Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Flowmeters: Devices used to measure the flow of fluids (see RHEOLOGY) or the AIR to measure RESPIRATION.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.PhosphopeptidesMyoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine: A material used in the manufacture of azo dyes that is toxic to skin and carcinogenic in several species.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Vacuum Curettage: Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Enkephalin, Leucine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.PhotochemistrySpectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Terahertz Spectroscopy: Spectrum analysis of absorbed or emitted TERAHERTZ RADIATION.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.PolysaccharidesMeteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Forensic Toxicology: The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)EthaneSpectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl: Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.
"Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST)". National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Retrieved September 4, 2015. "Proton-Electron ... Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT) Low Energy Ion Composition Analyzer (LEICA) Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) measures the ...
"Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometer". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 6, 2011. Tamarkin, Frank J. (October ... Fenn's work in mass spectrometry earned him another spate of awards later in his career. In 1992, the American Society for Mass ... Increasing the charge on the molecules, decreased the mass-to-charge ratio, which allows the mass to be more easily determined ... Fenn shared half of the award with Koichi Tanaka for their work in mass spectrometry. The other half of the 2002 award went to ...
... high-resolution mass spectrometer (MASS); and Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS). STICS determines the mass, mass ... The SMS experiment measures the mass and mass-to-charge ratios of heavy ions. The SWE and 3DP experiments are meant to measure/ ... In 2010, MASS experienced a small degradation in the acceleration/deceleration power supply which reduced the efficiency of the ... The SMS data processing unit (DPU) experienced a latch-up reset on 26 June 2009 that placed the MASS acceleration/deceleration ...
Alpha FT-IR spectrometer. 2006: Gold - Thermo Electron Corp - Finnigan LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer; Silver - Chata ... Spectro MS simultaneous inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer; Bronze - MSI Tokyo - InfiTOF compact time-of-flight mass ... 2007: Gold - Waters Corp - Synapt high definition mass spectrometer; Silver - Paraytec Ltd - ActiPix D100 and Thermo Fisher ... 2001: Gold - Merck KGaA - Chromolith monolithic HPLC columns; Silver - Siemens AG - Advance Quantra FTICR mass spectrometer ...
"A two-dimensional quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Elsevier ... It is used as a component of a mass spectrometer or a trapped ion quantum computer. A charged particle, such as an atomic or ... Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry: a view at the turn of the century, Raymond E. March, International Journal of Mass ... March, Raymond E. (1997). "An Introduction to Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry". Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 32 (4): 351 ...
15 September 1987). Double pulsed time-of-flight mass spectrometer. U.S. Patent No. 4,694,167. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and ... Double pulsed time-of-flight mass spectrometer, 1987. Sensitive, stable, effective at low doses and low energy, 1987. Ionizing ... Noble Gas Detection Using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. 27th Annual Technical Symposium ... Resonance ionization source for mass spectroscopy. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics. 34(1): 89-97. ...
... when they began to develop the mass spectrometer as a commercial product. The first 21-101 Mass Spectrometer was delivered in ... Rock was a key person in Consolidated Engineering Corporation's (CEC) mass spectrometry team at a time when mass spectrometers ... dead link] American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2012). "CEC 100 Series Mass Spectrometers" (PDF). Retrieved 23 October 2013 ... Mass-spectrometer users were developing instruments for their own purposes on a lab-by-lab basis, modifying and experimenting ...
The spectrometer has a mass of 240g. The camera systems on the lander will have the capability of narrow and wide field surveys ... The flight model instrument has a mass of 350g. The spectrometer has a wavelength coverage of 625 nm to 2500 nm and observes ... The Aurora instrument has a mass of 450g. Similar in design to the award-winning Argus 1000 spectrometer, flown on CanX-2, the ... With a mass of approximately 6 kg (13.2 lb), the rover will operate under its own power and will have a range of roughly 1 km ( ...
J.J. Thomson (1856-1940), mass spectrometer. Jethro Tull (1674-1740), horse-drawn seed drill. Barnes Wallis (1887-1979), ...
"A young Alfred Nier holds his mass spectrometer". UMN College of Science and Technology. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-01. Reynolds, ... Later, he helped Nier design and test mass spectrographs that were replicated for extensive use in the Manhattan Project. In ... That year, Ney took his bride and two of Nier's mass spectrographs to Charlottesville, Virginia, where he began graduate ... Fisher, Lewis R. (May 15-16, 1963). "Ney's Modified Robot camera on Mercury MA-9 Mission". In Kleinknecht, Kenneth S. Mercury ...
In 1932, Bainbridge developed a mass spectrometer with a resolving power of 600 and a relative precision of one part in 10,000 ... Bainbridge mass spectrometer Pound, Robert V. (January 1997). "Obituary: Kenneth Tompkins Bainbridge". Physics Today. 50 (1): ... His precise measurements of mass differences between nuclear isotopes allowed him to confirm Albert Einstein's mass-energy ... His interest in mass spectroscopy led naturally to an interest in the relative abundance of isotopes. The discovery of nuclear ...
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS), and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA ... The major facilities available at NGRI include: Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA ... Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Laboratory (CFIRMS). Helium Emanometry, Heatflow and Radiometry Laboratory. ... Geochemical laboratory consisting of fully automated X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF), ...
Ions with sufficient internal energy may fragment in a mass spectrometer, which in some cases may degrade the mass spectrometer ... have a high probability of decomposing in the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the detector. These rate constants ... 1 is sufficiently fast for ion decomposition within the ion source of a typical mass spectrometer. Ions with rate constants ... "Detection of Metastable Ions with the Mass Spectrometer". Physical Review. 68: 54. Bibcode:1945PhRv...68...54H. doi:10.1103/ ...
Lawrence G. Hall carried CEC mass spectrometer know-how to CSC and led their team to put the first mass spectrometer in space ... in a project to develop a mass spectrometer. The initial product was the 21-101 Mass Spectrometer delivered in December 1942, ... "Mass Spectrometer Can Detect Weapons of Mass Destruction". Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. 33 (3). 2000. ... ASD mass spectrometers monitored the respiratory function of returning Apollo astronauts and were evaluated in NASA and U.S. ...
ISBN 0-07-045266-0. De Laeter; J. & Kurz; M. D. (2006). "Alfred Nier and the sector field mass spectrometer". Journal of Mass ... Nier designed the miniature mass spectrometers used by the Viking Landers to sample the atmosphere of Mars. Active to the end ... He was the first to use mass spectrometry to isolate uranium-235 which was used to demonstrate that 235U could undergo fission ... "Alfred Nier (in 1964) at his mass spectrograph which he used to separate a sample of U-235". University of Minnesota. Archived ...
"Highlights of the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Investigation". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Atmospheric Experiments ... Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can ... In clouds below freezing, when ice crystals gain enough mass they begin to fall. This generally requires more mass than ... Play media Air contains water vapor, and the amount of water in a given mass of dry air, known as the mixing ratio, is measured ...
Imaging Source Coupled to a FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer". J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 24: 92-100. doi:10.1007/s13361-012-0505-9. ... Blakley, C. R.; Carmody, J. J.; Vestal, M. L. (1980). "Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer for Analysis of Nonvolatile ... Mass Spectrom. 16: 1654-59. doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2005.06.006. Nazari, M.; Muddiman, D.C. (2014). "Cellular-level mass ... which is currently coupled to a high resolving power hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The source has single- or ...
"Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer for analysis of nonvolatile samples". Analytical Chemistry. 52 (11): 1636-1641. doi: ... Arpino, Patrick (1992). "Combined liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Part III. Applications of thermospray". Mass ... Thermospray is a form of atmospheric pressure ionization in mass spectrometry. It transfers ions from the liquid phase to the ... It is particularly useful in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermospray was originally developed for coupling liquid ...
VMS is similar to Curiosity's Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). Venus Tunable Laser Spectrometer (VTLS) Proposed to be built ... DAVINCI's four science instruments are: Venus Mass Spectrometer (VMS) Proposed to be built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight ... DAVINCI will directly measure the lower two-thirds of the atmospheric mass. DAVINCI scientists would explore how Venus' ... VTLS is similar to Curiosity's Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). Venus Atmospheric Structure Investigation (VASI) Proposed to ...
A secondary ion mass spectrometer can also be used. This instrument can allow for greater chemical resolution but can only ... A common tool used to measure trace elements in an otolith is a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. ...
This will produce a set of peptides that can be analysed using a mass spectrometer. The peptide that changes in mass after ... This is usually done using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. In a complementary technique, peptide mass fingerprinting involves ... Another method that is widely used in these analyses is mass spectrometry. Here, accurate measurement of the mass of the ... Pick, FM; McGartoll, MA; Bray, RC (1971). "Reaction of formaldehyde and of methanol with xanthine oxidase". European Journal of ...
Instruments: Mass Spectrometer (MS), Meteorology and Physical Properties Package (MP3). Determine the depth of a Titan sea. ... Its mass is 28 kg and will have a nominal lifetime of 14 years. Though it continues ASRG research, NASA has since cancelled the ... Specifications ≥14 year lifetime Nominal power: 140 W Mass ~ 28 kg System efficiency: ~ 30% Two GPHS 238 Pu modules Uses 0.8 kg ...
In a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer there are three quadrupoles. The first quadrupole termed "Q1" can act as a mass filter ... Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) is a CID technique specific to the orbitrap mass spectrometer in which ... Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H. (2005). "Activation of large lons in FT-ICR mass spectrometry". Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 24 ( ... Sleno L, Volmer DA (2004). "Ion activation methods for tandem mass spectrometry". Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. 39 (10): ...
The Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer searched for organics, and found no trace of them. The Gas Exchange experiment searched ... They are then ionized and analysed with the mass spectrometer. UREY - designed for ExoMars under auspices of NASA but never ... Biemann, K (June 2007). "On the ability of the Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to detect organic matter". Proc. Natl ... The payload mass is the same as for Curiosity, so to make space for the cache, as well as Moxie (an experiment in producing ...
The mass spectrometer, a high-voltage quadrupole, collected data to build a model of the molecular masses of each gas, and a ... 2002). "The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe". Space Science Reviews. 104: 553-91. Bibcode:2002SSRv.. ... Its visible and infrared spectrometers and violet photometers measured the up- and downward radiant flux from an altitude of ...
... leaving other nuclides of the same mass number (isobars) free to beta decay toward the lowest-mass nuclide. An effect of the ... Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 557 (2): 390-396. Bibcode:2006NIMPA.557..390S. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2005.11. ... Odd-odd nuclei have even mass numbers, whereas odd-even nuclei have odd mass numbers. Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare ... The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98×1024 kg. It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), ...
... sector/quadrupole mass spectrometer for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry". International Journal or Mass Spectrometry and ... December 2005). "Parts per million mass accuracy on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer via lock mass injection into a C-trap". Mol. ... A hybrid mass spectrometer is a device for tandem mass spectrometry that consists of a combination of two or more m/z ... "A hybrid BEQQ mass spectrometer". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes. 65: 125-140. doi:10.1016/0168- ...
The mass spectrometer is fitted with a special device, a sniffer probe, that allows it to sample air (and tracer gas when ... A helium mass spectrometer is an instrument commonly used to detect and locate small leaks. It was initially developed in the ... Helium leaks out of the container, and the rate of the leak is detected by a mass spectrometer. Helium is used as a tracer ... Later the device will be placed in a vacuum chamber, connected to a vacuum pump and a mass spectrometer. The tiny amount of gas ...
... A Shockwave simulation designed to illustrate the basic principles and operation of a ... Mass Spectrometer Simulation (Shockwave) is categorized in the following disciplines: * Science and Technology/Chemistry/ ... You just viewed Mass Spectrometer Simulation.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures the composition and isotopes of thermal neutrals and ions. ...
... mass spectrometry: Focusing spectroscopes: Such focusing is termed double focusing. It was thus possible to achieve a resolving ... Other articles where Double-focusing mass spectrometer is discussed: ... www.britannica.com/science/double-focusing-mass-spectrometer", "title": "Double-focusing mass spectrometer", "documentGroup": " ... Double-focusing mass spectrometer. instrument. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this ...
Mass Spectrometer. One of our many new instruments is a state-of-the-art ThermoFisher ESI-Orbi mass spectrometer, equipped with ... The advantage of this system is that there is no sample carry-over that plagues LC and GC mass spectrometry, as a new tip and a ... a Nanomate sample delivery system, which is capable of giving accurate mass of better than 4ppm (usually better than 2ppm), ...
... Combining the simplicity of MALDI, the power of MSn, and the accuracy and ... Designed without compromise, the AXIMA Resonance features high mass resolution and mass accuracy across MS and MSn analyses, ... Incorporating a TOF analyzer promotes high resolution and high mass accuracy for all ions generated regardless of their origin. ... trapping resolution greater than 1000 FWHM permits the analysis of samples with similar nominal mass ...
The Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an important tool in the ...
A MC-ICPMS is a hybrid mass spectrometer that combines the ... ... As a hybrid mass spectrometer, MC-ICPMS combines an inductively ... there is consistent mass bias variation across the mass range which allows the use of an adjacent element to calculate mass ... Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass ... A MC-ICPMS is a hybrid mass spectrometer that combines the advantages of superior ionization of an inductively coupled plasma ...
... that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass ... Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique ... mass spectrometerMaterial Tester MTSMelting point apparatusMessPhysick Laser Speckle ExtesometerMettler Analytical Balance ( ... Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation ...
... mass spectrometry) equipment from Bruker, Dycor, DyMaxion and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near ... ... Vion IMS QTof - High Resolution Benchtop QTof Mass Spectrometer. Beyond Resolution Does high resolution, accurate mass data ... The Benchtop Mass Spectrometer is a compact versatile gas analysis system for sampling gases over a wide range of pressures, ... Xevo G2-XS QTof - High Performance Benchtop QTof Mass Spectrometer. For the scientist who needs to identify, quantify and ...
... at least one linear two dimensional ion guide or a two dimensional ion storage device in tandem with a time-of-flight mass ... Mass spectrometer. US20070023635 *. Aug 31, 2006. Feb 1, 2007. Bateman Robert H. Mass spectrometer and method of mass ... The mass resolution of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is defined as m/Δm=t/2Δt where m is the ion mass, A m is the width of ... Mass spectrometer. US20070187585 *. Mar 27, 2007. Aug 16, 2007. Leco Corporation. Tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer and ...
... for example in a detector 56 of a mass spectrometer at substantially the same time. ... The ions travel at different rates according to their mass-to-charge ratios, so that they arrive at a desired point in space in ... An ion guide 24 for a mass spectrometer 30 including means for ejecting ions of different mass-to-charge ratios from the ion ... Mass analyzer and mass analyzing method. US20040195503 *. 4 Abr 2003. 7 Oct 2004. Taeman Kim. Ion guide for mass spectrometers ...
Cooks is a pioneer in mass spectrometry and has worked for years to take mass spectrometers from the size of a car to that of a ... The mass spectrometer then identifies the samples ionized molecules by their mass. ... A small triangle is then cut from the paper and placed on a special attachment of the mass spectrometer where voltage is ... "This is a big step in our efforts to create miniature, handheld mass spectrometers for the field," said R. Graham Cooks, ...
High-resolution mass spectrometers.. Marshall AG1, Hendrickson CL.. Author information. 1. Florida State University, ... Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and ... Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving ... At even higher mass ( approximately 100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of ...
Automated large volume liquid injection into a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector is shown using the GERSTEL ... Automated headspace injection into a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector is shown using the GERSTEL Dual Head ... Automated Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) into a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector is shown using the ... Automated headspace injection into a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector is shown using the GERSTEL ...
An isotope ratio mass spectrometer is a piece of equipment that measures the ratios of different isotopes of particular ... The isotope ratio mass spectrometer has applications in many areas, including geology, biology and forensic science. ... It is possible using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine whether a material is of organic origin and even, in some ... The design of isotope ratio mass spectrometers can vary, but generally, they follow the same basic principles. There will be an ...
Although the resolution needs to be improved, this proof of principle shows that a cheap and portable peptide mass spectrometer ... University of Groningen scientists have developed nanopores that can be used to directly measure the mass of peptides. ... a measure for protein mass). The resolution of conventional mass spectrometers is much better, but if we could get the system ... Mass spectrometers are invaluable for studying proteins, but they are both bulky and expensive, which limits their use to ...
... integrate data collected by mass spectrometers made by all major manufacturers while discontinuing production of its own mass ... Genomic Solutions Abandons Plans to Develop Mass Spectrometer Business. Oct 06, 2000 ... integrate data collected by mass spectrometers made by all major manufacturers while discontinuing production of its own mass ...
Descriptors : *MASS SPECTROMETERS , *MANPORTABLE EQUIPMENT , *GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY , TEST AND EVALUATION , QUICK REACTION , REAL ... TIME , THESES , CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTORS , GAS CYLINDERS , MASS SPECTROMETRY , CONCENTRATION(CHEMISTRY) , NITROGEN , VARIATIONS ...
Shimadzus GCMS-QP2010s Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer, utilizing many of the high-end features of the GCMS-QP2010 Plus, ... QP-2010s Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer from Shimadzu, ... prOTOF 2000 MALDI O-TOF Mass Spectrometer from PerkinElmer. 4. ... Shimadzus GCMS-QP2010s Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer, utilizing many of the high-end features of the GCMS-QP2010 Plus, ... LS 45 Luminescence Spectrometer, 120V from PerkinElmer. 2. LS 45 Luminescence Spectrometer, 230V from PerkinElmer. 3. ...
... of Global Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Market 2017, especially in United States, China, Europe and Japan,... ... 1 Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. ... 10 Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Maufacturing Cost Analysis. 10.1 Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Key Raw ... of Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (2012-2022). 1.5.1 Global Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer Sales and Growth ...
First nanoscale mass spectrometer created. Using devices millionths of a meter in size, physicists at the California Institute ... Mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a ... Laser-ion funnel mass spectrometry makes search for Martian life easier. Finding life on Mars could get easier with a creative ... a mass analyzer, which sorts the ions by their masses by applying electromagnetic fields; and a detector, which measures the ...
As the first single MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with an orthogonal design and collisional cooling, the p,biological,biology ... prOTOF 2000 MALDI O-TOF Mass Spectrometer from PerkinElmer,The new MALDI O-TOF creates a new category for MALDI. It is based on ... As the first single MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with an orthogonal design and collisional cooling, the prOTOF 2000 represents a ... be directly coupled or linked to the TOF mass spectrometer. In doing this, any discrepancies that are associated with the ...
... have a positive impact on your results or our Tips and Tricks seminar where you can learn how to get the most our of your mass ... Application Book: Increase detection selectivity and confidence using mass detection Polar Pesticides Analysis Latest LC-MS/MS ... Case Study: Ensuring Food Ingredient Quality and Consistency with Mass Detection Food QC and Safety Application Book Pesticides ... This exciting system combines the familiar operation of PDA UV/Vis with the power of mass information for both HPLC and UPLC ...
  • We used a dataset of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) observations from 34 different surface locations to evaluate the GLOMAP global chemical transport model. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • We propose to measure depositional flux of fine particles in natural environments directly using the well established eddy correlation technique with a recently developed aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). (epa.gov)
  • We will build a new instrument which will consist of an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, a sonic anemometer, and an infrared hygrometer. (epa.gov)
  • During the last few years, Aerodyne Research, Inc., has developed an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) instrument that measures ambient aerosol mass, chemical composition, and chemically speciated size distributions of nonrefractory submicron aerosol particles in real time. (sbir.gov)
  • The commercial market for the existing aerosol mass spectrometer includes government and educational research labs, and may expand to include regulatory monitoring efforts and process industrial laboratories. (sbir.gov)
  • The symbol Q represents a quadrupole mass analyzer, q is a radio frequency collision quadrupole, TOF is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, B is a magnetic sector and E is an electric sector. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sector instrument can be combined with a collision quadrupole and quadrupole mass analyzer to form a hybrid instrument. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vacuum system will carry any tracer gas molecule into the analyzer cell of the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incorporating a TOF analyzer promotes high resolution and high mass accuracy for all ions generated regardless of their origin. (uta.edu)
  • As a hybrid mass spectrometer, MC-ICPMS combines an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma source, an energy filter, a magnetic sector analyzer, and multiple collectors for the measurement of ions. (carleton.edu)
  • A method and an apparatus which combines at least one linear two dimensional ion guide or a two dimensional ion storage device in tandem with a time-of-flight mass analyzer to analyze ionic chemical species generated by an ion source. (google.com)
  • 2. A time-of-flight mass analyzer according to claim 1, wherein said mass analyzer contains a reflectron to compensate for energy distribution of ions in said pulsing region. (google.com)
  • 7. An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said transferred ions are pulsed substantially in the orthogonal direction into said time-of-flight mass analyzer. (google.com)
  • 8. An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the axis of said multipole ion guide is configured substantially perpendicular to the axis of said time-of-flight mass analyzer. (google.com)
  • 20. An apparatus according to claim 17 wherein said means for pulsing ions transferred into said pulsing region comprises a variable timing means which can delay the time period when said ions are released from said ion guide to when voltage is applied to said time-of-flight pulsing region flat plate electrodes to pulse said transferred ions into said time-of-flight mass analyzer for mass analysis. (google.com)
  • 23. A method according to claim 22, wherein said mass analyzer contains a reflectron. (google.com)
  • 3. The mass spectrometer of claim 1 , wherein the mass analyzer comprises an orthogonal time-of-flight mass analyzer. (google.es)
  • 10. The method of claim 8 , wherein the extraction region is an extraction region of a mass analyzer and the method comprises simultaneously analysing ions of varying mass-to-charge ratios. (google.es)
  • In principle, any mass spectrometer can produce and selectively detect carbohydrate marker ions provided that the instrument is capable of collisional excitation in the region prior to the first mass analyzer sufficient to form abundant oxonium ions. (nih.gov)
  • The Q Exactive HF system combines a state-of-the-art segmented quadrupole for high-performance precursor ion selection with a high-resolution, accurate-mass (HR/AM) ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer to deliver a superior combination of scan speed, resolving power, mass accuracy, spectral quality and sensitivity. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Q Exactive HF system features a new ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer that, while physically smaller, provides higher resolution and faster scan speeds. (thermofisher.com)
  • This paper describes such an instrument, the Orbitrap, based on a new type of mass analyzer invented by Makarov. (wiley.com)
  • In addition to describing the Orbitrap mass analyzer, this paper also describes a complete Orbitrap-based mass spectrometer, equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). (wiley.com)
  • Ion bunches are injected from this pool into the Orbitrap analyzer for mass analysis. (wiley.com)
  • This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. (mcponline.org)
  • This online mass spectrometer & process gas analyzer is engineered to meet a number of challenging process applications in the petrochemical, iron and steel, and biotechnology industries. (thermofisher.com)
  • The ions accelerate through the mass analyzer under the influence of electromagnetic forces. (zmescience.com)
  • Also, the researchers thought ahead and also developed manufacturing methods and technology that will allow such handheld chemical analyzer to be mass produced. (zmescience.com)
  • The application of some petrochemical instruments which combine the morden computer technology, sensor technology, and automatical control technology is introduced, such as optical analyzer, process mass spectrometer , and gas chromatograph. (cnki.net)
  • Thermal expansion of the analyzer components will cause peaks to shift when changes in temperature occur, making it difficult to obtain stable intrinsic mass calibration, and thus requires frequent calibration. (marketwired.com)
  • This paper describes a proof of concept demonstration of a cycloidal coded aperture miniature mass spectrometer (C-CAMMS) demonstrating use of spatially coded apertures in a cycloidal sector mass analyzer for the first time. (rti.org)
  • The Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an important tool in the analysis of biomolecules. (calvin.edu)
  • As the first single MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer with an orthogonal design and collisional cooling, the prOTOF 2000 represents a substantial leap forward from conventional MALDI-TOF in mass accuracy and stability across a wide mass range, making possible much higher rates of successful protein identification. (bio-medicine.org)
  • NEW YORK, Nov 22 - Applied Biosystems has sold its next-generation MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometers and its new ICAT reagents to Geneva Proteomics through an early access agreement, Applied Biosystems announced Wednesday. (genomeweb.com)
  • Bier conducted his studies using a top-down approach of the intact complex using a cryodetector-based MALDI TOF mass spectrometer (Macromizer) equipped with 16 superconducting tunnel junctions. (cmu.edu)
  • The integrated proteomics analytical flow consisted of biochemical fractionation, strong cation exchange chromatography, reverse phase liquid chromatography, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric analysis. (mcponline.org)
  • Other parallel proteomics studies on human temporal lobe tissue include two-dimensional electrophoresis separation coupled with analysis by a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, which identified 375 proteins ( 12 ), and a shotgun proteomics approach, consisting of strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX) and RP LC for peptide separation, and a three-dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer (LCQ), which identified 209 proteins ( 13 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Shimadzu Scientific Instruments has updated its line of AXIMA MALDI TOF mass spectrometers (MS) with four new systems to meet the needs of researchers with varying applications and budgets. (mandel.ca)
  • Shimadzus GCMS-QP2010s Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer, utilizing many of the high-end features of the GCMS-QP2010 Plus, offers high throughput and excellent productivity, providing users with an excellent performance-to-cost ratio. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using radio waves, these instruments mapped atmospheres, determined the mass of moons, collected data on ring particle size, and unveiled the surface of Titan. (nasa.gov)
  • Today, we will use the Particle Tracing and AC/DC modules in COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate a mass filter and evaluate its performance in a quadrupole mass spectrometer. (comsol.com)
  • Simulations showing particle trajectories in a quadrupole mass spectrometer's mass filter. (comsol.com)
  • The third task is to directly compare the prototype ACSM with filter-based PM2.5 particulate mass and chemical speciation methods (Federal Reference Method and Particle Composition Method) for quantifying well-characterized laboratory-generated aerosol and ambient aerosol. (sbir.gov)
  • Before and after this time, a substantial atmospheric plume and coma were observed, detectable in the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) data set out to a distance of over 4000 kilometers from Enceladus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The lower panel is a mass spectrum that shows the chemical constituents sampled in Enceladus' plume by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during its fly-through of the plume on Mar. 12, 2008. (nasa.gov)
  • The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer, or INMS, was capable of determining the chemical, elemental and isotopic composition of the gaseous and volatile components of the neutral particles and the low energy ions in Titan's atmosphere and ionosphere, Saturn's magnetosphere, and the ring environment. (nasa.gov)
  • The process mass spectrometer is widely used for many important gas analysis application on iron and steel plants, it is fast and accurate, which includes blast furnace top gas analysis, coke oven gas analysis, secondary steel process control, fuel gas analysis and direct reduction processes. (cnki.net)
  • The process mass spectrometer is widely used for many important gas analysis application on iron and steel plants, it is fast and accurate, which includes blast furnace top gas analysis, coke oven gas analysis, secondary steel process control, fuel gas analysis and direct reduction processes .At last,real time monitoring, the communication system of mass spectrometer is introduced. (cnki.net)
  • An ion guide 24 for a mass spectrometer 30 including means for ejecting ions of different mass-to-charge ratios from the ion guide towards a detector or other object or device. (google.es)
  • The ions travel at different rates according to their mass-to-charge ratios, so that they arrive at a desired point in space in a desired sequence, for example in a detector 56 of a mass spectrometer at substantially the same time. (google.es)
  • Thermal Extraction of Liquids and Solids using Micro-vials to perform the GERSTEL Automated Tube Exchange Technique Automated liquid injection and introduction of analytes from dirty matrix samples into a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector is shown using the GERSTEL MultiPurpose Sampler (MPS) and Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU). (environmental-expert.com)
  • It has a mass spectrometry (MS) detector. (upc.edu)
  • The ability to directly mass-analyze these heavy biological molecules intact and at a low-charge state represents a new level of analysis previously unattainable using conventional detector technology, according to Bier. (cmu.edu)
  • Abstract This Phase I research project addresses the need for improved monitoring technologies for continuous particulate mass and chemical speciation of ambient aerosols. (sbir.gov)
  • The voltage creates an electric field that turns the mixture of solvent and residues into fine droplets containing ionized molecules that pop off and are vacuumed into the mass spectrometer for analysis. (purdue.edu)
  • The mass spectrometer then identifies the sample's ionized molecules by their mass. (purdue.edu)
  • For small molecules up to approximately 400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (C(c)H(h)N(n)O(o)S(s)P(p)...) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). (nih.gov)
  • The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. (phys.org)
  • A mass spectrometer measures the masses of individual molecules that have been converted to ions (i.e., have been electrically charged). (photonics.com)
  • Mass spectrometry is used to identify unknown compounds, quantify known materials and elucidate the structure and chemical properties of molecules. (photonics.com)
  • Single-cell mass spectrometry is a technique for the analysis of target molecules that have been suctioned out from individual cells as they are being observed under a microscope. (automation.com)
  • A method whereby cell molecules are suctioned out using a microfine glass tube (nanospray chip), ionized with an ionizing organic solvent, and analyzed (to identify type and amount) using a mass spectrometer. (automation.com)
  • Mass spectrometers separate ionized molecules based on their mass-to-charge ratio. (phys.org)
  • Most instruments are unable to efficiently detect such large molecules at low charge states or must resort to creating high charge states that require high-resolution mass analysis. (phys.org)
  • Mass spectrometers, which separate molecules based on their mass-to-charge ratio, can help researchers identify compounds based on their unique mass and are routinely used to determine the weight, structure and amount of small molecules or fragments of molecules. (cmu.edu)
  • Conventional instruments, however, are not equipped to sensitively characterize large molecules over 150 kiloDaltons (a measure of mass) at a low-charge state. (cmu.edu)
  • Many biological molecules are too big to be analyzed efficiently at low-charge states using current mass spectrometers, so most scientists break proteins down into smaller fragments before analyzing them in the mass spectrometer. (cmu.edu)
  • Typical mass spectrometers work by ionizing individual molecules or atoms, then moving and manipulating these ions with an external electric field. (comsol.com)
  • The mass of molecules is traditionally measured using mass spectrometry, in which samples consisting of tens of thousands of molecules are ionized, to produce charged versions of the molecules, or ions. (kavlifoundation.org)
  • In future, the researchers will decouple measurements of the mass and the landing position of the molecules being sampled. (kavlifoundation.org)
  • Eventually, Roukes and colleagues hope to create arrays of perhaps hundreds of thousands of the NEMS mass spectrometers, working in parallel, which could determine the masses of hundreds of thousands of molecules "in an instant," Naik says. (kavlifoundation.org)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to a sample support substrate for mass spectrometry capable of subjecting highmolecular weight analyte molecules for mass spectrometry to desorption/ionization, and capable of performing mass spectrometry easily at a high precision with less generation of complicated peaks derived from a decomposed substance and the like even in alow molecular weight region, a mass spectrometry using the substrate for mass spectrometry, and a mass spectrometer. (patentgenius.com)
  • A mass spectrometer ionizes analyte molecules by some method, applies an electric field or a magnetic field to the ionized molecules to separate the analyte molecules in accordance with a mass/charge-number (m/z), and thereafter, performs aqualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of the analyte from a mass spectrum detected electrically. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the spectrometer tube, the heart of the helium mass spectrometer, the electrons produced by a hot filament enter an ionization chamber under vacuum, and collide with gas molecules , creating within the chamber ions quantitatively proportional to the pressure in the ion chamber. (wikibooks.org)
  • One of our many new instruments is a state-of-the-art ThermoFisher ESI-Orbi mass spectrometer, equipped with a Nanomate sample delivery system, which is capable of giving accurate mass of better than 4ppm (usually better than 2ppm), with very high resolution (100,000), and high sensitivity. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Designed without compromise, the AXIMA Resonance features high mass resolution and mass accuracy across MS and MSn analyses, excellent precursor ion selection, variable energy CID control on the fly, and outstanding sensitivity to ensure confident, high-quality results across a range of applications. (uta.edu)
  • Operating with sample pressures from near-atmospheric up to 30 bar, the bench-top mass spectrometer uses a fast digital detection system for minimized signal response times and features the Hiden triple-stage mass filter for optimum sensitivity, species identification and corrosion resistance. (nanotech-now.com)
  • With unprecedented sensitivity, Carnegie Mellon University's Mark Bier has characterized large viral particles and bulky von Willebrand factors using a novel mass spectrometer. (nsf.gov)
  • A mass spectrometer's inherent sensitivity yields itself to many applications, including identifying unknown biological compounds, determining chemical mixture compositions, detecting toxins in food sources, and space exploration. (comsol.com)
  • Continuing the evolution of Shimadzu's UF technology, Shimadzu introduces the LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, offering unparalleled measurement speeds and high-sensitivity performance. (selectscience.net)
  • An additional advantage of high-resolution mass spectrometry measurement is to eliminate chemical background of the same nominal mass but different accurate mass and, therefore, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and the sensitivity respectively. (google.com)
  • Provided is a substrate for mass spectrometry, which enables a detection of a high molecular weight compound to be conducted at a high sensitivity, and can avoid the fragmentation so that there is substantially no obstacle to the analysis of a low molecular weight region. (patentgenius.com)
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and versatility of mass spectrometry enable in‑water identification and analysis of a wide range of chemicals. (desalination.biz)
  • For R&D scientists, the Q Exactive HF-X instrument delivers extremely fast and accurate mass analysis, plus two-to-three-fold sensitivity improvements, delivering the same number of protein identifications in half of the time required for previous models. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The mass spectrometer is often regarded as the gold standard of gas dilution techniques, although the size and sensitivity of most mass spectrometers to environmental conditions usually precludes their use as a portable device. (ersjournals.com)
  • The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. (osti.gov)
  • Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. (osti.gov)
  • This benchtop LC-MS/MS system combines quadruple precursor ion selection with high-resolution, accurate-mass (HRAM) Orbitrap detection to deliver exceptional performance and versatility. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Bier hopes that the technique, which he calls a form of "heavy ion mass spectrometry ," can be used to analyze and study other viruses, and will be helpful in understanding the robustness of viral structure, the mechanics behind viral infection and provide new ways of virus detection and treatment. (phys.org)
  • The mass spectrometer, an ultra-sensitive vapor detection system, allows handlers to verify the samples used to train bomb-sniffing dogs. (mit.edu)
  • QQQ mass analysis is highly suitable for high throughput detection and accurate quantification of compounds, especially in complex biological matrices. (edu.au)
  • A single laser pulse is used to desorb and ionize the surface species followed by detection of Li + in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. (osapublishing.org)
  • At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. (nih.gov)
  • At even higher mass ( approximately 100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Mass spectrometers are invaluable for studying proteins, but they are both bulky and expensive, which limits their use to specialized laboratories. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this approach, after enzymatic digestion of the proteins, the generated peptides are analyzed by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 1 in a data dependent mode. (mcponline.org)
  • The researchers at this laboratory uses mass spectrometers to analyse proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although an effective and powerful technique, this bottom-up approach typically takes days to complete and does not allow scientists to use mass spectrometers to directly study many large, intact proteins and other macromolecular complexes. (cmu.edu)
  • Because Hendrix characterizes viral proteins, particles and subunits that are too heavy to study using currently available mass spectrometers, Bier hopes that his data will help them discover new biology. (cmu.edu)
  • The combination of the very selective triple quadrupole based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) scans with the very sensitive ion trap product ion scans allows rapid identification of peptides at low concentrations derived from post-translationally modified proteins on chromatographic time scales. (nih.gov)
  • RICHLAND, Wash. - A faster, more thorough mass spectrometry method for identifying proteins may significantly advance the technology infrastructure required to comprehend the role proteins play in cellular function and disease development. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Called PROMS for Protein Mass Spectrometer, the instrument is a 9.4 tesla FTICR system manufactured by Massachusetts-based Bruker Daltonics Inc. that PNNL researchers extensively modified with hardware and software tools that enable identification of an extremely wide range of proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One study applied multidimensional fractionation and separation methods, including biochemical fractionations, one-dimensional electrophoresis, and reverse phase (RP) LC, and a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ) to profile proteins extracted from temporal lobe tissues ( 11 ). (mcponline.org)
  • A number of entrepreneurs see an opportunity to integrate downsized mass spectrometry with other business equipment, such as wireless routers or small cell base stations, to analyze office air quality. (zmescience.com)
  • A MC-ICPMS is a hybrid mass spectrometer that combines the advantages of superior ionization of an inductively coupled plasma source and the precise measurements of a magnetic sector multicollector mass spectrometer. (carleton.edu)
  • In 2001, ESS/CGECR researchers Ellen Druffel, John Southon and Susan Trumbore were awarded $2 million by the W.M. Keck Foundation for the development of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility - the Keck-Carbon Cycle AMS facility - for radiocarbon measurements in support of carbon cycle research at University of California, Irvine. (uci.edu)
  • Our interest isto use penetrators as the delivery system is to allow the deployment of mass spectrometer instrumentation to perform in‐situ measurements with the objective of characterising the volatile and organic materials at the penetrator landing site on different Solar System bodies including the lunar poles, asteroids and the icy moons. (open.ac.uk)
  • This study asked whether a prototype portable ultrasonic flow meter provided valid and reliable measurements of functional residual capacity (FRC US ) when compared to those obtained using a mass spectrometer (FRC MS ) in nonventilated healthy infants. (ersjournals.com)
  • The ultrasonic flow meter used in this study provides repeatable measurements of functional residual capacity in spontaneously breathing healthy infants that approximate those obtained during mass spectrometry. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study aimed to establish whether valid and reliable measurements of FRC are obtainable in healthy infants using an ultrasonic sensor during multiple-breath washout (FRC US ) by comparing them to FRC measured within the same test occasion using a mass spectrometer (FRC MS ). (ersjournals.com)
  • Assessment of resolution parameters for CID-based shotgun proteomic experiments on the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Scientists studying complex protein samples can now take advantage of a new high-performing Orbitrap mass spectrometer from Thermo Fisher Scientific , designed to quickly and consistently produce superior data quality for challenging workflows across life science research and biopharma applications. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Helium mass spectrometer leak detectors are used in production line industries such as refrigeration and air conditioning, automotive parts, carbonated beverage containers food packages and aerosol packaging, as well as in the manufacture of steam products, gas bottles, fire extinguishers, tire valves, and numerous other products including all vacuum systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • To overcome the high mass limitations, Bier's group uses a cryodetector-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometer, called a Macromizer, that has 16 superconducting tunnel junction detectors. (phys.org)
  • The 3.75 meter-long apparatus can analyze low charge heavy ions with a significantly higher signal than mass spectrometers with standard ionizing detectors. (phys.org)
  • Scientific Instrument Services, Inc. provides replacement detectors for your mass spectrometer. (sisweb.com)
  • SIS provides replacement detectors for your mass spectrometer. (sisweb.com)
  • Identify, quantify and confirm in a single analysis with a single instrument with the Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Q Exactive HF instrument uses a segmented quadrupole mass filter to achieve more precise precursor isolation for better discrimination between analytes and coeluting interferences. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer supports multiple approaches to quantitation including selected ion monitoring (SIM), parallel-reaction monitoring (PRM), and data-independent acquisition (DIA). Users can select the technique best matched to their sample and information requirements. (thermofisher.com)
  • High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. (mcponline.org)
  • Herein, modifications to an Orbitrap Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer that increase signal intensity, mass resolution, and maximum m / z measurable are described. (rsc.org)
  • The Q Exactive HF-X mass spectrometer aims to provide sensitive, accurate and reproducible analyses of highly complex samples for various aspects of translational research and biopharma applications. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The new Q Exactive HF-X platform includes technical advances meant to deliver significant performance improvements, making it the new flagship of the Q Exactive mass spectrometer product family. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • 11th workshop on Harsh-Environment Mass Spectrometry , 18-21 Sep 2017, Oxnard, California. (open.ac.uk)
  • TORONTO, ON --(Marketwired - October 06, 2017) - In a live broadcast taking place on Friday, October 27, 2017 at 11am EDT (4pm BST/UK) industry expert Robert E. Haufler, PhD, Staff Scientist at SCIEX will discuss the newly introduced SCIEX X500 QTOF, a compact bench-top HRAM mass spectrometer that is designed to address many common challenges, including size and performance. (marketwired.com)
  • Implementation of orthogonal double resonance precursor and neutral loss scans on the Mini 12 miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer is described, and performance is compared to that of a commercial Thermo linear trap quadropole (LTQ) linear ion trap. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Further, to help accelerate the ions into the mass filter, we can apply small DC and AC biases to the ion aperture. (comsol.com)
  • The chromatograms below show the data enhancement obtained as the IonFocus lenses introduce ions into the mass spectrometer more efficiently, improving the signal intensity. (shimadzu.com)
  • The substrate is a substrate for mass spectrometry for use in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, containing a metal and having a porous structure on a surface thereof, wherein at least one functional group selected from the group consisting of a carboxyl group, a sulfonic group and an ammonium chloride group is covalently bonded to the surface of the substrate. (patentgenius.com)
  • Grant A. Bickel and Harry M. Adams, "Surface profiling of lithium with a laser-desorption mass-spectrometer microprobe," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • A laser-desorption mass-spectrometer microprobe has been developed to profile Li distributions on the crevice surfaces of Cr-plated rolled-joint hubs. (osapublishing.org)
  • The laser-desorption images are shown to provide the same qualitative information as that available from secondary ion mass spectrometry. (osapublishing.org)
  • Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) Instrumentation - How Does It Work? (carleton.edu)
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) awarded a $924,995 High-End Instrumentation (HEI) grant to the University of Arizona (UA) for a mass spectrometer that will assist various UA scientists doing research as diverse as the atmospheric chemistry on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, and prevention of and cures for diseases such as colorectal cancer and Valley fever. (photonics.com)
  • This is a big step in our efforts to create miniature, handheld mass spectrometers for the field," said R. Graham Cooks, Purdue's Henry B. Hass Distinguished Professor of Chemistry. (purdue.edu)
  • These images are directly compared with Li images from the more conventional secondary ion mass spectrometry technique and evaluated with respect to surface topographical features measured by secondary electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. (osapublishing.org)
  • Although the resolution needs to be improved, this proof of principle shows that a cheap and portable peptide mass spectrometer can be constructed using existing nanopore technology and the patented pores that were developed in the lab of University of Groningen Associate Professor of Chemical Biology, Giovanni Maglia. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures the composition and isotopes of thermal neutrals and ions. (nasa.gov)
  • The ionized gas is then focused as a beam into a mass separation area, where an electromagnet is used to deflect the ions, such that different isotopes will be separated according to their masses. (wisegeek.com)