Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Histone Code: The specific patterns of changes made to HISTONES, that are involved in assembly, maintenance, and alteration of chromatin structural states (such as EUCHROMATIN and HETEROCHROMATIN). The changes are made by various HISTONE MODIFICATION PROCESSES that include ACETYLATION; METHYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; and UBIQUITINATION.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Histone Demethylases: Enzymes that catalyse the removal of methyl groups from LYSINE or ARGININE residues found on HISTONES. Many histone demethylases generally function through an oxidoreductive mechanism.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Epigenetic Repression: The turning off of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION in certain regions of CHROMATIN without changes in the DNA sequence. Typically epigenetic repression is a way that developmental changes are programmed at the cellular level.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases: A family of histone demethylases that share a conserved Jumonji C domain. The enzymes function via an iron-dependent dioxygenase mechanism that couples the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate to the hydroxylation of N-methyl groups.Printers' MarksGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ecchymosis: Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Group Structure: The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingCorpse Dismemberment: Disjoining the limbs or other parts of a corpse, often in association with criminal acts.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Awards and PrizesRegulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 2: A retinoblastoma binding protein that is also a member of the Jumonji-domain histone demethylases. It has demethylation activity towards specific LYSINE residues found on HISTONE H3.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.SOXB2 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Chromosomal Position Effects: The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 7: A retinoblastoma-binding protein that has an affinity for core HISTONES. It is found as a subunit of protein complexes that are in involved in the enzymatic modification of histones including the Mi2 and Sin3 histone deacetylase complexes and the polycomb repressive complex 2.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Denture Identification Marking: Any system of defining ownership of dentures or dental prostheses.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Lissencephaly: A "smooth brain" malformation of the CEREBRAL CORTEX resulting from abnormal location of developing neurons during corticogenesis. It is characterized by an absence of normal convoluted indentations on the surface of the brain (agyria), or fewer and shallower indentations (pachygryia). There is a reduced number of cortical layers, typically 4 instead of 6, resulting in a thickened cortex, and reduced cerebral white matter that is a reversal of the normal ratio of cerebral white matter to cortex.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gene Knock-In Techniques: Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).
... s serve many biological roles inside the cell. Chromatin is a combination of proteins and DNA found in the nucleus, and it undergoes many structural changes as different cellular events such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription occur.[22] Chromatin in the cell can be found in two states: condensed and uncondensed. The latter, known as euchromatin, is transcriptionally active, whereas the former, known as heterochromatin, is transcriptionally inactive.[22][23] Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core histone is formed when two of each histone subtype, excluding H1, form a quaternary complex. This octameric complex, in association with the 147 base pairs of DNA coiled around it, forms the nucleosome.[3] Histone H1 locks the nucleosome complex together, and it is the last protein to bind in the complex.. Histones tend to be positively charged proteins with N-terminal tails ...
Abnormal expression or activity of methylation-regulating enzymes has been noted in some types of human cancers, suggesting associations between histone methylation and malignant transformation of cells or formation of tumors.[18] In recent years, epigenetic modification of the histone proteins, especially the methylation of the histone H3, in cancer development has been an area of emerging research. It is now generally accepted that in addition to genetic aberrations, cancer can be initiated by epigenetic changes in which gene expression is altered without genomic abnormalities. These epigenetic changes include loss or gain of methylations in both DNA and histone proteins.[18]. There is not yet compelling evidence that suggests cancers develop purely by abnormalities in histone methylation or its signaling pathways, however they may be a contributing factor. For example, down-regulation of methylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me3) has been observed in several types of human cancer (such as ...
Histone H1.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H1B gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H1 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184357 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Albig W, Meergans T, Doenecke D (Mar 1997). "Characterization of the H1.5 gene completes the set of human H1 subtype genes". Gene. 184 (2): 141-8. ...
Histone H2A type 1-C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H2AC gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000180573 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000094248 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, Meergans K, ...
In pursuit of understanding the DNA-histone protein complex and the intricate system which allows for gene activation, the Allis lab focuses on chromatin signaling via histone modifications - acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Allis is best known for deciphering regulatory mechanisms that impinge upon the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin. Allis was not the first one to recognize histone acetyltransferase activity (Cano, A. & Pestana, A. Purification and properties of a histone acetyltransferase from Artemia salina, highly efficient with H1 histone. Eur. J. Biochem. 97, 65-72 (1979)), nor its role in the regulation of gene expression (Allfrey, V. G. (1970) Fed. Proc. 29, 1447- 1460.) but he sparked renewed interest in chromatin function. Histone acetylation as well as other modifications (methylation, phosphorilation, ubiquitination) may frame the "Histone Code" or "Epigenetic Code." While the DNA code is responsible for the sequence of RNA's and proteins, the Histone Code may ...
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
Mechanisms of heritability of histone state are not well understood; however, much is known about the mechanism of heritability of DNA methylation state during cell division and differentiation. Heritability of methylation state depends on certain enzymes (such as DNMT1) that have a higher affinity for 5-methylcytosine than for cytosine. If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the enzyme will methylate the other half.. Although histone modifications occur throughout the entire sequence, the unstructured N-termini of histones (called histone tails) are particularly highly modified. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ribosylation and citrullination. Acetylation is the most highly studied of these modifications. For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is generally related to ...
Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. This protein does not bind DNA directly but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3.[7] Furthermore, HDAC4 is required for TGFbeta1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation.[8] ...
Chromatin is the complex combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes.[1][2] It is found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Chromatin is divided into heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended) forms.[3][4] Heterochromatin is composed mostly of satellite DNA tandem repeats. The active components of chromatin are DNA and histone proteins, although other proteins also occur.[5] The functions of chromatin are: ...
Histone H2B type 2-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST2H2BF gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000203814 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000105827 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: HIST2H2BF histone cluster 2, H2bf". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899-903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241 . PMID 12477932. Cheung WL, Ajiro K, Samejima K, et al. (2003). "Apoptotic phosphorylation of histone H2B is mediated by mammalian sterile twenty kinase". Cell. 113 (4): 507-17. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00355-6. PMID 12757711. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC ...
Van Holde, K., J. Zlatanova, G. Arents, and E. Moudrianakis. 1995. Elements of chromatin structure: histones, nucleosomes, and fibres, p. 1-26. In S. C. R. Elgin (ed.), Chromatin structure and gene expression. IRL Press at Oxford University Press, Oxford ...
靶向治疗或靶向分子治疗(英語:Targeted Therapy、Molecularly Targeted Therapy)是一种以干扰癌变或肿瘤增生所需的特定分子来阻止癌细胞增长的一种药物疗法,[1]而非一般的干扰所有持续分裂细胞(英语:rapidly dividing cells)(不稳定细胞)的传统化疗法。放射疗法尽管是针对特定肿瘤的,但是并非此处"靶向"的含义。 癌症靶向治疗在被认为是比当今其他疗法更加有效,并且对正常细胞伤害更小的疗法。 靶向治疗可以治疗乳腺癌、多发性骨髓癌,淋巴癌,前列腺癌,黑色素瘤以及其他一些癌症。[2]. Mark ...

No data available that match "marks"

  • Published: Mark Gertler & Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Andrea Prestipino, 2020. (nber.org)
  • Published: Mark Gertler & Christopher Huckfeldt & Antonella Trigari, 2020. (nber.org)
  • Marks will take over when Chapman retires in June 2020. (itwire.com)
  • Mark Pekala has been the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary (PDAS) in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs (IO) since March 2020. (state.gov)
  • According to a 2017 study on 10 women with stretch marks and 10 women without them, a cream made of pomegranate oil and dragon's blood extract increased skin's thickness, elasticity, and hydration in all volunteers. (healthline.com)
  • Mark was in a 4-wheeler accident on November 1st, 2017. (caringbridge.org)
  • PHILADELPHIA , Nov. 19, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- In marking its 10th anniversary, the Center for Child Injury Prevention Studies (CChIPS) has proven that its unique model for collaboration between industry members, academia and government in a pre-competitive environment can lead to innovation in product development and policy that prevents injuries and saves children's lives. (prnewswire.com)
  • Published: Diego Anzoategui & Diego Comin & Mark Gertler & Joseba Martinez, 2019. (nber.org)
  • On Friday April 5, 2019, Mark went to see a neurologist for what we thought were migraines. (caringbridge.org)
  • If stretch marks appear without clear cause, such as pregnancy or rapid weight gain, call your health care provider. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You report that your arms are affected, and so you might try reducing the weight during biceps curls, triceps press-downs and kickbacks, and any other exercise that works the muscle under the skin where the stretch marks appear. (medicinenet.com)
  • President Shimon Peres , Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, and senior military and government officials planned to attend the official state ceremony marking Holocaust, Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Day at the Yad Vashem museum in Jerusalem Sunday evening. (upi.com)
  • Pregnancy, puberty, and rapid weight gain can all cause stretch marks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Stretch marks are a normal part of puberty for most girls and guys. (kidshealth.org)
  • When a person grows or gains weight really quickly (like during puberty), that person may get fine lines on the body called stretch marks. (kidshealth.org)
  • Stretch marks are common during puberty and rapid growth spurts in adolescence (they typically heal by the late teens or early 20s), pregnancy , excessive weight gain and obesity , when muscle mass increases rapidly and stretches the skin (like during bodybuilding), and sometimes when individuals use topical or high doses of ingested steroids for many weeks or months. (medicinenet.com)
  • The persona of Mark Twain had become something of a curse for Samuel Clemens. (britannica.com)
  • Clemens published his next novel, Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (serialized 1895-96), anonymously in hopes that the public might take it more seriously than a book bearing the Mark Twain name. (britannica.com)
  • Rogers was shrewd as well in the way he publicized and redeemed the reputation of "Mark Twain" as a man of impeccable moral character. (britannica.com)
  • Twain, Mark: autobiography A discussion of The Autobiography of Mark Twain and an overview of the Mark Twain Papers at the Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley. (britannica.com)
  • Mark Twain was born Samuel L. Clemens in Florida, Missouri on November 30, 1835. (google.com)
  • Chinese President Hu Jintao offered flowers and expressed condolences to the quake victims Tuesday, marking the first anniversary of Wenchuan quake that left nearly 90,000 people dead or missing and 5 million homeless. (ibtimes.com)
  • Japan on Tuesday marks the third anniversary of the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami that killed 15,884 people and left more than 2,600 unaccounted for in vast areas of its northern coast. (yahoo.com)
  • Japan observed a moment of silence Tuesday to mark the third anniversary of the quake-tsunami disaster which swept away thousands of victims, destroyed coastal communities, and sparked the nuclear emergency that forced a re-think on atomic power. (yahoo.com)
  • Ukraine is marking the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on April 26 with a memorial service and a series of events in remembrance of the world's worst-ever civilian nuclear accident. (rferl.org)
  • Ceremonies held on Sunday marked the 70th anniversary of the U.S. atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan. (wsj.com)
  • Nineteen-month-old Zoe Peters of Huntley works to identify animals on a library computer at the Huntley Area Public Library, which this year marks its 25th anniversary. (dailyherald.com)
  • The library will mark its silver anniversary with events each month starting with a February fundraiser. (dailyherald.com)
  • After more than 20 years of being one of those recognisable faces whose name hovers elusively on the tip of people's tongues, life may be about to change for Mark Ruffalo. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The woman who called 911 to report the death of "MasterChef" contestant Josh Marks was extremely calm -- considering she just learned there was a dead body in the alley. (tmz.com)
  • The FANG stocks have been major beneficiaries of the bull market run, but Marks said that could be coming to a close. (yahoo.com)
  • This time round Jeffrey Marks isn't giving us a regular biography, though he has shown us in his 2001 life of Craig Rice just how to do so. (amazon.com)
  • The Yoruba tribal marks are scarifications which are specific identification and beautification marks designed on the face or body of the Yoruba people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tribal marks are part of the Yoruba culture and are usually inscribed on the body by burning or cutting of the skin during childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of the tribal marks is for identification of a person's tribe, family or patrilineal heritage. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] However, the use of tribal marks is fading in Yorubaland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owu tribal marks consists of six incisions on each side of the cheeks and peculiar to the indigenes of Owu, an historical city in Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State, Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Owu tribal mark was inscribed on the cheeks of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, the former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indigenes of Ogbomosho in Oyo State are usually identified by the Gombo or Kẹkẹ style of Yoruba tribal marks. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tribal mark is unique to the indigenes of Oyo, Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Abaja style of Yoruba tribal mark was inscribed on the cheeks of Lamidi Adeyemi III, the Alaafin of oyo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other Yoruba tribal marks include Ture, Mande, Bamu and Jamgbadi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of tribal marks as a means of identification and beautification among the Yoruba tribe is no longer a norm and some Yoruba states have enacted certain laws that prohibit the use of the marks. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Oyo State, for example, the prohibition of tribal marks is an integral part of the state Child Rights Law, a law that imposes a fine or one-month imprisonment or both for violation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are your tribal marks attractive or repulsive? (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal, state and tribal water managers are marking completion of a long-negotiated plan for 40 million people and vast irrigated farms to share crucial Colorado River water despite ongoing drought in the arid U.S. Southwest. (denverpost.com)
  • Howard Marks is founder and chief scientist at Deepstorage LLC, a storage consultancy and independent test lab based in Santa Fe, N.M. and concentrating on storage and data center networking. (networkcomputing.com)
  • Howard Marks explains modern scale-out storage systems and how they handle networking. (networkcomputing.com)
  • Howard Marks recounts his early work helping his dad place high-tech gear in movies and TV shows. (networkcomputing.com)
  • Howard Marks explains why he was wrong about how hybrid storage systems will evolve. (networkcomputing.com)
  • Contributor Howard Marks will be speaking and joining the fun at Flash Memory Summit and VMworld. (networkcomputing.com)
  • Howard Marks responds to a recent Network Computing blog arguing that SSD pricing is falling to hard-disk drive levels and putting HDDs on the road to obsolescence. (networkcomputing.com)
  • American investor and co-founder of Oaktree Capital Management Howard Marks cited the flow of money stemming from exchange-traded funds into FANG stocks (Facebook, Amazon, Netflix, and Google) as the reason for their soaring prices. (yahoo.com)
  • FOX News Channel hit a ratings milestone in cable news by marking 15 years as the most-watched news channel, Nielsen data revealed. (foxnews.com)
  • The gaining of the CE mark for the Omixon Holotype kit is welcome news and a significant step towards enabling our confident use of the method in the clinical setting of our clinical transplant program. (prweb.com)
  • This exercise will test your understanding of all kinds of different punctuation marks, particularly commas, colons, semi-colons and apostrophes. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Children will identify commas, periods, question marks, and more during this fun read-aloud activity. (scholastic.com)
  • The Marks Group PC, launched in 1994, has grown to help more than 600 companies and thousands of individuals throughout the country. (americanbanker.com)
  • A lot is known about how methyl marks are put onto the DNA, but how they are removed - a process called DNA demethylation - and, thus, how genes are reactivated is still not well understood. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stretch marks can appear when there is rapid stretching of the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stretch marks happen when the skin is pulled by rapid growth or stretching. (kidshealth.org)
  • Bodybuilders are prone to getting stretch marks because of the rapid body changes that can go with bodybuilding. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, if your stretch marks are from rapid increases in muscle mass due to weight lifting as you report in your question (your doctor can help assess what they're from if you're not sure), then you ought to try reducing the intensity of your workouts in the areas of your body that are affected to prevent muscle mass from increasing quickly. (medicinenet.com)
  • Reuters) - A handful of prominent late withdrawals may have taken some of the sheen off the Palermo Ladies Open but the importance of the claycourt event is not lost on the sport as it marks the return of professional tennis on Monday after the COVID-19 shutdown. (reuters.com)
  • While other companies either have no CE Mark or have only approved components of their NGS workflow, Omixon set out to CE Mark the entire combination product of assay and software as an IVD in Europe" says Omixon's CEO, Tim Hague. (prweb.com)
  • Mark Edwards' is a new grant that Hugh Perry brought to our attention that had been awarded by the neuroscience and mental health board of the MRC very recently, so Hugh I think asked Mark if he would be kind enough to come up here at really quite short notice he's come to tell us what his plans are and what his research is about. (google.com)
  • Even so, more research is needed to prove it helps stretch marks. (healthline.com)
  • This method isn't completely satisfactory, but on the other hand it allows Marks to display the fruits of prodigious research among Boucher's papers at the Lilly Library at Indiana University. (amazon.com)
  • While many of us will embrace or simply ignore them, there's no denying that some people find stretch marks distressing and they can knock your self-confidence. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • To each his own, but I find Boucher's own fiction writing much superior to his other services to the mystery field, and for fans of Boucher's crime novels Marks' big reveal is the existence of a complete and unpublished Dr. Ashwin novel, The Case of the Toad-in-the-Hole, sitting in the Lilly Library just waiting for a publisher. (amazon.com)
  • "Hannity" had an average of 3.1 million viewers, and "The Five" and "Special Report with Bret Baier" averaged more than 3.1 million in total viewers, marking their highest-rated months ever since the shows premiered. (foxnews.com)
  • Support your little editor's love of language: Use this printable to teach her editing marks. (scholastic.com)