The different types of treatments that may be used in CMT include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormonal therapy. The specific combination of treatments used in CMT depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and individual needs. CMT is often used for the treatment of advanced or aggressive cancers, where a single treatment may not be effective. By combining different treatments, CMT can help to destroy cancer cells more completely and prevent the cancer from returning. However, CMT can also have more significant side effects than a single treatment, so it is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Carcinoma, Lobular refers to a type of cancer that originates in the lobules of the breast tissue. Lobules are the small glandular structures in the breast that produce milk. Lobular carcinoma is a type of invasive breast cancer, which means that it has the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Lobular carcinoma is typically diagnosed through a combination of mammography, ultrasound, and biopsy. It is often difficult to detect on mammography because it does not typically form a mass, but rather spreads throughout the breast tissue. Ultrasound can help identify areas of abnormal tissue that may be indicative of lobular carcinoma. Treatment for lobular carcinoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Early detection and treatment are key to improving outcomes for patients with lobular carcinoma.
Lymphatic metastasis is a type of cancer spread that occurs when cancer cells from a primary tumor travel through the lymphatic system and spread to other parts of the body. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and organs that helps to fight infection and remove waste products from the body. When cancer cells enter the lymphatic system, they can travel through the lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped structures that filter out harmful substances from the lymph fluid. If the cancer cells reach the lymph nodes, they can multiply and form new tumors, which can then spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for cancer to spread, and it can occur in many different types of cancer, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
Phyllodes tumor is a rare type of breast tumor that arises from the connective tissue of the breast. It is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor, but it can sometimes grow aggressively and become malignant (cancerous). Phyllodes tumors are more common in women between the ages of 30 and 50, and they are more likely to occur in women who have had previous breast surgery or who have a family history of breast cancer. Phyllodes tumors are classified into three types: benign, borderline, and malignant. Benign phyllodes tumors are slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Borderline phyllodes tumors are intermediate in their behavior, and they may grow quickly or slowly. Malignant phyllodes tumors are more aggressive and can spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for phyllodes tumors depends on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Benign and borderline phyllodes tumors are usually treated with surgery to remove the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue. Malignant phyllodes tumors may require more extensive surgery, as well as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Breast implantation is a surgical procedure in which silicone or saline-filled implants are placed behind the breast tissue or under the chest muscle to enhance the size, shape, or contour of the breasts. The procedure is typically performed to increase breast size after weight loss, pregnancy, or aging, or to correct breast asymmetry. Breast implantation can also be performed for reconstructive purposes after a mastectomy or other breast surgery. The implants can be placed through an incision in the breast fold, armpit, or around the areola. The choice of implant type, size, and placement depends on the patient's individual needs and preferences, as well as the surgeon's expertise and experience.
Paget's disease of the breast, also known as Paget's disease of the mammary gland, is a rare type of breast cancer that begins in the skin of the nipple or areola and spreads to the underlying breast tissue. It is usually associated with underlying ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. The symptoms of Paget's disease of the breast may include a red, scaly, or crusted area of skin on the nipple or areola, itching or burning sensation, and changes in the shape or size of the nipple. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Diagnosis of Paget's disease of the breast typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as mammography or ultrasound, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment options for Paget's disease of the breast may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy, depending on the stage and type of cancer.
Carcinoma in situ, also known as CIS or intraepithelial neoplasia, is a type of cancer that has not yet invaded the surrounding tissue. It is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells are present only in the lining of a tissue or organ, but have not yet spread beyond the basement membrane. CIS is often found in the early stages of cancer and can be detected through routine screening tests such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or colonoscopies for colorectal cancer. Treatment for CIS typically involves removing the affected tissue or organ, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. CIS is considered a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into invasive cancer if left untreated. However, with early detection and treatment, the risk of progression to invasive cancer can be significantly reduced.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is a type of chemotherapy that is given after surgery to help destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer returning. It is often used in combination with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy is typically given for several months following surgery, and the specific drugs and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.
In the medical field, body image refers to an individual's perception and attitude towards their physical appearance. It encompasses how a person feels about their body, including their shape, size, and overall appearance. Body image can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, culture, media, and personal experiences. Positive body image is when an individual feels comfortable and satisfied with their physical appearance, while negative body image is when an individual has a poor opinion of their body and may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, or low self-esteem. Negative body image can lead to a range of mental health issues, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. In the medical field, body image is an important consideration in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including eating disorders, obesity, and skin conditions. Medical professionals may work with patients to develop strategies for improving their body image, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, diet and exercise counseling, and support groups.
Neoplasms, Post-Traumatic refer to the development of new abnormal growths or tumors in the body following a traumatic injury. These growths can occur in any part of the body and may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Post-traumatic neoplasms can develop as a result of various types of trauma, including physical trauma, radiation therapy, and chemical exposure. The exact mechanism by which trauma leads to the development of neoplasms is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve changes in the normal cellular processes that regulate growth and division. Post-traumatic neoplasms can present with a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the growth. These may include pain, swelling, and changes in the appearance of the affected area. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as biopsy to confirm the presence of a neoplasm. Treatment for post-traumatic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to note that post-traumatic neoplasms are relatively rare, and most cases are not associated with any known risk factors.
Breast neoplasms, also known as male breast cancer, refers to the development of abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue of males. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Male breast cancer is a relatively rare condition, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers. However, it is more common in older men, with the majority of cases occurring in men over the age of 60. Symptoms of male breast cancer may include a lump or thickening in the breast tissue, changes in the size or shape of the breast, redness or swelling of the skin, and nipple discharge. Diagnosis of male breast cancer typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as mammography or ultrasound, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy, depending on the stage and type of cancer.
Decision making in the medical field refers to the process of making choices and determining the best course of action for a patient's health and well-being. This process involves considering various factors such as the patient's medical history, current condition, personal preferences, and available treatment options. Medical decision making can be complex and involve multiple stakeholders, including healthcare providers, patients, and their families. It often requires a thorough understanding of medical knowledge, as well as the ability to communicate effectively with patients and their families. In the medical field, decision making can involve a range of decisions, from routine clinical decisions such as selecting the appropriate medication or treatment plan, to more complex decisions such as determining the best course of action for a patient with a life-threatening illness or injury. Ultimately, the goal of medical decision making is to provide the best possible care for the patient, while also respecting their autonomy and ensuring that their values and preferences are taken into account.
Tamoxifen is a medication that is primarily used to treat breast cancer in women. It works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a hormone that can stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen is often used as part of a combination therapy, along with other medications or surgery, to treat breast cancer. It can also be used to prevent breast cancer in women who are at high risk of developing the disease, such as those who have a family history of breast cancer or who have certain genetic mutations that increase their risk. Tamoxifen is usually taken orally in the form of tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the type and stage of their breast cancer.
Lymphedema is a condition characterized by the swelling of the body's tissues due to the accumulation of lymph fluid. The lymphatic system is responsible for draining excess fluid from the body's tissues, and when it is unable to function properly, fluid can build up and cause swelling. Lymphedema can occur in any part of the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arms, legs, and trunk. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, radiation therapy, infections, and genetic disorders. Lymphedema can be mild, moderate, or severe, and it can be chronic or temporary. Treatment for lymphedema typically involves compression therapy, exercise, and lymphatic massage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove excess fluid or to reconstruct damaged lymphatic vessels.
In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Second Primary" refers to the development of a new cancer in a person who has already been diagnosed with one or more primary cancers. This type of cancer is also known as a "metastatic cancer" or a "secondary cancer." When a person develops a second primary cancer, it means that the cancer has spread from its original location to a new part of the body. This can happen through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or other means of spread. The development of a second primary cancer can be a complex and challenging situation for both the patient and their healthcare team. Treatment options may depend on the type and location of the second cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.
BRCA2 protein is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing the development of cancer. It is one of the two major genes associated with the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, also known as BRCA1/2-related breast cancer. The BRCA2 protein is involved in DNA repair, specifically in the process of homologous recombination, which is the most accurate way to repair double-strand DNA breaks. When this process fails, cells may accumulate mutations and become cancerous. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene can lead to a loss of function of the BRCA2 protein, making cells more susceptible to DNA damage and increasing the risk of developing cancer. Women with BRCA2 mutations have a significantly higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as prostate and pancreatic cancer. BRCA2 testing is often recommended for individuals with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, particularly if there are multiple cases or early-onset cancers in the family. Genetic counseling is also recommended to help individuals understand the risks and options for managing their risk of cancer.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
In the medical field, "neoplasm invasiveness" refers to the ability of a cancerous tumor to invade and spread beyond its original site of origin. This can occur through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by direct extension into surrounding tissues. The degree of invasiveness of a neoplasm can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment options for a patient. More invasive tumors are generally considered to be more aggressive and may be more difficult to treat. However, the specific characteristics of the tumor, such as its type, stage, and location, as well as the overall health of the patient, can also play a role in determining the prognosis. Invasive neoplasms may also be referred to as malignant tumors, as they have the potential to spread and cause harm to surrounding tissues and organs. Non-invasive neoplasms, on the other hand, are generally considered to be benign and are less likely to spread.
Receptors, estrogen are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is a sex hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and by the testes in men. It plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Estrogen receptors are classified into two main types: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). These receptors are found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, bone, and brain. When estrogen binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of receptor and the tissue in which it is found. In the breast, for example, estrogen receptors play a role in the development and growth of breast tissue, as well as in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. In the uterus, estrogen receptors are involved in the thickening of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy. In the bone, estrogen receptors help to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. In the brain, estrogen receptors are involved in a variety of functions, including mood regulation, memory, and learning. Abnormalities in estrogen receptor function or expression have been linked to a number of health conditions, including breast cancer, uterine cancer, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in the epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces of organs and tissues in the body. Carcinomas can develop in any part of the body, but they are most common in the skin, lungs, breast, prostate, and colon. Carcinomas are classified based on the location and type of epithelial cells from which they originate. For example, a carcinoma that develops in the skin is called a skin carcinoma, while a carcinoma that develops in the lungs is called a lung carcinoma. Carcinomas can be further classified as either non-melanoma skin cancers (such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) or melanoma, which is a more aggressive type of skin cancer that can spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for carcinomas depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.
Antineoplastic protocols are treatment plans used in the medical field to manage and treat cancer. These protocols typically involve a combination of different treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, that are used in a specific sequence and dosage to achieve the best possible outcome for the patient. Antineoplastic protocols are developed by medical professionals, such as oncologists, and are based on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and other factors. These protocols are designed to be as effective as possible while minimizing side effects and toxicity. Antineoplastic protocols may also include supportive care measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and psychological counseling, to help patients cope with the physical and emotional challenges of cancer treatment.
Transsexualism, also known as gender dysphoria, is a medical condition in which a person experiences a strong and persistent discomfort or distress with their assigned gender at birth. This discomfort is often accompanied by a desire to live and be recognized as a member of the opposite sex. In the medical field, transsexualism is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical interviews, psychological evaluations, and medical assessments. The diagnosis requires that the individual's gender identity is not a result of cultural, social, or psychological factors, but rather a deeply felt sense of being a member of the opposite sex. Treatment for transsexualism typically involves hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgeries, such as breast augmentation or genital reconstruction. Psychological counseling and support groups may also be recommended to help individuals cope with the challenges of transitioning and to address any mental health concerns that may arise.
In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.
Carcinoma, ductal is a type of breast cancer that starts in the milk ducts of the breast. It is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all breast cancer cases. Ductal carcinoma usually develops slowly over time and may not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can cause a lump in the breast, skin changes, nipple discharge, or other symptoms. Treatment for ductal carcinoma usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, hormone therapy may also be recommended to slow the growth of the cancer. The prognosis for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the size and stage of the cancer, as well as the age and overall health of the patient.
Antineoplastic agents, hormonal are a class of drugs that are used to treat cancer by targeting hormones that regulate cell growth and division. These drugs work by either blocking the production or action of hormones that promote cancer cell growth, or by stimulating the production of hormones that inhibit cancer cell growth. Examples of hormonal antineoplastic agents include tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer, and leuprolide, which is used to treat prostate cancer. These drugs are often used in combination with other antineoplastic agents, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to increase their effectiveness. It is important to note that hormonal antineoplastic agents are not effective for all types of cancer, and they may have side effects that can be serious or life-threatening. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of these drugs with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Breast diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the breasts, including both benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) conditions. Some common examples of breast diseases include: 1. Breast cancer: This is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. It occurs when abnormal cells in the breast grow and multiply uncontrollably, forming a tumor. 2. Benign breast conditions: These are non-cancerous conditions that can affect the breasts. Examples include fibrocystic breast disease, breast abscess, and breast cysts. 3. Inflammatory breast cancer: This is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that causes the skin of the breast to become red, swollen, and warm. 4. Paget's disease of the breast: This is a rare condition that occurs when cancer cells spread from the milk ducts to the skin of the nipple and areola. 5. Mastitis: This is an infection of the breast tissue that can occur in women who are breastfeeding or who have recently given birth. 6. Fibroadenoma: This is a benign tumor that can develop in the breast tissue. It is usually painless and can be felt as a hard, round mass. 7. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): This is a non-invasive form of breast cancer that occurs when abnormal cells are found in the lining of the milk ducts. 8. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS): This is a non-invasive form of breast cancer that occurs when abnormal cells are found in the lining of the milk glands. Treatment for breast diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of these treatments. Early detection and treatment are key to improving outcomes for patients with breast diseases.
Flat closure after mastectomy
Why I Wore Lipstick to My Mastectomy
Stories from the Heart
Nipple reconstruction surgery
List of bra designs
List of breast cancer patients by survival status
Inflammatory breast cancer
Elizabeth Bonner Allen
Joni Eareckson Tada
Mastectomy - Wikipedia
Mastectomy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Types of Mastectomy
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Simple Mastectomy: Overview, Periprocedural Care, Technique
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Mastectomy - discharge : MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer: Practice Essentials, Lumpectomy, Mastectomy
Request Access to the Post Mastectomy Photo Gallery
Mastectomy - The Procedure | Susan G. Komen®
A Devastating Choice: Deciding Between a Lumpectomy or Mastectomy | Marie Claire
Lumpectomy & Mastectomy | Breast Cancer Surgery NJ
Patients Say Quality of Life Suffered With Mastectomy for Early Breast Cancer | MedPage Today
Melissa Etheridge Criticizes Angelina Jolie's Double Mastectomy As 'Fearful Choice'
7 Best Mastectomy Bathing Suits for Summer | Hip2Save
Petition · Facebook: Stop censoring photos of men and women who have undergone mastectomies · Change.org
Single Mastectomy vs double Mastectomy - Breastcancer.org
Two-Stage Approach to Risk-Reducing Mastectomy Improves Results for Women with Large Breasts | ASPS
Country star Morgan Wade reveals plans for double mastectomy after testing for breast cancer gene
Physician Negligence Causes Mastectomy | Meshbesher & Spence
The Other Side of Angelina Jolie's Double Mastectomy | Christiane Northrup, M.D.
What Life Is Really Like After Getting A Double Mastectomy At Age 27 | HuffPost Women
Relieving post-mastectomy pain with cryoneurolysis | American Hospital of Paris
Prophylactic Mastectomy Before & After Photos | Dr. Becker
Amoena Hannah Mastectomy Bra - LARGER SIZES | WPH
Alabama Tankini Top - burgundy size 40B | Pocketed Mastectomy Swimwear | Amoena UK | Amoena UK
Erector spinae plane block and rhomboid intercostal block for the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome. - International...
Fifty-Year-Follow-up Results Compared with Shorter Follow-up of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Mastectomy with or...
Front Skirted One-Piece Mastectomy Swimsuit w/ Prosthesis Pockets - Swimsuits Just For Us
- Outcome studies comparing mastectomy to lumpectomy with radiation have suggested that routine radical mastectomy surgeries will not always prevent later distant secondary tumors arising from micro-metastases prior to discovery, diagnosis, and operation. (wikipedia.org)
- Modified radical mastectomy: The entire breast tissue is removed along with the axillary contents (fatty tissue and lymph nodes). (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast to a radical mastectomy, the pectoral muscles are spared. (wikipedia.org)
- Radical mastectomy (or "Halsted mastectomy"): First performed in 1882, this procedure involves removing the entire breast, the axillary lymph nodes, and the pectoralis major and minor muscles behind the breast. (wikipedia.org)
- Modified radical mastectomy: The surgeon removes the entire breast with the nipple and areolar along with some of the lymph nodes underneath the arm. (medlineplus.gov)
- Radical mastectomy: The surgeon removes the skin over the breast, all of the lymph nodes underneath the arm, and the skin is then closed with sutures (stitches). (medlineplus.gov)
- Unlike a radical mastectomy, it does not involve removal of the underlying muscles and uninvolved lymph nodes (see the images below). (medscape.com)
- First defined in ancient Egyptian literature, mastectomy was systematically detailed in 1882 by Halsted, who advocated a radical extensive procedure that involved excision not only of the breast but also of the underlying pectoral muscles and axillary lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
- Accordingly, surgeons began experimenting with less radical procedures, and various modifications of the radical mastectomy were developed. (medscape.com)
- For a modified radical mastectomy, the surgeon removed the entire breast and the lower level lymph nodes under your arm. (medlineplus.gov)
- earlier cohort exclusively underwent radical mastectomy plus adjuvant radiotherapy, while later cohort had radical mastectomy alone. (scirp.org)
- During the 50 years, radical mastectomy alone compared with radical mastectomy plus adjuvant radiotherapy is associated with a significantly higher cure rate, and higher survivals regardless of whether the death was from breast cancer, second cancer, benign causes or any causes. (scirp.org)
- However, if follow-up information is limited to 25 years, the advantage of radical mastectomy alone is partly offset and the survival difference between the two cohorts becomes less significant. (scirp.org)
- However, most of the time, it is discovered in advanced stages, generating mutilating treatments women, such as radical or partial mastectomy. (bvsalud.org)
- Typically, lymphedema-associated angiosarcomas occur in women who have undergone radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma and have had chronic lymphedema for many years (Stewart-Treves syndrome) or in the leg of patients as a consequence of radical inguinal lymphadenectomy for metastases from malignant melanoma (Kettles syndrome). (medscape.com)
- Also, women who have had an axillary nodal biopsy or resection, or a unilateral radical mastectomy do not have their blood pressure measured in the affected arm. (cdc.gov)
- People that are more likely to have the procedure of a simple or total mastectomy are those that have large areas of ductal carcinoma in situ or even those persons that are removing the breast because of the possibility of breast cancer occurring in the future (prophylactic mastectomies). (wikipedia.org)
- A retrospective study by Hotton et al of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ who were treated with simple mastectomy found a low rate of positive sentinel lymph node biopsies in persons without microinvasion. (medscape.com)
- SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized or non-randomized studies (cohort and case-control) comparing SSM to conventional mastectomy for treating ductal carcinoma in situ ( DCIS ) or invasive breast cancer . (bvsalud.org)
- Both mastectomy and lumpectomy are referred to as "local therapies" for breast cancer, targeting the area of the tumor, as opposed to systemic therapies, such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
- The decision to perform a mastectomy is based on various factors, including breast size, the number of lesions, biologic aggressiveness of a breast cancer, the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher rates of tumor recurrences after lumpectomy and/or radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- Currently, there are several surgical approaches to mastectomy, and the type that a person decides to undergo (or whether they will decide instead to have a lumpectomy) depends on factors such as the size, location, and behavior of the tumor (if one is present), whether or not the surgery is prophylactic, and whether the person intends to undergo reconstructive surgery. (wikipedia.org)
- Lumpectomy (partial or segmental mastectomy) is defined as complete surgical resection of a primary tumor with a goal of achieving widely negative margins (ideally 1 cm). (medscape.com)
- My options were to go with the lumpectomy recommendation or a double mastectomy , which would remove both breasts. (marieclaire.com)
- On the other hand, scores for physical well-being differed not at all among those having lumpectomy (mean score 78.9), bilateral mastectomy (78.7), or unilateral mastectomy (78.9). (medpagetoday.com)
- Dominici said that even though local regional control of breast cancer with breast-conserving therapy and mastectomy have equivalent survival outcomes, in the sample of women surveyed, just 28% of participants opted to have lumpectomy. (medpagetoday.com)
- Often, patients first need to have the lump removed (a lumpectomy ) or the entire breast removed (a mastectomy ). (cdc.gov)
- 20% of the women underwent unilateral mastectomy and 52% elected to have bilateral mastectomy. (medpagetoday.com)
- In some cases the use of bilateral mastectomy is ridiculous, because it doesn't improve your outcome and yet it does have deleterious effects on psychosocial well-being. (medpagetoday.com)
- I think I spend more time trying to talk patients out of having a bilateral mastectomy than anything else," he said. (medpagetoday.com)
- If your doctor recommended mastectomy, I would definitely go with a bilateral. (breastcancer.org)
- I was denied a bilateral mastectomy in 2019 because my doctor lied to me and refused to remove my "healthy breast! (breastcancer.org)
- @al0225 Choosing between a single and double (bilateral) mastectomy can be challenging, and the right decision is different for each woman. (breastcancer.org)
- A woman was forced to undergo a bilateral mastectomy due to the negligence of her primary care physician in diagnosing breast cancer. (meshbesher.com)
- This is also called breast conservation therapy or partial mastectomy. (medlineplus.gov)
- This Post Mastectomy Photo Gallery (hereinafter the "gallery") is intended to provide a useful database of photos of women who have undergone mastectomy surgery with and without reconstruction. (facingourrisk.org)
- This "gallery" allows women who have undergone mastectomy to share their post-surgical photos with others in a purely educational and supportive context. (facingourrisk.org)
- We found that local therapy decisions are associated with a persistent impact on quality of life in young breast cancer survivors," Dominici said, noting that the lower quality of life scores for women who had mastectomy persisted even though 80% of those surveyed had undergone some form of breast reconstruction. (medpagetoday.com)
- They document the physical and emotional toll of women and men who have undergone mastectomies. (change.org)
- Many women became familiar with the breast cancer type 1 gene (BRCA1) when actress Angelina Jolie announced that she had undergone a double mastectomy as a preventative measure. (drnorthrup.com)
- It affects an estimated 30 to 80 percent of women who have undergone a mastectomy ( 1 ), which is an operation to remove the entire breast. (american-hospital.org)
- Simple mastectomy (or "total mastectomy"): In this procedure, the entire breast tissue is removed, but axillary contents are undisturbed. (wikipedia.org)
- A total mastectomy involves complete removal of all breast tissue to the clavicle superiorly, the sternum medially, the inframammary crease inferiorly, and the anterior axillary line laterally, with en bloc resection of the pectoralis major fascia. (medscape.com)
- During a mastectomy for invasive breast cancer, some of the axillary lymph nodes are removed to check for cancer cells. (komen.org)
- We describe a 43-year-old man suffering from right PMPS after right mastectomy, full axillary, and mammary lymph node dissection. (iasp-pain.org)
- Complications included a recurrence of the initial carcinoma at its original pre-mastectomy site of origin, as well as lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm due to poor lymphatic drainage, as a consequence of cancerous involvement of the axillary lymphatics. (cdc.gov)
- A study by Al-Himdani et al comparing patient characteristics and outcomes between individuals who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and those treated with simple mastectomy found that the 8-year local breast cancer recurrence rates for SSM versus simple mastectomy were 7.9% and 5%, respectively. (medscape.com)
- The study included 577 patients, 80% of whom underwent simple mastectomy and 20% of whom were treated with SSM. (medscape.com)
- In another study comparing different types of mastectomy, Son et al found that among 300 patients who underwent SSM (17.3%), total SSM (39.7%), or simple mastectomy (43%), for invasive lobular carcinoma, time to local recurrence and positive margin rates did not differ by surgical method. (medscape.com)
- In 2013, Hollywood star Angelina Jolie revealed she underwent a double mastectomy to reduce her risk of breast cancer after testing positive for the BRCA1 gene. (yahoo.com)
- The results revealed that all the four domains of QL of women having adjuvant therapy (groups 2, 3, or 4) were significantly altered compared to those who underwent mastectomy alone. (who.int)
- People who undergo a simple mastectomy can usually leave the hospital after a brief stay. (wikipedia.org)
- Total or simple mastectomy: The surgeon removes the entire breast along with the nipple and areola. (medlineplus.gov)
- A simple mastectomy involves removing the breast along with an ellipse of skin that encompasses the nipple-areola complex. (medscape.com)
- The surgical principles underlying simple mastectomy have a long history. (medscape.com)
- A National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project study from 1977 showed that the cure rate for the Halsted operation was no higher than that for a simple mastectomy. (medscape.com)
- Transgender men may undergo a mastectomy as a gender-affirming surgery. (wikipedia.org)
- Singer and cancer survivor Melissa Etheridge recently voiced her opinion on Angelina Jolie's decision to undergo a double mastectomy for cancer prevention. (medicaldaily.com)
- American country music singer Morgan Wade has revealed she will undergo a double mastectomy later this year. (yahoo.com)
- Though it may be considered extreme, women with a high-risk BRCA gene mutation may choose to undergo a preventative double mastectomy to avoid developing breast cancer. (yahoo.com)
- Duncan Thornell, a personal coach, hypnotherapist and blogger in Seattle, opted to have a prophylactic, or preventative, double mastectomy in 1993, then covered her scars by getting an elaborate chest tattoo a year later. (yahoo.com)
- I'm writing because I know that having a preventative double mastectomy will not be the first choice for many women. (drnorthrup.com)
- These wrap mastectomy one-piece bathing suits also offer UPF 50 sun protection which is the highest level available. (landsend.com)
- You can choose from various styles with these mastectomy wrap one-piece bathing suits. (landsend.com)
- These flattering mastectomy bathing suits are swoon-worthy! (hip2save.com)
- However, it is sometimes done to prevent cancer (prophylactic mastectomy). (medlineplus.gov)
- Women who have a very high risk of developing breast cancer may choose to have a preventive (or prophylactic) mastectomy to reduce the risk of breast cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
- Prophylactic mastectomy should be done only after very careful thought and discussion with your doctor, a genetic counselor, your family, and loved ones. (medlineplus.gov)
- 4. This floral mastectomy tankini top will show off your feminine style. (hip2save.com)
- These studies included 12,211 participants involving 12,283 surgeries (3183 SSM and 9100 conventional mastectomies ). (bvsalud.org)
- Find the perfect mastectomy wrap one-piece swimwear for your needs this swim season. (landsend.com)
- They make mastectomy-friendly swimwear with removable cups, tummy control, thigh and hip minimizers, and bust enhancers. (hip2save.com)
- As well as being fashionable, sleek and stylish, great mastectomy swimwear should be designed to hold your breast form (or forms) securely and discreetly. (amoena.com)
- A two-stage approach-with initial breast reduction and "pre-shaping" followed by mastectomy and reconstruction-appears to be a safer procedure with better cosmetic results, reports the September issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). (plasticsurgery.org)
- Typically, this is done in a single-stage procedure, with "nipple-sparing" mastectomy of both breasts followed by immediate breast reconstruction using implants. (plasticsurgery.org)
- Dr. Gunnarsson said the two-stage procedure has become his standard of care for women with large breasts undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy. (plasticsurgery.org)
- What happens during a cryoneurolysis procedure for post-mastectomy pain? (american-hospital.org)
- Conclusions/Implications: The findings of this review indicated that receipt of chemotherapy and mastectomy in BCS are risk factors for unemployment. (cdc.gov)
- When a mastectomy is used to treat DCIS (a non-invasive breast cancer), a sentinel node biopsy may be done. (komen.org)
- Once a mastectomy has been done, a person can't have a sentinel node biopsy. (komen.org)
- If it turns out there's invasive breast cancer (along with DCIS) in the tissue removed during the mastectomy, a sentinel node biopsy will have already been done. (komen.org)
- Learn more about sentinel node biopsy and a mastectomy for DCIS . (komen.org)
- Enjoy the sleek style and flattering cut of these wrap mastectomy one-piece swimsuits from Lands' End. (landsend.com)
- Summer often means swimsuits & sunshine, but for many women who have gone through a mastectomy, finding the perfect swimsuit can be overwhelming. (hip2save.com)
- Plus, I know you've already been through enough, so I hope this list of the best mastectomy swimsuits is just what you need to enjoy the sunshine. (hip2save.com)
- Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. (wikipedia.org)
- For women undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy to prevent breast cancer, reconstruction can be challenging in those with larger breasts. (plasticsurgery.org)
- Mastectomy and subsequent reconstruction were successfully completed in all 44 breasts. (plasticsurgery.org)
- The authors believe their technique is an important contribution to improving the results of risk-reducing mastectomy and breast reconstruction for women with large breasts. (plasticsurgery.org)
- Considering the symbolic representation of the breasts, this study aimed to make considerations about the impact of mastectomy on the diagnosis woman's psyche surgical afterlife and to verify the consequences of illness in order to contribute significantly to the physical wellbeing, social and psychological of women. (bvsalud.org)
- Known as post-mastectomy pain syndrome , or PMPS, this frequent complication significantly impacts patients' quality of life. (american-hospital.org)
- Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a frequent complication of breast surgery. (american-hospital.org)
- Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) can have multiple pain generators, including neuropathic pain and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). (iasp-pain.org)
- This Nigerian woman presented with complications associated with post-mastectomy recurrence of her initial breast cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Mastectomy scar 10 days after operation. (medscape.com)
- Read our blog, Despite What Doctors Told Me, I've Never Regretted My Decision to Go Flat After a Double Mastectomy . (komen.org)
- Speaking to Page Six at the Highways Festival in London on 20 May, the "Wilder Days" singer said: "I had the BRCA gene, it's a breast cancer gene so I'm having a double mastectomy in November. (yahoo.com)
- However, the "Run" singer shared that she's "feeling fine" leading up to the double mastectomy. (yahoo.com)
- While there are both medical and non-medical indications for mastectomy, the clinical guidelines and patient expectations for before and after surgery remain the same. (wikipedia.org)
- Talking to other women who have had mastectomies can help you deal with these feelings. (medlineplus.gov)
- I spoke with women who opted for the mastectomy. (marieclaire.com)
- The one resounding sentiment from the women who chose a mastectomy was that they didn't want the possibility of the breast cancer returning. (marieclaire.com)
- SAN ANTONIO - Women who opted for mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer had worse quality of life regarding their psychosocial and sexual well-being, according to survey results reported here. (medpagetoday.com)
- More women are undergoing mastectomy and breast reconstruction to reduce their risk of familial breast cancer, based on detection of specific risk genes. (plasticsurgery.org)
- After a few months for healing, the women proceeded to the standard risk-reducing mastectomy and implant-based reconstruction. (plasticsurgery.org)
- Nipple-sparing mastectomy: The surgeon removes the entire breast, but leaves the nipple and areola (the colored circle around the nipple) in place. (medlineplus.gov)
- Skin-sparing mastectomy: The surgeon removes the breast with the nipple and areola with minimal skin removal. (medlineplus.gov)
- I had assumed when I had [the mastectomy] done that it would be a private thing that no one would know about but me, my surgeon and my husband," she said. (yahoo.com)
- For a nipple-sparing mastectomy, the surgeon removed the entire breast and left the nipple and areola (the pigmented circle around the nipple) in place. (medlineplus.gov)
- For a skin-sparing mastectomy, the surgeon removed the entire breast along with the nipple and areola, but removed very little skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ask your surgeon or nurse about using post-mastectomy products, such as a mastectomy bra or a camisole with drain pockets. (medlineplus.gov)
Treatment of Breast Cancer2
- A mastectomy is contraindicated in patients who have locally advanced breast cancer that is inoperable. (medscape.com)
- At Valley, the majority of our patients are able to have a nipple-sparing mastectomy. (valleyhealth.com)
- Following a mastectomy, many patients suffer from severe neuropathic pain in the breast area. (american-hospital.org)
- The aim was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intercostobrachial nerve cryoneurolysis to manage post-mastectomy pain in these patients ( 2 ). (american-hospital.org)
- Given this, it is necessary to monitor and provide assistance to mastectomy patients in order to minimize the impacts caused by the removal of the breast. (bvsalud.org)
- Whether or not the margins contain cancer cells doesn't usually affect treatment after a mastectomy since the entire breast is removed. (komen.org)
- I had a second mastectomy but had to have an implant which I hate. (breastcancer.org)
- Targeted breast reduction/pre-shaping "primes" the breast for mastectomy and implant reconstruction performed a few months later, according to the study by Gudjon L. Gunnarsson, MD, and colleagues of Telemark Hospital, Skien, Norway. (plasticsurgery.org)
- Erector spinae plane block and rhomboid intercostal block for the treatment of post-mastectomy pain syndrome. (iasp-pain.org)
- 2. This Lands' End mastectomy bathing suit comes recommended by the Skin Cancer Foundation. (hip2save.com)
- 1. Stay stylish and supported in this mastectomy-friendly bathing suit from Aquashape . (hip2save.com)
- They also asked Anne Marie Giannino-Otis at Stupid Dumb Breast Cancer to remove post-mastectomy photographs from her Facebook page. (change.org)
- Most recently, former NBC News anchor Jenna Wolfe opened up about her decision to get a mastectomy and a hysterectomy , a surgery to remove the uterus. (yahoo.com)