Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Antitrust Laws: Those federal and state laws, and their enforcement, that protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints and monopolies or unfair business practices.United StatesInsurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Rate Setting and Review: A method of examining and setting levels of payments.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Risk Sharing, Financial: Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Provider-Sponsored Organizations: Entities sponsored by local hospitals, physician groups, and other licensed providers which are affiliated through common ownership or control and share financial risk whose purpose is to deliver health care services.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Consumer Product SafetyPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Competitive Medical Plans: Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Hospital Volunteers: Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Preferred Provider Organizations: Arrangements negotiated between a third-party payer (often a self-insured company or union trust fund) and a group of health-care providers (hospitals and physicians) who furnish services at lower than usual fees, and, in return, receive prompt payment and an expectation of an increased volume of patients.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.New Orleans: City in Orleans Parish (county), largest city in state of LOUISIANA. It is located between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Independent Practice Associations: A partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity that enters into an arrangement for the provision of services with persons who are licensed to practice medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry, and with other care personnel. Under an IPA arrangement, licensed professional persons provide services through the entity in accordance with a mutually accepted compensation arrangement, while retaining their private practices. Services under the IPA are marketed through a prepaid health plan. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Frozen FoodsTechnology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Commonwealth of Independent StatesDecision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.CaliforniaEmployer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Physician Incentive Plans: Compensatory plans designed to motivate physicians in relation to patient referral, physician recruitment, and efficient use of the health facility.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Practice Management: Business management of medical, dental and veterinary practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.Capitation Fee: A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.United States Federal Trade Commission: An independent administrative agency concerned with maintaining competitive free enterprise by prohibiting unfair methods of competition and unfair deceptive acts or practices.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.American Medical Association: Professional society representing the field of medicine.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Group Practice: Any group of three or more full-time physicians organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of health care services, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Dendrobium: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.
In the individual market, consumers pay the entire premium without an employer contribution, and most do not receive any tax ... Model acts and regulations promulgated by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) provide some degree of ... Estimates of demand elasticity in this market vary, but generally fall in the range of -0.3 to -0.1. It appears that price ... The researchers note that other factors such as health status and the complexity of the market can also affect the purchase of ...
... and faces far less regulation over the use and marketing of unproven treatments. Its marketing often advertises the treatments ... Regulation. Further information: Regulation of alternative medicine and Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy ... Marketing. Edzard Ernst, a leading authority on scientific study of alternative therapies and diagnoses, and the first ... Medical doctors are also aggressively marketing alternative medicine to profit from this market.[126] ...
Additionality and lack of regulation in the voluntary market[edit]. Several certification standards exist, offering variations ... U.S. market[edit]. On the whole, the U.S. market remains primarily a voluntary market, but multiple cap and trade regimes are ... Markets[edit]. Global market[edit]. In 2009, 8.2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent changed hands worldwide, up ... U.K. market[edit]. Carbon offset projects in the U.K. are only available for the voluntary market, due to UN protocols on CERs ...
Government regulations of food and fuel markets[edit]. France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States governments ... "Renewable Fuels: Regulations & Standards. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 15 November 2013.. ... The assessment calls for the need for more open markets in biofuels and feedstocks in order to improve efficiency and lower ... Biofuels offer the prospect of real market competition and oil price moderation. Crude oil would be trading 15 per cent higher ...
Market Regulation. Pearson / Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321-32232-6. Knox, RE; Inkster, JA (1968). "Postdecision dissonance at ... This type of marketing incurs costs that cannot normally be recovered. It is not typically possible to later "demote" one's ... The company will charge market prices whether R&D had cost one dollar or one million dollars. However, R&D costs, and the ... ISBN 3-7910-1244-4 Sutton, J. Sunk Costs and Market Structure. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19305- ...
Thomas, Diana W.; Thomas, Michael D. (2010). Efficient regulation? The case of the market for blood. Logan: Department of ... derived from the observation that regulations are supported both by groups that want the ostensible purpose of the regulation, ... In this version of the story, the polluters are looking for taxes and regulations to reduce competition, hoping to gain more ... Wagner, Richard E. (December 1966). "Reviewed work: The Logic of Collective Action by Mancur Olson, Jr". Papers on Non-Market ...
The fixed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff Regulation. Market entry also scores well for the mobile sector ... The mobile market was continuing to expand at an annual rate in excess of 40% coming into 2010. The country is divided into ... There are no regulations to control the ownership of satellite dish antennas and also for operating cable television systems in ... This was a gateway to many foreign investors to get entry into the Indian Telecom Markets. After March 2000, the government ...
Topics covered: Regulation; Ethics Financial statement analysis; Market structures and instruments. The CIIA is variously ... The National / Regional Exam is set by the individual societies and examines specific knowledge of local markets and standards ... examining knowledge of specific markets. Candidates must also have 3 years relevant experience [1] and be a member of ACIIA, as ...
... 's main practice areas include: capital markets; corporate; employment; financial services regulation; insurance ...
3846, An act providing for the regulation of radio stations and radio communications in the Philippine Islands, and for other ... The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry; ii) access to scarce resources; iii) interconnection; iv) tariff ... regulation; v) anti-competitive practices; and vi) universal services; vii) quality of service, for the fixed, mobile and ...
Global banking and capital market services proliferated during the 1980s after deregulation of financial markets in a number of ... A very early writing on clay tablet called the Code of Hammurabi, refers to the regulation of a banking activity of sorts ... When the market fell, brokers called in these loans, which could not be paid back. Banks began to fail as debtors defaulted on ... The concept of negotiability had emerged in fits and starts in European money markets, but it was well developed by the 17th ...
The broadband sector lags behind both the fixed and mobile sectors in all but one of the parameters (regulation of anti- ... The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry; ii) access to scarce resources; iii) interconnection; iv) tariff ... regulation; v) anti-competitive practices; and vi) universal services; vii) quality of service, for the fixed, mobile and ...
"Integration v. Regulation? On the Dynamics of Regulation in the European Community". Journal of Common Market Law Studies. 30, ... "The French Presidency". Journal of Common Market Law Studies. Special Issue: The JCMS Annual Review of the European Union in ... His academic research has been widely published in international academic journals including the Journal of Common Market ...
... regulation of anti-competitive practices and universal service obligation in the fixed sector. Market entry received a low ... The parameters that improved compared to the 2006 survey were: interconnection, tariff regulation, regulation of anti- ... and Internet markets in Pakistan. In 2008 Pakistan was the world's third-fastest growing telecommunications market. Pakistan's ... This prompted the government to take a series of actions to improve the service by opening the telecommunications market. This ...
"Analysis: Indonesia: Mobile market", Josh Franken, Jakarta Post, 16 May 2011 Mariel Grazella (1 July 2013). "Bleak Future Ahead ... tariff regulation; v) anti-competitive practices; and vi) universal services; vii) quality of service, for the fixed, mobile ... The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry; ii) access to scarce resources; iii) interconnection; iv) ...
Encouraging self-regulation; and Ensuring proper conduct of market institutions and licensed people. Underpinning all these ... the SC is also obliged by statute to encourage and promote the development of the securities and futures markets in Malaysia. ... a statutory body entrusted with the responsibility of regulating and systematically developing the capital markets in Malaysia ... was previously Managing Director of the SC and has over 20 years experience in the field of finance and securities regulation. ...
... 's main practice areas include: capital markets; corporate; employment; financial services regulation; insurance; ...
"Competition in the Australian Private Health Insurance Market" (PDF). Australian Prudential Regulation Authority. Australian ... In 2009, HBF had 7.7% of the national market share for private health insurance. HBF regularly surveys community attitudes to ... Prudential Regulation Authority. Retrieved 26 February 2016. "HBF Life and Personal insurance". HBF Health. Retrieved 2017-04- ...
Market development and promotion. Industry regulation and development. Commercial activities. Direct provision of support ... Britain was the market for 270,000 tonnes of Irish beef export. The tariff rates will "virtually wipe out" agri-food trade to ... Regulation of the agriculture, fisheries, food industries and forestry through national and EU law. Monitoring and controlling ...
Little product market regulation. Nordic countries rank very high in product market freedom according to OECD rankings. Low ... Labor market interventions are aimed at providing job retraining and relocation. The Nordic labor market is flexible, with laws ... Sweden and Britain alike have nearly complete private ownership, private financial markets and active labour markets. Eastern ... "market socialism" based on public ownership or worker self-management, and go straight for a western-style market economy...The ...
... financial regulations into Regulation NMS, designed to modernize and strengthen the United States National Market System for ... Changes in market structure: Some market structure experts speculate that, whatever the underlying causes, equity markets are ... in those markets. The role of human market makers, who match buyers and sellers and provide liquidity to the market, was more ... in the derivatives market which affected stock markets and exacerbated the flash crash. Sarao began his alleged market ...
"Why Regulation Doesn't Work". Review of Social Economy. XXIX (1). March 1971. "Efficiency, Distribution, and the Role of ... Government in a Market Economy". Journal of Political Economy. 79 (3). May-June 1971. doi:10.1086/259765. "Congressional ...
Single Electricity Market Operator (SEMO). Retrieved 13 January 2011. "Interconnection". Commission for Energy Regulation. 28 ... Cider, particularly Magners (marketed in the Republic of Ireland as Bulmers), is also a popular drink. Red lemonade, a soft- ... The Republic of Ireland has shown a strong commitment to renewable energy, ranking as one of the top 10 markets for cleantech ... Ireland once dominated the world's market for whiskey, producing 90% of the world's whiskey at the start of the 20th century. ...
... and Non-Tariff Regulation; Department of Internal Market Protection; Department of Trade Policy; Department of Technical ... financial markets (banking, insurance, foreign exchange market, stock market); The Commission ensures the implementation of ... The Competences of the Commission include customs tariff and non-tariff regulation; customs administration; technical ... Department of Antimonopoly Regulation; Department of Competition Policy and Policy in the Field of Public Procurement; ...
Where Did All the Markets GO? An Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program. Yale Journal on Regulation. Vol.6: 109-153. ... On-road vehicles and non-road vehicles are often subject to different regulations. Cars Light Duty and Heavy Duty Trucks Buses ... The first idea about the environmental impact of the CAFE regulation can be obtained by examining its effects on the average ... Another common policy instrument used by governments to influence market behavior is taxation. In the case of mobile source air ...
Extensive reform and overhaul in government regulation and inspection of the food and drug industry is needed in order to ... The book takes particular aim at the pharmaceutical market in the United States during the period, citing extensive lists of ... as being one of the key catalysts for increased government regulation over food and drugs in the United States which led to the ...
Hitting the Market Perceptions of the success of your offering and your company will depend on how your stock tr… ... Regulation A - Hitting the market * 1. Reg A - Hitting the Market ... It is important that your stock trades initially at a premium to the offering price - if it goes down months later the market ... This is part of a series on Regulation A, so subscribe here for more and to learn more, go to www. ...
The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) administers programs that enable the efficient, fair marketing of U.S. agricultural ...
... Lei Fang, Richard Rogerson. NBER Working Paper No. 12891. ... We find that product market regulations affect time devoted to market work in effectively the same fashion as do taxes on labor ... "Product Market Regulation and Market Work: A Benchmark Analysis." American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 3, 2 (April 2011): ... In particular, if product market regulations are to affect aggregate market work in this model the key driving force is the ...
Judging Self-Regulation. Self-regulation with substantial government involvement is substantially different from a market ... Markets as Bottom-Up Learning Process. What is a market? A market is a device for processing information. The economist Bastiat ... "Self-Regulation" as Lawless Regulation. Self-regulation may seem to participants in the marketplace like a fairly good ... true market-based self-regulation blurs into no regulation at all, with each company "regulating" itself according to internal ...
... we develop a method to quantify the importance of regulation and market structure on the success of trade liberalization. For ... If the regulation environment guarantees competition, Tunisias welfare can improve up to 0.65 percent. If a cartel is formed ... this purpose, we incorporate a single imperfectly competitive service sector that can take on various market structures into a ... "Regulation, efficiency and equilibrium: A general equilibrium analysis of liberalization in the Turkish electricity market," ...
MiFID (Markets in Financial Instruments Directive) - * London Stock Exchange outlines MiFID support - ComputerWeekly ... IBM Power9 servers seek market inroads to AI, cloud. IBM follows up its first Power9 server with a raft of systems designed to ... The EUs General Data Protection Regulation is meant to bring better data privacy to bear in the age of big data. How GDPR ... ... Open Compute Project hardware sales surpass $1B, sellers eye more markets. A study found Open Compute Project hardware sales ...
We examine how the UKs employment rights framework affects labour market outcomes, and how the UK compares with other ... Employment regulation and the labour market. A comparison of the UKs employment rights framework with that of other OECD ... there is unlikely to be much benefit in further regulation or deregulation of the labour market. Instead, the CIPD is urging ... Labour Market Outlook surveys The key inhibitors of wage growth include affordability, public sector pay restraint and added ...
China will step up property market regulation and fight off illegal conduct by property firms and intermediaries, housing ... BEIJING (Reuters) - China will step up property market regulation and fight off illegal conduct by property firms and ...
The Center on Regulation and Markets at Brookings provides independent, non-partisan research on regulatory policy, applied ... Housing Markets & Finance What does economic evidence tell us about the effects of rent control?. Rebecca Diamond ... The future of financial regulation. 9:00 AM. - 11:00 AM EST ... Center on Regulation and Markets. Home. *About the Center. * ... and the efficient and equitable functioning of economic markets. ... Center on Regulation and Markets. *Cities & Regions. *Global ...
New regulations restricting the sale of codeine to a prescription only medication has left retailers and manufacturers with a ... Codeine Regulation Change To Further Impact Australian Market?. By Jessica Paul, Senior Analytics Manager, Retail Industry ... ... New regulations restricting the sale of codeine to a prescription only medication has left retailers and manufacturers with a ...
... when the Market Abuse Regulation becomes law. The directly… ... the market abuse regime will undergo significant expansion in ... The new Market Abuse Regulation ("MAR") and the Criminal Sanctions for Market Abuse Directive ("CSMAD"), will replace the 2003 ... In mid-2016, the market abuse regime will undergo significant expansion in scope, when the Market Abuse Regulation becomes law ... Implementation of the Market Abuse Regulation Blog Expert Legal Insights Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner (BLP) ...
The European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) is a body of European legislation for the regulation of over-the-counter ... The European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) is a body of legislation for over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, central ... The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) began developing technical standards on regulation of OTC derivatives, ... Niamh Moloney (2014). EU Securities and Financial Markets Regulation. Oxford University Press. p. 580. Retrieved 4 June 2015. ...
Channel: LocalLegalLegal: PrivacyLocal Search ColumnSearch MarketingSearch Marketing: Local Search MarketingSEO - Search Engine ... How much will privacy regulation disrupt the local search market in 2018?. Columnist Wesley Young covers a growing storm of ... 1. The cost of marketing data will rise. Increased privacy regulation means all businesses will have to spend more resources to ... 2. Targeted marketing becomes harder. If the supply of marketing data is throttled, accuracy declines. For example, if fewer ...
... ... IVF Treatment and Multiple Births: Free Market Patient Rights versus Government Regulation ... This blast of free-market proselytizing is countered, appropriately from Europe, in a detailed response from Dr Yakoub Khalaf ... Gleicher vociferously advocates the USA free market model over the European-style sympathy for government intervention in ...
Marketing and Holding Deposits] of the Act in respect of that marketing if the development unit is marketed only for the ... Marketing of development units used for industrial or commercial purposes. 3 (1) A developer who markets a development unit is ... Provisions relevant to the enactment of this regulation: Real Estate Development Marketing Act, S.B.C. 2004, c. 41, sections 46 ... Marketing between developers. 2 A developer who markets a development property in a single transaction is exempt from Part 2 [ ...
The Committee on Capital Markets Regulation is an independent and nonpartisan 501(c)(3) research organization dedicated to ... The Committees research regarding the regulation of U.S. capital markets provides policymakers with a nonpartisan, empirical ... markets_regulation_releases_the_global_financial_crisis/ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-12. Retrieved ... improving the regulation of U.S. capital markets. Twenty-seven leaders from the investor community, business, finance, law, ...
Rule 101 of Regulation M. Generally, Rule 101 of Regulation M is an anti-manipulation regulation that, subject to certain ... See e.g., Letter from Nancy Sanow, Assistant Director, Division of Market Regulation to James Duffy, Senior Vice President and ... Division of Market Regulation. Securities and Exchange Commission. 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Mail Stop 10-1. Washington, DC 20549 ... The Trust also requests that the Division of Market Regulation not recommend any enforcement action to the SEC under Section 11 ...
... Amy Finkelstein, James ... "Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities," Journal of Financial ... We estimate the impact of restricting gender-based pricing in the United Kingdom retirement annuity market, a market in which ... This paper shows how models of insurance markets with asymmetric information can be calibrated and solved to yield quantitative ...
Previously, such duties fell under the Federal Service for Regulation of the Alcohol Market and the Federal Customs Service. ... The Russian Ministry of Finance was given the responsibility to formulate and implement State policy and legal regulations in ...
All non-invasive prenatal tests in market are laboratory-developed tests that are not subject to US FDA regulations. Such ... Lax Regulations Boosting the US NIPD Market. Press Release • Jul 10, 2013 17:26 IST ... All non-invasive prenatal tests in market are laboratory-developed tests that are not subject to US FDA regulations. This has ... As per the new research report by RNCOS, "US Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnostics - Market Insight" the market for non-invasive ...
Why register with Money Marketing ?. Providing trusted insight for professional advisers. Since 1985 Money Marketing has helped ... Re-reg and regulation. The thorny question of platform to platform re-registration, or rather the lack of it, is again ... Money Marketing Events. Be the first to hear about our industry leading conferences, awards, roundtables and more. ... Money Marketing Events. Be the first to hear about our industry leading conferences, awards, roundtables and more. ...
This research covers private market mechanisms that control food safety, regulation establishing a minimum level of meat and ... ERS examines how private markets and government regulation have combined to provide meat and poultry food safety. ... Markets, Regulation, and Policy. ERS provides economic analyses of issues that affect the safety of the U.S. food supply. USDA ... ERS examines how private markets and government regulation interact to help ensure the safety of the U.S. food supply. This ...
... market regime, and a commons regime. After taking sides in favour of the market regime, consideration is given to some ... Starting from a discussion of the limitations of command-and-control regulation, this paper deals with the two main, ... of spectrum made available for commercial use as well as by injecting some flexibility into command-and-control regulation. ... formula-called administrative incentive pricing-which could help ensure a smooth transition from command-and-control to market ...
The Solicitors Regulation Authority regulates solicitors in England and Wales. Access corporate information, consultations, ... The PI market has undergone a period of significant change in recent years. It is important for us to understand how the market ... the market has experienced increased consolidation since the introduction of LASPO, resulting from a number of mergers and ... In light of wider concerns about some practices in the market, we issued a warning notice on 21 March 2016 targeted at ...
Issuers of debt securities need to prepare for the imminent application of the new European Market Abuse Regulation 596/2014 ( ... In Ireland, the existing rules on market abuse are set out in the Market Abuse (Directive 2003/6/EC) Regulations 2005, which ... Issuers of debt securities need to prepare for the imminent application of the new European Market Abuse Regulation 596/2014 ( ... MAR considerably expands the scope of the existing market abuse rules in terms of the markets and products covered. MAR is ...
  • In mid-2016, the market abuse regime will undergo significant expansion in scope, when the Market Abuse Regulation becomes law. (
  • The Russian Ministry of Finance was given the responsibility to formulate and implement State policy and legal regulations in the sphere of production and circulation of ethyl alcohol, alcohol and alcohol-containing products as of May 9, 2016. (
  • In light of wider concerns about some practices in the market, we issued a warning notice on 21 March 2016 targeted at solicitors and regulated persons who take personal injury referrals from third parties, work closely with them or act on their instructions. (
  • The Market Abuse Regulation ("MAR") 1 will take effect on 3 July 2016. (
  • By contrast, the US MMF reform of October 2016 led to fundamental adjustments in the market. (
  • In April 2016, NHS England published the Pharmacy Manual which outlines the procedures to be followed which are relevant to pharmacy contractors including market entry such as applications to join the pharmaceutical list, change of ownership and no significant change relocation. (
  • The Global Nanobots Market is expected to reach US$ 100 billion in 2023 from US$ 74 billion in 2016 with a CAGR of approximately 21% during the forecast period 2017-2023. (
  • 2016) vol. download financial markets regulation of 6(16 and neurological economic techniques by bearing status Activity computers producing efficient owners. (
  • Future Market Insights has announced the addition of the "Swine Feed Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2016-2026' report to their offering. (
  • Rising prominence for quality pork meat is anticipated to drive the global swine feed market in the next ten years from 2016-2026. (
  • Nuclear Fuels Market estimates have also been provided for the historical years 2015 & 2016 along with forecast for the period from 2017 - 2025. (
  • The motors & generators segment, on the basis of various types, accounted for the largest market share in 2016. (
  • The discrete controllers & visualization segment, on the basis of type, accounted for the second highest market share in 2016 owing to its comprehensive nature to offer integrated and flexible production options to manufacturers. (
  • Europe accounted for the largest market share in 2016 and can be attributed due to the processed food market in Western Europe , which is well-established owing to which it is expected to witness steady growth during the forecast period. (
  • How much will privacy regulation disrupt the local search market in 2018? (
  • 1888PressRelease) July 12, 2019 - On May 22, 2019, the European Commission amended Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 by updating Annexes II, III and V. The new regulation, (EU) 2019/831, updated the annexes in regard to substances classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMR) categories 1A, 1B or 2 under Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 as at December 1, 2018. (
  • But new EU regulation taking effect in 2018 will impose stricter rules on fund managers. (
  • EU regulation issued in June 2017 and taking effect in 2018 aims at bolstering MMFs against financial distress. (
  • The current market value of biodegradable plastics exceeds $1.1 billion in 2018, but could reach $1.7 billion by 2023, the report says. (
  • Western Europe, with the world's strictest and increasingly stringent regulations for single-use plastics, commands 55 percent of the global market value in 2018 for these specialty biodegradable polymers, followed by Asia and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) at 25 percent, then North America at 19 percent of consumption, with the rest of the world combined for less than 1 percent of demand. (
  • We discuss below the changes to (i) the Securities Market Law, effective 21 October 2018, and (ii) the NBK Regulation, effective 8 October 2018, affecting certain matters related to the Astana International Financial Center (AIFC). (
  • Fact.MR has announced the addition of the Environmental Sensing and Monitoring Technologies Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking - Global Market Insights 2018 to 2028"report to their offering. (
  • Self-Regulation: Regulatory Fad or Market Forces? (
  • Amaury de Ternay, head of global trading with French bank BNP Paribas's asset management division said, "With MiFID we are observing an evolution that is quite rare: total coherence between the technological evolution of the market and the regulatory evolution. (
  • The Center on Regulation and Markets at Brookings provides independent, non-partisan research on regulatory policy, applied broadly across microeconomic fields. (
  • It creates and promotes independent economic scholarship to inform regulatory policymaking, the regulatory process, and the efficient and equitable functioning of economic markets. (
  • Both sets of provisions extend the reach of the European regulatory regime to capture a wider range of markets and instruments and include specific provisions to address the proliferation of technology-driven trading practices. (
  • Most marketing professionals don't give much thought to the regulatory climate. (
  • After taking sides in favour of the market regime, consideration is given to some implementation issues, and to a regulatory formula-called administrative incentive pricing-which could help ensure a smooth transition from command-and-control to market arrangements. (
  • This book offers an in-depth analysis of China's contemporary securities markets regulatory system, with a focus on regulation in practice. (
  • Examining the roles of both the China Securities Regulatory Commission and local governments, He argues that the government has built and developed markets from scratch to address the needs of the state and the economy at large. (
  • Utilizing three case studies drawn from the world of over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives - securitization, synthetic exchange-traded funds and collateral swaps - the objective of this paper is thus to start us down the path toward a more robust understanding of complexity, financial innovation and the regulatory challenges flowing from the interaction of these powerful market dynamics. (
  • This paper argues that while the embryonic post-crisis regulatory regimes governing OTC derivatives markets in the U.S. and Europe go some distance toward addressing the regulatory challenges stemming from complexity, they effectively disregard those generated by financial innovation. (
  • Only six countries (Denmark, France, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden) have fully implemented regulatory approaches (legislation, self-regulation or co-regulation) of marketing food and drinks to children. (
  • Furthermore, a proprietary UK regulation similar to old EU rules could spark regulatory competition for the offshore USD MMF market. (
  • This study examines the structure and operation of farmers markets in the United States, giving special attention to the legal and regulatory issues that may shape their operation to identify the most important challenges vendors and managers of markets may face. (
  • F. Westerhoff, "The Use of Agent-Based Financial Market Models to Test the Effectiveness of Regulatory Policies," Jahrbucher Fur Nationalokonomie Und Statistik, Vol. 228, No. 2, 2008, p. 195. (
  • It examines the reforms in relation to two regulatory policies in the pharmaceutical market of the National Health Insurance (NHI) in South Korea - the separation of prescribing and dispensing (SPD) and the pharmaceutical pricing policy - conducted in two periods - the 1980s under the authoritarian regime and the 1990s under the democratised regime. (
  • These new actors include professionals and activists who are able to understand regulatory issues and articulate them in ways that are salient to politicians and the general public, which will motivate the government to tighten the regulation governing its traditional policy partners. (
  • How does one reconcile the marketing perspective with the regulatory requirements of our industry? (
  • She affirmed the SCB's commitment to the advancement of securities and capital markets oversight in the region and *"to realising tangible improvements in how we interact and cooperate on securities regulatory matters of mutual interest. (
  • On the other hand, there are some obstacles in this market such as high cost of the development, regulatory measures for the use of the nanobots in integration with the medical devices. (
  • When protection of market exclusivity becomes an attempt to "game" the system, we help clients submit trade complaints to regulatory authorities. (
  • 2011) regulatory Asian factors and Sociopolitical high proteins at the download financial markets regulation a practitioners perspective advanced stratigraphy. (
  • Policy and regulatory framework governing the market. (
  • Canada Upstream Fiscal and Regulatory Report - Greater Impact of Environmental Regulations Over The Medium Term', presents the essential information relating to the terms which govern investment into Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. (
  • This was a decision by the Telecom Office, which creates the regulatory framework and the environment on the market, and which through its decisions defines how we and other market players should act. (
  • Commenting on the Index's findings, Charles Cronin, CFA, head, CFA Institute Standards and Financial Market Integrity Division, EMEA, said, "Although confidence amongst UK investment professionals concerning the integrity of the market is growing, the underlying analysis shows there remain concerns over the effectiveness of the regulatory scheme in the U.K. as well as continuing concerns about practitioners in the hedge fund and financial adviser areas. (
  • With the financial regulatory reform announced by the Chancellor George Osborne last week and the move to the "twin peaks" model, coupled with changes in regulation proposed for the retail investment and alternative investment markets, we should see improvements in market supervision and investor protection over the coming years. (
  • Ratings for most regulatory and investor protections ("market systems") were significantly higher in 2010 than in the prior year. (
  • But survey respondents are still concerned about the U.K. regulatory environment, which received the lowest score among market system ratings in each of the 2008, 2009, and 2010 surveys. (
  • His practice includes providing strategic regulatory advice, developing compliance programs, designing and implementing sophisticated marketing programs, counseling on reimbursement matters, conducting sales training and interfacing extensively on behalf of companies with the FDA with relation to product approvals and clearances, clinical trial negotiations, approvals, policy arguments, appeals, etc. (
  • The global EPO drugs market would reach $11.9 billion by 2020, registering CAGR of 9.7% during 2014-2020. (
  • The global market for Activated Carbon is projected to reach 2.4 million metric tons by 2020, driven by the legislation and strict enforcement of environmental regulations. (
  • The state governor signed, An Act to amend the Environmental Conservation Law, in relation to regulations of toxic chemicals in children s products , on February 7, 2020. (
  • The Turkey personal protective equipment market is anticipated to register a 7.2% CAGR from 2014 to 2020, with the value increasing from US$784.6 mn in 2013 to US$1.2 bn by 2020. (
  • While the segment of head protection gear also holds a significant share in the personal protective equipment market, the segment of hand protection equipment is projected to expand at the fastest pace from 2014 to 2020 owing to the rising application scope in a number of industries such as manufacturing, chemicals, construction, transportation, and pharmaceuticals. (
  • Istanbul accounts for the largest share in the Turkey personal protective equipment market and is likely to continue its lead through 2020 owing to the fact that the city employs a major portion of the total workforce in Turkey. (
  • Covington & Burling LLP operates as a limited liability partnership worldwide, with the practice in England and Wales conducted by an affiliated limited liability multinational partnership, Covington & Burling LLP, which is formed under the laws of the State of Delaware in the United States and authorized and regulated by the Solicitors Regulation Authority with registration number 77071. (
  • Self-regulation of the Internet has emerged in a number of contexts, including privacy. (
  • Internet filtering technology is also a species of "self-regulation. (
  • And then there is self-regulation of kind less trumpeted by pundits, but important and interesting none-the-less, such as the blacklisting of Internet Service Providers suspected of being spammer havens. (
  • In "real" space, self-regulation of a number of different types has grown up. (
  • Some of these systems of self-regulation arrived in response to varying degrees of government pressure, including the MPAA ratings and proposals for self-regulation on privacy. (
  • From the standpoint of legislators or regulators, self-regulation is less costly than traditional command and control regulation. (
  • Second, self-regulation is less costly to the government, because authorities need not drastically expand their enforcement mechanisms. (
  • Sometimes, a push for self-regulation lets regulators avoid some of the cumbersome process of proposing particular rules, submitting them to public comment, and considering their costs and benefits. (
  • In response to the incredible diversity in consumer demand, the market offers many competing forms of self-regulation, not just a single standard. (
  • In the health and safety context, self-regulation might be more likely to look to a single standard, as with the Underwriters Laboratories-but even UL has a number of smaller competitors. (
  • But in most cases no third party standards or oversight at all are necessary for "self-regulation. (
  • That is, true market-based self-regulation blurs into no regulation at all, with each company "regulating" itself according to internal standards of customer or client service and no third party oversight. (
  • Especially in the privacy context, "self-regulation" in response to government pressure is viewed as an alternative to top-down regulation. (
  • But such a system of self-regulation could easily share the drawbacks of top-down regulation. (
  • One characteristic of demands made on e-commerce merchants respecting privacy "self-regulation" has been that the goals of the regulation are assumed to be known. (
  • Regulators have insisted that a system of self-regulation must ensure that customers have notice of how their data is being used, that they have a choice about whether it is not be collected or not, and so on. (
  • The myth of invisible hand is also closely related to the myth about market self-regulation. (
  • The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) administers programs that enable the efficient, fair marketing of U.S. agricultural products, including food, fiber and specialty crops. (
  • The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is withdrawing the July 9, 2008, Federal Register notice (73 FR 39278), which was published in error, announcing the availability of approximately $10 million in grant funds to enhance the competitiveness of specialty crops. (
  • These potential market will give steady momentum to waterproofing chemicals. (
  • Europe is the second largest market for waterproofing chemicals. (
  • Chemical industries and marine industries are the other major sectors which will escalate the demand for waterproofing chemicals.Analysing the profitable trend, this market is set to witness key mergers and acquisitions of small and medium-sized enterprises(SME) companies by big business enterprises. (
  • Latin America is the third most profitable destination for waterproofing chemicals market. (
  • The demand for eco-friendly chemicals is further accelerating the waterborne coatings market. (
  • Biodegradable plastics, which are largely starch-based compounds or polylactic acid (PLA)-based materials, have become more cost-competitive with petroleum-based plastics and the demand is growing significantly, particularly in Western Europe, where environmental regulations are the strictest," said Marifaith Hackett, director, specialty chemicals research at IHS Markit and the report's lead author. (
  • 1 June 2007 marks the entry into effect of the REACH Regulation, the new EU-wide scheme for the control and circulation of chemicals on the European market. (
  • For 12 of the over 900 listed chemicals, the proposed regulations require a specific identification of that chemical on any products or premises in which they are contained. (
  • The REACH directive," author Mark Schapiro further observes, "represents an upheaval in the basic philosophy of chemical regulation, flipping the American presumption of 'innocent until proven guilty' on its head by placing the burden of proof on manufacturers to prove chemicals are safe-what is known as the 'precautionary principle. (
  • Harmful chemicals are used in the preparation of pectin and the government has imposed regulations against its use. (
  • Certainly, giving guidance that could require advisers to question the suitability of recommen-ding any organisations that cannot meet certain principles leaves more scope for the market to evolve responsibly. (
  • MAR considerably expands the scope of the existing market abuse rules in terms of the markets and products covered. (
  • It updates the existing market abuse regime, adding a great deal more detail to the existing rules and widening its scope to a range of financial instruments traded on venues other than the main EEA exchanges. (
  • The current debate over insurance regulation is increasingly a struggle between competing interest groups and opposing ideologies about the proper scope of government a conflict that affects individuals decisions about how much risk to undertake, whether those decisions involve driving a motorcycle in dense urban traffic or building a home in a flood, fire, hurricane or other high-risk zone. (
  • Generally, Rule 101 of Regulation M is an anti-manipulation regulation that, subject to certain exemptions, prohibits any "distribution participant" and its "affiliated purchasers" from bidding for, purchasing, or attempting to induce any person to bid for or purchase, any security which is the subject of a distribution until after the applicable restricted period, except as specifically permitted in the Regulation. (
  • For some of the exemptions, such as rules 505 and 506 of Regulation D , a company may sell its securities to what are known as "accredited investors. (
  • We show in a two sector model that industry level analysis is of little help in assessing the aggregate effects of product market regulation. (
  • The CIPD commissioned The Work Foundation to conduct an analysis of employment regulation in OECD countries, to inform the debate about the extent to which the UK employment rights framework provides the right balance in providing flexibility for employers and job and economic security for individuals. (
  • More generally, our results suggest that theoretical models of insurance market equilibrium can be used for quantitative policy analysis, not simply to derive qualitative findings. (
  • During the visits, the Thematic team will review the firms' behaviours and practices, identify and raise awareness of best practice and ethical conduct, challenge poor behaviours, practices and conduct and identify any emerging or potential risks to the effective operation of the market, which may require further analysis or mitigation. (
  • The United States is forecast to emerge as the fastest growing market with a projected CAGR of 11.9% over the analysis period. (
  • HONEY" (RIN: 0560-AG72) (i) Cost-benefit analysis CCC estimates that outlays for marketing loans are projected at $1.2 billion for upland cotton in fiscal year (FY) 2003 but will decline to $0.4 million in FY 2007. (
  • HOUSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Led by Western Europe, increasing regulations and bans against plastic bags and other single-use plastic items such as drinking straws is driving growing demand for biodegradable plastics, according to new analysis from IHS Markit (Nasdaq: INFO), the leading global source of critical information and insight. (
  • Detailed analysis of top market participant, including market share analysis and SWOT analysis. (
  • Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. (
  • Deal analysis of Germany biopower market. (
  • Regulators, especially in industrial countries, have taken a number of steps of remedial policy vis-`a-vis these difficulties, by increasing the share of spectrum made available for commercial use as well as by injecting some flexibility into command-and-control regulation. (
  • Starting from a discussion of the limitations of command-and-control regulation, this paper deals with the two main, alternative approaches which have been proposed: a (Coasian) market regime, and a commons regime. (
  • However, there is nothing that would prevent overreach in the other direction and nobody should wish for a pendulum approach to labor market regulation that "moves back and forth between the 10s. (
  • While previous work suggests two competing explanations for the effect of labor market regulation on firms' demand for debt, our results reconcile both the "strategic use of debt" and "financial flexibility" view. (
  • Ownership Structure and the Effect of Labor Market Regulation on Leverage (February 17, 2019). (
  • Our findings suggest that recognizing the endogenous structure of insurance contracts is important for analyzing the economic effects of insurance market regulations. (
  • Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities, " Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 38-58, January. (
  • The blacklisting of spammer Internet Service Providers by anti-spam groups like the Open Relay Blocking System and the MAPS Realtime Blackhole list, is a good example of purely private, market driven conduct. (
  • Demand for activated carbon is primarily driven by stringent water and air pollution regulations. (
  • In addition, on February 25, the First Lady and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) unveiled a proposed regulation that would prohibit the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children in schools. (
  • The misuse and overuse of drugs had long been recognised as a problem for the NHI, and the tight regulation of the SPD and pharmaceutical pricing as potential solutions. (
  • Democratisation seems unlikely to tighten the government's regulation of the SPD and pharmaceutical prices. (
  • On the other, pharmaceutical regulation is a sophisticated and detached issue, which restricts the ability of laypeople to mobilise and exert bottom-up pressure for regulation. (
  • In the 1980s, the SPD and the pharmaceutical reimbursement pricing policy were administrative issues, discussed exclusively between bureaucrats and the central associations of health care providers, which resulted in loose regulation. (
  • Please note: Existing pharmacy contractors (i.e. persons already on a pharmaceutical list) who have queries on the Market Entry system, can seek support from their Local Pharmaceutical Committee (LPC). (
  • The NHS (Pharmaceutical and Local Pharmaceutical Services) Regulations 2013 set out the arrangements for pharmaceutical lists and the applications that may be made, and the Department of Health and Social Care has issued guidance on these. (
  • Rule 10a-1 is designed to prevent the market price of a stock or other "reported security," as defined in Rule 11Aa3-1(a)(4) under the Exchange Act, from being manipulated downward by unrestricted short selling. (
  • We note that the exemption from Rule 10a-1 would not apply to secondary market portfolio sales made in connection with the redemption of Fund Shares. (
  • The provisions of Rule 101 of Regulation M apply to underwriters, prospective underwriters, brokers, dealers, or other persons who have agreed to participate or are participating in a distribution of securities. (
  • The principles of Physics and Chemistry rule the machine yet the internal regulation does wonders the ordinary machines can't even dream of, even if they could dream. (
  • The rule (1) expands the loans that may be available to producers through agricultural marketing cooperatives, (2) makes a number of changes to the cotton regulations, (3) provides for marketing assistance loans or loan deficiency payments to honey producers, and (4) adds new marketing assistance loan and loan deficiency payment programs for mohair and wool. (
  • juvenile intentions download financial markets regulation a practitioners Strategies conclude the teratology of types to the start preview abundance. (
  • Professor Griffin said keeping track of digital alcohol marketing strategies and how they are used by different groups of young people is a major endeavour. (
  • She said: "There is a role for research on whether digital alcohol marketing increases young people's alcohol consumption - but it's equally (if not more) important to investigate how these marketing strategies are taken up and how they engage young people and infiltrate their everyday social lives via social media - whether they are even seen as advertising for example. (
  • This 98-page research publication is designed to help clients gain sharp insight into the workings of the personal protective equipment market in Turkey and devise profitable and actionable strategies for the future. (
  • BEIJING (Reuters) - China will step up property market regulation and fight off illegal conduct by property firms and intermediaries, housing minister Wang Menghui said on Monday on the sidelines of the annual parliament meeting. (
  • MAR and CSMAD have been developed in close tandem with other post-financial crisis measures to regulate markets and financial instruments, such as MiFID II/MiFIR, and alongside other national and internationally-coordinated initiatives to tackle misconduct and restore market confidence such as the Fair and Effective Markets Review. (
  • Most of the leading vendors are located in North America and Europe and earn a large share of their revenue from local markets. (
  • The Nuclear Fuels market has been segmented on the basis of geographic regions into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). (
  • Then I cover seven ways changing privacy laws will impact the local search market. (
  • The effects of the Sarbanes Oxley regulations is unattractive and has obviously been driving foreign companies to search for capital supplies elsewhere, like Hong Kong and London. (
  • It is important for us to understand how the market is responding to this change and to explore the conduct, behaviour and competence of solicitors practising in PI. (
  • For additional content open to the public, check out American Metal Market Magazine . (
  • Due to its low nutrient content it can be consumed by anyone and is considered safe, thus driving demand for nata de coco in the market. (
  • Our professionals analyze the industry and its various components, with a comprehensive study of the changing market behavior. (
  • The FSA is to consult the industry on how to apply adviser charging in the corporate pensions market when a group personal pension is sold without advice. (
  • American Metal Market Magazine features trending market news, rankings, industry outlooks and exclusive interviews with industry leaders. (
  • The paper uses a data base on regulation, market structure and performance in the air passenger transportation industry, to analyse the links among liberalisation, private ownership, competition, efficiency and airfares at national and route levels. (
  • The food industry increasingly uses cheap new marketing channels, such as social media and smart phone apps, specifically to target children. (
  • EMIR, and other legislation like it, aim to reduce systemic risk in part by increasing regulations on clearing and trading, which decreases returns and industry efforts. (
  • Given the dramatic changes occurring in the health care industry, an in-depth public discussion on how much regulation is enough is long overdue. (
  • She added that as the law seems to indicate that the measures point more towards individuals as opposed to brands engaging through digital means, it will most likely not affect brands, or the marketing industry as a whole. (
  • Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison ," Energy Policy , Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1540-1555, September. (
  • Regulation comes at a time when euro area MMFs, which more or less represent the total EU MMF industry, have long recovered from the decline experienced after the financial crisis. (
  • A secondary market for the trading of spectrum: promoting market liquidity ," Telecommunications Policy , Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 533-541, August. (
  • When the prices of the assets in which the MMFs are invested in start to decrease, especially during stressed market situations, the MMF cannot always maintain the promise to redeem immediately and to preserve the principal value of a unit or share issued by the MMF to investors. (
  • With 26% market share China has overtaken USA in terms of volume. (
  • It accounts for nearly one-fourth of the total market share by volume. (
  • Players like Johnson Matthey, Umicore and Engelhard (acquired by BASF) are going to take a major share of the automotive catalyst market. (
  • The Middle East & Africa has the least market share due to the presence of the poor economies in Africa region. (