The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Relating to the size of solids.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
Simultaneously the organic carbon in the soil structure becomes depleted; the presence of carbon plays a vital role in the ... In addition, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a series of detailed computer simulation models of rainfall ... Soils in the Amazon are productive for only a very short period of time after the land is cleared, so farmers there must ... If too much timber is cut, soil that once had sufficient cover can get baked and dry out in the sun, leading to erosion and ...
It adds tilth to the soil. Likewise, it can be added to compost to add organic nutrients and nitrogen.[4]:168 ... As mass waste, it is a potential environmental problem because it is highly susceptible to putrefaction.[5] ...
Typically, grave sites will have looser, darker, more organic soil than areas around it. The search for additional grave sites ... Processing scenes of mass fatality or incidents of terrorism (i.e. homicide, mass graves and war crimes, and other violations ... Differences in the soil can help forensic archaeologists locate these sites. During the burial of a body, a small mound of soil ... The loose soil and increasing nutrients from the decomposing body encourages different kinds of plant growth than surrounding ...
Massachusetts Horticultural Society Annual Report, 1952. Soil Organic Matter and its role in Crop Production, F.E. Allison, ... Tiedjens then felt another step could lead to even greater efficiency; he completely bypassed the soil and applied the liquid ... Available Calcium a Factor in Salt Balance for Vegetable Crops (with L.G. Schermerhorn) Soil Science, December 1936, Vol 42, ... Available Calcium a Factor in Salt Balance for Vegetable Crops (with L.G. Schermerhorn) Soil Science, December 1936, Vol 42, ...
Bray, Roger H.; Kurtz, L. T. (January 1945). "Determination of Total Organic and Available Forms of Phosphorus in Soils". Soil ... "Mathematician Professor Dirk Struik dies at 106". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 25 October 2000. Retrieved 24 June ... Bray was born in 1929 to Roger H. Bray, who developed the Bray soil test. A native of Belleville, Illinois, the younger Bray ...
Harrold SA, Tabatabai MA (June 2006). "Release of inorganic phosphorus from soils by low‐molecular‐weight organic acids". ... Low concentration of phosphorus in soils reduces plant growth and slows soil microbial growth, as shown in studies of soil ... organic acids are found in soils. They originate from the activities of various microorganisms in soils or may be exuded from ... Several of those organic acids are capable of forming stable organo-metal complexes with various metal ions found in soil ...
It is the floating mass of vegetation formed by the accumulation of organic debris and biomass with soil. Its thickness varies ...
... contribution of Jatropha curcas to soil quality improvement in a degraded Indian entisol. Soil organic carbon, nitrogen and ... Federal University, Dutsin-Ma Official Website. "Absence Of Link Between Varsities' Research, Industries Stalling Nigeria's ... He is a Professor of Soil Physics, Department of Soil Science & Land Resource Management, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, until ... into soils Evaluation of Maize-Desmodium-Soybean Cropping Effect on Soil Quality and Crop Yields in an Alfisols of Northern ...
... and recycles waste organic material into the soil. Solar energy is stored as heat energy in thermal mass such as water, stone, ... Solar heat is absorbed and stored in thermal mass to moderate air temperatures and provide heat for later use. Water moves from ... Nutrient cycles are developed between fish, plant & soil. Within the bioshelter are a variety of microclimates. The south areas ... Gases are exchanged among the animals, insects, micro-organisms, soil and plants. ...
It is famous for the phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil and organic matter at various stages of decomposition) ... This is an urban problem and there is urgent need to treat and control this aspect, even if it is expensive; ii) Reduce soil ... Deforestation and shifting cultivation in the catchment areas have accelerated the process of soil erosion resulting in the ...
Comprising 80% of the fruit mass, açaí seeds may be ground for livestock food or as a component of organic soil for plants. ...
"I am quite sure that Paul also told OPD how to look for human specific VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in collected soil ... All you need is a GC-MS (gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer) which every university or crime lab in the world ...
The floating mass of matted vegetation, organic debris, and soil that constitutes a phumdi has a thickness that varies from a ... soil and organic matter, in different stages of decay. The largest single mass of phumdi is in the southeastern part of the ... It is also reported that the soil of the park formed by the phumdis is highly acidic, with unsuitable pH conditions for many ... The bioreactors could also be used to treat sewage and thus arrest flow of organic matter into the lake. In a recent workshop ...
Organic-rich soils generally have lighter δ65Cu values than mineral soils because the organic layers result from plant litter, ... In many cases, the δ56Fe value can be related to the δ57Fe and δ58Fe values through mass-dependent fractionation: δ 57 F e = ... "The influence of weathering and soil organic matter on Zn isotopes in soils". Chemical Geology. 466: 140-8. Bibcode:2017ChGeo. ... A novel tool to trace copper behavior in hydromorphic soils". Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74 (1): 60-73. Bibcode: ...
Freeman C, C. D. Evans, D. T. Monteith, B. Reynolds and N. Fenner (2001) Export of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412, ... Freeman C, Fenner N, Ostle NJ, Kang H, Dowrick DJ, Reynolds B, Lock MA, Sleep D, Hughes S and Hudson J. (2004) Dissolved ... Freeman's research focuses on carbon cycling, with an emphasis on peatland carbon storage and dissolved organic carbon dynamics ... and observation of a rising trend in aquatic dissolved organic carbon concentrations. His work has been recognised with awards ...
They contribute to the organic fraction of soil, and their growth releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere (see carbon ... Mycelium is an important food source for many soil invertebrates. "Mycelium", like "fungus", can be considered a mass noun, a ... Petroleum products and some pesticides (typical soil contaminants) are organic molecules (i.e., they are built on a carbon ... Compost is an essential soil amendment and fertilizer for organic farming and gardening. Composting can divert a substantial ...
They can remove organic soils, scale, and other inorganic residues. Media come in a wide range of materials in order to fulfill ... Mass finishing processes can be configured as either batch systems, in which batches of workpieces are added, run, and removed ... Due to the random action of the processes, mass finishing is as much an art as it is a science. Media are designed for four ... Mass finishing is a group of manufacturing processes that allow large quantities of parts to be simultaneously finished. The ...
Radionuclides: In general, soils containing higher amounts of organic matter will allow plants to accumulate higher amounts of ... 7] J.J.Cornejo, F.G.Muñoz, C.Y.Ma and A.J.Stewart, Studies on the decontamination of air by plants. "Archived copy". Archived ... Phytoremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Soils: Role of Organic Acids in Triggering Uranium Hyperaccumulation in Plants. ... Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1996. 88: 167- ...
... which increases soil structure by binding organic matter to mineral particles. Glomalin gives soil its tilth (texture), ... Massachusetts Chapter". Retrieved 2014-06-12. Cho, Han Kyu; Koyama, Atsushi (1997). Korean Natural Farming: ... Miles of mycorrhizae can be found in a single ounce of soil. Mycorrhizal soil inoculation increases soil carbon accumulation by ... by accelerating soil recovery. Soils depleted by the use of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides may have reduced soil ...
... as well as mass land clearing. Both of these impacted the condition of the soils, grass, nutrients, leaves, and other organic ... They mainly lived in sand dunes and made nests of leaves and other organic materials. The big-eared hopping-mouse was last ...
"Modeling organic carbon and carbon-mediated soil processes in DSSAT v4.5". Operational Research. 10 (3): 247. doi:10.1007/ ... Wu, Chunlei; Anlauf, Ruediger; Ma, Youhua (2013). "Application of the DSSAT Model to Simulate Wheat Growth in Eastern China". ... doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00098-9. Meng, Lei; Quiring, Steven M. (2008). "A Comparison of Soil Moisture Models Using Soil ... with different options available to represent such processes as evapotranspiration and soil organic matter accumulation, which ...
Redwood trees develop enormous limbs that accumulate deep organic soils and can support tree-sized trunks growing on them. This ... One tree that fell in 1991 was reported to be 372.04 feet (113.40 m). Only the giant sequoia has more mass. The largest redwood ... The soil mats provide homes to invertebrates, mollusks, earthworms, and salamanders. During drought seasons, some treetops die ... Wildfire eliminates dead and decayed plant and tree matter, enriching the soil and ensuring that healthier trees have less ...
Less tillage also encourages more organic materials and crop residue to decompose back into the soil. It also reduces soil ... Only after World War II when center pivot irrigation became available did the land mass of the High Plains aquifer system ... Also, center-pivot irrigation can reduce the amount of soil tillage. Therefore, it helps reduce water runoff and soil erosion ...
No organic chemicals were found in the soil. However, dry areas of Antarctica do not have detectable organic compounds either, ... Viking carried a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) that could measure the composition and abundance of organic ... Trenches dug by soil sampler device. First color image taken by the Viking 1 lander (July 21, 1976). Viking 1 lander site ( ... Perchlorate is a strong oxidant so it may have destroyed any organic matter on the surface. If it is widespread on Mars, carbon ...
Rumford tiles had previously been made with rich organic soil that burned off during the firing process and created pores, this ... However, as other corporation began to mass-produce less-expensive acoustical building materials, Guastavino products ceased to ...
... that could measure the composition and abundance of organic compounds in the Martian soil. The results were surprising and ... All samples heated in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) gave off water. However, the way the samples were handled ... Sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath. The sulfur may be present as ... The regolith, referred to often as "soil", resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic lavas. The tested soil ...
... a form of alternative agriculture similar to organic farming which treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ... They do not intend to expand to mass market retailers such as Costco and Walmart. The company prides itself on maintaining slow ...
... as organic soil accumulation can be detected. Amniotic eggs started to evolve as more terrestrial land became available with ... It took until the late Permian until the Siberian land mass collided with Pangea. The only land mass to not be a part of Pangea ... all the continental crust on Earth came together and formed one giant land mass. This land mass was surrounded by an even ... At the end of this new era was a mass extinction of Dinosaurs and reptiles, this led mammals to flourish as they could take ...
... heterogeneous decomposing mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matters) floating over it. Keibul Lamjao National Park, the ... The tight fairways, carpeted with a local grass which hardens the soil, are difficult to negotiate. The number of out-of-bounds ...
The park is a swamp with floating mass of vegetation created by accrual of organic garbage and biomass with soil particles that ... The size of the park varies with the seasons as it is formed of phumdis (morass of organic matter). The peripheral areas of the ... deforestation and subsequent soil erosion in the catchment area and e) rotting vegetation. Conservation measures suggested ...
An illustration of a soil food web.. "Detritus can be broadly defined as any form of non-living organic matter, including ... In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of ... The Law of Conservation of Mass dates from Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 discovery that mass is neither created nor destroyed in ... Top Left: A four level trophic pyramid sitting on a layer of soil and its community of decomposers. Top right: A three layer ...
The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in ... 23.03-20.43 Ma. Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals; some of them overlap with the ... There is evidence from oxygen isotopes at Deep Sea Drilling Program sites that ice began to build up in Antarctica about 36 Ma ... It can therefore be assumed that East Antarctica had some glaciers during the early to mid Miocene (23-15 Ma). Oceans cooled ...
A study suggests that reduced tillage preserves the crop residues on the top of the soil, allowing organic matter to be formed ... As a result, the chemistry of the soil changes. Biological decomposition accelerates and the microbiota mass increases at the ... For plants to thrive a certain quantity of organic matter (around 5%) must be present in the soil. ... Natural farming recognizes soils as a fundamental natural asset. Ancient soils possess physical and chemical attributes that ...
Mauseth, James D. (2009). Botany: an introduction to plant biology (4th ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ... The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Sun leaves have a multi-layered palisade layer, while shade leaves or older leaves closer to the soil are single-layered. ... Leaves need to support their own mass and align themselves in such a way as to optimize their exposure to the sun, generally ...
... and moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils.[1] The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 ... "Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, College of Natural Sciences, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA. 14 ... In soil that is loose, well-drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow-planted 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) and thinned by ample ...
2002). "The Survival of Organic Matter in Bone: A Review". Archaeometry. 44 (3): 383-394. doi:10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00071.. ... beginning with elemental and mineralogical composition of bone and enveloping soil, as well as the local burial environment ( ... During telodiagenesis, organic matter undergoes cracking and dry gas is produced; semi-anthracite coals develop.[11] ... Organic matter is mineralized, liberating gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) in the porewater, which, depending on the conditions, ...
Current mass extinction". In Elewa, Ashraf M. T. (ed.). Mass Extinction. pp. 191-194. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75916-4_14. ISBN ... Due to the older timeframe and the soil chemistry on the continent, very little subfossil preservation evidence exists relative ... organic pollutants and mercury, and ecosystem disturbances of terrestrial and marine environments. Approximately 17,000 ... Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-551068-9. .. *^ Davis, M. B. (1976). "Pleistocene biogeography of temperate ...
... leaving other nuclides of the same mass number (isobars) free to beta decay toward the lowest-mass nuclide. An effect of the ... For example, lithium iodide (Li I) will dissolve in organic solvents, a property of most covalent compounds.[72] Lithium ... and because potassium is bound by silicates in soil and what potassium leaches is absorbed far more readily by plant life than ... Odd-odd nuclei have even mass numbers, whereas odd-even nuclei have odd mass numbers. Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare ...
Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781444338386.wbeah21217. ISBN 9781444338386. .. *. Hazen, Robert M. (1984). " ... formation by oxidation and weathering of rocks exposed to the atmosphere or within the soil environment. ... of minerals in the origin of life and processes as mineral-catalyzed organic synthesis and the selective adsorption of organic ...
Coronal mass ejection. *Gamma-ray burst. *Hypercane. *Impact event *Asteroid impact avoidance ...
Visitors can see what insects and soil look like from that size, while learning about the biodiversity of soil and the ... Memoirs of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 12, Cambridge, Massachusetts.. *^ Williams, Benjamin W.; Fawcett, W. Peyton (1985 ... Other notable contributions include methods for dyeing Japanese papers to color match restorations in organic substrates,[67] ... Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Art Museums. Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies. pp. 111-123.. ...
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.. *. Plunkett, G. M.; Downie, S. R. (1999). "Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily ... they may not grow at all if the soils are too warm. Almost every widely cultivated plant of this group is a considered useful ... an unusual class of organic compounds that exhibit cytotoxic effects.[15][16] ...
SoilEdit. Coarse woody debris, particularly on slopes, stabilizes soils by slowing downslope movement of organic matter and ... Malden, MA] Blackwell Science, Inc. 1(1) pp9-16.. *Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in ... Once the trees die, fungi and other saprotrophs transfer some of that carbon from CWD into the soil. This sequestration can ... During dry weather, CWD slows evaporation of soil moisture and provides damp microhabitats for moisture-sensitive organisms.[8] ...
The refractive index, nD, for sucrose solutions of various percentage by mass has been measured and tables of nD vs. °Bx ... If using the ICUMSA tables,[4] he or she would report in mass fraction (m.f.). It is not, typically, actually necessary to ... For example, an 11.0% by mass D-Glucose ("grape sugar") solution measured 10.9 °Bx using a hand held instrument.[citation ... One degree Brix is 1 gram of sucrose in 100 grams of solution and represents the strength of the solution as percentage by mass ...
John Penny MA; The Luftwaffe over the Bristol area 1940-44 Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 14 July 2008 ... The Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency, the Soil Association, Clerical Medical, and Bristol Water are in Bristol; Indesit ... Yeo Valley Organic is in Blagdon. Numatic International Limited makes vacuum cleaners in Chard, and Brecknell Willis, a railway ... The day after Whit Sunday 1549, a priest at Sampford Courtenay was persuaded to read the old mass.[85] This insubordination ...
"Plant and Soil. 193 (2): 199-208. doi:10.1023/A:1004276311956. ISSN 0032-079X.. ... Minerals are present in a healthy human being's blood at certain mass and molar concentrations. The figure below presents the ... Research has supported that altering inorganic mineral compounds (carbonates, oxides, etc.) by reacting them with organic ... Plants obtain minerals from the soil, and most of the minerals in our diets come directly from plants or indirectly from animal ...
6,000 tons of organic tea were sold in 1999.[113] About 75% of organic tea production is sold in France, Germany, Japan, the ... Tea did not become a mass drink there until the 1950s when the India Tea Board, faced with a surplus of low-grade tea, launched ... Fung, K. F.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Wong, J. W. C.; Wong, M. H. (1999). "Fluoride contents in tea and soil from tea plantations and the ... The most important certification schemes are Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade, UTZ Certified, and Organic,[citation needed] which ...
Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes.[24] It can be produced ... Ethanol has a smaller energy density than that of gasoline; this means it takes more fuel (volume and mass) to produce the same ... and would enhance soil fertility.[88] The selection of land on which to grow the feedstocks is a critical component of the ... "Mustard Hybrids for Low-Cost Biofuels and Organic Pesticides" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. ...
Wootton, J. T. (1987). The effects of body mass, phylogeny, habitat, and trophic level on mammalian age at first reproduction. ... some may be only a scooped shallow depression of soil, or pile of heather or juniper stems with stipes of dried Laminaria, but ... followed by inadvertent poisonings and epidemics of nesting failures due to various manmade chemical pesticides and organic ... A relatively new 4 year old nest weighed 240 kg (530 lb) and one about twice that age can exceed 600 kg (1,300 lb) in mass. ...
Subsidence, or settling of the ground surface, occurs naturally due to the consolidation and oxidation of organic soils (called ... It was the largest mass lynching in U.S. history.[44][45] In July 1900 the city was swept by white mobs rioting after Robert ... The mass of blacks were still enslaved, working at the port, in domestic service, in crafts, and mostly on the many large, ... The soft soils are susceptible to subsidence, and there was doubt about the feasibility of constructing high rises. ...
While other types of carbon sinks such as the ocean, trees and soil may involve the risk of adverse feedback loops at increased ... And also, after the gasification process, CO2 takes up to 13% - 15.3% by mass in the syngas stream for biomass sources, while ... Waste goes through high temperature thermal treatment and the heat generated from combusting organic part of waste is used to ... Industrial processes have released too much CO2 to be absorbed by conventional sinks such as trees and soil to reach low ...
Mass production of ripened pu'er began in 1975. It can be consumed without further aging, or it can be stored further to "air ... As well, the trees are typically cared for using organic practices, which includes the scheduled pruning of the trees in a ... reminiscent of the smell of rich garden soil or an autumn leaf pile, sometimes with roasted or sweet undertones. Because of its ... Zhang, Liang; Li, Ning; Ma, Zhizhong; Tu, Pengfei (2011-08-24). "Comparison of the chemical constituents of aged pu-erh tea, ...
Total dissolved solids or TDS (sometimes called filtrable residue) is measured as the mass of residue remaining when a measured ... Water contains varying amounts of impurities from contact with the atmosphere, soil, and containers. Manufactured metals tend ... Adsorbable organic halides. *Biochemical oxygen demand. *Chemical oxygen demand. *Coliform index. *Oxygen saturation ... liquids at room temperature and atmospheric pressure allowing efficient heat transfer over distance with low rates of mass ...
Quicklime and hydrated lime can considerably increase the load carrying capacity of clay-containing soils. They do this by ... and organic chemicals.[8] ... Molar mass 56.0774 g/mol Appearance White to pale yellow/brown ...
"The Massachusetts Bioheat Fuel Pilot Program" (PDF). June 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-31.. Prepared for the Massachusetts Executive ... For biomass and organic waste-to-fuel production, see Biomass to liquid. For unmodified vegetable oil used as motor fuel, see ... Jatropha has been cited as a high-yield source of biodiesel but yields are highly dependent on climatic and soil conditions. ... Massachusetts Oil Heat Council (27 February 2008). MA Oilheat Council Endorses BioHeat Mandate Archived May 11, 2008, at the ...
The particles that make up matter have rest mass as well - not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be ... Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, mechanisms, and reactions of organic compounds. An ... the properties of the soil on the moon (astrophysics), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at ... These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon-based) matter ...
c)Depends on soil composition and building material of structures. Cosmic. 0.39. 0.3-1.0d. 0.31. 0.26. 0.30. (d)Generally ... "Did Supernova Explosion Contribute to Earth Mass Extinction?". *^ Long, Marion (25 June 2007). "Sun's Shifts May ... "Energy spectrum and mass compsition of high-energy cosmic ray". Rep. Prog. Phys. (به English). IOP: 1152.. Unknown parameter , ... Possible mass extinction factor. A handful of studies conclude that a nearby supernova or series of supernovas caused the ...
Specific humidity (or moisture content) is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel.[13] ... bright sunshine beating down on saturated soil, the upper Mississippi River valley can on occasion have extreme dew points, and ... Absolute humidity is the total mass of water vapor present in a given volume or mass of air. It does not take temperature into ... As a result, absolute humidity in chemical engineering may refer to mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air, also known as ...
Wheeler GL, Jones MA, Smirnoff N (May 1998). "The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants". Nature. 393 (6683): 365- ... soil condition, climate where it grew, length of time since it was picked, storage conditions, and method of preparation.[70][ ... "Vitamin C Content of Citrus from Conventional versus Organic Farming Systems". Acta Horticulturae. 868 (868): 389-394. doi ... Michels A, Frei B (2012). "Vitamin C". In Caudill MA, Rogers M (eds.). Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of ...
... s' larvae are worm-like with no limbs; they have chewing mouthparts and feed on organic debris left on their host's skin. ... humid places such as sand or soil, cracks and crevices, under carpets and in bedding.[13] ... and the introduction of a suitable host may trigger a mass emergence.[13] ... Flea larvae emerge from the eggs to feed on any available organic material such as dead insects, faeces, conspecific eggs, and ...
Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Soil/Sludges and Solid Wastes Using Thermal Extraction/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ( ... Method 8275A: Semivolatile Organic Compounds (PAHs and PCBs) in Soil/Sludges and Solid Wastes Using Thermal Extraction/Gas ... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (TE/GC/MS), part of Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods (PDF)( ...
NOFA/Mass and Bionutrient Food Association (BFA) are proud to present the fourth annual Soil and Nutrition Conference, a ... 2019 NOFA/Massachusetts NOFA/Mass is a 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent ... Schedule of the 2015 Soil and Nutrition Conference. Day 1:. 8:30am - John Slack - Soil Geology and Mineral Deficiency. 10:00am ... 10:30am - Mark Fulford - Beyond Chemistry: Soil Biology and Soil Cycles. 12:30pm - Lunch. 1:30pm - Bryan OHara - No Till ...
Additionally, increasing soil organic matter (SOM) by applying compost and composted manure, mulching with ligneous materials ... Recently, I was fortunate enough to attend a NOFA/Mass sponsored workshop: Understanding the Water Cycle for Soil, Climate & ... I suggest making use of NOFAs soil tech experts, here to help you interpret what lab results mean for you and your soil and ... The human gut microbiome is very similar to the one in a healthy soil. In the soil, a mycorrhizal cell membrane serves as a ...
The chemical structure of SOM was further analysed at the molecular level through Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry ( ... using soil extracts from two long-term experiments at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. Both one- and two-dimensional NMR ... FABMS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Humic and fulvic extract results were not only compared to each other ... were used for the elucidation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of humic and fulvic acids in the soils. ...
Environmental analysis; Water and soil quality; Organic mass spectrometry; Emerging organic contaminants; Nanomaterials; ... soil contamination; Sorption/desorption of organic contaminants; Bioaccumulation and transformation of organic contaminants in ... Pesticides, soil, water, organic amendments; Adsorption, desorption, degradation, mobility; Soil and water contamination by ... Organic aerosols; Atmospheric chemistry; Isotopes of atmospheric aerosols; Fog water; Ice-core organics; Dissolved organic ...
1 soil) or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g−1 soil) did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in ... hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC)). Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha−1) and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ... we sampled mineral soils (0-15 cm) across the aspen-conifer ecotones in southern and northern Utah and quantified total SOC ... To assess the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and storage in montane aspen- ...
The mass signals extended over the whole mass range recorded (Figure 2(b)). Assignment of marker signals to compound classes ... H. R. Schulten and M. Schnitzer, "Chemical model structures for soil organic matter and soils," Soil Science, vol. 162, no. 2, ... "Thermal stability and composition of mineral-bound organic matter in density fractions of soil," European Journal of Soil ... Relevant sorption occurs to both soil organic matter (SOM) and soil minerals, that is, clay minerals and pedogenic oxides [7, 9 ...
Herein, Alaskan tundra soils from three depths (a fibric O horizon with litter and course roots, an O horizon with decomposing ... Also, microbial community profiles were better predictors of model parameters in deeper soils, which had higher mineral ... The susceptibility of soil organic carbon (SOC) in tundra to microbial decomposition under warmer climate scenarios potentially ... litter and roots, and a mineral-organic mix, laying just above the permafrost) were incubated. Resulting respiration data were ...
In M. Schaffer, L. Ma, & S. Hansen (Eds.), Modeling carbon and nitrogen dynamics for soil management (pp. 303-332). Boca Raton ... Jenkinson, D., & Rayner, J. (1977). The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil ... Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model. European Journal of Soil Science, 58, 658- ... Reproducibility of a soil organic carbon fractionation method to derive Roth C carbon pools. European Journal of Soil Science, ...
Purpose Recent research suggests that Swedish organic arable soils have been under-recognized as a potential source of ... Xu K, Zhang C, Dou X, Ma W, Wang C (2017) Optimizing the modification of wood waste biochar via metal oxides to remove and ... 2.1.1 Organic soils. Two Histosol soils, organic 1 (Fig. 1a; 59° 13′ 20.96″ N, 14° 56′ 36.90″ E) and organic 2 (Fig. 1b; 59° 11 ... 3.3.1 Organic soils. The highest total-P leaching loads were 1.2 kg P ha−1 from organic 2; however, total-P losses from organic ...
Stable isotopic analysis of pyrogenic organic matter in soils by liquid chromatography-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry of ... Stable isotopic analysis of pyrogenic organic matter in soils by liquid chromatography-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry of ... Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and ... Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion ...
Soil health treatments exhibited an overrepresentation of specific microbial taxa which are known to be involved in soil ... Soil health treatments exhibited an overrepresentation of specific microbial taxa which are known to be involved in soil ... organic farming systems had major influence on soil microbial diversity and community composition while the effects of the soil ... organic farming systems had major influence on soil microbial diversity and community composition while the effects of the soil ...
Our gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrumentation are suited for most any applications for food, environmental, ... Volatile Organic Compound Screening in Soil Using SPME-GC/MS Learn More ... Our mass spectrometry solutions are built around proven technology that is designed to meet your growing analytical lab ... Todaylj labs need and want more from their chromatography so many have turned to mass spectrometry for greater insights and ...
Put a layer of mulch around trees and plants to reduce evaporation and keep the soil cool. Organic mulch also improves the soil ... Check the soil moisture levels with a soil probe, spade or large screwdriver. You dont need to water if the soil is still ...® is a registered service mark of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. Mulch also helps control weeds that compete with landscape plants for water. ...
of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Publication Date:. 2016-05-02. Report Number(s):. PNNL-SA-110735. Journal ID: ... Accepted Manuscript: Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation. Title: Airborne soil organic particles ... Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ... We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter ...
Growing strategies which optimize small spaces while building up quality organic soil. $40/Friends of Farm, $45/general public ... 393 Massachusetts Ave, Arlington, MA 781-507-4226 Im a Physical Therapist with 20+ years experience ... Alison Shaw APRN, LMT, CEH 393 Massachusetts Ave Arlington, MA 02474 781-646-0686 [email protected] Your symptoms ... Maum Meditation, 50 Massachusetts Ave, Arlington. 617-272-6358. Run Boston - 10am-12pm. A 5K length group run. Join ...
Camellias prefer a well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In general, most camellias are large, rounded shrubs that reach 9 ... Soil Education and Testing. Soil quality and its use here in Arkansas. ...
Influence of operational parameters on electro-Fenton degradation of organic pollutants from soil. ... Rosales E, Pazos M, Longo MA, Sanroman MA.. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2009 Sep;44(11):1104-10. doi: ... Deive FJ, Álvarez MS, Morán P, Sanromán MA, Longo MA.. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012 Aug;35(6):931-41. doi: 10.1007/s00449-011- ... López E, Deive FJ, Longo MA, Sanromán MA.. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2010 Oct;33(8):929-35. doi: 10.1007/s00449-010-0416-8. Epub ...
carbon sources in soil organic matter, and many others. This software provides the distribution of source proportions which are ... NOTE - Each of the individual solutions represents a combination of source proportions which satisfies isotopic mass balance in ... C4 plant inputs to soil organic carbon, etc. Linear mixing models are used to partition two sources with a single isotopic ... Separate estimates are made of the contributions of each source for total mass and each isotopic element. ...
EPSRC funding on carbon capture by carbonate mineral precipitation in soils.. BBSRC funding on soil organic matter-microbe ... Jorat ME, Goddard MA, Kolosz BW, Sohi SP, Manning DAC. Sustainable urban carbon capture: Engineering soils for climate change ( ... Use of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry to characterize modelable soil organic matter fractions. Soil Science ... Jorat ME, Goddard MA, Kolosz BW, Sohi S, Manning DAC. Sustainable Urban Carbon Capture: Engineering Soils for Climate Change ( ...
13C NMR and mass spectrometry of soil organic matter By: Galya Ivanova and Edward Randall ...
Crop residue mass needed to maintain soil organic carbon levels: Can it be determined? -(Peer Reviewed Journal) Johnson, J.M., ... Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Minnesota soil as related to nitrogen, tillage, residue and nitrogen management. Soil & ... Crop residue mass needed to maintain soil organic carbon levels: Can it be determined? BioEnergy Research. DOI: 10.1007/s12155- ... SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN IN A MINNESOTA SOIL AS RELATED TO NITROGEN, TILLAGE, RESIDUE AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT-(Peer ...
pyrolysis mass spectroscopy, soil organic carbon, forest soils, rapid soil analysis, disturbance ... The components of soil organic matter (SOM) and their degradation dynamics in forest soils are difficult to study and thus ... As a result, changes in soil organic matter chemical composition as a function of age, forest type, or disturbance.... . ... Use of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) to characterize forest soil carbon: method and preliminary results ...
has developed a proven selection of potting soil mixes for seed starting, houseplants, container gardens and elevated planters. ... Eleanor M , Arlington MA , Sep 2017 * "Gardeners Supply is the best!!! Thank you for your wonderful products and great service ... Soil Acidifier, 6 Lbs. Description:. Soil Acidifier Helps You Lower Soil pH and Correct Alkaline Soils for Acid-Loving Plants. ... Garden Supplies Soils & Fertilizers Potting Soil Mixes Refined by By Price Under $20 x ...
2015) Formation of soil organic matter via biochemical and physical pathways of litter mass loss. Nat Geosci 8:776-779. ... framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: Do labile plant inputs form stable soil ... 2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277-280. ... 2000) Litter decomposition and organic matter turnover in northern forest soils. For Ecol Manage 133:13-22. ...
Ladd JN (1985). "Soil enzymes". In Vaughan D, Malcolm RE (eds.). Soil Organic Matter and Biological Activity. Developments in ... doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5105-1_6. ISBN 978-94-010-8757-5. Tabatabai MA (1994). "Chapter 37: Soil Enzymes". Methods of Soil ... They are excreted by soil microbes such as fungi, bacteria and archaea, and play a key role in decomposing soil organic matter ... Das SK, Varma A (2010). "Role of Enzymes in Maintaining Soil Health.". In Shukla G, Varma A (eds.). Soil Enzymology. Soil ...
amount of soil organic matter (annual) *mass of woody components (annual) *deposition of nutrients, such as nitrogen, ... use of stable isotopes in studies of processes, such as photosynthesis and decomposition of soil organic matter ... profiles of CO2, O3, SO2, NO, NO2, and N2O in atmosphere and soil ... monitoring of nutrient, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potasium and calcium, and H+ concentrations in soil water ...
Our Vermont-made potting soil contains nutrient-rich compost for energy, and sphagnum peat moss and vermiculite for aeration ... Comments about Organic Container Mix, 20 Qts.:. I like this organic dirt. It has a nice rich mix. I started a fall organic ... Comments about Organic Container Mix, 20 Qts.:. We purchased the 2x8 cedar raised bed and ordered the soil to fill. We are ... Organic Potting Mix, 20 Qts.. Details. ...
The use of organic wastes for soil-covering of vineyards / P. Varga and J. Májer --. Assessment of wine quality in the ... The use of organic wastes for soil-covering of vineyards / P. Varga and J. Májer -- Assessment of wine quality in the vineyard ... Soil and climatic influence on the free and glycosidically bound volatiles of grapes from two white varieties from Vinhos ... Albariño, grown in the Galician Region, Spain / M. Gil, Ma. L. Gil, E. Fernández and J. Pita --. Colour of Temparanillo ...
  • 1) Innovative use of sorbents for water treatment and the in-situ restoration of contaminated soils and sediments. (
  • I have led the ab initio development of new modelling tools to support the use of carbonaceous sorbents for the in-situ restoration of polluted soils and sediments. (
  • It provides the reader with the essentials of concentration, speciation and reactivity of elements in soils, waters, sediments and air, drawing attention to both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. (
  • Fractionation of copper and uranium in organic and conventional vineyard soils and adjacent stream sediments studied by sequential extraction. (
  • Contaminant diffusion in sediments, soil and waste materials. (
  • Liquid state, high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the composition and structure of soil organic matter (SOM) using soil extracts from two long-term experiments at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. (
  • The chemical structure of SOM was further analysed at the molecular level through Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FABMS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Humic and fulvic extract results were not only compared to each other, but also to the solid state 13C NMR results for the complete soil sample. (
  • Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). (
  • Todaylj labs need and want more from their chromatography so many have turned to mass spectrometry for greater insights and precise data. (
  • Our mass spectrometry solutions are built around proven technology that is designed to meet your growing analytical lab requirements. (
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is a method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. (
  • An international workshop on European On-line Particle Mass Spectrometry (PMS) was held 29th-30th of November 2005 at the JRC in Ispra, Italy. (
  • Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry - Catch the Excitement! (
  • Interest in ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) technology is growing rapidly. (
  • Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). which is a very sensitive method for real-time gas analysis, has become a widespread technology in the food and flavor research area for over more than 15 years [1]. (
  • What's the big deal about ion mobility mass spectrometry? (
  • Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a technique that differentiates ions based on their size, shape, charge, and mass. (
  • Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News and Waters recently conducted a webinar on how hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) can improve biotherapeutic drug discovery and development processes. (
  • Quantitative Analysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Microplastics in Soil via Thermogravimetry-Mass Spectrometry. (
  • In: Boutton TW, Yamasaki SI (eds) Mass spectrometry of soils. (
  • Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry from various oceanic water masses isolated by coupled reverse osmosis-electrodialysis. (
  • Quantitative Analysis of Long Chain Fatty Acids Present in a Type I Kerogen Using Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. (
  • The VOC formation of Arabidopsis roots was analyzed using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), a new technology that allows rapid and real time analysis of most biogenic VOCs without preconcentration or chromatography. (
  • This can be overcome by investigating either separated natural soil constituents such as humic acid or polymers from well-defined phenolic compounds, representing specific sites and functionalities of humic substances that can serve as models to elucidate modes of binding [ 13 ]. (
  • In addition, our NMR analyses revealed a post-fire increase in both the aryl and O-aryl carbon compounds in the soils from the depositional landform position, indicating increases in soil PyC concentrations post-fire. (
  • Kim, Kwang 2017-08-10 00:00:00 Because of their adverse effects, such as their toxicity and carcinogenicity, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most important and common pollutants produced by urbanization and industrial processes that contaminate air and water streams. (
  • We found that the organic farms had strawberries with longer shelf life, greater dry matter, and higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, but lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium. (
  • Because lignin and cellulose are more recalcitrant forms of C in plant tissue than arc soluble C compounds (sugars, organic acids, proteins), a high content of lignin and cellulose slows down decomposition process (Gunnarsson and Marstorp 2002). (
  • Such compounds can be precipitated in the soil B-horizon by the podsolization process. (
  • The text concludes with a case study of surface water and groundwater contamination that includes interactions and reactions of naturally-derived inorganic substances and introduced organic compounds (fuels and solvents), and illustrates the importance of interdisciplinary analysis in environmental geochemistry. (
  • Biodegradation and photooxidation of phenolic compounds in soil A compound-specific stable isotope approach. (
  • Although some characterization of root exudates has been achieved, especially of secondary metabolites and proteins, much less is known about volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by roots. (
  • Root exudates include low M r compounds like amino acids, organic acids, sugars, phenolics, and various secondary metabolites and high M r compounds like mucilage and proteins ( Roshina and Roshina, 1993 ). (
  • much less is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by roots. (
  • Moreover, the practical application to bioremediation process that natural detoxify PAHs and different organic compounds present at various contaminated sites is at slower rates and thus requires potential understanding in degradation improvement. (
  • To that end, the latest publications of microextraction techniques for a selection of regulated compound classes (chlorophenols (CPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, short-chained chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) are compared. (
  • Therefore, a robust methodology for the determination of sorbent properties for non-ionic organic compounds by HDPE is relevant for the understanding of molecular interactions for both technical use and environmental risk assessment. (
  • The refractory organic fraction was enriched in aliphatic compounds and did not greatly interact with the kaolinite, smectite or poorly crystalline Fe or Al phases. (
  • The stabilisation of organic matter in the soils has, therefore, two main mechanisms: 1) the protection of labile (oxidisable with H2O2) organic matter, including also aromatic-rich compounds such as charcoal, by the formation of aggregates with oxyhydroxides and kaolinite and 2) the formation of a refractory fraction enriched in aliphatic compounds. (
  • Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. (
  • Organic compounds. (
  • The degradation of specific organic compounds with landfill leachate as a primary substrate. (
  • The value of a soil transport model, based on partitioning, for describing the behaviour of organic compounds in the unsaturated zone of the soil. (
  • Conventional methods for analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, soil, and wat. (
  • The term organic does not necessarily mean "living" rather, it refers to all carbon-containing compounds other than oxides, such as carbon dioxide , and carbonates, which are often found in Earth's rocks. (
  • We also found the organically farmed soils to have more total carbon and nitrogen, greater microbial biomass and activity, and higher concentrations of micronutrients. (
  • Organically farmed soils also exhibited greater numbers of endemic genes and greater functional gene abundance and diversity for several biogeochemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and pesticide degradation. (
  • Loss of soil organic matter has resulted in lower nitrogen and sulphur reserves, but not necessarily lower phosphorus reserves. (
  • We discuss how these complementary methods have been employed to monitor SOM responses to: soil warming in a temperate forest, elevated atmospheric CO 2 and nitrogen fertilization in a temperate forest, and permafrost thawing in the Canadian High Arctic. (
  • Evaluating the mechanisms of the impacts of key factors on soil soluble organic nitrogen concentrations in subtropical mountain ecosystems. (
  • For the identification of the main mineralization products, two approaches for the determination of nitrogen mass balances were evaluated. (
  • The first approach was based on a combination of total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen bound (TNb). (
  • The presented methods are applicable for the determination of nitrogen mass balances in lab-scale studies, as well as for the monitoring of mineralization products in field applications. (
  • Using CT imaging, significant positive nitrogen fertilization effects on the wet masses of the coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat, and the abundance and diameter of rhizomes were measured in the mineral soils. (
  • Likewise, it can be added to compost to add organic nutrients and nitrogen. (
  • John Slack - Soil GeoChemistry and Mineral Deficiency, Crop Health, and Strategies for Scientific Remineralization. (
  • 1) Greater understanding of mineral balancing and trace mineral requirements in the soil, plant, animal, and human. (
  • From the evidence it is the mycorrhizal membranes that dominate in the selective 'intelligent' active transport of essential mineral ions and exclusion of toxic ions from soil surfaces into the cytoplasm of the fungus and from there to the cytoplasm of the plant cells and into us via our food," shared Walter Jehne. (
  • Herein, Alaskan tundra soils from three depths (a fibric O horizon with litter and course roots, an O horizon with decomposing litter and roots, and a mineral-organic mix, laying just above the permafrost) were incubated. (
  • Also, microbial community profiles were better predictors of model parameters in deeper soils, which had higher mineral contents and relatively greater quantities of old SOC than in surface soils. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare P losses through leaching from organic and high-fertility mineral soils. (
  • The findings of this study indicate that P leached from organic arable soils can be greater than from mineral soils, and therefore, these organic soils require further investigation into reducing their P losses. (
  • Metal-enriched biochar, applied as an adsorptive layer below the topsoil, has the potential to reduce P losses from medium- to high-P organic soils but appear to be less useful in mineral soils. (
  • By training I'm a geologist (specialising in geochemistry and mineralogy), bringing skills from that area to the field of soil science whilst maintaining activity in mineral raw materials, energy and waste management. (
  • Podzols are one of the most common soil types in well drained mineral soils of the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • In soils from four sites spanning three soil orders, we quantified the amount of Fe and Al in operationally-defined poorly crystalline and organically-complexed phases using selective chemical dissolution applied to the soil fraction containing mineral-associated carbon. (
  • Soil is an aggregate of mineral grains or organic material that can be separated by gentle means such as agitation in water. (
  • Plutonium Immobilization and Re-mobilization by Sedimentary Mineral-Organic Matter Matrix in the Far-field of the Savannah River Site. (
  • Total organic matter is determined by heating dried and ground soil in a muffle furnace to a temperature where the organic matter burns off, leaving the mineral component of the soil. (
  • Computed tomography (CT) imaging, for the first time, is used to successfully quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. (
  • Significant regression relationships were found between the CT-determined wet mass of the coarse roots and rhizomes and the hand-sieved dry mass of the coarse roots and rhizomes in both the organic-rich and mineral marsh soils. (
  • There was also a significant relationship between the soil percent organic matter and the CT-determined peat particle density among organic-rich and mineral soils. (
  • To better understand the role of erosion in post-fire soil carbon dynamics, we determined distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different chemical fractions before and after the Gondola fire in South Lake Tahoe, CA. We analyzed soil samples from eroding and depositional landform positions in control and burned plots pre- and post-wildfire (in 2002, 2003, and 10-years post-fire in 2013). (
  • We combined the MIR and CPMAS 13 C-NMR data in the Soil Carbon Research Program (SCaRP) partial least squares regression model to predict distribution of soil carbon into three different fractions: (1) particulate, humic, and resistant OM fractions representing relatively fresh larger pieces of OM, (2) fine, decomposed OM, and (3) pyrogenic C, respectively. (
  • The depositional samples, however, had increased concentrations of all SOC fractions, particularly the fraction that resembles PyC, 1 year post-fire (2002), which had a mean of 160 g/kg compared with burned hillslope soils, which had 84 g/kg. (
  • The contribution of various organic matter fractions to soil-water interactions and structural stability of an agriculturally cultivated soil. (
  • Surprisingly, smectite did not contribute to the stabilisation of any of the organic C fractions. (
  • Many studies that assessed the influences of climate variables on tundra SOC loss focused on soil temperature and moisture and utilized only respiration and total soil microbial biomass data, which do not reflect underlying microbial community compositions and functions associated with SOC decomposition [ 13 , 14 ]. (
  • 2013), indicating that incorporation of high N-containing biomass facilitates [N.sub.2]O emission from paddy soils (Kim et al. (
  • This data set reports (1) total aboveground dry biomass based on detailed estimates of all live and dead plant material, (2) results from repeated surveys of aboveground biomass allowing the calculation of above-ground productivity, and (3) soil chemical and physical characteristics for 50 1- ha plots of undisturbed and fragmented central Amazonian rainforest within the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) study area. (
  • Maize grain and straw biomass were positively and significantly correlated with soil δ 13 C, TOC, C renewal , SOC maize , MDC and MBC. (
  • L-arginine ammonification was measured to estimate soil microbial biomass by ATPase, whilst soil enzyme associated with the degradation rate of each individual PAH was studied. (
  • Here we analyse the current terrestrial carbon balance of China and its driving mechanisms during the 1980s and 1990s using three different methods: biomass and soil carbon inventories extrapolated by satellite greenness measurements, ecosystem models and atmospheric inversions. (
  • Less attention is often paid to the effect of forest management and changes in species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and dynamics. (
  • These molecular-level methods allow some novel and important observations of soil dynamics and ecosystem function in a changing climate. (
  • Angers DA, Voroney RP, Côté D (1995) Dynamics of soil organic matter and corn residues as affected by tillage practices. (
  • Balesdent J, Mariotti A, Guillet B (1987) Natural 13 C abundance as a tracer for studies of soil organic matter dynamics. (
  • Dynamics of dissolved organic matter. (
  • Understanding the Water Cycle for Soil, Climate & Life , taught by Walter Jehne. (
  • SOC storage at the landscape scale is determined by the interaction of climate, soil properties, vegetation, relief, land use history, disturbance regime and the chemical composition of soil organic matter [ 5 ]. (
  • The susceptibility of soil organic carbon (SOC) in tundra to microbial decomposition under warmer climate scenarios potentially threatens a massive positive feedback to climate change, but the underlying mechanisms of stable SOC decomposition remain elusive. (
  • Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate 1 , public health 2 , air quality 3 , and hydrological and carbon cycles 4 . (
  • I'm interested in how soils and plants interact in response to climate change, and how we can exploit soil processes to minimise the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The organic matter content of soils is determined mainly by climate (rainfall and temperature), vegetation cover and, to a lesser extent, by topography, parent material and time. (
  • As the most pronounced climate changes are predicted to occur in northern regions, the focus of our study was on a poorly podzolized soil in Neiden, Finnmark County, Norway. (
  • The benefits of soil are often little-known, but soils actually store more carbon than the atmosphere and all of the world's plants and forests combined, making it one of our most important weapons in the fight against climate change. (
  • The rhythms of nature-the atmosphere, the soil carbon cycle, the water cycle and the climate-are unraveling. (
  • The negotiators and heads of state at the December 2009 Copenhagen Climate negotiations abandoned the summit with literally no agreement on meaningful greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) reduction, and little or no acknowledgement of the major role that industrial (non-organic) food and farming practices play in global warming. (
  • The balance between C input, primarily as litter or rhizodeposition, and C output via soil respiration determines whether forest soils are C sources or sinks [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Increasing microbial carbon use efficiency with warming predicts soil heterotrophic respiration globally. (
  • Cross-biome patterns in soil microbial respiration predictable from evolutionary theory on thermal adaptation. (
  • Soil microbial respiration adapts to ambient temperature in global drylands. (
  • Fertilization also increased soil CO 2 emission (including root respiration and SOC original decomposition), while the SOC original decomposition during the maize growing season only amounted to 74.0-93.4 and 33.5-46.1% of SOC maize and MDC among the treatments, respectively. (
  • Andrews JA, Harrison KG, Matamala R, Schlesinger WH (1999) Separation of root respiration from total soil respiration using carbon-13 labeling during free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). (
  • Respiration, or oxygen used, by soil microbes to decompose organic matter or any crop residues as a food and energy source and released as carbon dioxide into the soil atmosphere. (
  • Soil respiration is a direct and sensitive assessment of soil antecedent biological activity. (
  • Over the past decades, anthropogenic alteration of soils by the increased use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and land conversion in order to increase food production is causing unprecedented changes in biodiversity, and thus, rising concern on the sustainability of intensive farming systems. (
  • Home Indoor Garden Seed Starting Supplies Soils & Fertilizers for Seeds Organic Potting Mix, 20 Qts. (
  • Fertilizers that include ingredients like sewage sludge or urea, which are not acceptable under organic standards for agriculture or land care, sometimes are labeled "organic" under the "organic chemistry" definition. (
  • In part strong desorption hysteresis and rapid formation of non-extractable residues were reported [ 11 , 12 ] that indicates reaching of an energetically favorable status and inclusion of sulfonamides in voids of soil sorbents. (
  • Three of the most important reasons consumers purchase organic foods are health benefits (i.e., less pesticide residues and greater nutrition), taste, and environmentally friendly farming practices, such as those that promote soil health [3] . (
  • They can remove organic soils, scale, and other inorganic residues. (
  • Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. (
  • Because galled roots have only limited ability to absorb and transport water and nutrients to the rest of the plant, severely infected plants may wilt even in the presence of sufficient soil moisture, especially during the afternoon. (
  • Astilbe thrive best with light shade, steady moisture, good drainage, and plentiful organic matter. (
  • Thrives in organically rich, moisture retentive soils which periodically can be enhanced with a dressing of leaf mold or compost. (
  • Prefers part shade to full shade, and organic, moisture retentive soil, but is tolerant of poorer and dry soils. (
  • They prefer organic soils with steady moisture in shady areas. (
  • This grass is a slow spreading, clump-forming perennial that prefers organic, moisture retentive soil. (
  • Hellebores grow best in a well drained soil with good organic matter, adequate moisture, in part to light shade, but they will also grow and bloom in less than ideal conditions. (
  • ECM defines the extent and concentrations of chlorinated solvent contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their breakdown products in soil and groundwater. (
  • Peroxydisulfate (S 2 O 8 2− ) is widely applied in environmental remediation and water treatment as an agent for the unselective oxidation of organic contaminants. (
  • The mechanism of degradation for many organic contaminants by sulfate radicals is well studied, but the final mineralization products are not commonly evaluated. (
  • Bacteria are active in the soil for decomposing organic matter, recycling nutrients, and detoxification of contaminants. (
  • His research addresses management of persistent organic contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern in natural systems that are engineered to improve water quality and protect the environment and human health. (
  • Behaviour of organic contaminants in soil. (
  • Fera Science Ltd, (Principal Investigator), Developing methodologies to understand the degradation and adsorption of macromolecule biopesticides in soil (IAFRI studentship). (
  • A greater number of studies have addressed the degradation of soil organic matter that is associated with arable crop production than the restoration. (
  • Understanding the changes in SOM in Brazilian savanna as a result of land use and management can provide information on soil degradation. (
  • Soil microorganism plays a vital role in degradation of PAHs and uses various metabolic pathways for degradation process. (
  • The effect of soil pH on degradation of PAH with a view to manipulating soil pH to enhance the bioremediation of PAH's was studied. (
  • The degradation rate of key PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, flouranthene, and pyrene) was monitored in an Arthur Brower's topsoil at range of soil pH (5-8). (
  • It was observed that soil pH 7.5 was most suitable for the degradation of all the PAHs. (
  • 50% degradation was observed in soil pH 7.5 within first three days of time period which is a seventh of the time taken at pH 5 and pH 6.5 (21 days). (
  • However, amending the favorable soil pH as a result of its effect obtained in this study will fasten the rates of PAH degradation. (
  • Since, greatest degradation rates in this study were found at soil pH 7.5 suggesting that liming to increase soil pH, may significantly increase bioremediation rates. (
  • It has been suggested that optimal soil conditions and their maintenance regulates the survival of micro-organisms providing higher degradation rates [ 5 ]. (
  • Along with adding minerals and increasing SOM, you can introduce soil microorganisms from a healthy soil. (
  • Our results provide a comprehensive survey on the response of microbial communities to different agricultural systems and to soil treatments for controlling plant pathogens and give novel insights to improve the sustainability of agro-ecosystems by means of beneficial microorganisms. (
  • It has been proved that soil microorganisms are far more sensitive to pollution than soil, animals, or plants [ 12 - 14 ], with the evidence that the microorganisms in oil-contaminated soil are obviously different from those in background soil [ 15 , 16 ]. (
  • These soil microorganisms generally resemble fungi and have branched mycelium. (
  • The portion of total soil organic carbon (matter) that is relatively easily metabolized or utilized by microorganisms. (
  • Amazonian forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle, but there is much uncertainty about the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in these forests and soils. (
  • The removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (such as oceans, forests or soils) through physical or biological processes, such as photosynthesis. (
  • This was attributed to surface complexation, rate-limiting intra-particle diffusion processes and entrapment of sulfonamides in voids of organic matter. (
  • Mass finishing is a group of manufacturing processes that allow large quantities of parts to be simultaneously finished. (
  • Mass finishing processes can be configured as either batch systems, in which batches of workpieces are added, run, and removed before the next batch is run, or as continuous systems, in which the workpieces enter at one end and leave at the other end in the finished state. (
  • Due to the random action of the processes, mass finishing is as much an art as it is a science. (
  • Opting for organic flowers means avoiding plants that have been grown through intensive processes which exhaust and erode the soil. (
  • In order to investigate the effect of various environmental soil microbiological and biochemical processes, many researchers have used soil ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and ATP related estimates [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • The relationship and mechanisms among weathering processes, cation fluxes, clay mineralogy, organic matter composition and stability were studied in soils developing on basaltic material in southern Italy (Sicily). (
  • The stability of organic matter was investigated with a H2O2-treatment that assumes that chemical oxidation mimics the natural oxidative processes. (
  • The term mass wasting (sometimes called mass movement) encompasses a broad array of processes whereby earth material is transported down a slope by the force of gravity. (
  • Thus, mass wasting is related most closely to the realm of geomorphology, a branch of physical geology concerned with the study of landforms, with the forces and processes that have shaped them, and with the description and classification of various physical features on Earth. (
  • Though plate tectonics (which involves the movement of giant plates beneath the earth's surface) can influence mass wasting, plate tectonics entails interior processes that humans usually witness only indirectly, by seeing their effects. (
  • There are three general processes whereby a piece of earth material can be moved from a high outcropping to the sea: weathering, mass wasting, or erosion. (
  • Supposing that a rock has been broken apart by weathering, it may be moved further by mass-wasting processes, such as creep or fall. (
  • Bacteria play a role in the decomposition of organic matter and other chemical processes. (
  • Soils store two thirds of total C in terrestrial ecosystems [ 1 ], which is equivalent to 1400-1500 Pg C in the first meter [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial diversity and composition to organic and conventional farming systems and to alternative methods for controlling plant pathogens. (
  • One of the goals of sustainable agriculture is to work with the natural cycles of the terrestrial ecosystems, especially with the soil biology to enhance the efficiency of agricultural management practices. (
  • How does surface soil geomorphology and land-use influence the soil microbial ecosystems in south eastern Australia? (
  • 2009 ), with an estimated average of 0.4 kg P ha year −1 leached from Sweden's agricultural soils (Bergström et al. (
  • Previous studies have clearly shown substantial increases of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils of Yellow River reaches. (
  • Recent research suggests that Swedish organic arable soils have been under-recognized as a potential source of phosphorus (P) loading to water bodies. (
  • Phosphorus leaching was measured from four medium- to high-P arable soils, two Typic Haplosaprists (organic 1 and 2), a Typic Hapludalf (sand), and an unclassified loam textured soil (loam), in a 17-month field study utilizing 90-cm-long lysimeters. (
  • 2015 ). However, organic soils are desirable arable soils, especially for root vegetable production, due to the ease of cultivation and harvest. (
  • In this second part of the review, the impact of arable crop production on soil organic matter is addressed. (
  • Although much is known about how arable crop production affects changes in soil organic matter, there are still uncertainties about the best management practices to maintain and even restore organic matter in degraded cropland. (
  • High soil-P concentrations combined with low sorption capacity (Daly et al. (
  • We determined elemental concentrations, stable isotope compositions, and biochemical composition of organic matter (OM) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for all of the samples. (
  • different DOC concentrations (0-129 mg C L-1) to ten field replicates of the poorly podzolized soil. (
  • In a healthy soil with a well-established network of mycrohizal fungal mycelium working symbiotically with green plants, nutrients are located and absorbed by the mycelium and transported into the plant. (
  • Leave grass clippings on lawn to shade and return nutrients to soil. (
  • They are excreted by soil microbes such as fungi, bacteria and archaea, and play a key role in decomposing soil organic matter into humus, in the process releasing nutrients essential for the growth of plants. (
  • Some soil enzymes such as ureases may be inhibited by ingredients in fertiliser to delay release of the nutrients over an extended period. (
  • Use a slow-release or organic fertilizer to replace or add nutrients that encourage growth and improve stress, disease and insect resistance. (
  • Also, when working in a greenhouse , it is important to keep the soil very alive and full of nutrients because there is on 18" of soil there in an box which is isolated from the outdoors. (
  • It is a valuable resource because it contains the organic matter and nutrients necessary for plant growth. (
  • Plants also may exhibit nutrient deficiency symptoms because of their reduced ability to absorb and transport nutrients from the soil. (
  • Eventually, mycorrhizal hyphae, bacteria and plant roots will become established in healthy soil and then be able to mine the subsoil and bedrock for necessary minerals, making them bio-available to your plants, thus your external inputs will decrease over time. (
  • Feed them, and they'll feed your plants, says Mike Serant , chairman of the Organic Horticulture Business Alliance , a group that encourages environmentally conscious practices. (
  • The main thing that I would suggest is that whatever soil you are planting directly into (i.e. the "top" soil) be very active and alive if you want the plants to do well. (
  • Cultivation and other practices that physically move soil and plants will rapidly spread root-knot nematodes. (
  • When planted in mass, these superb plants create a fantastic ground cover. (
  • On the receiving soils, the toxic components in oil sludge may cause nutrient deficiency or limit the growth of seed and plants [ 6 ]. (
  • Rhizosphere stoichiometry: Are C:N:P ratios of plants, soils, and enzymes conserved at the plant species-level? (
  • Soil is used in agriculture, where it is the primary nutrient base for plants. (
  • Soil is also a restricting factor as to which plants can grow in a specific environment. (
  • Soil pH however, is vital to plants for it can affect its growth. (
  • Various plants can adapt to acidic or basic soil but the usual soil pH needed and adapted by plants is 6.0 - 7.0. (
  • Chromite is also said to be present in the soil, where it has some hazardous effects not only in the soil and plants but most especially to human health. (
  • There is no significant mean effect of Soil Acidity to plants' growth. (
  • Bacteria are a major group of micro-organisms that live in soil, water, plants, organic matter, or the bodies of animals or people. (
  • article{osti_1366910, title = {Association with pedogenic iron and aluminum: effects on soil organic carbon storage and stability in four temperate forest soils}, author = {Porras, Rachel C. and Hicks Pries, Caitlin E. and McFarlane, Karis J. and Hanson, Paul J. and Torn, Margaret S.}, abstractNote = {Soil organic carbon (SOC) can be stabilized via association with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) minerals. (
  • Relevant sorption occurs to both soil organic matter (SOM) and soil minerals, that is, clay minerals and pedogenic oxides [ 7 , 9 ]. (
  • This study allows optimisation of the electrokinetic method for application in the electroconsolidation of clay soils. (
  • Topsoil contains three types of soil particles: sand, silt and clay. (
  • The principal soil types are clay, silt (fine soils), sand, gravel (coarse soils), cobble and boulder (very coarse soils). (
  • Discontinuities affect the mass strength of some soils, primarily clay and silt. (
  • The good correlation between oxyhydroxides and kaolinite in the soils suggests that (macro)aggregates have formed due to physical or electrostatic interactions between the 1:1 clay minerals and oxides. (
  • No correlation between clay content and organic matter (labile or stable fraction) was found. (
  • Primary soil particles (sand, silt, and clay) held together in a single mass or cluster, such as a crumb, block, prism or clod using organic matter as cementing material. (
  • Soils that are heavy textured (clay), compacted, wet or flooded tend to be anaerobic because they have less oxygenated air to carry out oxidative reactions. (
  • Understanding the terms defined in this fact sheet will help farmers understand relationships between tillage, crop rotation, cover crops, carbon sequestration, organic matter pool, agricultural sustainability, and soil and water quality. (
  • Have agronomic field trials provided sufficient data to predict soil carbon sequestration rates? (
  • Thus, we found, at this site, that both fire and erosion exert significant influence on the distribution of PyC throughout a landscape and its long-term fate in the soil system. (
  • It also resulted in a decline of water stable aggregates which are essential in the prevention of soil erosion. (
  • 2008), reduces soil erosion (Sparovek and Schnug, 2001) and increases sugarcane yield (Trivelin et al. (
  • As for the relationships between erosion, weathering, and mass wasting, the lines are not clearly drawn. (
  • Some authors treat weathering and mass wasting as varieties of erosion, and some apply a strict definition of erosion as resulting only from flowing media. (
  • Weathering, mass wasting, and erosion also can be viewed as stages in a process, as described in the preceding paragraph. (
  • The soil was silt loam in texture and classified as typic Haplaquents (Pramanik et al. (
  • There are bazillions of hungry microbes in the soil. (
  • Participate in the discussions to further enhance your understanding of creating healthy, vibrant soils and resilient crops of higher quality. (
  • I've been writing about cover crops (CC) and no-till in detail for the past few months and the importance of these two techniques in maintaining and increasing the health of our garden soil. (
  • In general, Chinese milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus) or hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), as leguminous cover crops, and rye (Secale cerealis) or barley (Hordeum vulgare) as non-leguminous cover crops, are cultivated in paddy soils (Kim et al. (
  • 2007). The incorporation of cover crops as green manure improves soil organic matter content and minimises the chemical fertiliser requirement (Elfstrand et al. (
  • Organic farming instead relies on natural methods to control pests and disease, such as well-designed crop rotations, encouraging the natural predators of common pests, and developing healthy crops that have a natural resistance to pests and diseases. (
  • The increasing use of conservation tillage, no-till, and cover crops is changing the way we view the soil and the environment. (
  • However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles 5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models 6 . (
  • Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. (
  • We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. (
  • Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. (
  • Soil structure refers to the arrangement of particles in the topsoil. (
  • Soil aggregates are usually greater than ten millimeters in diameter and formed by natural forces (such as alternate wetting-drying) and organic substances derived from root exudates, roots, soil animals and microbial by-products which cement primary particles into smaller aggregates or smaller aggregates into larger particles, such as macroaggregates. (
  • Restoration of soil organic matter has been very slow upon the introduction of conservational practices like zero tillage, minimal tillage, or mulch tillage. (
  • Evaluating the straw decomposition dynamic is essential to understand the potential effects of straw removal and management practices on the soil and plant growth. (
  • The present study revealed that sustainable straw removal associated with optimum management practices (organic amendments and no-till) decreased the straw decomposition rate, thereby favouring soil conservation in sugar cane fields in Brazil. (
  • Organically managed system increased taxonomic and phylogenetic richness, diversity and heterogeneity of the soil microbiota when compared with conventional farming system. (
  • For example, in the United States, which ranks fourth in organically farmed land globally [1] , organic food sales have increased by almost a factor of six, from $3.6 billion in 1997 to $21.1 billion in 2008 (or more than 3 percent of total U.S. food sales) [2] . (
  • Soil Organic Matter and Biological Activity. (
  • Organic matter is of great importance in soil, because it impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (
  • Biodegradation is the chemical dissolving of organic and nonorganic pollutants by use of micro-organisms or other biological agents [ 1 ]. (
  • A high BR generally indicates higher soil microbial activity, however, not biological efficiency. (
  • 1999), increases soil biological activity (Souza et al. (
  • Soil is one of the most complicated biological materials on our planet. (
  • Correlations between chemical and biological evaluation procedures for the determination of heavy metal availability from soils. (
  • In this study we assessed the microbial community structure, diversity and richness using 16S rRNA gene next generation sequences and report that conventional and organic farming systems had major influence on soil microbial diversity and community composition while the effects of the soil health treatments (sustainable alternatives for chemical control) in both farming systems were of smaller magnitude. (
  • Those soils did not receive organic fertilizer input, but did receive chemical fertilizer inputs. (
  • Results revealed that aged oil sludge significantly changed physical and chemical properties of the receiving soil and increased the contents of main pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in soil. (
  • Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of minerals constituents of variable thickness, which differ from the parent material in their morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics. (
  • Effects of Organic Fertilization and Chemical Fertilization on Root Growth, Soil Fertility and Yield Component of Field-Grown Rice for 26 Years. (
  • Within a gravity well, such as launching from Earth using a chemical rocket, all the reaction mass is sub-orbital - ranging from about -1/2 orbital velocity to +1/2 orbital velocity depending on the vehicle velocity. (
  • Influence of sorption and chemical reactions on transport of soil pollutants (heavy metals). (
  • The following document describes the thermal extraction capillary (TE/GC/MS) procedure for the rapid quantitative determination of targeted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils, sludges and solid wastes. (
  • Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. (
  • 2001 ) can increase the leaching potential of phosphate, which is often the most common form of P lost from organic soils (Riddle et al. (
  • The reported data are plot-level summaries based on plant and soil samples and measurements obtained over the 1997 to 2001 timeframe. (
  • Amundson R (2001) The carbon budget in soils. (
  • In a 3-year field experiment, crop residue incorporation and inorganic K fertilisation had similar effects on soil K pools and balance depending on initial soil K level and actual K input. (
  • Chapter 33: Role of Soil Enzymes in Sustainable Crop Production. (
  • Organic flower farming builds soil fertility naturally, using composting techniques and crop rotation, reducing our dependence on non-renewable and energy-intensive artificial fertilisers that cause further detriment to the environment. (
  • 3) groups, obtained by the Distortionless Enhancement by Polarisation Transfer (DEPT) technique, were used for the elucidation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of humic and fulvic acids in the soils. (
  • The composition of microbial communities, but not the diversity nor heterogeneity, were altered by soil health treatments. (
  • Depletion of soil organic matter coincided with changes in the composition of amino sugars, amino acids and lignin. (
  • The absorption of parts of the non-visible light spectrum has been used to identify differences in soil carbon composition, important for farming, environmental management, and carbon dioxide emissions modelling. (
  • This analysis can now be applied to the unique soils of Papua New Guinea and broaden understanding of tropical soil composition. (
  • Sorption of the sulfonamide antibiotics sulfanilamide, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfapyridine to model soil organic matter was investigated. (
  • Hence, their soil sorption behavior deviates from that of well-studied hydrophobic organic pollutants. (
  • However, sorption chemistry is not easily characterized using complex and heterogeneous natural sorbents such as soil. (
  • Macropore flow, humic matter competition for sorption sites, and fewer sorption sites likely caused higher P losses from the organic soils. (
  • Formation of Water Molecule Bridges Governs Water Sorption Mechanisms in Soil Organic Matter. (
  • With a better understanding of the sorption properties of synthetic polymers, environmental risk assessment would achieve a higher degree of accuracy, especially for microplastic interactions with organic substances. (
  • Use of the Langmuir isotherm to description of Zn sorption by some Polish soils. (
  • It was also applied as a 3-cm layer, 27 cm below the soil surface of the same lysimeters and examined as a mitigation measure to reduce P leaching. (
  • 0.05), 51% (NS), and 30% (NS) reduction in phosphate-P from the organic 1, organic 2, and sand, respectively, while P leaching increased by 230% (NS) from the loam. (
  • Comparison of leaching behaviour and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils and soils cleaned up with several extractive and thermal methods. (
  • Mark Fulford - Revitalizing Pasture Land, and Beyond Chemistry: Soil Biology and Soil Cycles. (
  • Additional to experimental evidence, computational chemistry enables to model particulate and dissolved SOM and to calculate important characteristics of soil sorbents [ 15 ]. (
  • There is, of course, a completely different meaning of the word "organic," one that refers to molecules that contain carbon atoms, as in "organic chemistry. (
  • It impacts on soil chemistry by increasing cation exchange capacity, soil buffer capacity and nutrient supply. (
  • NOFA/Mass and Bionutrient Food Association (BFA) are proud to present the fourth annual Soil and Nutrition Conference, a Conference that is making the connection between soil health, plant health, and our health, while also fostering community with Conference attendees. (
  • The mission of the NOFA Organic Land Care Program is to extend the vision and principles of organic agriculture to the landscapes where people spend their daily lives. (
  • The NOFA/Mass Organic Land Care program will hold its annual Lawn and Turf Course at this year's Winter Conference. (
  • Itlj ideal for rapid identification of environmental volatiles and semi-volatiles in air, water and soil. (
  • Either way, your customers need to have confidence that the water they're ingesting is safe-ultimately that means you need to keep your total organic carbon (TOC) numbers low. (
  • TOC is the amount of carbon bound in an organic compound and is often used as an indicator of water quality. (
  • Fungi are dispersed in many ways: they may be seed borne or soil borne, or they may be spread by way of wind, water (rain, irrigation water), insects, animals, and man. (
  • Use compost and organic fertilizer to nourish underground life and create a water-conserving soil. (
  • Water and air penetrate deeper in this loose soil. (
  • Roots follow suit and become a bigger mass that promotes a more disease-resistant, less water-needy plant. (
  • Using organics can reduce outside water needs by 25 percent to 50 percent, he says. (
  • Aerate the soil so oxygen and water will travel deeper, encouraging tree roots to do likewise. (
  • Soil behaviour is determined by the particulate nature, specifically the particle size, shape and mineralogy, and water content and material density. (
  • Influence of organic chemicals on water molecule bridges in soil organic matter of a sapric histosol. (
  • We constructed linear regression models relating site-specific mean population 1.5-year female body mass and 2.5-year male antler size to soil pH, organic matter, bulk density, and available water capacity values from STATSGO to evaluate the explanatory power of the database. (
  • Can result in deoxygenation of the water mass when the algae die, leading to the death of aquatic flora and fauna. (
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the DOC adsorption in the B-horizon of this soil, compare it with soils that are more podzolized and determine the soil properties controlling the DOC adsorption. (
  • The hypothesis of the present study is that the poorly podzolized soil has a lower DOC adsorption capacity than more podzolized soils due to a low content of Al and Fe sesquioxides. (
  • adsorption between field replicates for the poorly podzolized soil was high. (
  • The DOC adsorption for this soil was within the range reported by previous studies focusing on podzol soils, and it could therefore not be concluded that this poorly podzolized soil has a lower DOC adsorption capacity than more podzolized soils. (
  • content (oxalate soluble) were the best predictors of the DOC adsorption capacity of the poorly podzolized soil. (
  • Once optimal conditions were determined, the Tier II testing was performed to determine adsorption kinetics at one concentration with five soils for determining adsorption coefficients (Kd) and desorption characteristics of MTDID 15670. (
  • Tier II Desorption study: After careful removal of the adsorption solution from the soil samples, 10.0 mL of aqueous 0.01M CaCl2 was added to desorb the cation from soils in each centrifuge tube. (
  • Soil substitutes for adsorption measurement of chemicals to soil. (
  • Such a policy is important because organic matter, especially the humus fraction, influences the characteristics of soil disproportionately to the quantities thereof present. (
  • It is a function of the geotechnical properties of the material (strength or density) and mass characteristics, in particular mechanical discontinuities. (
  • The mass properties of a soil are largely influenced by its material characteristics. (
  • The behaviour of the rock mass depends on a combination of the material characteristics and the discontinuities including spacing, roughness, persistence, filling, orientation and the number of sets. (
  • The State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) developed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service is a spatially explicit database of soil characteristics known to influence the distribution, abundance, or quality of vegetation, which ultimately may affect white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) population phenotype. (
  • Soil health treatments exhibited an overrepresentation of specific microbial taxa which are known to be involved in soil suppressiveness to pathogens (plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-borne fungi). (
  • Fungivorous nematodes were abun dant in alfalfa-amended soil, and their potential to suppress trapping fungi requires more research. (
  • Although they often help the decomposition of organic materials in soil, some fungi are poisonous to humans and pets. (
  • Color is also an indicator towards the soil fertility. (
  • Soil labile organic carbon and enzyme activities differed over sampling seasons. (
  • In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF , showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. (
  • almost 300 pesticides can routinely be used in non-organic farming, whereas farms certified by the Soil Association can use just 20, all of which derive from natural ingredients. (
  • These include pesticides, pharmaceuticals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and many more. (
  • Mixing rice hulls into the soil, and then planting into that soil before the rice hulls have decomposed, with tend to starve the soil of macronutrients (NPK) as the bacteria work on breaking down the rice hulls. (
  • Bacteria dominate in disturbed (e.g. conventionally tilled) soils because they are generalist feeders that prefer aerobic (oxygenated) conditions, and survive in small soil pore spaces (micropores). (
  • As time passed, the hazardous chemicals in AOS were continuously emitted into the local environment, resulting in chronic pollution effects on the receiving soil. (
  • In the past decade, pharmaceutical antibiotics were recognized as emerging soil pollutants. (
  • In this study, physicochemical properties, contents of main pollutants, and fungal diversity of the aged oil sludge-contaminated soil were analyzed. (
  • Meanwhile, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform at each taxonomic level demonstrated that the toxicological effect of oil pollutants obviously influenced the fungal diversity and community structure in soil. (
  • Therefore, the impacts of growth duration of hairy vetch on total GWP needs to be evaluated by using C[H.sub.4] and [N.sub.2]0 fluxes and soil C changes in a paddy field. (
  • Organic Potting Mix, 20 Qts. (
  • This premium potting mix is the ideal foundation for your organic garden, yielding healthy plant growth, abundant flowering and the tastiest fruits and vegetables. (
  • Using the natural 13 C abundance method we calculated the SOC renewal ratio ( C renewal ), and separated total soil organic carbon (TOC) into maize-derived soil organic carbon (SOC maize ) and original soil organic carbon (SOC original ). (
  • The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil conta. (
  • Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha −1 ) and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ha −1 ), SOC decomposability (cumulative released CO 2 -C of 5.6 ± 3.8 g C g −1 soil) or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g −1 soil) did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in HWEOC was observed with increasing conifer in the overstory. (
  • These swamps look almost like islands and are a mass of soil, organic matter and vegetation. (
  • WORCESTER -- The Northeast Organic Farming Association, Massachusetts Chapter will hold its 27th annual Winter Conference at Worcester State University, with a keynote address from Mark Shepard, Restoration Agriculture author. (
  • This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM) of adopting no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) for sugarcane replanting. (
  • Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). (
  • The MiHPT allows for rapid reconnaissance of sites to zero in on source areas and plume cores while identifying both transport zones and contaminant mass storage zones. (