Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
A group of disorders caused by the abnormal proliferation of MAST CELLS in a variety of extracutaneous tissues including bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Systemic mastocytosis is commonly seen in adults. These diseases are categorized on the basis of clinical features, pathologic findings, and prognosis.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC and EC
A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
A solid tumor consisting of a dense infiltration of MAST CELLS. It is generally benign.
The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (1/5252)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (2/5252)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization. (3/5252)

We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis.  (+info)

Bone marrow angiogenesis and mast cell density increase simultaneously with progression of human multiple myeloma. (4/5252)

Immunohistochemical, cytochemical and ultrastructural data showing vivid angiogenesis and numerous mast cells (MCs) in the bone marrow of 24 patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 34 patients with non-active MM and 22 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) led us to hypothesize that angiogenesis parallels progression of MM, and that MCs participate in its induction via angiogenic factors in their secretory granules.  (+info)

Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (5/5252)

Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment.  (+info)

Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-4. (6/5252)

1. The effect of IL-4 on responses to intraplantar ( carrageenin, bradykinin, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Also, the cellular source of the IL-4 was investigated. 2. IL-4, 30 min before the stimulus, inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, and TNFalpha, but not responses to IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2. 3. IL-4, 2 h before the injection of IL-1beta, did not affect the response to IL-1beta, whereas IL-4, 12 or 12+2 h before the IL-1beta, inhibited the hyperalgesia (-30%, -74%, respectively). 4. In murine peritoneal macrophages, murine IL-4 for 2 h before stimulation with LPS, inhibited (-40%) the production of IL-1beta but not PGE2. Murine IL-4 (for 16 h before stimulation with LPS) inhibited LPS-stimulated PGE2 but not IL-1beta. 5. Anti-murine IL-4 antibodies potentiated responses to carrageenin, bradykinin and TNFalpha, but not IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as responses to bradykinin in athymic rats but not in rats depleted of mast cells with compound 40/80. 6. These data suggest that IL-4 released by mast cells limits inflammatory hyperalgesia. During the early phase of the inflammatory response the mode of action of the IL-4 appears to be inhibition of the production TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8. In the later phase of the response, in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 also may inhibit the release of PGs.  (+info)

Tranilast suppresses vascular chymase expression and neointima formation in balloon-injured dog carotid artery. (7/5252)

BACKGROUND: Activation of vascular chymase plays a major role in myointimal hypertrophy after vascular injury by augmenting the production of angiotensin (ANG) II. Because chymase is synthesized mainly in mast cells, we assumed that the chymase-dependent ANG II formation could be downregulated by tranilast, a mast cell-stabilizing antiallergic agent. We have assessed inhibitory effects of tranilast on neointima formation after balloon injury in the carotid artery of dogs, which share a similar ANG II-forming chymase with humans, and further explored the pathophysiological significance of vascular chymase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Either tranilast (50 mg/kg BID) or vehicle was orally administered to beagles for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after balloon injury. Four weeks after the injury, remarkable neointima was formed in the carotid arteries of vehicle-treated dogs. Chymase mRNA levels and chymaselike activity of vehicle-treated injured arteries were increased 10.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively, those of uninjured arteries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was slightly increased in the injured arteries, whereas ACE mRNA levels were not. Tranilast treatment completely prevented the increase in chymaselike activity, reduced the chymase mRNA levels by 43%, and decreased the carotid intima/media ratio by 63%. In vehicle-treated injured arteries, mast cell count in the adventitia showed a great increase, which was completely prevented by the tranilast treatment. Vascular ACE activity and mRNA levels were unaffected by tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: Tranilast suppressed chymase gene expression, which was specifically activated in the injured arteries, and prevented neointima formation. Suppression of the chymase-dependent ANG II-forming pathway may contribute to the beneficial effects of tranilast.  (+info)

Terreic acid, a quinone epoxide inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. (8/5252)

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays pivotal roles in mast cell activation as well as in B cell development. Btk mutations lead to severe impairments in proinflammatory cytokine production induced by cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells. By using an in vitro assay to measure the activity that blocks the interaction between protein kinase C and the pleckstrin homology domain of Btk, terreic acid (TA) was identified and characterized in this study. This quinone epoxide specifically inhibited the enzymatic activity of Btk in mast cells and cell-free assays. TA faithfully recapitulated the phenotypic defects of btk mutant mast cells in high-affinity IgE receptor-stimulated wild-type mast cells without affecting the enzymatic activities and expressions of many other signaling molecules, including those of protein kinase C. Therefore, this study confirmed the important roles of Btk in mast cell functions and showed the usefulness of TA in probing into the functions of Btk in mast cells and other immune cell systems. Another insight obtained from this study is that the screening method used to identify TA is a useful approach to finding more efficacious Btk inhibitors.  (+info)

There are several types of mastocytosis, including:

1. Cutaneous mastocytosis: This type affects the skin and can cause redness, itching, and hives.
2. Systemic mastocytosis: This type affects multiple organs and can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
3. Aggressive mastocytosis: This is a rare and severe form of the disease that can cause rapid growth of mast cells and can lead to organ failure and death.
4. Mast cell sarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that affects mast cells.

The symptoms of mastocytosis vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder, but they can include:

* Skin symptoms such as hives, itching, and flushing
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Difficulty breathing
* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)

The exact cause of mastocytosis is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations and environmental triggers. There is no cure for mastocytosis, but treatment options include medications to manage symptoms, such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy in severe cases.

In conclusion, mastocytosis is a rare disorder characterized by an excessive increase in mast cells in certain tissues or organs, which can cause a wide range of symptoms. While there is no cure for the disease, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

1. Cutaneous mastocytosis: This type of mastocytosis affects the skin and is characterized by the formation of raised, itchy bumps or hives on the skin.
2. Systemic mastocytosis: This type of mastocytosis affects multiple organs in the body and can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
3. Aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM): This is a rare and severe form of systemic mastocytosis that can cause rapid progression of symptoms and can be life-threatening if left untreated.
4. Mast cell leukemia: This is a rare and aggressive form of mastocytosis that can progress to mast cell leukemia, a type of cancer.

The exact cause of mastocytosis is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations and environmental triggers such as allergens, infections, and stress. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests, including a biopsy of affected tissue. Treatment options for mastocytosis depend on the severity of the disorder and can include medications to reduce inflammation and prevent allergic reactions, as well as surgery or chemotherapy in more severe cases.

What is Systemic Mastocytosis?

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a type of mastocytosis that affects multiple organs in the body. It is characterized by an excessive accumulation of mast cells in one or more organs, such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and bone marrow. This accumulation can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia.

The symptoms of SM can vary in severity and may be similar to those of other conditions, making diagnosis challenging. Treatment options for SM depend on the severity of the disorder and can include medications to reduce inflammation and prevent allergic reactions, as well as surgery or chemotherapy in more severe cases.

What Causes Systemic Mastocytosis?

The exact cause of systemic mastocytosis is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations and environmental triggers such as allergens, infections, and stress. Some people may have an inherited predisposition to developing SM, while others may acquire the condition later in life due to exposure to environmental triggers.

Risk Factors for Systemic Mastocytosis

While anyone can develop systemic mastocytosis, there are certain risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing the disorder. These include:

Genetics: People with a family history of mastocytosis or other allergic conditions may be at increased risk for SM.

Age: SM is more common in children and adolescents, but it can occur at any age.

Gender: Women are more likely to develop SM than men.

Allergies: People with allergies, especially those who experience severe allergic reactions, may be at increased risk for SM.

Autoimmune disorders: People with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus may be more likely to develop SM.

Exposure to environmental triggers such as insect stings, certain medications, or infections can also increase the risk of developing SM.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Systemic Mastocytosis

The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and biopsies to assess mast cell numbers and activity. Imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans may also be used to assess the extent of organ involvement.

Treatment options for SM depend on the severity of symptoms, the organs involved, and the patient's overall health status. Treatment may involve one or a combination of the following:

Medications: Antihistamines, corticosteroids, and other medications that suppress mast cell activity may be used to control symptoms such as hives, itching, and swelling.

Monitoring and follow-up: Regular monitoring of the patient's condition and response to treatment is important to adjust therapy as needed.

Surgery: In some cases, surgical removal of affected tissue or organs may be necessary to control symptoms.

Supportive care: Patients with severe SM may require supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or feeding tubes to manage complications related to organ dysfunction.

Prognosis and Quality of Life

The prognosis for systemic mastocytosis varies depending on the severity of symptoms, the organs involved, and the patient's overall health status. In general, patients with mild forms of SM may have a good quality of life, while those with more severe forms of the disease may experience significant limitations in their daily activities.

Living with systemic mastocytosis can be challenging due to the unpredictable nature of symptoms and the potential for severe reactions. Patients with SM may experience anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life as a result of their condition. However, with proper management and support, many patients with SM are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

In conclusion, systemic mastocytosis is a rare and complex disorder that affects the body's mast cells and can cause a wide range of symptoms. While there is no cure for SM, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Note: This definition is an abstract from the online medical encyclopedia MedScape, which is available to healthcare professionals only. Please consult a qualified healthcare professional for further information and appropriate treatment.

Mast cell sarcoma is most commonly seen in the skin, but it can also arise in other parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. The tumors are usually large, irregularly shaped masses that can be firm or soft to the touch. They may ulcerate and bleed easily, leading to swelling and discomfort.

The symptoms of mast cell sarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. They may include:

* A lump or mass that may be painless or tender to the touch
* Swelling in the affected area
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fatigue
* Fevers
* Night sweats

Mast cell sarcoma is rare and accounts for only about 1-2% of all skin tumors. It is more common in dogs than cats and tends to affect older animals. The exact cause of mast cell sarcoma is not known, but genetic factors and environmental triggers may play a role.

Treatment options for mast cell sarcoma depend on the location and stage of the tumor. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Additional therapies such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy may be recommended based on the severity of the disease and the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for mast cell sarcoma varies depending on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is guarded and early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes. With prompt and appropriate therapy, some patients with mast cell sarcoma can achieve long-term remission or even cure. However, in advanced cases or those that are resistant to treatment, the prognosis may be poorer.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

There are two main types of mastocytoma: cutaneous mastocytoma, which affects the skin, and systemic mastocytosis, which can affect multiple organs throughout the body. Cutaneous mastocytoma typically appears as a firm, raised bump or nodule on the skin, and may be accompanied by itching or other symptoms. Systemic mastocytosis is more serious and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and anemia.

The exact cause of mastocytoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and environmental factors such as exposure to toxins or allergens. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, biopsy, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for mastocytoma include surgery, chemotherapy, and medications to reduce histamine levels.

Prognosis for mastocytoma varies depending on the type and severity of the disease, but in general, the prognosis is good for most patients with this condition. With proper treatment, many patients can achieve long-term remission or even be cured. However, in some cases, mastocytoma can progress to more aggressive forms of cancer, such as mast cell leukemia, which can be difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis.

Urticaria Pigmentosa typically presents in infancy or early childhood and can progress to more severe symptoms over time. In addition to the skin and eye changes, individuals with this condition may also experience joint pain, fatigue, and respiratory problems. There is currently no cure for Urticaria Pigmentosa, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms and prevent complications.

The diagnosis of Urticaria Pigmentosa is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, and genetic testing. Treatment options may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, as well as phototherapy and laser therapy to manage skin lesions. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered.

Prognosis for individuals with Urticaria Pigmentosa varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional health problems. While some people with mild forms of the condition may experience few or no complications, others may develop more severe symptoms and require ongoing medical care throughout their lives. Regular monitoring and management by a healthcare team is essential to ensure the best possible outcome for individuals with Urticaria Pigmentosa.

The term "basophilic" refers to the staining properties of these abnormal cells, which have a distinctive appearance under a microscope. The disease is often referred to as "acute" because it progresses rapidly and can be fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.

There are two main subtypes of basophilic leukemia: acute and chronic. Acute basophilic leukemia is the more aggressive and common form of the disease, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases. It typically affects adults in their 40s and 50s and is characterized by a high white blood cell count, anemia, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).

Chronic basophilic leukemia, on the other hand, is a rarer form of the disease that progresses more slowly and typically affects adults in their 60s and 70s. It is characterized by a lower white blood cell count, splenomegaly, and an increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (a precancerous condition).

The exact cause of basophilic leukemia is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation, and the prognosis varies depending on the subtype and overall health of the patient.

The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of parasites consumed. Mild cases may not exhibit any symptoms at all, while more severe cases can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle pain
* Skin rash
* Swelling of the face and eyelids

In severe cases, trichinellosis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the heart, brain, and liver, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Trichinellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or biopsies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasite, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of trichinellosis primarily involves proper food handling and cooking practices, such as cooking meat to an internal temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) to kill any Trichinella parasites that may be present. Avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly from wild game animals, can also help prevent the infection.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ... connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. The activities of the latter are dependent on T-cells. Mast cells are ... Mastocytosis is a rare clonal mast cell disorder involving the presence of too many mast cells (mastocytes) and CD34+ mast cell ... Surface markers: cell surface markers of mast cells were discussed in detail by Heneberg, claiming that mast cells may be ...
... a rare benign mast cell tumor without destructive growth. In the cases observed, mast cell sarcoma terminated quickly as mast ... Mast cell sarcoma is an extremely aggressive form of sarcoma made up of neoplastic mast cells. A sarcoma is a tumor made of ... "Morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of neoplastic cells in a case of mast cell sarcoma". Am J Surg Pathol. 27 (7): 1013 ... People with a mast cell sarcoma have no skin lesions, and pathology examination of the tumor shows it to be very malignant with ...
... s are medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders. They block mast cell degranulation ... Castillo M, Scott NW, Mustafa MZ, Mustafa MS, Azuara-Blanco A (2015). "Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers for ... Mast cell stabilizer medications include: β2-adrenergic agonists Cromoglicic acid Ketotifen Loratadine Desloratadine ... "Vitamin D contributes to mast cell stabilization". Allergy. 72 (8): 1184-1192. doi:10.1111/all.13110. PMID 27998003. S2CID ...
If the mast cells represent less than 10% of blood cells, the tumor is called "aleukemic" mast cell leukemia. Acute mast cell ... Mast cell tryptase is an enzyme contained in mast cell granules. Mast cell numbers are best estimated by tryptase ... Measurement of histidine carboxylase in the marrow cells of patients with mast cell leukemia is a very sensitive marker of mast ... March 1999). "Expression of Bcl-2 by human bone marrow mast cells and its overexpression in mast cell leukemia". Am. J. Hematol ...
... (MCAS) is a type of mast cell activation disorder (MCAD), and is an immunological condition in ... October 2019). "AAAAI Mast Cell Disorders Committee Work Group Report: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) diagnosis and ... better source needed] Afrin L (2013). "Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome.". Mast Cells: ... "Diagnostic and subdiagnostic accumulation of mast cells in the bone marrow of patients with anaphylaxis: Monoclonal mast cell ...
In biology CFU-Mast is a colony forming unit. It gives rise to mast cells. Kasugai T, Tei H, Okada M, Hirota S, Morimoto M, ... enlarges splenic mast-cell-progenitor pool: prominent impairment of responses in age-related stromal cell-impairment mouse SCI/ ... "Infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces invasion of mast cell precursors from peripheral blood to small intestine ... Blood cells, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ...
"Mast Cells , British Society for Immunology". Baldwin, AL (2006). "Mast cell activation by stress". Mast Cells. Methods in ... Mast cells are long-lived tissue-resident cells with an important role in many inflammatory settings, including host defense ... Stress is known to be a mast cell activator. There is evidence that children exposed to prenatal stress may experience ...
The other cells involved in the innate response include innate lymphoid cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and natural ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) possess an alternative T-cell receptor (TCR) as opposed to CD4+ and CD8+ (αβ) T cells and ... As with B cells, each type of T cell recognizes a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T-cell receptor ...
Kashiwakura J, Otani IM, Kawakami T (2011). "Monomeric IgE and mast cell development, survival and function". Mast Cell Biology ... mast cells, and dendritic cells are gradually down-regulated with somewhat different kinetics, rendering those cells much less ... series of papers have shown that IgE potentiates the activities of mast cells and omalizumab can function as a mast cell- ... on the surface of mast cells, basophils, and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. In the United States, omalizumab is indicated ...
Mast cell studies; conducted on Rana tigrina. (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Articles with short description, Short ...
... mast cell activation; keratinocyte adhesion and it is the main regulator of cell migration. Integrin α10β1 preferentially binds ... It is expressed mainly in epithelial cells and leukocytes and expression rate changes due to cell cycle phase. Functions ... It is specific for mesenchymal cells. Functions include: Chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth; regulation of cell ... They control mainly cell proliferation, migration and adhesion, coagulation cascade activation and they affect ECM structure by ...
"Mast Cell Tumour". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. ... The breed is particularly predisposed to mast cell tumours, a cancer of the immune system. Median lifespan was 10.25 years. ...
... on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute ... Cytokines from mast cells may play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Late-phase responses seen in asthma are ... If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ...
"Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-21. Modiano J, Breen M, Burnett R, Parker H, ... Frequently seen cancers include lymphoma, melanoma, mast cell tumors (which are considered to be potentially malignant, even ... Boxers and pugs are prone to multiple mast cell tumors. Scottish terriers have eighteen times the risk of mixed breed dogs to ... Inusah S, Thomas R, Avery P, Lindblad-Toh K, Ostrander E, Cutter G, Avery A (2005). "Distinct B-cell and T-cell ...
Frieri M (2015). "Mast Cell Activation Syndrome". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. doi:10.1007/s12016-015-8487-6. PMID 25944644. ... They are less effective than corticosteroids for treating asthma, but more effective for treating certain mast cell disorders. ... Agents such as montelukast and zafirlukast block the actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes at the CysLT1 receptor on target cells ... and suppressed oxidative bursts in polymorphonuclear cells at 1.8 μmol/L in vitro [56]. Inhibition of IFN-γ production, strong ...
Buku, A; Priceb, JA; Mendlowitzc, M; Masurd, S (2001). "Mast cell degranulating peptide binds to RBL-2H3 mast cell receptors ... The MCD peptide has an immunotoxic effect on mast cells by releasing histamine from these cells. MCD peptide has also been ... Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide is a cationic 22-amino acid residue peptide, which is a component of the venom of the ... As a mast cell activator, the MCD peptide evokes large increases in antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. ...
MCD peptide destroys mast cells. Feeling only slight pain, Schmidt has described the sting of an urban digger bee, categorized ... Melittin is the main toxin of bee venom, and it damages red blood cells and white blood cells. Apamin is a neurotoxin that ...
"Mast Cell Tumors in Cats". Retrieved 27 September 2011. Skin Cancer in Cats and Dogs from Pet Cancer Center ... as long as the healthy tissues removed from just outside the tumor area do not contain any cancer cells. "Dogs and Skin Cancer ... lab to confirm that the surrounding healthy tissues that were excised along with the tumor do not contain any cancer cells. If ...
Prone to mast cell tumors. Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, also called Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head, is where the ball ... The chemical in the skunk spray is absorbed by the dog and causes the red blood cells to undergo haemolysis, which can ...
April 1997). "Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal ... Giemsa stains the fungus Histoplasma, Chlamydia bacteria, and can be used to identify mast cells. Giemsa's solution is a ... It can be used to study the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human cells. It differentially stains human and bacterial cells ... It is also used in Wolbachia cell stain in Drosophila melanogaster.[citation needed] Giemsa stain is a classic blood film stain ...
Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ ... mast cell stabilizers, leukotriene antagonists. Androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human ... monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of ... and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies). Pharmaceuticals or drugs or medicines are classified in various other ...
Inhibit histamine-release from mast cells. Increase protein content of secretions from lacrimal glands. Receptor also present ... The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor ... The human delta -opioid receptor displays constitutive oligomerization at the cell surface, which is not regulated by receptor ... Nature Cell Biology. 13 (6): 715-21. doi:10.1038/ncb2252. PMC 3113693. PMID 21602791. Karthikeyan S, Leung T, Ladias JA (May ...
... release of serotonin from mast cells; release of 5-HT in brain slices; release of 5-HT in brain of anesthetized rodents and ... the resulting current must remain low in order to avoid cell lysis as well as cell depolarization. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry ... In fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), a small carbon fiber electrode (micrometer scale) is inserted into living cells, tissue ... Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells ( ...
... dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition ... "Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets". European Journal of Pharmacology. Pharmacological modulation of Mast cells and ... which is caused by a hypersensitive response by mast cells to allergens. Pre-sensitised mast cells respond by degranulating, ... "Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells". Cell ...
Mast cells have Toll-like receptors and interact with dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells to help mediate adaptive immune ... The source of interferon-gamma can be CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, natural killer T cells, ... Mast cells express MHC class II molecules and can participate in antigen presentation; however, the mast cell's role in antigen ... In an animal, cells are constantly dying. A balance between cell division and cell death keeps the number of cells relatively ...
Brown, W. R. and Hardy, M. H. (1989). Mast Cells in Asebia Mouse Skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 93(5): 708. Hardy ... Experimental Cell Research, 46(2): 367-384. Josefowicz, W. J. and Hardy, M. H. (1978). The expression of the gene asebia in the ... Hardy's curiosity-driven research inspired a new generation of stem cell scientists to use hair follicles as "an accessible and ... Hardy, M. H. and Vielkind, U. (1996). Changing patterns of cell adhesion molecules during mouse pelage hair follicle ...
"Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at the single-cell level". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 361-8. doi:10.1016/j ... although there are less than that found in mast cell granules. Mast cells were once thought to be basophils that migrated from ... The mast cell, another granulocyte, is similar in appearance and function. Both cell types store histamine, a chemical that is ... Heneberg P (November 2011). "Mast cells and basophils: trojan horses of conventional lin- stem/progenitor cell isolates". ...
Pawankar R (February 2001). "Mast cells as orchestrators of the allergic reaction: the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell network". ... It lacks the beta subunit on other cells. It is constitutively expressed on mast cells and basophils and is inducible in ... FcεRI is found on epidermal Langerhans cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. As a result of its cellular distribution ... Gounni, A.; Lamkhioued, B.; Ochiai, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Delaporte, E.; Capron, A.; Kinet, J.P.; Capron, M. (2006). "IgE, mast cells ...
Flag mast Radio mast Cell mast "Military Masts , Military Antenna, Lighting and Camera Equipment UK". ... Light mast is a tall lighting specified[clarification needed] mast, which has several big searchlights on top of it. Light ... masts illuminates large areas and are possible to move, which is why they are used (for example) as farming, construction and ...
Borriello F, Iannone R, Marone G (2017). "Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils". Handbook of Experimental ... be it either exogenous came with food or mostly endogenous released from granules of mast cells and basophils as a result of ... and also should avoid intake of histamine liberators which release histamine from granules of mast cells and basophils. In a ... A common genetic polymorphism affects the activity levels of this gene product in red blood cells. Multiple alternatively ...
Kim (2012). "Sparassis crispa suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Role of calcium, mitogen-activated protein ... Purified from Sparassis crispa Mediated Neuro-Protection against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells". Int ...
... who built a chain of cells between London Heathrow and BT Tower in January 1985. Cellnet was established in 1985 as a joint ... announced on 15 December 2009 that it had successfully demonstrated a 4G connection using LTE technology installed in six masts ... the company was also able to reduce energy use by removing air conditioning units from some of its cell sites and reducing ... 1.4 million distribution of smart metering technology across the company's cell sites, offices and retail stores, and upgrades ...
These cells, together with other immune cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and ... These hallmark features of FLS in RA are divided into 7 cell-intrinsic hallmarks and 4 cell-extrinsic hallmarks. The cell- ... Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, ... They lose the property called contact inhibition (cells arrest their growth in the case when more cells come into contact with ...
"CD34 and CD43 inhibit mast cell adhesion and are required for optimal mast cell reconstitution". Immunity. 22 (1): 43-57. doi: ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ... endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels but not lymphatics (except pleural lymphatics), mast cells, a ...
... as well as mast cells and myeloblasts, the latter leading to the myelocytic line (granulocytes) and to monocytes, macrophages, ... In hematology, myelopoiesis in the broadest sense of the term is the production of bone marrow and of all cells that arise from ... A granulocyte differentiates into a distinct cell type by a process called granulopoiesis. In this process it first transforms ... The common myeloid progenitor can differentiate in the bone marrow into red blood cells and megakaryocytes (leading to ...
It is a direct H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. The ophthalmic formulation has ... Mast cell stabilizers, Piperidines, 2-Pyridyl compounds, Peripherally selective drugs, Ophthalmology drugs). ...
After establishing the key role that mast cells and other key effector cells play in triggering the acute allergic inflammatory ... This led to the subsequent discovery that epithelial cells from those with moderate-severe asthma were deficient in their ...
The cell is spindle or cigar-shaped, somewhat pointed at the anterior end. It has a pellicle with parallel finely-ridged ... "Encyclopedia of Life". Mast, SO (Mar-Apr 1912). "The reactions of the flagellate Peranema". Journal of Animal Behavior. 2 (2): ... Peranema cells are gliding flagellates found in freshwater lakes, ponds and ditches, and are often abundant at the bottom of ... It does not sit freely, like the trailing flagella of Dinema and Entosiphon, but adheres to the outside of the cell membrane, ...
Finally, NADA can prevent the degranulation and release of TNF from RBL- 2H3 mast cells treated with an IgE-antigen complex. ... Additionally, NADA has been observed to suppress inflammatory activation of human Jurkat T cells and to inhibit the release of ... "Inhibitory effect of N-Acyl dopamines on IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells". Lipids. 48 (4): 383-393. doi:10.1007 ... NADA also promotes the inflammatory resolution of human endothelial cells activated by both endogenous (i.e. TNF) and exogenous ...
Mast, Jason (9 January 2020). "How pancreatic RAS tumors protect themselves. Researchers point to a new protein - and maybe a ... Dafna Bar-Sagi is a cell biologist and cancer researcher at New York University School of Medicine. She is the Saul J. Farber ... Recent studies in the Bar-Sagi lab have focused on the treatment of mutant KRAS cancer cells, and understanding how they ... Bar-Sagi continues to study the function of Ras oncogenes and mutant Ras proteins in cell proliferation, survival, nutrient ...
"Human skin mast cells express H2 and H4, but not H3 receptors". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 123 (1): 116-23. doi: ... Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Heart Lungs Gastrointestinal tract Endothelial cells Like all histamine ...
"U.S., Ohio flags will be half-staff, half-mast after Queen Elizabeth II's death". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved September 11 ... "FDA Spurs Innovation for Human Food from Animal Cell Culture Technology". FDA. November 16, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022 ... Federal judge Diane Humetewa rules that the subpeona by January 6th Committee to get the cell phone data from Arizona ...
"Development and Malignant Transformation of Mast Cells and Interstitial Cells of Cajal through KIT Receptors" Masakatsu ... Regulation of Cell Cycle and Chromosome Segregation Noboru Karashima - History and Society in South India: The Cholas to ... Studies on the Mechanisms of Mobilization of Calcium Ion in Muscle Cells 2002 (92nd) Sumio Iijima Akiho Miyashiro 2001 (91st) ...
Shekar and Ravi's cell mate Naresh as Satish Janardhan; Chitti's father Tanikella Bharani as Govindu; Srikanth's father ... lawyer Satish Saripalli as SI Jaya Naidu as Srikanth's mother Harini Rao as Chitti's mother Keshav Deepak as a Doctor Mast Ali ...
Mast N; Charvet C; Pikuleva IA; Stout CD (October 2010). "Structural basis of drug binding to CYP46A1, an enzyme that controls ... Abnormal induction of the cholesterol-catabolic enzyme CYP46 in glial cells". Neurosci. Lett. 314 (1-2): 45-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Mast N; White MN; Bjorkhem I; Johnson EF; Stout CD; Pikuleva IA (July 2008). "Crystal structures of substrate-bound and ... Mast N; Andersson U; Nakayama K; Bjorkhem I; Pikuleva IA (August 2004). "Expression of human cytochrome P450 46A1 in ...
The circumference of the main body is covered with solar cells. The bottom side is dominated by the nozzles of the main ... Once landed on the surface, the lander carries out critical operations such as deployment of its antenna and camera mast, and ... of symmetry will be almost perpendicular to the direction of the Sun ensuring continuously good illumination of the solar cells ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.[page needed] Mast WE, Burrows WM (November 1976). "Erythema chronicum migrans and "lyme arthritis"". ... Biopsy and confirmation of Borrelia cells in myocardial tissue may be used in specific cases but are usually not done because ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ...
Dee claimed that Rowe was "seizing this opportunity to try and filch the GL problem from the ADEE" (the Army Cell) and that " ... Instead of trying to rotate the microwave feeds, the III(B) mounted the radio frequency components on the mast, and then fed ... This allowed the antennas, on top of the mast, to rotate easily under the control of the operator turning a large handwheel. ... The development team, nicknamed the "Army Cell", was set the task of building a system that would provide slant range ...
... by mast cells following the cross-linking of allergen specific IgE molecules bound to mast cell FcεRI receptors. These ... and in plasma cell isotype switching to IgE which will bind to the mast cell FcεRI receptors and prime the individual for ... The recruited T-cells are typically of the Th2 variety and the cytokines they produce lead to further recruitment of mast cells ... The late phase of a Type 1 reaction (which develops 8-12 hours and is mediated by mast cells) should not be confused with ...
These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth ... Th9 cells can arise not only from naive T cells but also from differentiated Th2 cells. Another function of IL-25 is the ... "IL-25 causes apoptosis of IL-25R-expressing breast cancer cells without toxicity to nonmalignant cells". Science Translational ... Evidence is the expression of IL-17RB on Th2 cells, not on Th1 and Th17. In addition, IL-25 is responsible for the decrease in ...
... the release of proinflammatory mediators and proteases by mast cells, and perturbations in the innate immune response that may ... The inflammatory infiltrate in oral LP is primarily composed of CD8+ T cells. A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated ... Chemokines are produced by activated CD8+ T cells that attract additional inflammatory cells, thereby promoting continued ... Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can present as erythematous or white patches, ulcers, or exophytic masses. The highest risk ...
The lid consists of a kidney-shaped cell work-frame enclosing a sheet of the horn, on which were mounted pairs of exquisite ... The decking, benches and mast were removed. In the fore and aft sections along the gunwales, there were oar-rests shaped like ... In his work, they are transferred into the cell work medium with dazzling technical and artistic virtuosity. These are the work ... garnet cell work plaques depicting birds, wolves devouring men (or the ancient motif of the Master of Animals), geometric ...
In the early 1960s Ginsberg and Sachs discovered that IL-3 is a potent mast cell growth factor produced from activated T cells ... Sometimes also called colony-stimulating factor, multi-CSF, mast cell growth factor, MULTI-CSF, MCGF; MGC79398, MGC79399: the ... Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signaling), or that of other T cells ... It has been shown that combination of IL-3, GM-CSF and stem cell factor enhances peripheral blood stem cells during high-dose ...
... and when Ferreira Pimentel affirmed that he saw in the rigging of the main mast a figure of a radiant female figure, of rare ... cells and other installations. The kitchen, of grande dimensions, was completely destroyed. The main floor of the church ...
Le Coniat M, Kinet JP, Berger R (1990). "The human genes for the alpha and gamma subunits of the mast cell receptor for ... The high affinity IgE receptor plays a central role in allergic disease, coupling allergen and mast cell to initiate the ... 1988). "Human and rat mast cell high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors: characterization of putative alpha-chain gene ... a critical regulator of airway smooth muscle cells?". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 291 (3): L312-21. doi:10.1152/ ...
Mellon MB, Frank BT, Fang KC (2002). "Mast cell alpha-chymase reduces IgE recognition of birch pollen profilin by cleaving ... binds to Rac and regulates cell motility and survival of macrophages". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (18): 6872-81. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.18 ... Yayoshi-Yamamoto S, Taniuchi I, Watanabe T (2000). "FRL, a Novel Formin-Related Protein, Binds to Rac and Regulates Cell ... Cell. Biol. 20 (18): 6872-81. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.18.6872-6881.2000. PMC 86228. PMID 10958683. ...
In 2017 funding was raised to fit a viewing door to the cell just below the spire floor that holds the original medieval ... The Belmont television and radio mast, once one of the tallest structures in the European Union (until its height was reduced ...
"Protein kinase C-delta is a negative regulator of antigen-induced mast cell degranulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 ... SHIP1 is expressed predominantly by hematopoietic cells but also, for example, by osteoblasts and endothelial cells. This ... for example T cell receptor (TCR) and CD79a/b. SHIP1 does not bind only to intracellular chains of cell surface receptor. Its ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ...
"Mannose receptor and macrophage galactose-type lectin are involved in Bordetella pertussis mast cell interaction". Journal of ... They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, ... Schroder K, Tschopp J (March 2010). "The inflammasomes". Cell. 140 (6): 821-832. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.040. PMID 20303873 ... Cell. 124 (4): 803-814. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.008. PMID 16497589. S2CID 10696351. McHale L, Tan X, Koehl P, Michelmore RW ...
"3-Mast-Schooner Arung Samudera: data, photos, profile of the sailing ship at Tall-Ship Fan". Archived from ... "Unsur KRI Koarmatim Gelar Manlap Pamtas Laut Indonesia - RDTL - Australia". LANCER CELL. 2017-03-14. Archived from the original ...
It is becoming clear however that this pair has important immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive cells of the immune ... Mast cells and IgE are most familiar as the effectors of type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. ... IgE and mast cells: The endogenous adjuvant Adv Immunol. 2020;148:93-153. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2020 Nov 5. ... Mast cells and IgE are most familiar as the effectors of type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. It is ...
East residents object to cell mast construction. Pretoria East Rekord. The company undertook an electromagnetic field ... More about the theme:. http://www. ... 5G Cell Tower Halted.... A newly released investigation about 5G features the... Starmail - 27. Mai, 16:47 ... We prefer no phone masts.... The Connexion Villagers in a small Alpine commune... Starmail - 27. Mai, 16:43 ...
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Expression of the cellular prion protein by mast cells in the human carotid body. Prion. 2023 Dec;17(1):67-74. PubMed. ...
Tag: mast cell activation. Mast cell activation syndrome treatment: Times on your side. July 21, 2022. July 21, 2022. Leave a ... Mast cells are cells of the immune system that help protect the body against foreign invaders. Activation … Continue reading ... Mast cell activation syndrome(MCAS) treatment normally centers around blocking histamine. Youve likely heard of histamine as ... the release of histamine from mast cells causes allergic symptoms. Symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, cough, and things of ...
Association of Mast Cells with Warthins Tumor in Fine Needle Aspirates of the Salivary Gland Subject Area: Pathology and Cell ... Tadao K. Kobayashi, Masami Ueda, Toshihiro Nishino, Ryoji Kushima, Shigemi Nakajima, Chiyuki Kaneko; Association of Mast Cells ...
The mast cell is the immune cell that is responsible for the production of nitric oxide. Mast cells are found in the skin, ... Singulair Mast Cells, Mast Cell, Dust Mites, Asthma Sufferers, Immune Cells. Posted over a year ago ... When the mast cell knows that pathogens are present and nitric oxide is NOT produced, then it signals other immune cells to be ... The mast cell is capable of many different types of biochemical functions that are designed to signal other cells or other ...
... parafollicular and mast cells. Average tangent diameters of parafollicular and mast cell nuclei were measured using an ocular ... After this time the volume ratio for mast cells shows a further sharp increase, for follicular cells a moderate increase, and ... parafollicular cells, mast cells and other interstitium; absolute (total) volumes, absolute numbers and average volumes of ... Follicular, parafollicular and mast cells in mouse thyroid gland after antithyroid drug application (Volume 4 (1985) - Number 1 ...
The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in mast cells promotes the neovascularisation of human pterygia ... The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in mast cells promotes the neovascularisation of human pterygia ... The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in mast cells promotes the neovascularisation of human pterygia ...
Orbit/Mast, the CLASP orthologue of Drosophila, is required for asymmetric stem cell and cystocyte divisions and development of ... Orbit/Mast, the CLASP orthologue of Drosophila, is required for asymmetric stem cell and cystocyte divisions and development of ... In orbit mutants, the stem cells and their associated fusomes are eventually lost as Orbit/Mast protein is depleted. The ... Drosophila oocyte differentiation is preceded by the formation of a polarised 16-cell cyst from a single progenitor stem cell ...
IgE-activated mast cells enhance TLR4-mediated antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses Phong, BL;DSouza, SJ;Baudier, RL;Wu, E; ... Here we examined the effects of specific mast cell activation in vivo on the initiation of an antigen-specific CD4+ T cell ... little is known about the mast cell contribution to the induction of endogenous, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. ... Mast cells are potent mediators of allergy and asthma, yet their role in regulating adaptive immunity remains ambiguous. On the ...
Mast cell tumors are most common in dermal and subcutaneous tissues. Up to 60% of mast cell tumors show up on the trunk and 25 ... I recommend running a full mast cell tumor panel on low-grade (grade 1 or 2) mast cell tumors to help with the decision to ... It can also be especially difficult to predict which grade 1 and grade 2 mast cell tumors will result in death due to the mast ... Mast cell tumor grading, cell proliferation analysis (including MI), c-Kit polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and KIT ...
To gain insight into the biological role of mast cell chymase we have generated a mouse strain with a targeted deletion in the ... The Chymase, Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4, Constitutes the Major Chymotrypsin-like Activity in Peritoneum and Ear Tissue. A Role ... for Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Thrombin Regulation and Fibronectin Turnover J Exp Med (2003) 198 (3): 423-431. ...
IL-3 dependent mast cells undergo apoptosis on removal of IL-3: Prevention of apoptosis by c-kit ligand ...
Get your FREE Mast Cell Report!. Join our online community and get a FREE copy of the 7 Common Root Causes in Mast Cell ... Mast Cell Nervous System Reboot. *Top 8 Mast Cell Supporting Supplements Master Class ...
Mast cell deficiency prevents BCR::ABL1 induced splenomegaly and cytokine elevation in a CML mouse model *Melanie Langhammer ... Genetic separation of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells from normal hematopoietic stem cells at single-cell resolution *Yulin ... Adapter CAR T cells to counteract T-cell exhaustion and enable flexible targeting in AML ... Characterization of leukemia progression in the Cbfb-MYH11 knockin mice by single cell RNA sequencing *Jamie L. Diemer ...
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... interacting with some cells of the most different origins. It is known despite the interactions between mast cells and cells T ... SANTOS, Pedro Paulo de Andrade et al. Relationship between mast cells and T cells in infammation. Odontol. Clín.-Cient. (Online ... The mast cells are cellular types that execute a series of functions through the release of chemical mediators when duly ... carry through a literary revision of the related current aspects of this possible relationship between mast cells and T cells ...
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Mast cell disease. Health and Medicine Reference Covering Thousands of Diseases and Prescription Drugs. ... Mast cell disease. Mast cell diseases comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases involving the mast cells. The most common ... Neutral Proteases of Mast Cells (Monographs in Allergy) $5.00. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases (Chemical Immunology) $169.29. ... CXCL10/CXCR3 Axis Mediates Human Lung Mast Cell Migration to Asthmatic Airway Smooth Muscle, The. Mast cell microlocalization ...
Large collection of high quality biology pictures, photos, images, illustrations, diagrams and posters on marine biology, cell ...
We are a national cancer testing laboratory with one mission: Keeping our clients and their patients at the forefront of everything we do. Our priority is to manage testing with speed, precision and care, only delivering testing that is medically necessary and clinically significant.. ...
Mast cells trigger epithelial barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation and postoperati Mast cells trigger epithelial ... but not in the two mast cell-deficient strains. IM resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure in both WT and mast cell- ... but involved mast cell mediators. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES Mast cell activation during abdominal surgery causes epithelial ... Mast cells have shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of POI in mouse models and human studies. We studied whether mast ...
Mast cells: armories in the immune system. That cell is the mast cell, which is an immune cell that permeates just about all of ... Mast cells do that by acting as an armory of sorts. Each mast cell contains a grab bag of inflammation-causing chemicals that ... "When I started with mast cells, they were a bit of a novelty," Gomez says. "But now mast cells have become quite popular, and a ... Its not a lung cell, but its found throughout lung tissue. And so on. A bodys immune system places mast cells, which are a ...
It is not mass cell tumor as is commonly thought.) In this seminar he addresses: What weve learned about mast cell tumors in ... More Thoughts On Mast Cell Tumors Dr. Dressler revisits one of the most common canine cancers, particularly in the skin: mast ... New information and tools on cancer treatment, overview of Mast Cell Tumors and what they are, dogs prone to Mast Cell Tumors, ... It is not mass cell tumor as is commonly thought.) In this seminar he addresses:. *What weve learned about mast cell tumors in ...
Hells Bells and Mast Cells Dont do this, Gut and butt, Poodles, Remission 5 Comments. April 17, 2021. November 24, 2022. ... Hells Bells and Mast Cells Dont do this, Rare 3 Comments. February 26, 2020. January 29, 2021. ... Hells Bells and Mast Cells Dont do this, Humor 4 Comments. April 12, 2020. ... In typical mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) fashion, the last day of the AKC National Agility Championship was a bit of ...
... - Detailní zobrazení záznamu - Knihovna ... Higher toxin concentrations lead to cell death. Similar activation events are observed when mast cells are exposed to sublytic ... Molecular Mechanisms of Mast Cell Activation by Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins. Frontiers in Immunology. Roč. 12, June (2021 ... Mast cells are potent immune sensors of the tissue microenvironment. Within seconds of activation, they release various ...
Here, we show that ω-3 fatty acid-derived epoxides (ω-3 epoxides) released from mast cells by PAF-AH2, an oxidized phospholipid ... Omega-3 fatty acid epoxides produced by PAF-AH2 in mast cells regulate pulmonary vascular remodeling. In: Nature communications ... Here, we show that ω-3 fatty acid-derived epoxides (ω-3 epoxides) released from mast cells by PAF-AH2, an oxidized phospholipid ... Here, we show that ω-3 fatty acid-derived epoxides (ω-3 epoxides) released from mast cells by PAF-AH2, an oxidized phospholipid ...
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  • Mast cell activation syndrome(MCAS) treatment normally centers around blocking histamine. (
  • You've likely heard of histamine as the release of histamine from mast cells causes allergic symptoms. (
  • If a dog with a mast cell tumor is sick when it comes in, blame histamine, heparin and other vasoactive amines. (
  • Histamine is a signaling molecule, sending messages between cells. (
  • Antihistamines block cells from seeing histamine and can treat common allergies. (
  • Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. (
  • Mast cell tumors are the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs, accounting for 16% to 21% of skin tumors.1 Risk factors include age (there's a higher incidence in older dogs) and breed (boxers, Boston terriers, Labradors, beagles and schnauzers are at higher risk). (
  • The way a mast cell tumor looks to your naked eye in the exam room correlates well with how it looks on a slide. (
  • Here's a fun fact: Darier's sign refers to the wheal and flare in surrounding tissues after manipulation of a mast cell tumor and is caused by mast cell degranulation. (
  • It can also be especially difficult to predict which grade 1 and grade 2 mast cell tumors will result in death due to the mast cell tumor. (
  • Thus in the case of asthma, it is known that excessive numbers of eosinophils appear in the airways and these cells create inflammation. (
  • Merck says in the literature that montelukast binds with the cysLT1 receptor in order to prevent the mast cell from signalling the eosinophils to arrive in excessive numbers that cause inflammation. (
  • Chronic lesions also display increased mast cells, eosinophils, and IgE-bearing Langerhans cells. (
  • Mast cells are potent mediators of allergy and asthma, yet their role in regulating adaptive immunity remains ambiguous. (
  • This study provides important new evidence to support the role of mast cells as mediators of the antigen-specific adaptive immune response. (
  • Upon contact with allergen, sensitized mast cells release highly active proinflammatory mediators. (
  • The mast cells are cellular types that execute a series of functions through the release of chemical mediators when duly stimulated, interacting with some cells of the most different origins. (
  • In typical mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) fashion, the last day of the AKC National Agility Championship was a bit of shock. (
  • I try not to set expectations, because it's impossible to anticipate all the variables that could trigger a MCAS reaction, but still, even after five years of diagnosis, my mast cells surprise me. (
  • In addition, we discuss the evaluation and treatment of mast cell activation ( syndromes ), allergy and anaphylaxis in mast cell disorders, and the clinical and biologic heterogeneity of the more indolent forms of mastocytosis . (
  • Because mast cell disorders are relatively rare, AIM hopes to achieve a coordination of scientific efforts not only in the Americas but also in Europe by collaborating with the well-established European Competence Network on Mastocytosis . (
  • Le pourcentage de CD44 dans les lymphocytes T périphériques était significativement plus élevé chez les patients que chez les témoins, comme détecté par la cytométrie en flux. (
  • Eventually mast cells and basophils pick up the IgE's and become sensitized. (
  • Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. (
  • RESULTS: Immediately after vibration, the tails were hyperalgesic and had disrupted myelinated axons, fragmented nerve endings, and mast-cell degranulation. (
  • The overarching goal of this meeting was to establish a Pan-American organization of physicians and scientists with multidisciplinary expertise in mast cell disease . (
  • To serve this unmet need, AIM envisions a network where basic, translational, and clinical researchers could establish collaborations with both academia and biopharma to support the development of new diagnostic methods , enhanced understanding of the biology of mast cells in human health and disease , and the testing of novel therapies . (
  • Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-threate- disorders and to shed a light on the role of ning blistering skin disease in which pa- mast cells in autoimmune diseases [ 7 ]. (
  • The Chymase, Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4, Constitutes the Major Chymotrypsin-like Activity in Peritoneum and Ear Tissue. (
  • It's not a skin cell, but it's found throughout skin tissue. (
  • It's not a lung cell, but it's found throughout lung tissue. (
  • Working with human tissue presents challenges, including less regular access to cells, which are typically derived from tummy tucks and biopsies by the NIH-affiliated outfit that supplies him, but Gomez prefers to be closer to the species of real interest. (
  • however, little is known about the mast cell contribution to the induction of endogenous, antigen-specific CD4 + T cells. (
  • In these AIM proceedings, we highlight selected topics relevant to mast cell biology and provide updates regarding the recently described hereditary alpha-tryptasemia. (
  • The localisation of CLIP-190 to such microtubules and to the fusome is dependent upon Orbit/Mast to which it is complexed. (
  • This enhanced activation was dependent on global TLR4 stimulation but appeared to be less dependent on mast cell expressed TLR4. (
  • Mast cell tumors are most common in dermal and subcutaneous tissues. (
  • A body's immune system places mast cells, which are a form of white blood cell, in stationary positions in tissues. (
  • Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • When the mast cell knows that pathogens are present and nitric oxide is NOT produced, then it signals other immune cells to be sent to the site of the infection. (
  • I believe that montelukast probably creates a source of nitric oxide that prevents the mast cell from signalling for other immune cells to arrive at the source of infection. (
  • When the immune system discovers an invader, immune cells called B-cells make IgE antibodies. (
  • The IgE's are like "WANTED" signs that spread throughout the body, telling other immune cells about specific invaders to look for. (
  • Mast cells are cells of the immune system that help protect the body against foreign invaders. (
  • In other words, they're white blood cells that are permanently positioned outside of the bloodstream, and they're responsible for a number of functions, including fighting off invaders. (
  • Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR. (
  • The mast cell is capable of many different types of biochemical functions that are designed to signal other cells or other chemical responses. (
  • Mast cell diseases comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases involving the mast cells. (
  • Proceedings from the Inaugural American Initiative in Mast Cell Diseases (AIM) Investigator Conference. (
  • The American Initiative in Mast Cell Diseases (AIM) held its inaugural investigator conference at Stanford University School of Medicine in May 2019. (
  • Here we examined the effects of specific mast cell activation in vivo on the initiation of an antigen-specific CD4 + T cell response. (
  • Expression of the cellular prion protein by mast cells in the human carotid body. (
  • In wild-type cysts, the Orbit/Mast protein not only associates with the mitotic spindle and its poles, but also with the central spindle (spindle remnant), ring canal and fusome, suggesting it participates in interactions between these structures. (
  • The Orbit/Mast protein thus appears to facilitate multiple interactions of the fusome with mitotic spindles and ring canals. (
  • Mitotic index (MI) is an indirect measure of cell proliferation based on the number of mitotic figures present. (
  • However, these diagnostics are of questionable value in staging since mast cells are also present in healthy animals. (
  • It is known despite the interactions between mast cells and cells T exist, however not yet are very clear. (
  • CD117 by immunohistochemical methods sion molecules, involved in cell-cell and in order to clarify the role of the infiltrating cell matrix interactions and thought to take inflammatory cells in the pathomechanisms part in cell motility [ 2,3 ]. (
  • In conjunction with T-helper cells, allergy in the chemical industry. (
  • In orbit mutants, the stem cells and their associated fusomes are eventually lost as Orbit/Mast protein is depleted. (
  • An initiating role should be ascribed to the mast cells because their reaction occurs at the earliest time and is in average the most expressed. (
  • We show that the Orbit/Mast microtubule-associated protein is required at several stages in the formation of such polarised 16-cell cysts. (
  • Finally the Orbit/Mast protein is required during mid-oogenesis for the organisation of the polarised microtubule network inside the 16-cell cyst that ensures oocyte differentiation. (
  • The absolute volumes, expressed as a ratio of the experimental to the control values, shows a similar increase for all three cell lines between the 4th and 32nd day. (
  • After this time the volume ratio for mast cells shows a further sharp increase, for follicular cells a moderate increase, and for parafollicular cells a decrease. (
  • Closely packed cells with indistinct cytoplasmic boundaries, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio lower than with the anaplastic type, infrequent mitoses, and more granules than with the anaplastic type. (
  • The objective of this work was to carry through a literary revision of the related current aspects of this possible relationship between mast cells and T cells in inflammatory process. (
  • bound to the surface of mast cells. (
  • It is becoming clear however that this pair has important immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. (
  • Well-differentiated mast cell tumors are typically single, 1 to 4 cm in diameter, slow-growing, rubbery, non-ulcerated and alopecic. (
  • Suppression of IgE-mediated mast cell activation can be exerted by molecules targeting IgE, FcɛRI or signaling kinases including Syk, or by IgG antibodies acting via inhibitory Fcγ receptors. (
  • Mast cells are found in the skin, airways, intestines etc. (
  • I arrived at that conclusion from studying the chemical structure of montelukast, the chemical structure of the gene cysLT1 receptor, and the chemical structure of the cell wall of fungus which would be what the mast cell uses to determine "what to do in order to kill the fungus. (
  • CXCL10/CXCR3 Axis Mediates Human Lung Mast Cell Migration to Asthmatic Airway Smooth Muscle, The Mast cell microlocalization within the airway smooth muscle bundle is an important determinant of the asthmatic phenotype. (
  • But I really wanted to learn the human mast cell system, and so over seven years ago I transitioned, and now in the lab we work exclusively with human mast cells. (
  • En outre, il y avait une aug- mentation significative de la forme soluble du c-kit dans le sérum des patients atteints de pemphigus vulgaire actif par rapport aux témoins. (
  • Each mast cell contains a grab bag of inflammation-causing chemicals that can be released if the immune system directs it to do so. (
  • In 2015 we reviewed the evidence for the adjuvant functions of mast cells. (
  • Blood vessels become leakier, so that white blood cells and other protective substances can sneak through and fight the invader. (
  • Undifferentiated mast cell tumors are large, rapidly growing, ulcerated and irritated. (
  • That cell is the mast cell, which is an immune cell that permeates just about all of the organs of the body. (
  • Up to 60% of mast cell tumors show up on the trunk and 25% on the limbs, with the head and neck the least common sites. (