Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pacific OceanWetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Mediterranean SeaNorth SeaSea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Atlantic OceanBiomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Prochlorococcus: A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Electric Fish: Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Black Sea: An inland sea between Europe and Asia. It is connected with the Aegean Sea by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.LouisianaIn Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fishes, PoisonousSulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Comoros: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bermuda: A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.TurtlesCopepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.AzerbaijanCichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Gadiformes: An order of fish including the families Gadidae (cods), Macrouridae (grenadiers), and hakes. The large Gadidae family includes cod, haddock, whiting, and pollock.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.New JerseyModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.IraqDisasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Seychelles: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)South CarolinaEuphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Humpback Whale: The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
... an indoor salt marsh, a sea horse habitat, and a loggerhead sea turtle display. The Open Oceans Gallery includes Sharkstooth ... and fishing courses. Kayaking, canoeing and fishing programs continue into the fall, when seafood cooking classes are also ... After learning about sea turtles at the Center, diagnose and care for a replica of an injured sea turtle in the interactive and ... The Sea Turtle Assistance and Rehabilitation (STAR) Center opened to the public on June 27, 2014. The STAR Center is a 3,000 ...
Salt Creek (subspecies salinus) at about 49 meters below sea level, and Cottonball Marsh (subspecies milleri), at about 80 ... The pupfish can withstand harsh conditions that would kill other fish: water that is 4 times more saline than the ocean, hot ... meters below sea level. They are thought to be the remainders of a large ecosystem of fish species that lived in Lake Manly, ... The Salt Creek subspecies is also found at River Springs and Soda Lake, in Death Valley National Park. The desert pupfish has ...
Historically, the delta with its large freshwater outflow and extensive salt marshes provided an important breeding ground for ... Elevations range from sea level at the Gulf of California to 14,321 feet (4,365 m) at the summit of Uncompahgre Peak in ... Since 1963, the only times when the Colorado River has reached the ocean have been during El Niño events in the 1980s and 1990s ... "Colorado River Basin Fish". Defenders of Wildlife. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Shorey, Ananda (December 23, ...
Salt marsh mosquitos can also pester nesting females. In Australia, the introduction of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) by British ... Fishing gear is the biggest threat to loggerheads in the open ocean. They often become entangled in longlines or gillnets. ... The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends ... Turtles portal Adelita, the first sea turtle tracked across an ocean basin. Sea turtle threats Spotila 2004, p. 59 Casale, P ...
... and green algae for their diet and gives protection from predators and rough storms within the ocean. The salt marshes and ... the green sea turtles have a symbiotic interaction with reef fish, including the yellow tang. The yellow tang fish swims along ... In these protected shores and bays, the green sea turtle habitats include coral reefs, salt marshes, and nearshore seagrass ... Green sea turtle near Marsa Alam, Egypt Green sea turtle near Marsa Alam, Egypt Green sea turtle Its appearance is that of a ...
Interactive Salt Marsh, Lost Temple of Atlantis, Otter Falls (North American river otters), Penguin Pavilion, Ray Bay, Sea Lion ... Ocean Creatures of the World/Crab Villa, Piranha, Poseidon's Treasure Room, Puffer Fish, Ray Bay, Sand Shark Lagoon, Schooling ... Interactive Salt Marsh, Nemo's Family Fun Center, Poseidon's Peak & Playground, Ray Bay, Sea Lion Kiss, Submarine Simulator, ... Fish, Seahorses, Shipwreck/Artificial Reef, Tidal Marsh, and a touch tank. Outdoor exhibits include Ancient Reptile Ruins, Koi ...
It is surrounded by extensive salt marshes and faces Isla Saltes. The Punta in its name comes from the long point going out to ... It is a fishing village located on the banks of the Rio Odiel river and across the water from the capital, Huelva. ... The Odiel river meets the Atlantic Ocean at Punta Umbria Beach, a 3.8 km urban beach which has been awarded a Blue Flag for its ... the sea from the beach. During World War II, it was the location where the body of a supposed British Major carrying false top ...
"Limits of Oceans and Seas" (PDF) (3rd ed.). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 6 February 2010. Den Store ... A shallow water fjord between Gothenburg and Varberg, including important salt marshes. Hovs Hallar Kullaberg Nature Reserve ... Both the ecosystems and the Danish fishing industry has suffered greatly from the eutrophication of the Kattegat sea. (Source: ... The sea area is a continuation of the Skagerrak and may be seen as a bay of the Baltic Sea or the North Sea or, as in ...
... sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests. The Gulf of Mannar is known for its pearl banks of ... The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean. It lies between the ... The decline of fish populations has been accompanied with reducing numbers of pearl oyster, gorgonian coral, and acorn worm. ... Sea turtles are frequent visitors to the gulf as are sharks, dugongs, and dolphins. However, the combined effects of 47 ...
In dryer years, salt water creeps inland to the coastal prairie, an ecosystem that buffers the freshwater marshes by absorbing ... fish, and invertebrates. The marine environment of Florida Bay is also considered part of the Everglades because its sea ... The rock that makes up the Everglades floor was created as layers of calcium carbonate were compressed by ocean water, making ... Black and white mangroves excrete salt from under their leaves, and red mangroves filter the salinity of sea water. All species ...
A brackish marsh may occur where a freshwater flow enters a salt marsh. Brackish seas Baltic Sea Black Sea (the world's largest ... fish farmers expose migrating wild fish to large numbers of external parasites such as sea lice that escape from the pens the ... empties so much freshwater into the Atlantic Ocean that it reduces the salinity of the sea for hundreds of miles Chesapeake Bay ... Some seas and lakes are brackish. The Baltic Sea is a brackish sea adjoining the North Sea. Originally the confluence of two ...
... salt marshes, mudflats, beaches, inland streams, rivers, marshes, and included lakes. It may have been the richest hunting, ... though much of Mesolithic Britain now lies under the North Sea, the Irish Sea and the English Channel, and material which may ... fowling and fishing ground available to the people of Mesolithic Europe. Horse remains dating from 10,500-8,000 BC have been ... joining the Rhine to flow west to the Atlantic Ocean along the line of what is now the English Channel. Human hunters roamed ...
Also nearby is the Moss Landing Wildlife Area which protects 728 acres (2.95 km2) of salt ponds and salt marsh. Limited ... Department of Fish and Game. "California Fish and Game Code section 2853 (b)(3)". Marine Life Protection Act. Retrieved ... California's marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, ... sea otters, and sharks and rays. The nearby Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve and Elkhorn Slough Foundation ...
Salt ocean water intruded into Miami's wells; when the city brought in an expert to explain why, he discovered that the water ... an ecosystem that buffers the freshwater marshes by absorbing sea water. Mangrove trees begin to grow in fresh water ecosystems ... a b c U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. "South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan: Pine rockland", Retrieved May 3, 2008. ... Sea grasses also serve to stabilize the sea beds and protect shorelines from erosion by absorbing energy from waves. ...
The refuge contains ocean beach, dunes, upland, fresh and brackish water ponds, salt flats, and salt marsh. There are more than ... green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, Kemp's Ridley sea turtle, red-cockaded woodpecker, roseate tern ... The refuge area was historically used for market waterfowl hunting, commercial fishing, farming, and livestock operations. Pea ... Public use programs focus on interpretation, environmental education, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and fishing. ...
The two main exhibit buildings of the aquarium are the Bay and Ocean Pavilion and the Marsh Pavilion. The two are connected by ... and Kemp's ridley sea turtles along with many fish including Atlantic spadefish, a large Goliath grouper, triple tail, cobia, ... a one-third mile outdoor nature trail running alongside Owls Creek Salt Marsh. Together the two buildings are home to more than ... The Marsh Pavilion features North American river otters, seahorses and snakes and other marsh creatures. The Research and ...
... is one of the Sea Islands. It is located on the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia and is ... The land mass is 76 percent salt marshes and 24 percent beaches, dunes, and maritime forest. The refuge is a part of the ... Other fishes have been reported to be trapped as well. According to the NTSB report, At 9:30 on July 4, 1980 a mosquito control ... Loggerhead sea turtles nest on the beaches in late spring and early summer, and turtlers can camp at the turtlers' cabin at the ...
... 沼 marsh; 海 ocean or sea; 洋 ocean; 沖 open sea; 湖 lake; 池 pond; 潟 lagoon; 礁 reef; 江 creek or bay; 湾 bay, gulf; 岸 shore; 磯 ... 鰐 alligator or crocodile 魚 fish; 貝 shellfish; 鯉 carp; 鮒 crucian carp; 鮠 minnow; 鱒 trout; 鮭 salmon; 鱸 sea bass; 鯛 sea bream; 鰌 ... 塩 salt; 丹 cinnabar; 硫 sulphur; 酸 acid, oxygen; 窒 nitrogen; 材 timber, material; 油 oil; 脂 fat 雲 cloud; 曇 cloud; 雨 rain; 虹 rainbow ... 鈎 fish hook; 金 money or gold; 銭 coin; 札 banknote; 円 yen; 幣 currency; 財 wealth; 富 rich; 買 buy; 購 purchase; 売 sell; 業 business, ...
... salt marshes, the open water, and the inlet which connects the bay to the Atlantic Ocean. The term river generally refers to an ... salt water region separated from the open sea by a land formation, or barrier, and primarily influenced by oceanic tidal ... The name Shack River is listed on a 1781 map, probably for the many fishing and hunting shanties that lined the shores. Another ... an estuary that feeds into the Atlantic Ocean between Belmar and Avon-by-the-Sea. Originally called the Nolletquesset River by ...
Salt marshes along the Cook Inlet represent one of the most productive ecosystems in the park. They account for under 1% of the ... Fishing is allowed in both the park and preserve, while sport hunting is permitted in the preserve. Lake Clark preserves a wide ... Marine mammals include sea lion, beluga whale, harbor seal, and porpoise. Both black and brown bear species are present in the ... Marine air from the Pacific Ocean meets drier air of the continental airmass over the park. The average summer temperature is ...
Simons Island and Sea Island. It is separated from these islands by the Hampton River and from the marshes of the mainland by ... The majority of the island's acreage is composed of salt marsh. The island's maritime forest features cabbage palm, Southern ... Sport fishing in the tidal creeks and surf can be very productive for those in search of redfish, black drum, flounder and ... Off the shores otters, dolphins, and right whales swim in the inlets and open waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The island's first ...
Corals and sea anemones are true animals, but live a lifestyle similar to that of plants. Mangroves, seagrasses and salt marsh ... Bycatch, the capture of unintended species in the course of fishing, is typically returned to the ocean only to die from ... the mixture of fresh water and salt water (brackish water) in estuaries provides many nutrients for marine life. Salt marshes ... A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and ...
Secondary coastlines include sea cliffs, barrier islands, mud flats, coral reefs, mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Continental ... Ray finned species, with spiny fins, are rare among deep sea fishes, which suggests that deep sea fish are ancient and so well ... CIA Factbook: Indian ocean. CIA Factbook: Southern ocean. CIA Factbook: Arctic ocean. Elert, Glenn Volume of Earth's Oceans. ... Coastal fish include small forage fish as well as the larger predator fish that feed on them. Forage fish thrive in inshore ...
... for more expansive Kiawah Island fishing and deep sea fishing excursions. Also, Kiawah Island Club Members enjoy private access ... Tidal creeks, salt marshes, and the Kiawah River itself provides the opportunity for various canoeing and kayaking expeditions ... The Ocean Course was the home of the 1991 Ryder Cup, the 1997 World Cup of Golf, the 2007 Senior PGA Championship, and the 2012 ... Kiawah is a sea island, or barrier island, on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Located 25 miles (40 km) southwest of ...
In March 2011, the Aquarium reopened the renovated Salt Marsh exhibit which features a feed the stingray experience. In the ... sea stars, pythons, and sharks. The largest exhibit in the Aquarium is the Great Ocean Tank, which extends from the first to ... Jellyfish One of the many fish exhibits at the aquarium Live albino alligator Rattlesnakes on exhibit Mountain Forest exhibit ... The aquarium has rehabilitated and released over 230 sea turtles since it opened. Behind-the-Scenes Tours of the Sea Turtle ...
The southern portions of the neighborhood, meanwhile, consisted of salt marshes and several creeks, which drained into Jamaica ... and later used by the Canarsee and Rockaway tribes as fishing grounds.[6]:Vol 1, p. 7.4[7][8][9] ... Ocean Hill. *Ocean Parkway. *Pacific Park/Atlantic Yards. *Park Slope. *Plumb Beach ...
Salt marsh mosquitos can also pester nesting females. In Australia, the introduction of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) by British ... Fishing gear is the biggest threat to loggerheads in the open ocean. They often become entangled in longlines or gillnets. ... The loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends ... Turtles portal Adelita, the first sea turtle tracked across an ocean basin. Sea turtle threats Spotila 2004, p. 59 Casale, P ...
... an indoor salt marsh, a sea horse habitat, and a loggerhead sea turtle display. The Open Oceans Gallery includes Sharkstooth ... and fishing courses. Kayaking, canoeing and fishing programs continue into the fall, when seafood cooking classes are also ... After learning about sea turtles at the Center, diagnose and care for a replica of an injured sea turtle in the interactive and ... The Sea Turtle Assistance and Rehabilitation (STAR) Center opened to the public on June 27, 2014. The STAR Center is a 3,000 ...
Salt marshes are important transitional habitats between the ocean and the land, and a nursery area for fish, crustacea, and ... Using data from more than 800 sediment cores which record how salt marshes responded to variable rates of sea-level rise over ... Salt marshes are coastal wetlands that are flooded and drained by salt water brought in by the tides and can be found along the ... shows that rising sea levels over the last 10,000 years led to increased waterlogging of the salt marshes, killing the ...
Estuaries Estuaries are defined as semi-enclosed coastal bodies of water that have a free connection with the sea and within ... which sea water is measurably diluted by fresh water. The fresh-water sources for most estuaries are streams, rivers, and even ... which connect the salt marshes and mud flats to the sea or ocean. These serve as nurseries for fish and shellfish, many of ... Other common salt marsh plants are sea-lavender, scurvy grass, salt marsh grass and sea-aster. ...
Can salt marshes stay resilient in the face of such changes?. Life on Ever-Shrinking Sea Ice: A Penguins Perspective. Bill ... A tricolored heron stalks fish in a salt marsh at the NSF Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER site.. Credit and Larger Version ... A tricolored heron stalks fish in a salt marsh at the NSF Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER site.. Credit and Larger Version ... salt marshes, sea ice and the continental shelf.. Questions that will be answered at the symposium include: Does the future of ...
Gaps in our knowledge of salt marsh food webs made management and restoration decisions difficult after the Deepwater Horizon ... Salt marshes support commercially and culturally important species and are often subject to natural and human-caused stressors ... Study Describes Foodweb Dynamics of Predatory Deep-Sea Fishes in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Smithsonians Ocean Portal / GoMRI Partnership. *Webinar: Compositional Changes in the Hydrocarbon Content of Coastal Marshes ...
... a fish that can chase you across the floor. ... Our Fish Party will have the kids hooked in no time! A great ... It is much more at home in the salt marsh where the water stays mildly salty but not as strong as in the ocean. The Terrapin is ... The Chocolate Sea Star, is not a star fish. But only because there is no such thing as a star fish! Named hundreds of years ago ... Home » fish party Fish Party. Our Fish Party is called "Fish Tales and Ocean Oddballs," and features live fish, of course, but ...
A comprehensive and systematic assessment of 13 global- and local-scale, ocean-based measures was performed to help steer the ... A comprehensive and systematic assessment of 13 global- and local-scale, ocean-based measures was performed to help steer the ... While ambitious mitigation and adaptation are both needed, the ocean provides major opportunities for action to reduce climate ... While ambitious mitigation and adaptation are both needed, the ocean provides major opportunities for action to reduce climate ...
... sand or salt flats and marshes; deep-water coral reefs; deep-water vents; and open ocean habitats.". [12]/ A global network ... deleterious effects of changes in oceanographic patterns and resulting impacts on target fish stocks resulting from sea-surface ... xi) Ensure that fish stocks used for fish meal and fish oil are managed in such a way as to be sustainable and to maintain the ... k) Ensuring that fish stocks used for fish meal and fish oil are managed in such a way as to be sustainable and to maintain the ...
... an Atlantic Ocean barrier island, is like a family-friendly Key West minus the wild street parties and torrid heat -- and with ... in the salt marshes of Talbot Islands state parks and the Timucuan Preserve. Dolphin, manatee and sea turtle sightings are ... Northeast Floridas Amelia Island, an Atlantic Ocean barrier island, is like a family-friendly Key West minus the wild street ... This boot-shaped island offers fishing, surfing, hiking, biking and boating -- along with tennis and golf. Nearby Jacksonville ...
Sea Oaks 102 is a 2 bedroom vacation rental located Ocean Front managed by Garden City Realty. Check availability, view photos ... a half-mile long boardwalk overlooking a pristine salt marsh, and the many award-winning seafood and barbecue restaurants along ... Once primarily a fishing village, the town is best known for the Murrells Inlet MarshWalk, ... Sea Oaks 102 is a two-bedroom, two-bath ocean view condo located 0.5 miles north of Garden City Pier. This unit features a ...
Sea Master 207 is a 3 bedroom vacation rental located Ocean Front managed by Garden City Realty. Check availability, view ... a half-mile long boardwalk overlooking a pristine salt marsh, and the many award-winning seafood and barbecue restaurants along ... Once primarily a fishing village, the town is best known for the Murrells Inlet MarshWalk, ... Sea Master 207. Garden City Beach - Ocean Front 1310 North Waccamaw Drive ...
Welsh for sea-trout, a meatier and somehow cleaner-tasting fish than its cousins who never take to the oceans.. A rather more ... Proceeding only a little inland takes us to the Llanrhidian salt-marshes, where some of the best lamb in Wales is reared, as ... Starting at the margins between sea and land, in the case of South Wales the muddy flats at Penclawdd on the north side of the ... And a fourth South Wales speciality sits, or rather swims, between sea and land: the Sewin, ...
To the east, looking inland, you can see over the salt marshes and beyond to distant industrial structures and far away, on the ... Some afternoons I even go fishing off the Spoil Bank, a long, lonely sand spit that juts out into the sea. ... In between there are suburban bungalows, many with reasonable ocean views. The island has a ridge running along its spine. A ... I go fishing instead.. Good news at last - Jeff calls from N&L. He has found a back end from an old Hilux and thinks he might ...
Study: Salt marshes will vanish if seas keep rising and California keeps building. February 22, 2018 On one side, theres the ... High cesium level found in fish by Fukushima plant. March 17, 2013 The Japanese utility that owns the tsunami-damaged nuclear ... the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at the end of the last ice age was triggered by changes in the Antarctic Ocean ... power plant says it has detected a record 740,000 becquerels per kilogram of radioactive cesium in a fish caught close to the ...
It lies at the southernmost point in New Jersey, on the Cape May Peninsula, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. On the other ... The back bays, surf, Delaware Bay and open Atlantic Ocean allow for many more (surf and deep sea) fishing opportunities. The ... Salt Marsh -- Take a tour of this Atlantic coastal Salt marsh aboard one of the areas boats. For example, aboard the Skimmer, ... Kayak -- take a sea kayak on a ride, and explore the many nooks and crannies of the salt marsh. ...
Rising seas inundate brackish marsh land, cause vegetation loss, and exacerbate the collapse of salt marsh. ... Estuary and salt marsh decline. The ocean at first glance appears to be huge. Looking at its broad expanses we are inclined to ... Salt marshes are the most productive ecosystems on earth. The average salt marsh can sequester 10 times as much carbon as a ... Ocean Acidification. Perhaps the most worrisome problem the ocean faces is a newly observed phenomenon called ocean ...
Salt ocean water intruded into Miamis wells; when the city brought in an expert to explain why, he discovered that the water ... an ecosystem that buffers the freshwater marshes by absorbing sea water. Mangrove trees begin to grow in fresh water ecosystems ... a b c U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. "South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan: Pine rockland", Retrieved May 3, 2008. ... Sea grasses also serve to stabilize the sea beds and protect shorelines from erosion by absorbing energy from waves. ...
... salt marshes, sandy beaches, kelp forests, and coastal oceans. Human activities that modify these habitats include agriculture ... ENSO related changes in ocean currents cause sea surface temperature to increase and ocean nutrients to decline. Upwelling is ... ranching, fishing and urbanization. The Santa Barbara Channel experiences dramatic physical and biological responses to El Niño ... 3) rates of organic and inorganic inputs from the land and the coastal ocean to giant kelp forests. 4) patterns and controls of ...
... life in the ocean greatly affects life on land, yet we know very little about the ocean. At least ... such as the Aral Sea, are actually salt lakes. ... Russian fishing firms voluntarily reduce bottom-trawling. *~ EU ... Estuaries, Salt Marshes & Mangroves. Vital ecosystems and nursing grounds for marine life. ... From this perspective, the earth has three oceans: the World Ocean, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea. The latter two were formed ...
FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the large-particle fraction post-incubation showed a substantial contribution (15- ... The composition of these communities varies by depth, season, and location in the ocean; the functional consequences of these ... FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the large-particle fraction post-incubation showed a substantial contribution (15- ... The composition of these communities varies by depth, season, and location in the ocean; the functional consequences of these ...
... salt marshes, rocky reefs, coral reefs, pelagic systems, and deep sea hydrothermal vents. Professor Micheli has authored or co- ... Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean ECOLOGY LETTERS Wood, C. L., Lafferty, K. ... From Fishing Fish to Fishing Data: The Role of Artisanal Fishers in Conservation and Resource Management in Mexico VIABILITY ... Using comparative field surveys of fish on protected and exploited reefs in three oceans and the Mediterranean Sea, we show ...
... 沼 marsh; 海 ocean or sea; 洋 ocean; 沖 open sea; 湖 lake; 池 pond; 潟 lagoon; 礁 reef; 江 creek or bay; 湾 bay, gulf; 岸 shore; 磯 ... 鰐 alligator or crocodile 魚 fish; 貝 shellfish; 鯉 carp; 鮒 crucian carp; 鮠 minnow; 鱒 trout; 鮭 salmon; 鱸 sea bass; 鯛 sea bream; 鰌 ... 塩 salt; 丹 cinnabar; 硫 sulphur; 酸 acid, oxygen; 窒 nitrogen; 材 timber, material; 油 oil; 脂 fat 雲 cloud; 曇 cloud; 雨 rain; 虹 rainbow ... 鈎 fish hook; 金 money or gold; 銭 coin; 札 banknote; 円 yen; 幣 currency; 財 wealth; 富 rich; 買 buy; 購 purchase; 売 sell; 業 business, ...
Salt marsh plants-common reed phragmites ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,li,Dams-fish passage and trade-offs with hydropower ,/li,,/ul, ... species that migrate into the ocean, mature, and return to rivers to spawn River herring Atlantic sturgeon American shad Sea ... M haplotype not as salt tolerant as spartina ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,But can invade salt marshes with reduced salinity ,/li,,/ul ... Phragmites marshes less valuable habitat than spartina marshes ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Less habitat for fishes ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul ...
WHOI biologist Ann Tarrant collects animals from a salt marsh in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Tarrant studies the "internal ... Pacific and Indian Oceans; coastal, open water, and deep sea). Special strengths in the department include the ecology and ... Squids like this Dortyteuthis pealeii are common prey for many fish, whales, and even humans. WHOI researchers investigate how ... Ocean Observatories*About Ocean Observatories*Need for Ocean Observatories. *Types of Observatories*Regional Cabled ...
  • The Coastal Waters Gallery, which includes the Coquina Outcrop Touch Pool, provides hands-on opportunities to learn about sea urchins, horseshoe crabs, whelks, and other creatures of a rocky outcrop surf zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jessica characterizes flow of energy between producers (such as plants, bacteria, and algae) and consumers (such as crabs and birds) from oiled and unoiled marshes using trophic biomarkers called stable isotopes. (gulfresearchinitiative.org)
  • Koenig said he liked learning about fish and crabs, and is excited about an upcoming field trip in April to the Enviro-Lab, a boat used as a floating laboratory off Avery Point in Groton. (courant.com)
  • Tidal marshes also provide vital food and habitat for clams, crabs, and juvenile fish, as well as offering shelter and nesting sites for numerous species of migratory waterfowl. (nj.us)
  • Some crabs feed at sea, and reproduce on beaches. (answers.com)
  • In fact, scientists were amazed to discover invertebrates that thrived in the deep ocean near hydrothermal (hot water) vents, including giant tube worms, crabs, and shrimps (Figure 14.29). (wikibooks.org)
  • Although they are not endangered, the sharks are a key part of the food chain in the bay, eating clams, worms, crabs and small fish. (mercurynews.com)
  • As only about 1 percent of the deep sea has been explored, Ms. Weis wrote, new groups of crabs are still being discovered. (easthamptonstar.com)
  • This suggests that the loss of snail predators such as blue crabs may be an important factor contributing to the die-off of salt marshes in the southeastern United States. (easthamptonstar.com)
  • There are crabs that live in the open ocean on floating material (the Sargassum or gulfweed crab) and others found on floating species such as sea turtles and jellyfish (the grapsid crab). (easthamptonstar.com)
  • As the dead plant material is broken down by bacteria, fungi, and algae, it becomes a source of food for the crabs, shrimp, fish, and other bottom-dwelling organisms. (nps.gov)
  • Many species of birds can be found in the marsh feeding on the insects, fish, crabs, and other invertebrates that live there. (nps.gov)
  • These are fecund ingredients of the marine food web: algae, larva of fish, shellfish, and crabs-all seasoned with sea salt. (hiltonheadmonthly.com)
  • This green alga often forms dense underwater meadows home to thousands of aquatic animal species like crabs and bottom-feeding fish. (gardenguides.com)
  • More directly, there are a number for animals that are directly valuable commercially that will decline as a result of ocean acidification - including king crabs, American lobsters, scallops, and Ocean Quahog, amongst others. (scienceheathen.com)
  • Even the seemingly barren beaches provide habitat for nocturnal ghost crabs (Ocypode quadrata), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and raccoons (Procyon lotor), who scavenge the crustaceans, fish, and other organic matter washed in by the tides. (wikitravel.org)
  • Comes with a view of the SECU Daily Planet Theater from the 2nd floor balcony plus exhibits ranging from "WRAL Storm Central," where you can use meteorological data to make your own weather forecast, to "Diversity of Life," which looks at how the relationships between humans and horseshoe crabs, or wolves and elk, or fish and mussels, are all important to biodiversity. (naturalsciences.org)
  • They provide a safe place for marine animals to lay eggs, a nursery habitat for young fish, and protection from predators for young animals like scallops, crabs, and lobsters. (mit.edu)
  • Using data from more than 800 sediment cores which record how salt marshes responded to variable rates of sea-level rise over the past 10,000 years, the researchers estimate that marshes in the south east of England could start to disappear from the year 2040, and across all of Great Britain by 2100. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Sea grasses may look like our grass fields on land, but they are actually flowering plants that live in the salty environments of the sea floor and help hold sediment in place. (ipsnews.net)
  • Without the plants to bind sediment and protect wildlife, the salt marsh ecosystem disappeared and became a mud flat. (easthamptonstar.com)
  • We measured changes in salt marsh vegetation structure using remote sensing and its consequences for carbon sequestration, wave attenuation, and sediment trapping ability using remotely sensed imaging, field measurement data, and the published literature data pertaining to the Yangtze Estuary, a rapidly urbanizing area in Eastern China. (springer.com)
  • Sediment accretion increased (from 8 to 14 million m 3 /year) due to the spread of Spartina , which to some extent compensated the loss of total vegetated area in the salt marsh. (springer.com)
  • Changes in the delivery of functions were not linearly related to the change in the area of vegetated salt marsh, but more from the combined effect of changing vegetation structure, sediment input, and land reclamation. (springer.com)
  • Deltas are a type of geologic estuary that form at the mouth of a large river where sediment and silt carried by the river are deposited where the river meets the ocean. (thoughtco.com)
  • As advancing glaciers move toward the ocean creating their valleys they also deposit sediment that creates a sill at the mouth of the valley near the ocean. (thoughtco.com)
  • Allison MA, Nittrouer CA, Ogston AS, Mullarney JC, Nguyen TT (2017) Sedimentation and survival of the Mekong delta: a case study of decreased sediment supply and accelerating rates of relative sea level rise. (springer.com)
  • Since 1977, they have been found everywhere in the world's oceans when the water temperature is warmer than 5°C (41°F) at concentrations from a few cells to more than 500,000 cells per milliliter (about 1/5 of a teaspoon), depending on the season and nutrients. (whoi.edu)
  • They're found almost everywhere across the world's oceans and lead their adult lives within 300 metres of the surface. (newscientist.com)
  • The average salt marsh can sequester 10 times as much carbon as a tropical rain forest. (earthjournalism.net)
  • Heterotrophic microbial communities collectively process a large fraction of the organic matter biosynthesized in the ocean ( Azam, 1998 ), remineralizing, repackaging, and respiring a variety of substrates, and thus playing a central role in the marine carbon cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • this approach has major limitations with respect to carbon cycling, due to the wide range of potential substrates in ocean waters and our very limited abilities to identify specific functional genes related to cycling of these substrates (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although several recent studies have focused on the characterization of microbial communities involved in carbon and sulfur cycling in coastal benthic environments ( 13 , 24 , 34 , 42 , 54 ), microbial populations in deep-sea sediments remain poorly studied. (asm.org)
  • 2016. Comparing Organic Matter Decay in a Flooded and Dyked Salt Marsh: the Impact of Land Use Change on Carbon Storage. (weebly.com)
  • 2016. Marsh Wide Carbon Storage of Northern Salt Marshes. (weebly.com)
  • 2015. Variability in carbon stocks of northern salt marshes. (weebly.com)
  • 2014. Determining Carbon Stocks in Northern Salt Marshes. (weebly.com)
  • The fundamental roles of the ocean and cryosphere in the Earth system include the uptake and redistribution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and heat by the ocean, as well as their crucial involvement of in the hydrological cycle. (ipcc.ch)
  • Relationships Between Salinity and Short-Term Soil Carbon Accumulation Rates from Marsh Types Across a Landscape in the Mississippi River Delta. (lacoast.gov)
  • Ocean-based climate action can play a much bigger role in shrinking the world's carbon footprint than was previously thought. (wri.org)
  • Utilising low-carbon sources of protein from the ocean, such as seafood and seaweeds, to help feed future populations in a healthy and sustainable way, while easing emissions from land-based food production could support emission reductions of up to 1.24 GtCO 2 e each year by 2050. (wri.org)
  • In response to the report, the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy issued an urgent Call to Ocean-Based Climate Action today (4), to inspire political commitments, business partnerships and investments to set us on the new pathway to a low-carbon, climate-resilient future. (wri.org)
  • And because they're in salt water that carbon is not exposed to air so it doesn't get broken down by bacteria and respired back into the atmosphere. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Craft CB, Broom SW, Seneca ED (1988) Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon pools in natural and transplanted marsh soils. (springer.com)
  • MIT Sea Grant is working with several partners to quantify the carbon storage of eelgrass beds in Massachusetts. (mit.edu)
  • MIT Sea Grant is working with the Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), researchers at Boston University , the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries , and the Massachusetts Bays National Estuary Program (MassBays) to conduct studies to quantify the carbon storage of eelgrass beds in coastal Massachusetts. (mit.edu)
  • PETER MACREADIE: Blue carbon is carbon that is captured and stored by the oceans. (abc.net.au)
  • The oceans are blue, therefore the name blue carbon. (abc.net.au)
  • Patterns, transport, and processing of organic and inorganic inputs to coastal reefs Patterns of rainfall, land use, and constituents of runoff Rainfall and streamflow data for hydrologic modeling Instream processing Ocean monitoring of biogeochemical parameters b. (lternet.edu)
  • Dodge further said that development, fishing and pollution are other stressors to the reefs and the wildlife they support. (nbcnews.com)
  • Starting at the margins between sea and land, in the case of South Wales the muddy flats at Penclawdd on the north side of the Gower Peninsula offer the perfect habitat for the humble but delicious cockle, the beds there we know exploited by the Romans. (information-britain.co.uk)
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's wetland and deepwater habitat classification (Cowardin et al. (fws.gov)
  • The assessment is funded through grants from the Western Native Trout Initiative Fish Habitat Partnership and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation's Bring Back the Natives/More Fish program. (constantcontact.com)
  • Oceans: our allies against climate change. (ipsnews.net)
  • ROME, Oct 20 2017 (IPS) - With 30 countries from Kenya to Indonesia and from Canada to Brazil now involved in the world campaign to beat pollution by countering the torrents of plastic trash that are degrading oceans and endangering the life they sustain, the UN has strengthened its massive efforts to clean up the seas, which are the Earth's main buffer against climate change. (ipsnews.net)
  • Section TS.1 (Chapter 1) introduces important key concepts, summarizes the characteristics and interconnection of ocean and cryosphere and highlights their importance in the earth system and for human societies in the light of climate change. (ipcc.ch)
  • February In Dead Water Merging of climate change with pollution, over-harvest, and infestations in the world s fishing grounds. (docplayer.net)
  • 3 Preface In 2009, the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council (FOCC) published a report entitled The Effects of Climate Change on Florida s Ocean and Coastal Resources. (docplayer.net)
  • Brief information was provided on Florida s infrastructure, human health, and economy, but the report focused on what was known, was probable, and was possible concerning climate-change effects on the state s ocean and coastal resources. (docplayer.net)
  • The world's leading group of climate scientists, the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , released a new report finding that unique and vital environments on Earth are being threatened by climate change - from the highest mountains to the deepest depths of the ocean and to both the north and south poles. (unfoundation.org)
  • This is a key finding of a new scientific report, The Ocean as a Solution for Climate Change: 5 Opportunities for Action (1), published today at the U.N. Secretary-General's Climate Action Summit in New York. (wri.org)
  • The report, produced by the Expert Group (2) of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy (3) - a group of 14 heads of state and government - provides the first ever comprehensive, quantitative analysis into the role that ocean-based solutions can play in the fight against climate change. (wri.org)
  • Yet today's new report highlights solutions that would help curb climate change and contribute to the development of a sustainable ocean economy while protecting coastal communities from storms, providing jobs and improving food security. (wri.org)
  • They're wonderful in protecting coastlines from erosion, so they'll actually mitigate the effects of climate change such as sea level rise and increased intensity of storms. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • However, these fisheries have suffered boom-and-bust periods due to over-fishing and more recently from climate change, as the North Sea has warmed up significantly in the last 50 years. (hurtigruten.com)
  • Climate change and sea level rise (SLR) poses serious risks to coastal communities around the world requiring nations to apply adaptation laws and policies. (usda.gov)
  • Global warming has brought rising seas, a two-story-high rock wall to fight them and the hamlet's designation as one of the communities in the province most threatened by climate change. (pressherald.com)
  • Protected from saltspray and storms by the dunes, forested areas can sometimes be found between the marshes and the dune line. (nps.gov)
  • Approximately 72% of the Earth's surface (~3.61 X 1014 m 2 ) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. (marinebio.org)
  • The global ocean covers 71% of the Earth surface and contains about 97% of the Earth's water. (ipcc.ch)
  • More than 50% of the earth's surface is covered by deep-sea sediments that are primarily formed through the continual deposition of particles from the productive ocean surface. (asm.org)
  • Some say the depths of our oceans are Earth's last frontier-the deeper you go, the less we know. (okaquarium.org)
  • The students are part of the school's marine biology club, an organization started in September that allows the club's more than 40 members to learn more about the ocean and the animals and plants that live in and around it. (courant.com)
  • For that reason, most plants, seaweeds and algae in the ocean are found near the ocean surface or close to the shore. (wikibooks.org)
  • No plants -relying on sunlight for their photosynthesis- are found in the deep sea as no light reaches this zone. (overfishing.org)
  • The sea is a nature soup, a marine menagerie of plants and animals that we may encounter when we set foot into the surf. (hiltonheadmonthly.com)
  • The plants also provide protection and food (the mud-dwellers) for a variety of juvenile fish. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Quantitative oligonucleotide hybridization experiments indicated that the relative abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA in deep-sea sediments (1500 m deep) ranged from about 2.5 to 8% of the total prokaryotic rRNA. (asm.org)
  • This is particularly true for the Archaea , whose population structure, global distribution, and possible contribution to postdepositional diagenesis in deep-sea sediments are virtually unknown. (asm.org)
  • New lineages of the Euryarchaeota have also been found among marine picoplankton ( 9 , 10 , 20 ), in salt marsh sediments ( 42 ), in continental shelf anoxic sediments ( 56 ), associated with the digestive tracts of marine fishes ( 55 ), and in hydrothermal vent microbial mats ( 41 ). (asm.org)
  • In salt marshes throughout the world, several types of cyanobacteria play a key ecological role in binding sediments by forming dense layered mats. (whoi.edu)
  • At many more locales, groundwater drains at low tide through sand or other porous shoreline sediments into the ocean. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Salt-marsh sediments and assemblages of foraminifera record former sea level because they are intrinsically linked to the frequency and duration of tidal inundation and keep pace with moderate rates of sea-level rise ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Relative sea level (RSL) was reconstructed by subtracting transfer-function derived estimates of PME from measured sample altitudes ( Fig. 2 B ). Agreement of geological records with trends in regional and global tide-gauge data ( Figs. 2 B and 3 ) validates the salt-marsh proxy approach and justifies its application to older sediments ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • On April 19, scientists from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network will take part in the symposium "Understanding Our Ocean Connections. (nsf.gov)
  • The research focus of SBC LTER is on ecological systems at the land-ocean margin. (lternet.edu)
  • Collectively called submarine groundwater discharge, such flows to the sea are gaining increasing attention in scientific circles. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the north, it opens up into the Norwegian Sea between the Shetland Islands and Norway , in the south through the English Channel, and it flows east towards the Baltic Sea through Skagerrak and Kattegat straits. (hurtigruten.com)
  • Even land mammals, with our lime-hardened skeletons and our salty blood, begin as fetuses that swim in the ocean of every womb. (newyorker.com)
  • They buffer stormy seas, slow shoreline erosion, and are able to absorb excess nutrients before they reach the bay that could otherwise lower oxygen levels enough to harm wildlife. (nj.us)
  • 5 Acknowledgments This document was produced by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. (docplayer.net)
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) announced last week that it plans to dispatch hunters beginning this fall to shoot more than 3600 barred owls in California, Oregon, and Washington over the next 4 years. (sciencemag.org)
  • From Pest to Protected: Changing research priorities for the Mazama pocket gopher in Washington,' Gail Olson, WA Department of Fish and Wildlife. (washington.edu)
  • Microbiologist and Connecticut College professor Anne Bernhard does research work on the marshes at Barn Island Wildlife Management Area in Stonington. (theday.com)
  • Kendall and his colleagues have determined that pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, are getting into the environment and may cause impacts to fish and wildlife. (nbcnews.com)
  • (17/P14) TRENTON - The New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife today is marking its 125th anniversary by rededicating itself to its mission of conserving wildlife and providing recreational opportunities for future generations of hunters, anglers and wildlife enthusiasts. (nj.gov)
  • The Christie Administration is proud to celebrate the outstanding service the New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife continues to provide to millions of residents and visitors. (nj.gov)
  • Throughout the year, the Division of Fish and Wildlife will highlight historical information and conservation success stories on its website and Facebook page. (nj.gov)
  • The Division of Fish and Wildlife, which today manages nearly 350,000 acres of wildlife management areas, is one of the oldest state wildlife management agencies in the nation. (nj.gov)
  • In 1979, the agency became the Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, and in 2000, the name was changed to the Division of Fish and Wildlife to encompass its mission of managing all wildlife. (nj.gov)
  • Division of Fish and Wildlife staff also educate the public about wildlife-related issues, and its conservation officers enforce the laws that protect wildlife. (nj.gov)
  • Nestled on the Georgia coast, midway between Savannah, GA, and Jacksonville, FL, lies the mainland city of Brunswick and its four beautiful barrier islands off of Georgia: St. Simons Island, Sea Island, Little St. Simons Island and Jekyll Island. (vrbo.com)
  • While Jessica can compare the energy flow of food webs in oiled and unoiled salt marshes, the lack of data pre- Deepwater Horizon makes it difficult to describe spill impacts confidently. (gulfresearchinitiative.org)
  • This Summary for Policymakers (SPM) compiles key findings of the report and is structured in three parts: SPM.A: Observed Changes and Impacts, SPM.B: Projected Changes and Risks, and SPM.C: Implementing Responses to Ocean and Cryosphere Change. (ipcc.ch)
  • TS.3 (Chapter 3) evaluates the state of knowledge concerning changes and impacts in the Arctic and Antarctic ocean and cryosphere systems, including challenges and opportunities for societies. (ipcc.ch)
  • The Open Oceans Gallery includes Sharkstooth Ledge, which features fish common to offshore North Carolina, such as pufferfish, hogfish, and filefish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with hundreds of schooling fishes and other animals, they create a swirl of constant motion around a replica of U-352, a German submarine that lost a World War II battle with a Coast Guard cutter off the North Carolina coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data from North Carolina reveal four phases of persistent sea-level change after correction for glacial isostatic adjustment. (pnas.org)
  • We developed transfer functions using a modern dataset of foraminifera (193 samples) from 10 salt marshes in North Carolina, USA ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Oksana is honored to be involved with the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS), a multi-national project in the Mediterranean Sea under the lead of the Italian Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research of the CNR. (briloon.org)
  • Work experience in a variety of geographic areas including North and Central America, Russia, and the Mediterranean Sea. (briloon.org)
  • Marshlands in the south east of England could start to disappear from the year 2040 due to rapid sea level rise, according to new research involving Durham University scientists. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Co-author Professor Ian Shennan from the Department of Geography at Durham University, said: "Sea level rise is inevitable over the next 100 years, as it has been over much of the last 10,000 years. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Quantifying the vulnerability of marshes to sea level rise is essential if the threat is to be mitigated over the coming decades. (dur.ac.uk)
  • For example, they're providing evidence that storms such as hurricanes can buffer the effects of increasing sea-level rise. (nsf.gov)
  • This loss is expected to continue as sea levels rise. (earthjournalism.net)
  • Human communities in close connection with coastal environments, small islands (including Small Island Developing States, SIDS), polar areas and high mountains 7 are particularly exposed to ocean and cryosphere change, such as sea level rise, extreme sea level and shrinking cryosphere. (ipcc.ch)
  • Sea Level Rise Data, Products and Tools: Thomas Ruppert, Florida Sea Grant Legal Specialist ( [email protected] ) or 352-392-5870. (louisiana.gov)
  • Sea-Level Rise. (docplayer.net)
  • To recognize and disseminate the latest findings and their implications for managing the state s ocean and coastal resources, the FOCC undertook this update of one driver, sea-level rise, with the expectation that updates for increasing greenhouse gases, air temperature, and ocean temperature may be released in subsequent years. (docplayer.net)
  • This update on sea-level rise involved contributions by 5 Council members, 12 contributing authors, and 11 external reviewers whose technical contributions were based principally on literature published by August Two-thirds of the cited literature was published in this decade, and one-third of it appeared in 2009 and As of December, many new research and resource-management initiatives have begun around Florida or soon will begin. (docplayer.net)
  • Sea level rise is also eating away at California's coastal cliffs. (phys.org)
  • Hopefully this model will give coastal managers a broad-scale picture of how the cliffs might respond to sea level rise , so that they can start planning for the future. (phys.org)
  • The study uses a sophisticated model that synthesizes existing data and conclusions on how sea level rise could affect these defining features of California's coast. (phys.org)
  • This is a significant amount of erosion, and it's something that we need to be preparing for now, not later," said Heather Cooley of the Pacific Institute, an Oakland-based think tank that has studied the socioeconomic effects of sea level rise in California. (phys.org)
  • Using sea level rise scenarios ranging from 0.5 to 2 meters (1.6 to 6.6 feet), researchers stitched together five previous models-incorporating their varying uncertainties and assumptions, as well as historical erosion rates-and ultimately reached a consensus that the cliffs will erode on average 19 to 41 meters (62 to 135 feet) by the end of the century. (phys.org)
  • He noted these projections might even be on the conservative end, given that California policymakers are now considering 3 meters as the higher end of expected sea level rise. (phys.org)
  • Like hurricane and climate forecasting, projecting how much erosion will accelerate due to sea level rise, while inherently difficult, is in increasing demand. (phys.org)
  • A collapse of the west Antarctic ice sheet could dramatically increase the amount and speed of sea level rise across the globe. (unfoundation.org)
  • Then nitrogen from fertilizers and sewage started choking them, and sea-levels started to rise. (theday.com)
  • The North Sea was central to the rise of the Vikings as they used their superior sea power to conquer territory along its shores, leaving behind their historical and cultural imprint which can be seen in some places to this day. (hurtigruten.com)
  • In the front garden, palms rustle in the breeze and when there are no giant ore ships to block the view we can see the golden sandy beach on Finucane Island and the calm blue waters of the Indian Ocean . (hubpages.com)
  • From San Diego County to Santa Cruz, local disputes have intensified over how many more sea walls to build to fend off rising waters-and who will pay to maintain them each year. (phys.org)
  • The Gulf of Mexico regional Sea Grant programs and their partners (Ocean Research Priorities Plan, NOAA's Coastal Storms Program, NOAA Coastal Services Center, and the EPA Gulf of Mexico Program) are pleased to announce a multi-disciplinary funding opportunity. (louisiana.gov)
  • Influence of Local and Regional Drivers on Spatial and Temporal Variation of Ammonia‐oxidizing Communities in Gulf of Mexico Salt Marshes. (lacoast.gov)
  • According to the University of Florida IFAS Extension, needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) "comprises the largest vegetative zone and the bulk of the biomass in most salt marshes on the northeast Gulf Coast. (gardenguides.com)
  • Coastal Connecticut has some of the most vibrant salt marshes this side of Cape Cod or the Gulf Coast, and only a few people stop to look into them, even with the effusive fronds of the reed Phragmites waving in their faces. (theday.com)
  • He and other scientists are particularly concerned now about sea turtles and certain bird and fish populations near the dead zone and within the Gulf region. (nbcnews.com)
  • andwiched on a narrow sandbar between Yarmouth's harbor and the open Gulf of Maine, the fishermen of Yarmouth Bar have long struggled to keep the sea at bay. (pressherald.com)
  • Microbial mats, thought once to have covered early Earth, are now restricted to regions of extreme conditions where competitors cannot survive: salt marshes, arid temperate deserts, hot springs or Antarctica. (newscientist.com)
  • Made from layers of conch shells, it was crowded with young lobsters and fish until the Biorock reef, the solar panel, and nearby houses were demolished by Hurricane Ivan on September 11-12 2004. (globalcoral.org)
  • Lobsters populations have been shifting northward and out to sea along our coast as they've abandoned Long Island Sound almost entirely. (pressherald.com)