Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
'Printing' in a medical context refers to the temporary or permanent transfer of ink from a substrate to the skin, often used for identification purposes, monitoring medical conditions, or as a form of temporary decoration.
A book is not a medical term, but generally refers to a set of printed or written sheets of paper bound together that can contain a wide range of information including literature, research, educational content, and more, which may be utilized in the medical field for various purposes such as learning, reference, or patient education.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

The reach and effectiveness of a national mass media-led smoking cessation campaign in The Netherlands. (1/736)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reach, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of a mass media-led smoking cessation campaign including television shows, a television clinic, a quit line, local group programs, and a comprehensive publicity campaign. METHODS: A random sample of baseline smokers (n = 1338) was interviewed before and after the campaign and at a 10-month follow-up. A nonpretested control group (n = 508) of baseline smokers was incorporated to control for test effects. RESULTS: Most smokers were aware of the campaign, although active participation rates were low. Dose-response relations between exposure and quitting were found. The follow-up point prevalence abstinence rate attributable to the campaign was estimated to be 4.5% after control for test effects and secular trends. The cost per long-term quitter was about $12. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of a massive rise in tobacco promotion expenditures prior to the campaign and the absence of governmental control over the media, the campaign under study may have increased normal cessation rates substantially.  (+info)

Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience. (2/736)

OBJECTIVE: To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS: In 1988 california voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION: Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by nongovernmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.  (+info)

Factors affecting acceptance of immunization among children in rural Bangladesh. (3/736)

This paper uses the Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1989 data to identify the factors affecting acceptance of immunization among children in rural Bangladesh. Acceptance of DPT, measles and BCG vaccinations were the dependent variables. The independent variables included proximity to health facilities, frequency of visit by health worker, respondent's mobility, media exposure, education, age, economic status of household, region of residence, and gender of child. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the net effects of the variables in addition to univariate analysis. Among the independent variables, proximity to health facility, frequency of health worker's visit, mother's mobility, education, age, gender of child, ownership of radio, economic condition of household, and region of residence showed statistically significant association with acceptance of immunization. The effect of frequency of health worker's visit was dependent on region of residence, possession of radio, and mother's education. The effect of mother's ability to visit health centre alone was also dependent on ownership of radio, economic condition of household, and mother's education.  (+info)

Provocative appeals in anti-smoking mass media campaigns targeting adolescents--the accumulated effect of multiple exposures. (4/736)

This paper reports findings from a longitudinal study that evaluated the accumulated effect of three consecutive mass media campaigns using provocative and dissonance arousing appeals to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. In the spring of 1992, all eligible adolescents aged 14 and 15 in one intervention county (N = 4898) and one control county (N = 5439) in Norway were included in the study, and were followed until they were 17 and 18 years of age in 1995. Only students who completed questionnaires both in 1992 and 1995 were included in the analyses. Among the non-smokers at baseline, a significantly lower proportion of adolescents of both genders had started to smoke in the intervention county compared to the proportion in the control county. Among those who were smokers at baseline, significantly more girls in the intervention county had stopped smoking than in the control county, while no significant difference between the counties was detected among boys. Our findings suggest that provocative and dissonance arousing appeals that create affective reactions and lead to interpersonal communication should be given more attention in campaigns designed to influence adolescent smoking. However, such appeals may easily produce negative reactions and the normative context should be thoroughly considered when using such appeals in future interventions.  (+info)

Great earthquakes and medical information systems, with special reference to telecommunications. (5/736)

The Hanshin-Awaji earthquake in January 1995 caused the greatest number of deaths and injuries in Japan since World War II. Various weaknesses of modern information systems were exposed during and after the earthquake. The authors carried out a questionnaire survey to investigate the current state of hospital information and to examine the kinds of information needed immediately after an earthquake. The survey results show that information about the ability to admit new patients and the availability of medical supplies is necessary immediately after such a disaster. These results will be useful for planning countermeasures against this kind of disaster.  (+info)

Media watch. (6/736)

In late 1997, Sharon Bernstein, a 35-year-old Los Angeles Times journalist and a new mother, was assigned the county hospital beat. Recently pregnant, the reporter was drawn towards stories of maternal and fetal health. So, she decided to look into obstetric malpractice claims against county hospitals. What she uncovered would change county hospital policy, lead to an assembly bill, and rekindle the medical debate about the safety of lowering Caesarean section (C-section) rates.  (+info)

"First aid for scalds" campaign: reaching Sydney's Chinese, Vietnamese, and Arabic speaking communities. (7/736)

OBJECTIVES: As a serious yet preventable problem, scald injuries in children have been a priority for prevention in Australia and other developed countries. Not only can the occurrence of scalds be prevented, but immediate first aid treatment offers an effective method for secondary prevention, reducing the severity of scalds. Despite the success of scald prevention initiatives, local evidence suggested that first aid knowledge was lacking in some minority ethnic groups. To redress this gap, the "First Aid for Scalds" campaign for those from a non-English speaking background was specifically targeted to three ethnic groups (Vietnamese, Chinese, and Arabic), with the aim of increasing the proportions of parents and caregivers who had correct knowledge of first aid treatment for scalds. The primary strategy was a media campaign, including advertisements on ethnic radio and in ethnic newspapers. METHODS: The evaluation design included formative research and impact evaluation. The impact evaluation study involved random population based telephone surveys with each of the three language groups, before and after the campaign, to assess the reach and effectiveness of the campaign. RESULTS: After the campaign, there were significant increases in the proportion of people who knew the correct first aid treatment for scalds. There were substantial variations in campaign recall and knowledge between each of the three language groups. The largest improvement was found in the Vietnamese group. CONCLUSION: The association between campaign recall and increase in correct knowledge, and the absence of any similar interventions during the campaign period, give credence to the conclusion that the changes observed were a result of the campaign. The results demonstrate the value of community based injury prevention campaigns specifically targeting linguistically diverse communities.  (+info)

Ethical requirements for occupational health research--compliance arrangements for a single company in relation to a recent major nuclear industry study. (8/736)

The media coverage given to occupational health studies in the field of ionizing radiation has, on occasion, been the cause of very real distress to radiation workers and their families. In response to this situation the Chief Medical Officers of the major UK nuclear companies developed an ethical policy for future involvement in research, based on the duty of care which researchers owe to a key customer of such studies: the worker. The policy consists of four principal elements: medical confidentiality; worker information; worker consent and the guarantee of the availability to the workers of pre-publication knowledge of the results. The policy issued in 1991/92 has achieved growing acceptance among researchers and medical journals, though the medical officers involved have been aware of some scepticism, particularly in relation to the practicalities of the dissemination of pre-publication information. The Record Linkage Study published in November 1997 marked a major piece of research work involving data from 120,000 radiation workers that had been carried out since the development of the policy. This paper reports on the successful compliance arrangements to meet the ethical requirements of that study within a single UK nuclear company, and is published to demonstrate that with commitment from researchers, the journal and occupational health staff such ethical requirements, and particularly the need for pre-publication information can be met in full.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mass Media" is not a term that has a medical definition. Mass media refers to the means of communication that reach large numbers of people simultaneously, such as television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. It may be used in a public health context to discuss how information about health-related topics is disseminated to the general population. However, it is not a term that is typically used within the field of medicine to describe a specific medical concept or condition.

In medical terms, "Radio" generally refers to the use of radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. This can include:

1. Diagnostic Radiology: This is the use of various imaging techniques that utilize different types of radiation to create detailed images of the internal structures of the body. Examples include X-rays, CT scans, and mammography.

2. Interventional Radiology: This is a medical subspecialty that uses minimally invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat various diseases. These procedures often involve the use of radiological imaging techniques to guide catheters or other small instruments through the body to the site of the disease.

3. Radiation Therapy: This is a type of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Remember, while radiation is a valuable tool in medicine, it must be used carefully to minimize potential risks such as damage to healthy tissues and the potential for developing secondary cancers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "newspapers" and "medical" are not related. A newspaper is a periodically published printed or online publication that reports news and provides information on politics, local events, sports, arts, and entertainment, as well as advertising. If you have any medical questions or concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Advertising is a form of communication used to promote or sell products, services, or ideas. In the medical field, advertising is often used by healthcare providers, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies to reach potential patients or customers. Advertisements may appear in various media formats, such as television, radio, print, online platforms, and outdoor displays.

In the context of medical advertising, it is essential to ensure that all information presented is accurate, balanced, and not misleading. The advertising of prescription medications directly to consumers is regulated by government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, to ensure that the benefits and risks of the medication are clearly communicated.

Healthcare providers may also engage in advertising to promote their services or expertise. This can include listing their qualifications, areas of specialization, and patient testimonials. However, healthcare providers must adhere to ethical guidelines and avoid making exaggerated claims about their abilities or the outcomes that patients can expect.

Overall, medical advertising plays an essential role in informing the public about available healthcare options and promoting healthy behaviors. Still, it is crucial to ensure that all advertisements are truthful, transparent, and adhere to ethical standards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Persuasive Communication" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Persuasive communication is a broader term used in various fields including psychology, sociology, and communications to refer to the process of using communication to influence or persuade others to adopt a particular viewpoint or course of action.

However, in a medical context, communication is a crucial aspect of healthcare delivery, and effective communication skills are essential for healthcare professionals to build trust, ensure informed consent, and promote patient engagement and adherence to treatment plans. This includes being able to effectively communicate complex medical information in a clear and understandable way, as well as being sensitive to patients' emotions, values, and cultural backgrounds.

If you have any specific questions about communication in a medical context or any other healthcare-related topic, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Marketing" is not a term typically used in the field of medicine. Instead, it is a marketing strategy that uses commercial marketing techniques and principles to influence the behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal well-being and that of their communities. This approach has been applied to various public health and healthcare initiatives, such as promoting healthy lifestyles, preventing substance abuse, and increasing vaccination rates.

However, if you're looking for a medical definition related to social aspects or interactions, there might be some confusion. In that case, I would need more context to provide an accurate definition. Could you please clarify your question?

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

"Communications media" is a broad term that refers to the various means by which information or messages are transmitted from one person or group to another. In the context of healthcare and medicine, communications media can include both traditional and electronic methods used to share patient information, medical research, and other health-related data.

Traditional communications media in healthcare may include written documents such as medical records, charts, and reports, as well as verbal communication between healthcare providers and patients or among healthcare professionals.

Electronic communications media, on the other hand, refer to digital technologies used to transmit and store information. Examples of electronic communications media in healthcare include:

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Digital versions of a patient's medical history and records, which can be shared among authorized healthcare providers.
2. Telemedicine: The use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and healthcare professionals to communicate via video conferencing, phone calls, or messaging platforms.
3. Health Information Exchanges (HIEs): Secure, electronic networks that enable the sharing of health-related data among authorized healthcare organizations, providers, and patients.
4. Medical Imaging Systems: Digital systems used for storing, accessing, and sharing medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs.
5. Personal Health Applications (mHealth): Mobile applications and wearable devices that allow individuals to monitor their health, track fitness goals, and manage chronic conditions.

Effective communication media are crucial in healthcare for ensuring accurate diagnoses, coordinating care, improving patient outcomes, and conducting medical research. It is essential to maintain confidentiality, privacy, and security when using electronic communications media to protect sensitive health information.

I apologize, but "Public Relations" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public relations is a field of study and practice that focuses on managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public. It involves building and maintaining a positive reputation, handling crises, and fostering relationships with various stakeholders.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help. Just let me know!

I apologize for any confusion, but "hotlines" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Generally, a hotline refers to a direct communication link, often a telephone number, that provides immediate access to certain services or information. In a medical context, there could be various hotlines such as poison control hotline, mental health crisis hotline, or a hotline for reporting adverse effects of medications. However, the term "hotlines" itself is not a medical term with a specific definition.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Consumer health information (CHI) refers to the resources and materials that provide health information and education to the general public, who are not necessarily healthcare professionals. CHI is designed to be understandable and accessible to laypeople, and it covers a wide range of topics related to health and wellness, including:

* Diseases and conditions
* Preventive care and healthy lifestyles
* Medications and treatments
* Medical tests and procedures
* Healthcare services and facilities
* Patient rights and responsibilities

CHI can be found in various formats, such as pamphlets, brochures, websites, videos, podcasts, and social media. It is essential to ensure that CHI is accurate, unbiased, and up-to-date to help consumers make informed decisions about their health and healthcare. The goal of CHI is to empower individuals to take an active role in managing their health and making healthcare choices that are right for them.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Victoria" is not a medical term or condition. It is a name, which is often used as a place name, such as the capital city of British Columbia, Canada, or Victoria, Australia. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

In a medical context, awareness generally refers to the state of being conscious or cognizant of something. This can include being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as being aware of external events or sensations.

For example, a person who is awake and alert is said to have full awareness, while someone who is in a coma or under general anesthesia may be described as having reduced or absent awareness. Similarly, a person with dementia or Alzheimer's disease may have impaired awareness of their surroundings or of their own memory and cognitive abilities.

In some cases, awareness may also refer to the process of becoming informed or educated about a particular health condition or medical treatment. For example, a patient may be encouraged to increase their awareness of heart disease risk factors or of the potential side effects of a medication. Overall, awareness involves a deep understanding and perception of oneself and one's environment.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "information dissemination" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine. It refers to the process of spreading or distributing information to a specific audience or the public.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, information dissemination often relates to sharing clinical guidelines, research findings, public health messages, or patient education materials with healthcare professionals, patients, or the general public. This can occur through various channels, such as scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals, newsletters, websites, social media platforms, and other communication methods.

The goal of information dissemination in medicine is to ensure that accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information reaches the intended audience, ultimately improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and decision-making processes.

Sunscreening agents, also known as sunscreens or sunblocks, are substances that protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. They work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV radiation, preventing it from reaching the skin and causing damage such as sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.

Sunscreening agents can be chemical or physical. Chemical sunscreens contain organic compounds that absorb UV radiation and convert it into heat, which is then released from the skin. Examples of chemical sunscreens include oxybenzone, avobenzone, octinoxate, and homosalate.

Physical sunscreens, on the other hand, contain inorganic compounds that reflect or scatter UV radiation away from the skin. The most common physical sunscreen agents are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.

Sunscreening agents are usually formulated into creams, lotions, gels, sprays, or sticks and are applied to the skin before sun exposure. They should be reapplied every two hours or after swimming, sweating, or toweling off to ensure continued protection. It is recommended to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of at least 30, which blocks both UVA and UVB radiation.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trust" is a general concept and not a medical term with a specific definition. It can be used in various contexts, including healthcare relationships between patients and healthcare providers. In this context, trust refers to the confidence and reliance that patients have on the competence, professionalism, honesty, and integrity of their healthcare providers.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to "trust," there is a psychological concept called "interpersonal trust" which can be assessed using the "Trust Scale." Interpersonal trust refers to an individual's general willingness to rely on and be vulnerable to others across various situations. This concept might be relevant in some medical or healthcare research contexts, particularly those involving patient-provider communication, adherence to treatment plans, and therapeutic relationships.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. It can occur as a result of a cold, respiratory infection, or allergy that causes fluid buildup behind the eardrum. The buildup of fluid can lead to infection and irritation of the middle ear, causing symptoms such as ear pain, hearing loss, and difficulty balancing. There are two types of otitis media: acute otitis media (AOM), which is a short-term infection that can cause fever and severe ear pain, and otitis media with effusion (OME), which is fluid buildup in the middle ear without symptoms of infection. In some cases, otitis media may require medical treatment, including antibiotics or the placement of ear tubes to drain the fluid and relieve pressure on the eardrum.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

A Tobacco Industry is a commercial sector involved in the cultivation, production, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. This can include growers who produce tobacco leaves, manufacturers who process the leaves into various forms (such as cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or snuff), and companies that market and distribute these products to consumers. It is important to note that the tobacco industry has been associated with significant health risks, as the use of tobacco products can lead to a range of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

'Drama' is a term that is more commonly associated with the humanities, particularly literature, theater, and film, rather than medicine. It refers to a type of narrative that explores human emotions, conflicts, and experiences through characters and plot. Drama can be presented in various forms such as plays, movies, or television shows.

There is no medical definition for 'drama' as it is not a term used in the field of medicine. However, in some contexts, drama may refer to emotional distress or turmoil that a person experiences, which could be relevant to mental health and psychology. In such cases, healthcare professionals might use related terms like "psychological distress," "emotional disturbance," or "crisis intervention" to describe the situation more accurately.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "printing" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of producing text or images by impressing ink onto a surface, such as paper. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I apologize for any confusion, but "books" is a general term that refers to bound sets of pages that are printed or written with text, illustrations, or signs, and are meant to be read, studied, or consulted. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you're looking for information about a specific medical term or concept, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or definition of the term "diamond" in a medical context. However, I should clarify that "diamond" is not a commonly used medical term for a specific disease, condition, or diagnostic feature. It's essential to provide more information if it relates to a particular medical concept or usage.

In general, the term "diamond" refers to a clear and colorless form of carbon with a crystalline structure in which each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms, forming a tetrahedral shape. It's widely known for its use as a valuable gemstone due to its exceptional hardness, brilliance, and fire.

However, there are some tangential medical connections to the term "diamond." For example:

1. Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by a decrease in red blood cell production. It is named after Drs. Louis Diamond and Kenneth Blackfan, who first described it.
2. Turner syndrome with XY sex chromosomes: A rare genetic condition where an individual has only one functional X chromosome instead of the typical pair (XX) found in females. Occasionally, these individuals may have a Y chromosome fragment, often referred to as "mosaic Turner syndrome with XY cells" or "XY gonadal dysgenesis." In this context, the term "XY" is sometimes metaphorically described as a "genetic male's 'diamond in the rough'" due to its rarity and unique characteristics.

If you have more information about how the term "diamond" is being used in your specific medical context, I would be happy to help further clarify or provide additional details.

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... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Europe by country). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Media of Spain. Spain Profile: Media, BBC News, 10 December 2018 "Media Landscapes: ... Mass media in Spain includes a variety of online, print, and broadcast formats, such as radio, television, newspapers, and ... A list of the main mass media groups is presented as follows: Atresmedia/Planeta God├│ Hearst Henneo Intereconom├şa Joly Mediaset ...
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... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Africa by country). ... The mass media in Angola is primarily controlled by Angola's dominant political party, the People's Movement for the Liberation ... "Angola: Media and Publishing". Encyclop├Ždia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. "Angola Profile: Media". BBC News. 11 April ... 2015). "Angola: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Angola", Freedom of ...
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... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Europe by country). ... Germany: media Mass media in Germany by city Media in Berlin Journalism in Germany Cinema of Germany Internet in Germany ... 2004). "Germany". Media in Europe (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-4132-3. Mass Media, Culture and Society in ... OCLC 57509361 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Media of Germany. "Germany Profile: Media", BBC News "Media Landscapes: ...
The mass media of Transnistria, the breakaway territory within the borders of Moldova, features both state-owned or supported ... Transnistria), PDF Media Freedom in Moldova (incl. Transnistria), KAS "The Report on press freedom and media in Moldova", 2015 ... Transnistrian media environment is restrictive, and is dominated numerically by state-owned media (e.g. Pridnestrovie and ... Some print media does not have a large circulation, and only appears on a weekly or monthly basis. The oldest newspaper is the ...
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... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Asia by country). ... The mass media in Indonesia consist of several different types of communications media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, ... during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. Long suppressed ... "Media Market Description" (PDF). www.warc.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2019. Momod ...
... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Africa by country). ... Dele Ogunade (1986). "Mass Media Systems of Kenya and Tanzania: a Comparative Analysis". Africa Media Review. 1 (1) - via ... The media in Kenya is regulated by a statutory body called the Media Council of Kenya. The Media Council of Kenya is an ... A. Owiro-Okoth (1990). "Law and the Mass Media in Kenya". Africa Media Review. 4 (1) - via Michigan State University Libraries ...
... , Mass media by country, Mass media in Europe by country, All stub articles, Switzerland stubs). ... 2004). "Switzerland". Media in Europe (3rd ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-4132-3. Switzerland Profile: Media, BBC ... "Media subsidies: Current position and recommendations for the future" (PDF). Federal Media Commission FMEC. 7 August 2014. ... SWITCH Information Technology Services Swiss Internet Exchange Swiss Media Swiss media company based in Switzerland www. ...
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Webarchive template wayback links, Source attribution, Mass media in Senegal, Mass media by country, Mass media in Africa by ... The mass media in Senegal is varied and includes multiple television channels, numerous private radio stations, and over 15 ... Rian Van den Wijngaard (1992). "Women As Journalists: Incompatibility of Roles?". Africa Media Review. 6 (2) - via Michigan ...
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... in collaboration with Vital Strategies has launched the second anti-tobacco mass media campaign in Pakistan. A 30 second Public ...
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Media centre , News , Enhancing health security: strengthening readiness for mass gatherings Section menu. You are here. *Media ... Public health risks of mass gatherings. Mass gatherings may be well-planned events or spontaneous gatherings of people - both ... 11 October 2023 - Mass gatherings, while a source of joy and unity, can also put a strain on health systems and resources. When ... Mass gatherings in the Region range from religious pilgrimages such as Hajj, Umrah and Arbaeen to mega sports and other events ...
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HomeArchiveWas Another Aurora Mass Murder Prevented, and where was the Mainstream Media?. Was Another Aurora Mass Murder ... Who really deserves the most publicity in Aurora? The man who single-handedly prevented a mass execution or the mentally ... Prevented, and where was the Mainstream Media? August 7, 2012 AFP Archive 0 ...
What emerges from this work is a powerful assessment of how propagandistic the U.S. mass media are, how they systematically ... The Political Economy of the Mass Media. by Edward S Herman, Noam Chomsky ... Social Science / Media Studies Political Science / Political Process / Media & Internet Political Science / Censorship ... A] compelling indictment of the news medias role in covering up errors and deceptions in American foreign policy of the past ...
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By so heavily covering mass public attacks to the exclusion of far more common everyday gun violence, the news media skews ... Every mass-shooting story needs to contextualize the outrage within the bigger epidemic. Every lawmaker at every level needs to ... The nations most recent mass shootings triggered a fresh round of recriminations about journalists failures to put such ... Instead of continuing to follow what he called the prescribed media response: breaking-news scramble, then outrage, then ...
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The mass murder at a Parkland, Florida, high school precipitated a national outcry for more gun restrictions lead by many of ... Breaking: NRA sues against new gun law in response to Florida mass murder - heres why ...
... additional statements from survivors of the mass shooting in Colorado Springs and releasing additional resources for media. ... Home┬╗Press Release┬╗GLAAD RELEASES STATEMENTS FROM SURVIVORS AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR MEDIA COVERING THE DEADLY MASS ... GLAAD RELEASES STATEMENTS FROM SURVIVORS AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR MEDIA COVERING THE DEADLY MASS SHOOTING IN COLORADO ... media advocacy organization is releasing additional statements from survivors of the mass shooting in Colorado Springs and ...
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Science Media Centre. New Zealands trusted, independent source of information for the media on all issues related to research ... Mass meningococcal vaccination in Northland - In the News. In the News , Published: 06 December 2018. 11 February 2019. ... The campaigns rollout was covered by local media, including:. Newshub: Northland meningococcal outbreak: Ministry of Health ... Thousands of families have been queuing up at vaccination stations in Northland as a mass immunisation programme against ...
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The Lakers, the 16-time Larry OBrien-trophy-winning Lakers, are a joke-from losing in the second round of the playoffs, to making one of the biggest trades in NBA history landing them the number one center in the league, to actually having the opportunity of bringing back Phil Jackson, one of the greatest coaches...
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An Ohio man pleads guilty to plotting a mass shooting of college women in 2020 ... A 22-year-old Ohio man admitted in federal court that he planned a mass shooting at an Ohio university in 2020, according to ... Defendant Plotted to Conduct Mass Shooting of Womenhttps://t.co/q2N6DtgoLu ...
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Three Things You Should Stop Doing on Social Media. Last month, "Im Judging You: The Do Better Manual," a collection of essays ... Of course, she put her social media skills to work when promoting her book. "I started when the book was ready for pre-order," ... "Some people tend to perform their lives on social media, and theyre not keeping anything to themselves. You need to figure out ... Ajayi is also a digital strategist by profession, consulting for individuals and small businesses about using social media. ...
  • 11 October 2023 - Mass gatherings, while a source of joy and unity, can also put a strain on health systems and resources. (who.int)
  • The Massachusetts Policy Report (Mass Policy Report): The editorialized headlines the Massachusetts Mainstream media hopes you never notice. (masspolicyreport.com)
  • The Tobacco Control Cell, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination, in collaboration with Vital Strategies has launched the second anti-tobacco mass media campaign in Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Title : The African American Women and Mass Media Campaign: A CDC Breast Cancer Screening Project Personal Author(s) : Hall, Ingrid J.;Rim, Sun Hee;Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani;Vanderpool, Robin;Kamalu, Ngozi N. (cdc.gov)
  • A mass-media promotion campaign of this service was released twice in 2015. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used a mass media campaign to alert parents to call us. (cdc.gov)
  • Many other mass media outlets have an additional presence on the web, by such means as linking to or running TV ads online, or distributing QR codes in outdoor or print media to direct mobile users to a website. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years he and his team have demonstrated their ability to generate placements in key media outlets which have helped raise awareness of our company. (ellisstrategies.com)
  • How do institutional religious influences and expectations affect how they experience media news and entertainment? (sagepub.com)
  • Led by former News Director at WBZ TV, Matt Ellis and his team at Ellis Strategies Inc. provide a wide-range of consulting services that include public speaking, executive coaching & communication skills, media training and more for a diverse client list that includes top business executives, university presidents and deans, hospital CEOs, scientific thought leaders, and more. (ellisstrategies.com)
  • One hundred thirty-fi ve (68%) gained some knowledge about AI, munication had reduced chances of poultry farmer workers from 36 infect- primarily through television but also human infection ( 3,4 ), and the effect ed and 39 uninfected fl ocks responded through radio, newspapers, govern- of news media reports in reducing to the interview. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] This transmission of mass advertising to millions of people is another form of mass communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • How do religious audiences react to and use the media? (sagepub.com)
  • Radio stations that target African American audiences (├óÔéČ┼ôblack radio├óÔéČ ) reach a national African American audience daily, making black radio an ideal medium for health promotion and disparities reduction in the African American community. (cdc.gov)
  • Internet media comprise such services as email, social media sites, websites, and Internet-based radio and television. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior research has found that both mass and social media can play an influential role in post-disaster recovery. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Thus, the purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth investigation on how mass and social media can influence people's perceptions of a disaster and their behavioural intentions with respect to post-disaster recovery activities. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Through the lens of cultivation theory, we find that mass and social media can play different roles and exert different influences on people's perceptions of the disaster. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Social media, on the other hand, although with a much weaker effect, can resonate more with those who were directly affected. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The findings have implications for post-disaster recovery, in that they can provide a roadmap on how information via mass and social media can be used to motivate and connect the general public and the disaster victims. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The framework, which is set out in "Strengthening public health readiness for mass gathering events in the Eastern Mediterranean Region", is endorsed by the 70th session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean. (who.int)
  • Mass gatherings may be well-planned events or spontaneous gatherings of people - both of which can have a huge impact on public health. (who.int)
  • The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean is launching a comprehensive framework to stress the significance of proactive preparedness and readiness for mass gatherings, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (who.int)
  • The comprehensive framework to strengthen readiness for mass gatherings highlights how important it is to be prepared and details 4 main points towards this goal. (who.int)
  • These annual plans are informed by the Medium Term Expenditure Framework. (who.int)
  • Ellis Strategies is a recognized leader in executive coaching, media training, and public speaking, providing a wide-range of communications services to businesses and individuals throughout New England. (ellisstrategies.com)
  • With a number of accolades including the New England Emmy Award, and the George Foster Peabody Award, Ellis Strategies has become a leading provider of public speaking services in Waltham MA . (ellisstrategies.com)
  • As one of the leading providers of public speaking services in Waltham MA our clients have come to know and understand the "Ellis Strategies Advantage. (ellisstrategies.com)
  • Check what doc- literature, culture and modern media. (lu.se)
  • When nature, as well as courses focused on specific literary genres, applying for the Master's in Literature - Culture - Media, themes or historical periods. (lu.se)
  • the many forms in which literature enters the media and the 1. (lu.se)
  • We offer field of literature, culture and media. (lu.se)
  • Mass media includes the diverse arrays of media that reach a large audience via mass communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a telephone is a two-way communication device, mass media communicates to a large group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question, then, is whether this is a form of mass communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Broadcast media transmit information electronically via media such as films, radio, recorded music, or television. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organisations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Media marketing reports document the consistency of radio use among African Americans of all ages (6). (cdc.gov)
  • A national survey of 1,895 media users of various languages and racial/ethnic backgrounds found that 58% of African American respondents use ethnic radio to obtain information (7). (cdc.gov)
  • Event organising and public speaking can also be considered forms of mass media. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leading provider of public speaking, executive coaching, and media training in Waltham MA. (ellisstrategies.com)
  • In particular, media information has been found to encourage people to support the recovery efforts. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Ma M, Feng Z, Liu X, Jia G, Geng B, Xia Y. The saturation effect of body mass index on bone mineral density for people over 50 years old: a cross-sectional study of the US population. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She is organizing and encouraging volunteers to ride and financially support research for multiple sclerosis in Massachusetts. (umassmedia.com)
  • Drawing on theory and empirical research, contributors to Religion and Mass Media explore these questions from Jewish, Roman Catholic, Evangelical, Protestant, Fundamentalist and Mormon audience perspectives. (sagepub.com)
  • Welcome to the website of the Digital Media Law Project. (dmlp.org)
  • Use of this guide does not create an attorney-client or any other relationship between the user and the Digital Media Law Project or the Berkman Center for Internet & Society. (dmlp.org)
  • We report the discovery of two intermediate-mass transiting brown dwarfs (BDs), TOI-569b and TOI-1406b, from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission. (lu.se)
  • According to grandpa wiki , mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. (kejut.com)
  • Mass media, specifically television is found to be the most influential, especially on those not directly affected by the disaster. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Despite the challenges and risks of mass gatherings, these events also present opportunities for long-term benefits. (who.int)
  • Mass gatherings in the Region range from religious pilgrimages such as Hajj, Umrah and Arba'een to mega sports and other events such as the FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022, Expo 2020 Dubai and the United Nations Climate Change Conferences (COP27 and COP28). (who.int)
  • TOI-1406b is one of three known transiting BDs to occupy the mass range of 40-50 MJ and one of two to have a circular orbit at a period near 10 days (with the first being KOI-205b). (lu.se)
  • Some argue that video games have developed into a distinct mass form of media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Video games may also be evolving into a mass medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • She brought her passion for service to the University of Massachusetts Boston, got involved in student life, became a student leader, and the connections she made by serving UMass Boston students propelled her into a career in banking. (umassmedia.com)
  • Mass media and blood donation : proceedings of the Fourth SIITS-AICT Symposium for European Cooperation, Rome, 6th June 1992 / edited by U. Rossi, I. Cipriani, V. Fresia. (who.int)
  • James J. Wynne discusses the objectives behind the recent establishment of the APS Mass Media Fellowship program. (aps.org)
  • A 22-year-old Ohio man admitted in federal court that he planned a mass shooting at an Ohio university in 2020, according to the Justice Department. (wosu.org)
  • Further, a positive perception of strong bonds in families and society as a result of media exposure is found to be the most effective in increasing the intention to participate in activities related to recovery such as boosting civic communications, taking altruistic actions and preparing for future disasters. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Eye exam may show a subretinal granulomatous mass or posterior pole granuloma. (cdc.gov)
  • She helps wherever needed: from crime watch, to food pantries, and even to the Pan-Mass Challenge bike race. (umassmedia.com)

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