Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mass Casualty Incidents: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Mass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adnexal Diseases: Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including diseases involving the OVARY, the FALLOPIAN TUBES, and ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass: The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.PolysaccharidesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.TriglyceridesComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)JapanDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.United StatesGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. (1/10392)

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (2/10392)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Coeliac disease detected by screening is not silent--simply unrecognized. (3/10392)

Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and may be overlooked as a diagnosis. There is some evidence that untreated CD is associated with a doubling of mortality, largely due to an increase in the incidence of malignancy and small intestinal lymphoma, which is decreased by a strict gluten-free diet. We studied the clinical features of screening-detected coeliacs compared to age- and sex-matched controls as a 3-year follow-up to a population screening survey, and followed-up subjects who had had CD-associated serology 11 years previously to determine whether they have CD or an increased mortality rate compared to the general population. Samples of the general population (MONICA 1991 and 1983) were screened for CD-associated serology and followed-up after 3 and 11 years, respectively, and assessed by a clinical questionnaire, screening blood tests and jejunal biopsy. Mortality rates for 'all deaths' and 'cancer deaths' were compared in subjects with positive serology in 1983 with reference to the general population. Thirteen coeliacs were diagnosed by villous atrophy following screening, compared to two patients with clinically detected CD, giving a prevalence of 1:122. Clinical features or laboratory parameters were not indicative of CD compared to controls. Subjects with positive serology followed up after 11 years did not have an excess mortality for either cancer deaths or all causes of death. Screening-detected CD is rarely silent and may be associated with significant symptoms and morbidity. In this limited study with small numbers, there does not appear to be an increased mortality from screening-detected CD, although the follow-up may be too short to detect any difference.  (+info)

Faecal occult blood screening and reduction of colorectal cancer mortality: a case-control study. (4/10392)

To estimate the efficacy of screening on colorectal cancer mortality, a population-based case-control study was conducted in well-defined areas of Burgundy (France). Screening by faecal occult blood test prior to diagnosis in cases born between 1914 and 1943 and who died of colorectal cancer diagnosed in 1988-94 was compared with screening in controls matched with the case for age, sex and place of residence. Cases were less likely to have been screened than controls, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.94]. The negative overall association did not differ by gender or by anatomical location. The odds ratio of death from colorectal cancer was 0.64 (95% CI 0.46-0.91) for those screened within 3 years of case diagnosis compared with those not screened. It was 1.14 (95% CI 0.50-2.63) for those screened more than 3 years before case diagnosis. There was a negative association between the risk of death from colorectal cancer and the number of participations in the screening campaigns. The inverse association between screening for faecal occult blood and fatal colorectal cancer suggests that screening can reduce colorectal cancer mortality. This report further supports recommendations for population-based mass screening with faecal occult blood test.  (+info)

The identification of agreed criteria for referral following the dental inspection of children in the school setting. (5/10392)

AIM: To clarify the function of the school based dental inspection. OBJECTIVE: For representatives of the Community Dental Service, General Dental Service and Hospital Dental Service to identify an agreed set of criteria for the referral of children following school dental inspection. DESIGN: Qualitative research methodology used to establish a consensus for the inclusion of referral criteria following dental screening. SETTING: Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, England. MATERIALS: A Delphi technique was used to establish a consensus amongst the study participants on the inclusion of nine possible criteria for referral following dental screening. All participants scored each criterion in the range 1-9, with a score of 1 indicating that referral of individuals with the condition should definitely not take place, and a score of 9 indicating referral should definitely take place. Referral criteria were accepted only if they achieved a group median score of 7 or more, with an interquartile range of three scale points, with the lower value being no less than 7. RESULTS: Four of the nine possible criteria met the agreed group standard for inclusion: 'Sepsis', 'Caries in the secondary dentition', 'Overjet > 10 mm', and 'Registered & caries in the permanent dentition'. CONCLUSION: It is possible to agree clear criteria for the referral of children following the school dental inspection.  (+info)

Special medical examination program reform proposal in Korea. (6/10392)

We are at a time when reform in the special medical examination program in keeping with the changing times is desperately needed because the common perception of workers, employers, and medical examination facilities is "special medical examination is merely ritualistic and unproductive." Therefore, we have tried to set forth the basic structure for reforming the special medical examination program by taking a close look at the management status of the current program and analyzing its problems. The specifics of the special medical examination program reform proposal consist of three parts such as the types, health evaluation based on occupational medicine, and the interval, subject selection, items and procedure. Pre-placement medical examination and non-periodic medical examinations-as-necessary are introduced newly. Health evaluation based on occupational medicine consists of classification of health status, evaluation of work suitability, and post-examination measure. Details regarding the medical examination interval, subject selection, items and procedure were changed.  (+info)

Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia: pattern of use and health care system costs. (7/10392)

BACKGROUND: The use of mammography for screening asymptomatic women has increased dramatically in the past decade. This report describes the changes that have occurred in the use of bilateral mammography in British Columbia since the provincial breast cancer screening program began in 1988. METHODS: Using province-wide databases from both the breast cancer screening program and the provincial health insurance plan in BC, the authors determined the number and costs of bilateral mammography services for women aged 40 years or older between Apr. 1, 1986, and Mar. 31, 1997. Unilateral mammography was excluded because it is used for investigating symptomatic disease and screening abnormalities, and for follow-up of women who have undergone mastectomy for cancer. RESULTS: As the provincial breast cancer screening program expanded from 1 site in 1988 to 23 in 1997, it provided an increasing proportion of the bilateral mammographic examinations carried out each year in BC. In fiscal year 1996/97, 65% of bilateral mammographic examinations were performed through the screening program. The cost per examination within the screening program dropped as volume increased. Thirty percent more bilateral mammography examinations were done in 1996/97 than in 1991/92, but health care system expenditures for these services increased by only 4% during the same period. In calendar year 1996, 21% of new breast cancers were diagnosed as a result of a screening program visit. INTERPRETATION: Substantial increases in health care expenditures have been avoided by shifting bilateral mammography services to the provincial screening program, which has a lower cost per screening visit.  (+info)

Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation. (8/10392)

PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Identification of key links to the population; consultation with the community to design an outreach process; identification of underscreened women; implementation of community Pap screening clinics; evaluation of the pilot program. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Pap screening outreach program that marked a departure from the usual screening approach in the community. First Nations community health representatives were key links for the process that involved family physicians and office staff at a local clinic on a rural reserve. Participation rate for the pilot program was 48%, resulting in an increase of 15% over the previously recorded screening rate for this population. More screening clinics of this type and evaluation for sustainability are proposed.  (+info)

  • Employees who are unable to attend on-site biometric screening events can participate via a home kit, at one of 1,300 locations in our lab collection network, or we can capture data from a primary care physician office visit. (totalwellnesshealth.com)
  • Indonesian medical staff take part in a mass test for the COVID-19 coronavirus at Patriot stadium in Bekasi, West Java on March 25, 2020. (timesofisrael.com)
  • Limpopo Provincial health official gives a thumbs up after conducting a screening test on a traveller carrying a baby while making her way from Gauteng to Limpopo ahead of the nationwide lockdown at Mantsole Weighbridge near Hammanskraal on March 25, 2020. (timesofisrael.com)
  • Students will avail of specialised tuition in the areas of film and screen media and digital filmmaking, and may also opt to get involved in voluntary work for cultural projects and film festivals, such as the Fastnet Film Festival, Schull, offered during the programme year. (ucc.ie)
  • The MA in Film and Screen Media programme reflects the broad spectrum of research profiles and interests of our staff and is designed to provide our students with advanced knowledge of the history, theory, and aesthetics of international film and the emerging field of screen media. (ucc.ie)
  • With its combination of theory and practice , as well as its interface with the Industry, the MA offers students a programme of study that is simultaneously extensive, eclectic and in-depth. (ucc.ie)
  • The unique "stream" approach and range of learning methods of the MA means that students have greater flexibility in shaping the kind of programme they want, and can pursue their interests in theoretical and cultural studies, creative practice, critical writing, or the culture industry. (ucc.ie)
  • As part of the Performance programme at Central Saint Martins, it offers the opportunity to collaborate with other courses and is delivered in close collaboration with MA Screen: Directing. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen: Acting breaks away from the traditional stage-focused training by providing a specific programme directly relevant to film and television. (arts.ac.uk)
  • Delivered in close working partnership with MA Screen: Directing, it features an extended programme of acting skills, two film projects which are professionally produced and shot on location and in CSM's film Studio and then edited and screened. (arts.ac.uk)
  • 9 Several current guidelines recommend breast cancer screening with mammography for women aged up to 75 years, 10 11 and in the Netherlands in 1998, the upper age limit of the mass screening programme was extended from 69 to 75 years. (bmj.com)
  • Asymptomatic breast cancer in non-participants of the national screening programme in Norway: a confounding factor in evaluation? (arctichealth.org)
  • To evaluate the extent and histopathological characteristics of asymptomatic breast cancer detected outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in women targeted by the programme. (arctichealth.org)
  • There'll be opportunities to network with other future creative leaders, working alongside students on our other postgraduate screen courses. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • With a strong emphasis on practice and production-based work running through the course, you'll learn about the industrial and business context of film and TV, and build valuable enterprise skills, working with students on our other postgraduate screen MAs. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • Included in this endeavor is TSA's Certified Cargo Screening Program (CCSP), which enables Indirect Air Carriers (IAC's), shippers, and Independent Cargo Screening Facilities (ICSF's) to screen cargo for flights originating in the U.S. According to TSA, most shippers involved in CCSP have readily incorporated physical search into their packing/shipping operation at minimal cost without needing to invest in screening equipment. (logisticsmgmt.com)
  • MS/MS technology enables improvements in and consolidation of metabolic screening methods to detect amino acid disorders (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • MS/MS technology expands the metabolic disorder screening panel (i.e., the number of disorders that can be detected) by incorporating an acylcarnitine profile, which enables detection of fatty acid oxidation disorders (e.g., medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [MCAD] deficiency) ( 7-10 ) and other organic acid disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • The screening tool enables users to complete a preliminary evaluation of hydropower generation potential at water supply and waste water treatment facilities. (mass.gov)
  • The stability of mass measurement on the Xevo G2 QTof enables a reduction in processing errors along with minimized false positives. (waters.com)
  • TreePad's 'mass node mover' screen enables you to swiftly perform multiple tree operations in one go. (treepad.com)
  • Health screening enables you to find out if you have a particular disease or condition even if you do not have any symptoms and/or signs of disease. (lifelinescreening.com)
  • Prototype application integrating dashboard chemical content with Competitive Fragmentation Modeling for Metabolite Identification (CFM-ID) fragment prediction results enables screening 875,000 plus "MS Ready" compounds in complex samples - available only inside EPA at present and will be integrated to the CompTox Chemicals Dashboard in the future. (epa.gov)
  • The methodology is centered around an at-line nanofractionation platform in which a metabolic mixture is chromatographically separated followed by parallel on-line mass spectrometric (MS) analysis and at-line nanofractionation on high-density microtiter well plates that are then directly exposed to a bioassay. (slas.org)
  • In combination with on-line mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, it constitutes a rapid screening tool to select reagents to generate specific products. (rsc.org)
  • An easy default in these situations is to turn on the TV or let them play on a tablet, though the American Academy of Pediatrics highly recommends restricting screen time for children, especially when they're young. (metrowestdailynews.com)
  • Firefighters filled Sullivan Auditorium at Worcester State University last night for a special screening of the documentary with the executive producer, Denis Leary, a Worcester native. (telegram.com)
  • One of the featured documentaries is Finding Lights of Hope, which focuses on youth activism in Worcester, and this year s Central Mass Film Festival is sure to focus a lens on the local stars of social activism. (worcestermag.com)
  • It is free, but donations are being accepted to benefit the Central Mass Film Festival and Worcester Roots Project, a collective of youth and adult organizers on a mission to create opportunities for economic, social and environmental justice. (worcestermag.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of detecting surgically confirmed lung cancer were 55% (22/40) and 95% (4960/5199) in 1996 and 83% (25/30) and 97% (4113/4252) in 1997 screening, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Results: When individuals ranked in the top 10% of the HRA-F risk score was screened, the sensitivity was 57.9% and positive predictive value was 0.93% or 2.12% according to the above assumptions, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 78.8%, it can be used even by community level health worker for mass screening and takes around 5 minutes to complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • News of these notices comes just a day after the Aurora Police Department in Colorado let residents know that the Century Aurora and XD movie theater, which was the site of a mass shooting in July 2012, will not be showing "Joker. (abc15.com)
  • In June 2000, the National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, in collaboration with CDC and the Health Resources and Services Administration, convened a workshop in San Antonio, Texas. (cdc.gov)
  • Workshop participants examined programmatic concerns for health providers choosing to integrate MS/MS technology into their newborn screening activities. (cdc.gov)
  • This work group report contains proposals for planning, operating, and evaluating MS/MS technology in newborn screening and maternal and child health programs. (cdc.gov)
  • As a supplement to these proposals, this report contains synopses of selected presentations made at the 2000 workshop regarding integration of MS/MS technology into newborn screening programs. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposals contained in this report should assist policymakers, program managers, and laboratorians in making informed decisions regarding the process of including MS/MS technology in their newborn screening and maternal and child health programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year, approximately 4 million babies in the United States have dried blood spots analyzed through newborn* screening programs. (cdc.gov)
  • These three groups of disorders account for approximately 3,000 new cases of potentially fatal or debilitating disease each year for which outcomes are improved with early identification and treatment through newborn screening systems. (cdc.gov)
  • However, using MS/MS in newborn screening programs is new, and scientific data are limited regarding incorporating this technology into newborn screening and maternal and child health programs. (cdc.gov)
  • This review will explore MS/MS to provide a better understanding of the development and application of this technology to newborn screening for perinatal and neonatal nurses. (nih.gov)
  • however, this relies on the acquired exact mass for each compound remaining very precise across the entire peak for that compound. (waters.com)
  • In a preferred embodiment, the synthesis, screening, and/or characterization steps are carried out in a highly parallel fashion, where more than one compound is synthesized, screened, and/or characterized at the same time. (google.com)
  • This process can be improved by implementing new screening methods that rapidly assess the biological/biochemical properties and correlate them directly to compound identities. (slas.org)
  • A further 70 compounds that comprised the initial hit chemotypes were subsequently sourced from the full CSIRO compound collection and screened. (rcsb.org)
  • We also ran these samples on a third mass spectrometer and used patient prescription information, immunoassay and GC-MS data in order to confirm discordant results. (aacc.org)
  • The wells of the array may comprise a membrane, which is used in various screening and characterization methods. (google.com)
  • The invention also relates to a variety of methods for synthesis, screening, and characterization, which are adapted for combinatorial chemistry. (google.com)
  • Background: Because early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus is detectable by endoscopic esophageal iodine staining with high accuracy and is easily treated by endoscopic mucosectomy, it is important to develop efficient methods for screening candidates for the endoscopic examination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A successful preparative ES pathway for the synthesis of the phenylacetyl ester intermediate, using tropine/HCl/phenylacetyl chloride, was optimized for solvent in both the preparative ES and microfluidics flow systems and a base screening was conducted by both methods to increase atropine yield, increase percentage conversion and reduce byproducts. (rsc.org)
  • Oasis HLB SPE extraction with rapid ACQUITY UPLC separation and detection by Xevo G2 QTof, followed by data processing using POSI±IVE Software, were successfully used to screen extracted sewage effluent for pesticide contaminants at ultra-trace levels. (waters.com)
  • Repeat CT allowed the detection of more aggressive, rapidly growing lung cancers, compared to those in the initial screening. (nih.gov)
  • Twenty percent (19/97) of the ICs and 32% (69/213) of the breast cancers in non-participants were asymptomatic, with opportunistic screening as the most frequent detection method (42%, 8/19 for ICs and 54%, 37/69 for non-participants). (arctichealth.org)
  • Objective Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. (arctichealth.org)
  • The first City of Cambridge/Community Legal Services and Counseling Center (CLSACC) Immigration Legal Screening Clinic will be held on Wednesday, Dec.13, from 5:15-7:15 p.m., at the offices of Community Legal Services and Counseling Center (CLSACC), 47 Thorndike St (lower level) in East Cambridge. (cambridgema.gov)
  • Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital's (MGH) Ammon-Pinizzotto Center for Women's Mental Health have developed the MGH Perinatal Depression Scale (MGHPDS) , a free iPhone application designed to refine how women around the world are screened for postpartum depression (PPD). (eurekalert.org)
  • The MGHPDS app blends together digital versions of perinatal depression screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, a 10-question self-rating scale which is the most common tool for identifying women at risk for PPD, with other instruments that measure symptoms associated with perinatal psychiatric illness - such as sleep disturbance, anxiety and perceived stress. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is our hope that - as screening for PPD becomes increasingly common across the U.S. and globally - easy-to-use tools like the MGHPDS, which can be readily used on smartphones and other digital devices, will lead to more accurate screening of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and to improved clinical outcomes for patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • LG ( 066570 ) announced on Thursday that it has started firing up its production lines to produce screens for the next-generation iPhone , and it looks as though the new screens will indeed be longer and thinner than previous iPhone models. (bgr.com)
  • Unnamed sources told Reuters on Thursday that the new LG -produced iPhone screens will measure four inches corner-to-corner , or one half-inch longer than current iPhone screens, They are also thinner and include new technology that "embeds touch sensors into the liquid crystal display, eliminating the touch-screen layer found in current iPhones. (bgr.com)
  • In an initial fragment screen against a 720-member fragment library (the "CSIRO Fragment Library") seven CA II binding fragments, including a selection of nonclassical CA II binding chemotypes, were identified. (rcsb.org)
  • What's more, she added that a law akin to H.R.1, which requires cargo screening on passenger flights, would "require some hundreds of treaties to be negotiated so that foreign governments would allow the screening. (logisticsmgmt.com)
  • Despite not being able to be on stage in front of people, classical musician Yo-Yo Ma plays music virtually to foster community. (yahoo.com)
  • The Area IV Youth Center will host a community screening of Boys II Men in the Making: A documentary profiling the 6 week MSYEP/CYP collaborative summer project, Boys II Men. (cambridgema.gov)
  • BioWare's recent acquisition by Electronic Arts drew predictable ire from the Screen Play community and passionate gamers worldwide, concerned that gaming's biggest player would inevitably pollute one of the industry's most cherished and successful independent studios. (n4g.com)
  • In the final installment of Screen Play's week-long Mass Effect special feature, Jason Hill talks to BioWare's Chris Priestly about his thoughts on the acquisition and about Priestly's role as Community Coordinator, a job that perhaps just got a whole lot more difficult. (n4g.com)
  • Quincy Medical Center hosts a variety of health screenings, educational programs and support groups throughout the year, which are open to all members of the community. (patriotledger.com)
  • The town of Littleton, Massachusetts has a rich history as a farming community. (littletonma.org)
  • It was developed and designed at the Child Development Centre, SAT Hospital, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, Kerala in 1991 It was validated both at the hospital and the community level against the standard Denver Developmental Screening Test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waters Xevo G2 QTof MS coupled with ACQUITY UPLC, along with the Waters ToF Screening Pesticide Database, and POSI±IVE Software processing, were used to rapidly screen treated sewage effluent that had been extracted using Oasis HLB SPE Cartridges. (waters.com)
  • Figure 2 shows the effect of using increasingly narrow mass extraction windows when reviewing Xevo G2 QTof MS data. (waters.com)
  • In order to address these questions, we developed a broad spectrum drug screen on our LC-MS/MS (ABSciex 3200 QTRAP) and LC-HRMS (ABSciex 5600 QTOF). (aacc.org)
  • Objective To assess the incidence of early stage and advanced stage breast cancer before and after the implementation of mass screening in women aged 70-75 years in the Netherlands in 1998. (bmj.com)
  • Corresponding figures in 1997 and 1998 screening studies were 173 (3.9%) of 4425 and 25 (14%) of 173, and 136 (3.5%) of 3878 and 9 (7%) of 136, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A Drama Centre course at Central Saint Martins, MA Screen: Acting provides a rigorous conservatoire training, focused on performance for the screen. (arts.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, our existing method, which uses a nominal mass quadrupole linear ion trap instrument, collects targeted data on a predefined set of compounds. (aacc.org)
  • And, importantly, how does this compare to nominal mass instruments that collect data in a targeted manner? (aacc.org)
  • The brother of figure skater Nancy Kerrigan was sent to jail Monday after failing required alcohol screenings while awaiting trial on manslaughter charges in the death of his father. (telegram.com)
  • The readings, which ranged from .025 to .036, were below the legal driving limit of .08, but violate the conditions of Kerrigan s bail, which included that he not drink alcohol and that he be given random drug and alcohol screenings. (telegram.com)
  • Inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is a very strong risk factor for esophageal SCC in alcohol drinkers and thus may be suitable as a screening tool. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A possible approach to mass screening of high-risk individuals is to classify them according to exposure to risk factors such as heavy alcohol drinking and smoking. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MA Screen: Acting originates from the unique approach and techniques developed by Drama Centre. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen: Acting provides training for screen actors interested in character-led storytelling. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen: Acting teaches students the relevant skills, equipping them with the ability to respond to the needs of employers in the screen industries. (arts.ac.uk)
  • Integrating individual and group work, MA Screen: Acting promotes collaborative, joined-up thinking in the creative process of screen-based fiction. (arts.ac.uk)
  • On MA Screen: Acting, you will begin with classes before moving onto projects. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen Acting course specialises in giving the actor a rigorous and intense conservatoire training focused on delivering performance for the screen. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen: Acting prepares you for work in film and television and related fields by bringing together the key artistic knowledge and skills that are needed to give a truthful and exciting performance on screen. (arts.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen: Acting lasts 45 weeks over 12 months and is structured as units - class-based to begin with, but increasingly project-geared over time. (arts.ac.uk)
  • Students who come to MA Screen: Acting expect vocational training plus a high level of autonomous learning. (arts.ac.uk)
  • This 18-month full time (January start) MA in Screen Acting offers students professional training in acting for a range of screen based industries. (chi.ac.uk)
  • With a focus on story craft and character development you will continually engage with traditional acting and devising classes as you progress a fuller understanding of screen based narratives and the demands of the numerous forms of screen acting you may be required to collaborate in. (chi.ac.uk)
  • Underpinned by a company mentality and traditional visceral acting methodology classes, students will also be trained in Motion Capture Performance, Combat for the Screen and Voice for the Screen, as they gain a deep applied knowledge of the opportunities for the contemporary screen actor. (chi.ac.uk)
  • MA Screen Acting will be delivered in the new £30m Tech Park at the Bognor Regis campus. (chi.ac.uk)
  • Patients with a positive screening low-dose CT scan (LDCT) will need further evaluation, most commonly CT scans at shorter intervals than the one-year screening interval to assess nodule growth. (massgeneral.org)
  • A simple finger-stick test used to assess how well your kidneys are functioning, a creatinine screening uses an FDA-approved device adopted by more than 250 hospitals nationwide. (lifelinescreening.com)
  • A recent article in favor of BMI screening points out that most of the surveys in Arkansas, where BMI screening programs have been present for over four years, have not shown any negative consequences. (doverpost.com)
  • And in a recent Bloomberg report Napolitano said the screening mandate "is an easy thing to say, but it's probably not the best way to go. (logisticsmgmt.com)
  • At the time, strong opposition from the shipping industry, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and other business interests prevented the inclusion of a screening mandate for all-cargo planes. (logisticsmgmt.com)
  • The MA Screenwriting at Edinburgh Napier University was launched in 2006 and has adapted and developed since then to a point where we feel confident that this is one of the strongest screenwriting Masters courses on offer in the UK. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • Students can progress from the MA to a further year of study, resulting in an MFA in Advanced Film Practice with a focus on screenwriting. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • Other students move on from the MA Screenwriting into further academic study at MFA or PhD level, or into teaching, or into other areas of work or self-employment. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • It is our aspiration that a year spent writing, studying, exploring and experimenting on the MA Screenwriting will provide a strong foundation for the future, no matter which path you follow beyond study with us in Edinburgh. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • Aimed at students with some experience of writing their own scripts already, our MA Screen Production (Screenwriting) supports you to develop scripts for your own dramas and feature films. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • The MA in Film and Screen Media is a one-year taught course that offers students advanced-level critical skills in the discipline of Film and Screen Media, training in digital filmmaking, and transferrable IT/web skills . (ucc.ie)
  • With its annual seminar series of visiting speakers and guest practitioners , as well its resident UCC/Arts Council Film Artist on campus, UCC Film and Screen Media gives students ample opportunities to meet and be taught by professionals and experts. (ucc.ie)
  • Students can avail of a selection of option modules, in film studies, in filmmaking, in cultural/film studies, as well as a core module that offers advanced-level studies in film and screen media. (ucc.ie)
  • The MA in Film and Screen Media is open to candidates with a BA degree in a Humanities subject, who have taken some undergraduate modules in Film and/or Media Studies and related subject areas, or who can demonstrate equivalent familiarity with and expertise in the subject. (ucc.ie)
  • Study film and screen cultures while immersing yourself in the creative culture of London at film festivals, studios, galleries and pop-up cinemas. (roehampton.ac.uk)
  • Our MA combines the study of mainstream and experimental film, contemporary television and the video-essay form, and includes the option to produce either a written or audio-visual dissertation. (roehampton.ac.uk)
  • Building on our links with festivals, studios, cinemas and galleries, this MA is not only about studying film theory but also about immersing yourself in the wealth of screen-related events and institutions the capital has to offer. (roehampton.ac.uk)
  • This exciting location will give students access to professional industry standard facilities including a 300sqm film studio/sound stage, recording studios and live room, 80sqm green screen studio, post production area consisting of 9 edit suites alongside our 'soho' standard dubbing & master suite, Mac and PC suites, ideas labs and changing facilities. (chi.ac.uk)
  • Screen Academy Scotland is an active film making hub in the culturally vibrant city of Edinburgh. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • Screen Academy Scotland is one of only three Film Academies in the UK accredited by Skillset, the film industry's skills body, giving us and our graduates significant credibility in the industry. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • In addition, Screen Academy students can buy an Industry Pass at a heavily-discounted rate and to attend screenings, masterclasses and networking events at the Edinburgh International Film Festival in June. (screenacademyscotland.ac.uk)
  • The Central Mass Film Festival is back again. (worcestermag.com)
  • This is amazing and truly an honor," he said of having the movie featured in the Central Mass Film Festival. (worcestermag.com)
  • Sincerity focuses on human rights activist Malcolm X. The festival will include film screenings and discussions with many of the filmmakers. (worcestermag.com)
  • Each year, the Future Focus Media Co-op brings the Central Mass Film Festival to life. (worcestermag.com)
  • The Film Festival started with the creation of CMF2 in October 2012, which sponsors screenings of local and regionally-produced films and workshops. (worcestermag.com)
  • We want to show films that inspire and make you think as well as ah highlight films that you may not typically see in theaters or elsewhere, other than them being shown by the Central Mass Film Festival. (worcestermag.com)
  • The Central Massachusetts Film Festival takes place Saturday, April 18, 6-9 p.m. (worcestermag.com)
  • You'll be equipped to pursue a career as a professional scriptwriter in TV or film, to write web-series or pursue other modes of writing in the screen industries. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • Attend film screenings and events within Bristol's vibrant film and TV sector, such as the Watershed Cinema and Encounters Film Festival. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • Audio work related to screen based content can range from voice over for advertising, automated dialogue replacement and voicing characters for animation. (chi.ac.uk)
  • This is the first in a series of planned downloadable content that further expands the "Mass Effect" universe and continues the adventures of Commander Shepard and the Normandy crew. (worthplaying.com)
  • In a study, published online May 20 in the journal PLoS ONE , they describe a new, environmental-based risk factor screening for type 2 diabetes, a technique they have dubbed environmental-wide association study (or EWAS, after GWAS, which stands for genome-wide association study). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Why study MA Scriptwriting at Middlesex University? (mdx.ac.uk)
  • What will you study on MA Scriptwriting? (mdx.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the Forensic Toxicology Application Screening Solution with UNIFI was applied to a selection of plant alkaloids. (waters.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and the depth of tissue overlying the epidural space. (springer.com)
  • After controlling for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, the group found that those with high levels of PCBs had a 15 percent chance of having type 2 diabetes, a correlation that had been shown in previous studies. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Vision, Hearing, Postural, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Brief Intervention (SBIRT) screenings will be done throughout the school year. (lowellma.gov)
  • Height and weight measurements are used to calculate body mass index (BMI). (lowellma.gov)
  • Dr. Murray Feingold: Is body mass index screening necessary at schools? (doverpost.com)
  • A much bigger furor has been raised over schoolchildren being screened for their body mass index or BMI. (doverpost.com)