Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
Polycyclic ethers produced by Gambierdiscus (DINOFLAGELLATES) from gambiertoxins, which are ingested by fish which in turn may be ingested by humans who are susceptible to the CIGUATERA POISONING.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
A family of bivalve MOLLUSKS with heart-shaped shells, commonly known as cockles. Unlike most BIVALVES, cockles are hermaphroditic.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Organisms that live in water.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (1/531)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Simple and sensitive analysis of nereistoxin and its metabolites in human serum using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (2/531)

A simple method for the analysis of nereistoxin and its metabolites in human serum using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed. A vial containing a serum sample, 5M sodium hydroxide, and benzylacetone (internal standard) is heated to 70 degrees C, and an SPME fiber is exposed for 30 min in the headspace of the vial. The compounds extracted by the fiber are desorbed by exposing the fiber in the injection port of the GC-MS. The calibration curves show linearity in the range of 0.05-5.0 micrograms/mL for nereistoxin and N-methyl-N-(2-methylthio-1-methylthiomethyl)ethylamine, 0.01-5.0 micrograms/mL for S,S'-dimethyl dihydronereistoxin, and 0.5-10 micrograms/mL for 2-methylthio-1-methylthiomethylethylamine in serum. No interferences are found, and the analysis time is 50 min for one sample. In addition, this proposed method is applied to a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting Padan 4R, a herbicide. Padan 4R contains 4% cartap hydrochloride, which is an analogue of nereistoxin. Nereistoxin and its metabolites are detected in the serum samples collected from the patient during hospitalization. The concentration ranges of nereistoxin in the serum are 0.09-2.69 micrograms/mL.  (+info)

Latrunculin-A increases outflow facility in the monkey. (3/531)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of Latrunculin (LAT)-A, a macrolide that binds to G-actin, which leads to the disassembly of actin filaments, on shape, junctions, and the cytoskeleton of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and on outflow facility in living monkeys. METHODS: Latrunculin-A dose-time-response relationships in BAECs were determined by immunofluorescence and phase contrast light microscopy, facility by two-level constant pressure anterior chamber perfusion. RESULTS: In BAECs, LAT-A caused dose- and incubation time- dependent destruction of actin bundles, cell separation, and cell loss. Cell-cell adhesions were more sensitive than focal contacts. Recovery was also dose- and time-dependent. In monkeys, exchange intracameral infusion and topical application of LAT-A induced dose- and time-dependent several-fold facility increases. The facility increase was completely reversed within several hours after drug removal. However, for at least 24 hours after a single topical LAT-A dose, perfusion with drug-free solution caused an accelerated increase in facility beyond that attributed to normal resistance washout. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in the trabecular meshwork by specific actin inhibitors like LAT-A may be a useful antiglaucoma strategy.  (+info)

Effects of palytoxin on isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscles. (4/531)

Palytoxin (PTX), the most potent marine toxin isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was studied to determine the effect on isolated smooth muscles. In guinea pig taenia coli PTX at above 3 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which slowly subsided under isotonic recording. Under isometric recording PTX at above 1 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which depended on the spontaneous activity. The PTX-induced contraction was not affected by atropine, tripelenmamine or tetrodotoxin but was inhibited by 5 mM Mg, norephinrphrine, isoprenaline or papaverine. PTX at above 1 X 10(-9) g/ml induced an increase in spike frequency and a slight depolarization accompanied with a contraction when measured using a sucrose gap method. In some cases the spike generation was almost abolished after a long exposure to higher dose of PTX and the developed tension gradually decreased. Under isometric recording PTX caused a sustained contraction in rabbit aorta, dog mesenteric and coronary arteries at above 1 X 10(-10) and 1 X 10(-11) g/ml, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The coronary artery was most sensitive among the preparation used. PTX-induced contraction in aorta was irreversible, was not influenced by phentolamine but diminished with 5 mM Mg and disappeared in a D-600 or Ca-free medium. PTX is thus an extremely potent and direct stimulant which acts on smooth muscles.  (+info)

Brevetoxins cause acute excitotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons. (5/531)

Brevetoxins (designated PbTx-1 to -10) are potent lipid-soluble polyether compounds that are known to bind to and modulate voltage-gated sodium channel activity. To investigate whether brevetoxins produce direct central nervous system neurotoxic effects, cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons were exposed to brevetoxins in Locke's buffer for 2 h at 22 degrees C. Neuronal injury was quantified by assaying lactate dehydrogenase activity in the exposure buffer and in conditioned growth media collected at 22 h after brevetoxin exposure. Brevetoxins produced acute neuronal injury and death in neurons with a rank order potency of PbTx-1 (EC50 = 9.31 +/- 0.45 nM) > PbTx-3 (EC50 = 53.9 +/- 2.8 nM) > PbTx-2 (EC50 = 80.5 +/- 5.9 nM) > PbTx-6 (EC50 = 1417 +/- 32 nM), which is similar to their previously determined rank order potency for brevetoxin-induced icthyotoxicity and binding to [3H]PbTx-3-labeled sodium channels on synaptosomes. The neurotoxic response could be prevented by coapplication of the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin or by the competitive or noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists D-AP5 and MK-801, ketamine, dextromethorphan, and dextrorphan, respectively. NMDA receptor antagonists afforded neuroprotection with rank order potencies comparable to those measured previously for protection against glutamate-induced excitotoxic responses. Further analysis revealed that brevetoxins induced a concentration-dependent release of L-glutamate and L-aspartate into the exposure buffer. These data indicate that brevetoxin-induced injury in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons is mediated by NMDA receptors that are activated indirectly as a consequence of PbTx-induced sodium channel activation and attendant excitatory amino acid release.  (+info)

Nonribosomal peptide synthesis and toxigenicity of cyanobacteria. (6/531)

Nonribosomal peptide synthesis is achieved in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes by the thiotemplate function of large, modular enzyme complexes known collectively as peptide synthetases. These and other multifunctional enzyme complexes, such as polyketide synthases, are of interest due to their use in unnatural-product or combinatorial biosynthesis (R. McDaniel, S. Ebert-Khosla, D. A. Hopwood, and C. Khosla, Science 262:1546-1557, 1993; T. Stachelhaus, A. Schneider, and M. A. Marahiel, Science 269:69-72, 1995). Most nonribosomal peptides from microorganisms are classified as secondary metabolites; that is, they rarely have a role in primary metabolism, growth, or reproduction but have evolved to somehow benefit the producing organisms. Cyanobacteria produce a myriad array of secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, polyketides, and nonribosomal peptides, some of which are potent toxins. This paper addresses the molecular genetic basis of nonribosomal peptide synthesis in diverse species of cyanobacteria. Amplification of peptide synthetase genes was achieved by use of degenerate primers directed to conserved functional motifs of these modular enzyme complexes. Specific detection of the gene cluster encoding the biosynthetic pathway of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin was shown for both cultured and uncultured samples. Blot hybridizations, DNA amplifications, sequencing, and evolutionary analysis revealed a broad distribution of peptide synthetase gene orthologues in cyanobacteria. The results demonstrate a molecular approach to assessing preexpression microbial functional diversity in uncultured cyanobacteria. The nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic pathways detected may lead to the discovery and engineering of novel antibiotics, immunosuppressants, or antiviral agents.  (+info)

Rvs167p, the budding yeast homolog of amphiphysin, colocalizes with actin patches. (7/531)

In this report, we have shown that the yeast amphiphysin-like protein Rvs167p was localized mainly in small cortical patches throughout the cell in unbudding cells. During budding, the patches were polarized at bud emergence site. During mating, Rvs167p was concentrated at the tip of the shmoo. Rvs167p colocalized with actin patches during yeast vegetative growth and mating. Complete disruption of the actin cytoskeleton using Latrunculin-A did not affect Rvs167p localization in patches throughout the cell. In rvs167 mutant cells, actin patches are mislocalized and in rvs161 or abp1 mutant cells, Rvs167p localization is not affected. These observations suggest that Rvs167p may localize the actin cortical complex properly. Finally, the amphiphysin-conserved N-terminal domain of Rvs167p, called the BAR domain, was required but not sufficient for the correct localization of the protein.  (+info)

Studies on maitotoxin-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with cDNAs encoding for L-type Ca(2+) channel subunits. (8/531)

The aim of the present study was to characterize the role played by different L-type Ca(2+) channel subunits in [Ca(2+)](i) increase induced by maitotoxin (MTX). In the presence of 5 mM extracellular K(+), MTX (0.01-0.5 ng/ml) induced a significant concentration-dependent increase in Fura-2-monitored [Ca(2+)](i) in single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the alpha(1c) (CHOCalpha9 cells) or the alpha(1c)beta(3)alpha(2)delta (CHOCalpha9beta3alpha2/delta4 cells) subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), whereas the effect was much reduced in wild-type CHO cells lacking VGCCs. In addition, MTX effect on CHOCalpha9, CHOCalpha9beta3alpha2/delta4, and GH(3) cells (0.01-0.1 ng/ml) was inhibited by the selective L-type Ca(2+) channel entry-blocker nimodipine (10 microM); a nimodipine-insensitive component was still present, particularly at high (>1 ng/ml) toxin concentrations. In CHOCalpha9beta3alpha2/delta4 cells, depolarizing concentrations of extracellular K(+) (55 mM) reinforced the [Ca(2+)](i) increase induced by MTX (0.1 ng/ml), and this effect was prevented by nimodipine (10 microM). Finally, patch-clamp experiments in CHOCalpha9beta3alpha2/delta4 cells showed that low MTX concentrations (0.03 ng/ml) induced the occurrence of an inward current at -60 mV, which was completely prevented by Cd(2+) (100 microM) and by nimodipine (10 microM), whereas the same dihydropyridine concentration (10 microM) failed to prevent the electrophysiological effects of a higher toxin concentration (3 ng/ml). In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that MTX-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation involves two components: 1) an action on L-type VGCCs at the pore-forming alpha(1c) subunit level, which is responsible for the greatest rise of [Ca(2+)](i); and 2) a VGCC-independent mechanism that is present both in excitable and in nonexcitable cells and is responsible for a lower elevation of [Ca(2+)](i).  (+info)

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxocins" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It seems like it might be a mistake or a typo. If you have more context or information about where this term came from, I may be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are a group of heat-stable, lipid-soluble toxins that can cause a type of foodborne illness known as ciguatera fish poisoning. These toxins are produced by microscopic marine dinoflagellates called Gambierdiscus toxicus and other related species, which grow on and around certain types of algae in warm, tropical waters.

When these dinoflagellates are consumed by herbivorous fish, the toxins accumulate in their tissues without causing harm to the fish. However, when larger carnivorous fish eat many smaller herbivorous fish, the concentration of CTXs can increase to potentially harmful levels.

Humans who consume contaminated fish may experience a range of symptoms including gastrointestinal disturbances (such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (such as tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue, and other parts of the body, reversal of hot and cold sensations, and muscle weakness), and cardiovascular symptoms (such as low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat).

These symptoms can be severe and may last for several weeks or even months. Currently, there is no specific antidote or treatment for ciguatera fish poisoning, and management typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of fish known to carry CTXs, such as barracuda, grouper, moray eel, and red snapper, among others.

Cyclic hydrocarbons are a type of organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in ring-like structures. These molecules are characterized by the presence of at least one closed chain of carbon atoms, forming a cycle or ring. The properties and chemical behavior of cyclic hydrocarbons depend on the number of carbon atoms in the ring, the type of bonds between them (single, double, or triple), and the presence of substituents or functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton.

Cyclic hydrocarbons can be classified into two main categories: alicyclic and aromatic compounds. Alicyclic hydrocarbons have only single bonds between the carbon atoms in their rings, while aromatic hydrocarbons contain alternating double bonds that give them unique chemical and physical properties.

Examples of cyclic hydrocarbons include cyclohexane (an alicyclic compound) and benzene (an aromatic compound). These molecules play important roles in various industrial applications, such as fuel production, pharmaceuticals, and materials science. However, some cyclic hydrocarbons can also have harmful effects on human health and the environment, making it essential to handle and dispose of them properly.

Shellfish poisoning refers to illnesses caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated with harmful toxins produced by certain types of microscopic algae. These toxins can accumulate in various species of shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific type of toxin involved.

There are several types of shellfish poisoning, each caused by different groups of algal toxins:

1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP): Caused by saxitoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense. Symptoms include tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by weakness, difficulty swallowing, and potentially paralysis and respiratory failure in severe cases.
2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): Caused by domoic acid produced by diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, memory loss, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.
3. Diarrheal Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): Caused by okadaic acid and its derivatives produced by dinoflagellates such as Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and occasionally chills and fever.
4. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP): Caused by brevetoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis. Symptoms include reversible neurological symptoms like tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as respiratory irritation, coughing, and chest tightness in severe cases.
5. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP): Caused by azaspiracids produced by dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

It is essential to note that shellfish contaminated with these toxins may not show visible signs of spoilage or illness-causing bacteria; therefore, it is crucial to avoid consuming them during harmful algal blooms (HABs) or red tide events. Public health authorities often issue warnings and close shellfish beds when HABs are detected in the water. Always check local advisories before consuming shellfish, especially if you have harvested them yourself. Cooking does not destroy these toxins, so they remain harmful even after cooking.

Cardiidae is a family of marine bivalve mollusks commonly known as cockles or heart clams. The name Cardiidae comes from the Greek word "kardia" which means heart, referring to the shell shape of many species in this family that resembles a heart.

Members of this family have two equal-sized shells, or valves, that are typically rounded and convex in shape. They have a distinctive set of muscle scars on the inside of the shell called "pallial lines" which are used to identify different species. Cardiids are filter feeders, using their gills to extract food particles from the water.

Cardiidae species can be found in a variety of habitats, including sandy and muddy seafloors, and some live in shallow waters while others can be found at depths of several thousand meters. Some well-known cardiid genera include Cardium, Cerastoderma, and Laevicardium.

"Spiro compounds" are not specifically classified as medical terms, but they are a concept in organic chemistry. However, I can provide a general definition:

Spiro compounds are a type of organic compound that contains two or more rings, which share a single common atom, known as the "spiro center." The name "spiro" comes from the Greek word for "spiral" or "coiled," reflecting the three-dimensional structure of these molecules.

The unique feature of spiro compounds is that they have at least one spiro atom, typically carbon, which is bonded to four other atoms, two of which belong to each ring. This arrangement creates a specific geometry where the rings are positioned at right angles to each other, giving spiro compounds distinctive structural and chemical properties.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding spiro compounds can be essential in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research since these molecules often exhibit unique biological activities due to their intricate structures.

Acrylamides are a type of chemical that can form in some foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking. They are created when certain amino acids (asparagine) and sugars in the food react together at temperatures above 120°C (248°F). This reaction is known as the Maillard reaction.

Acrylamides have been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), based on studies in animals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with acrylamide exposure from food.

Public health organizations recommend limiting acrylamide intake by following some cooking practices such as:

* Avoiding overcooking or burning foods
* Soaking potatoes (which are high in asparagine) in water before frying to reduce the formation of acrylamides
* Choosing raw, unprocessed, or minimally processed foods when possible.

Dinoflagellida is a large group of mostly marine planktonic protists, many of which are bioluminescent. Some dinoflagellates are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as "red tides," which can produce toxins that affect marine life and human health.

Dinoflagellates are characterized by two flagella, or whip-like structures, that they use for movement. They have complex cell structures, including a unique structure called the nucleomorph, which is the remnant of a former endosymbiotic event where another eukaryotic cell was engulfed and became part of the dinoflagellate's cell.

Dinoflagellates are important contributors to the marine food chain, serving as both primary producers and consumers. Some species form symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as corals, providing them with nutrients in exchange for protection and other benefits.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Marine Biology" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a branch of biology that deals with the study of marine organisms, their behaviors, and their interactions with the marine environment. Marine biologists investigate various aspects of marine life, such as the ecology, physiology, and genetics of marine plants, animals, and microorganisms. They also study the impact of human activities on marine ecosystems and work towards conservation efforts to protect these environments.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

'Aquatic organisms' are living beings that inhabit bodies of water, such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and ponds. This group includes a wide variety of species, ranging from tiny microorganisms like plankton to large marine mammals like whales. Aquatic organisms can be divided into several categories based on their specific adaptations to their environment, including:

1. Plankton: small organisms that drift with the water currents and include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton).
2. Nekton: actively swimming aquatic organisms, such as fish, squid, and marine mammals.
3. Benthos: organisms that live on or in the bottom of bodies of water, including crustaceans, mollusks, worms, and some types of algae.
4. Neuston: organisms that live at the air-water interface, such as certain species of insects and small fish.

Aquatic organisms play a critical role in maintaining the health and balance of aquatic ecosystems, providing food and habitat for other species, and contributing to global nutrient cycling and climate regulation.

T-2 toxin is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, which is a secondary metabolite produced by certain Fusarium species of fungi. It is a low molecular weight sesquiterpene epoxide that is chemically stable and has a high toxicity profile. T-2 toxin can contaminate crops in the field or during storage, and it is often found in grains such as corn, wheat, barley, and oats.

T-2 toxin has a variety of adverse health effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, immune suppression, skin irritation, and neurotoxicity. It is also known to have teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animals, and it is considered a potential human carcinogen by some agencies.

Exposure to T-2 toxin can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. Ingestion is the most common route of exposure, particularly in areas where contaminated grains are used as a food source. Inhalation exposure can occur during agricultural activities such as harvesting and processing contaminated crops. Skin contact with T-2 toxin can cause irritation and inflammation.

Prevention of T-2 toxin exposure involves good agricultural practices, including crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and proper storage conditions. Monitoring of T-2 toxin levels in food and feed is also important to ensure that exposure limits are not exceeded.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not a medical term or organization, but rather the civilian space agency of the U.S. federal government. It is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and space research. However, NASA has made significant contributions to medicine and health through its research and technological developments. For example, it has developed medical technologies for use in space that have also been applied to patient care on Earth, such as improved imaging techniques and telemedicine systems. Additionally, NASA's studies of the effects of space travel on the human body have led to advances in understanding and treating various health conditions, including bone loss, muscle atrophy, and radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

The European Union (EU) is not a medical term or organization, but rather a political and economic union of 27 European countries. It is primarily involved in matters related to policy, law, and trade, and does not have a direct role in the provision or regulation of healthcare services, except in certain specific areas such as pharmaceutical regulations and cross-border healthcare directives.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "European Union."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Mouratidou T, Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Samara C, Kouimtzis T (August 2006). "Detection of the marine toxin okadaic acid in mussels ... T3DB: Toxin-target database ATDB: Animal toxin database Society of Toxicology The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins ... Toxin-antitoxin system Harper, Douglas. "toxin". Online Etymology Dictionary. "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster ... The word toxin does not specify method of delivery (as opposed to venom, a toxin delivered via a bite, sting, etc.). Poison is ...
... (GPT) is a polypeptide toxin from the marine Goniopora species coral. Two toxins from this source have been ... The toxin acting on Na+ channels has a molecular weight of 12 kDa and consists of 105 amino acids. The GPT that acts on Ca2+ ... Wu, C.H.; Narahashi, T. (1988). "Mechanism of Action of Novel Marine Neurotoxins on Ion Channels". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. ... Noda, M.; Muramatsu, I.; Fujiwara, M.; Ashida, K. (1985). "Effects of Goniopora Toxin on Bullfrog Atrial Muscle Are Frequency- ...
... which are marine toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (among several others). These toxins can produce a series ... To date, there is no reasonable means of preventing the uptake of toxins by shellfish, nor of removing the toxins from ... Wang, Da-Zhi (2008-06-11). "Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review". Marine Drugs. 6 (2): 349-371. doi:10.3390 ... Munday, Rex; Reeve, John (2013-11-11). "Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins". Toxins. 5 (11): 2109-2137. doi:10.3390/ ...
Singh R, Sharma M, Joshi P, Rawat DS (August 2008). "Clinical status of anti-cancer agents derived from marine sources". Anti- ... Botulinum toxin (from Clostridium botulinum) and bleomycin (from Streptomyces verticillus) are two examples. Botulinum, the ... Two examples developed for clinical use include ω-conotoxin (from the marine snail Conus magus) and ecteinascidin 743 (from the ... Akey DL, Gehret JJ, Khare D, Smith JL (October 2012). "Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases ...
... is a Latinx American oceanographer whose research focuses on marine geochemistry and biogeochemistry. A ... toxins and trace metals. She has been a leader in developing new techniques that use both novel chemical approaches (i.e., ... Benitez-Nelson served as the Undergraduate Director and then Director of USC's Marine Science Program. Benitez-Nelson's ... Marine and Freshwater Research. 64 (11): 1087. doi:10.1071/MF12313. Stukel, Michael R.; Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; ...
After one year of pickling-about a third of the way through the process-about 10% of the toxin is suggested to remain, and ... There are close to 200 species in the family Tetraodontidae (pufferfish), a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of ... In the cuisine of Hakusan, Ishikawa, ovaries are served after effort is made to reduce the toxin level by salting and pickling ... Lago J, Rodríguez LP, Blanco L, Vieites JM, Cabado AG (October 2015). "Tetrodotoxin, an Extremely Potent Marine Neurotoxin: ...
"Detection of a Planktothrix agardhii Bloom in Portuguese Marine Coastal Waters". Toxins. 9 (12): 391. doi:10.3390/toxins9120391 ... Blom JF, Bister B, Bischoff D, Nicholson G, Jung G, Süssmuth RD, Jüttner F (March 2003). "Oscillapeptin J, a new grazer toxin ... 4: 1-8. Sivonen K, Jones G (1999). "Cyanobacterial toxins". In Chorus I, Bertram J (eds.). Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a ... and the 55.6 kb microcystin synthetase gene which gives these organisms the ability to synthesize toxins has been sequenced. P ...
Marine neurotoxins, Ion channel toxins, Guanidine alkaloids, Biological toxin weapons, Alcohols, Ichthyotoxins, Sodium channel ... Scheuer PJ (1970). "Toxins from fish and other marine organisms". Advances in Food Research. 18: 141-61. doi:10.1016/S0065-2628 ... The toxin was also referenced in "synthetic form" in the S1E2 of the series "FBI". The toxin is used as a weapon in both the ... while the pigs ate the pufferfish body parts that contain most of the toxin, thus being fatally poisoned. The toxin was first ...
"Marine biofilms as mediators of colonization by marine macroorganisms: implications for antifouling and aquaculture". Marine ... April 2015). "Toxin-induced necroptosis is a major mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus lung damage". PLOS Pathogens. 11 (4): ... Biofilms in marine engineering systems, such as pipelines of the offshore oil and gas industry, can lead to substantial ... In the marine environment, biofilms could reduce the hydrodynamic efficiency of ships and propellers, lead to pipeline blockage ...
World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 12, 2021. Lawley, J. W.; Gamero-Mora, E.; Maronna, M. M.; Chiaverano, L. ... Toxins. 5 (12): 2420-2433. doi:10.3390/toxins5122420. PMC 3873694. PMID 24322597. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... ICES Journal of Marine Science. 72 (5): 1565-1575. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv007. Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, ... Marine Biology. 143 (2): 369-379. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1070-3. S2CID 189820003. Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Bayha, Keith W.; ...
Yasumoto, Takeshi (2001). "The chemistry and biological function of natural marine toxins". The Chemical Record. 1 (3): 228-242 ... Also the process of toxin molecule aggregation may be involved in the main mechanism of the haemolytic activity. Prymnesin-2 is ... Prymnesin-2 causes hemolysis by direct interaction between toxin and cell surface. Partly due to interaction with cellular ... Natural Toxins. 6 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-7189(199802)6:1. 3.0.CO;2-7. ISSN 1056-9014. PMID 9851510. Granéli, Edna; ...
"Ecology and Evolution of Marine Diatoms and Parmales", Marine Protists: Diversity and Dynamics, Springer Japan, pp. 251-275, ... The toxin causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and so the coast was closed for shellfishing while a domoic acid monitoring ... Marine mammals and seabirds have displayed adverse effects when in contact with Domoic acid including neurological effects and ... Pseudo-nitzschia australis is a pennate diatom found in temperate and sub-tropic marine waters, such as off the coast of ...
"Marine Toxins". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 2011-01-09. Retrieved 2010-12-01. " ... Toxins may either be present naturally in food or released by bacteria or from contamination of food products. Psychological ... Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or ...
The latter is one of only two marine species in this family (the other is S. pacifica). The largest freshwater species in this ... Toxins Incl. Trop. Dis. 19 (16): 2272-2288. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-19-16. PMC 3735412. PMID 23895313. Brisset, I.B.; A. Schaper ... Each time the environment changes, the feeding of the stingray changes, leading to changes in the composition of toxins and ... A single marine genus, Styracura, of the tropical West Atlantic and East Pacific are also part of Potamotrygonidae. They are ...
The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) (PDF). Rome ... ISBN 92-5-104587-9. Miller, Donald M. (1990). Ciguatera Seafood Toxins. CRC Press. pp. 8-9. ISBN 0-8493-6073-0. Caranx at ... Caranx is a genus of tropical to subtropical marine fishes in the jack family Carangidae, commonly known as jacks, trevallies ... They are generally found in shallow marine or brackish water sedimentary deposits. A number of extinct species have been ...
Fusetani, Nobuhiro (2009). "Marine toxins: An overview". Marine Toxins as Research Tools. Progress in Molecular and Subcellular ... dimethylsulfoxonium chloride as a cytotoxic constituent from the marine sponge Theonella aff. mirabilis". Comparative ... Sponge toxins, Sulfonium compounds, Chlorides, Primary alcohols). ...
2 September 2011). "Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins". Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas. ... Marine Group I (MG-I or MGI): marine Nitrososphaerota with subgroups Ia (aka I.a) up to Id Marine Group II (MG-II): marine ... also marine Euryarchaeota, Marine Benthic Group D Marine Group IV (MG-IV): also marine Euryarchaeota Prokaryote metabolism is ... Ribosome Cell membrane Cell wall Capsule Pili Marine prokaryotes are marine bacteria and marine archaea. They are defined by ...
... magellanicus is reported as being a slow detoxifyer of the toxin. ASP is a neurotoxin produced by some marine diatoms and has ... In: Seafood Toxins (ed. EP Ragelis). American Chemical Society, Washington D.C. pp. 207-214. Tovar A, Moreno C, Mánuel-Vez MP ... With respect to scallop culture, two categories of toxins have been reported: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and amnesic ... García-Vargas M (2000). Environmental impacts of intensive aquaculture in marine waters. Water Research, 34(1):334-342. Shumway ...
2 September 2011). "Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins". Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas. ... Marine primary producers underpin almost all marine animal life by generating nearly all of the oxygen and food marine animals ... Marine organisms, Marine biology, Biological oceanography, Evolution-related timelines, Marine botany, Algae, Seagrass, ... The principal marine primary producers are cyanobacteria, algae and marine plants. The oxygen released as a by-product of ...
Dolan, L. C.; Matulka, R. A.; Burdock, G. A. (2010). "Naturally occurring food toxins". Toxins (Basel). 2 (9): 2289-2332. doi: ... TMA has been detected in or isolated from a number of marine organisms, mostly amongst the Cnidaria and Mollusca, notably in ... Anthoni, U.; Bohlin, L.; Larsen, C.; Nielsen, P.; Nielsen, N. H.; Christophersen, C. (1989). "The toxin tetramine from the " ... Occurrence in marine organisms and pharmacology". Toxicon. 27 (7): 707-716. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(89)90037-8. PMID 2675390. ...
Fusetani, Nobuhiro; William Kem (2009). "Marine Toxins: An Overview". Marine Toxins as Research Tools. Progress in Molecular ... Kosuge T, Tsuji K, Hirai K, Fukuyama T (July 1985). "First evidence of toxin production by bacteria in a marine organism". ... Kosuge and colleagues found that these toxins are actually the metabolized products of a marine bacterium that belongs to the ... The ganglionic blockade of nAChRs by SGTX is similar to that of IS-toxin, a structurally similar compound derived from the same ...
2 September 2011). "Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins". Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas. ... these are the marine biogeochemical cycles. Marine carbon cycle Oxygen cycle Marine nitrogen cycle Marine phosphorus cycle ... Marine birds are adapted to life within the marine environment. They are often called seabirds. While marine birds vary greatly ... Marine life is studied scientifically in both marine biology and in biological oceanography. The term marine comes from the ...
"Injected Toxins: Sea Snakes". Diving Medicine: Overview of Marine Hazards. University of Utah School of Medicine. Retrieved 20 ... Some marine animals can be hazardous to divers. In most cases this is a defensive reaction to contact with, or molestation by ... Berkeley, California: Marine Technology & Management Group, University of California. Archived from the original on July 26, ... Alevizon, Bill (July 2000). "A Case for Regulation of the Feeding of Fishes and Other Marine Wildlife by Divers and Snorkelers ...
Marine neurotoxins, Phycotoxins, Polyether toxins, Sodium channel openers, Spiro compounds, Non-protein ion channel toxins). ... Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Kem, William (2009-01-31). Marine Toxins as Research Tools. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3- ... The toxin usually accumulates in the skin, head, viscera, and roe of big reef fish like grouper, wrasse, triggerfish, lionfish ... Rapid testing for this toxin in food is not standard. Some ciguatoxins lower the threshold for opening excitatory voltage-gated ...
The toxin content in the whole body exceeded 3000 MU, a PST level considered lethal for humans when taken orally.{{cite web}}: ... One of the reef's most dominant groups". Marine Life of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Periplus Nature Guides. Tuttle ... Hans P. Egmond; M. E. van Apeldoorn & G. J. A. Speijers (2004). "Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)". Marine Biotoxins. FAO ... Peter Davie (2010). "Zosimus aeneus". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved March 2, 2011. Raoul Serène & Alain Crosnier ...
Marine Drugs. 15 (6): 160. doi:10.3390/md15060160. PMC 5484110. PMID 28574457. "Cyanobacterial toxins: Anatoxin-a" (PDF). World ... The toxin is produced by multiple genera of cyanobacteria and has been reported in North America, South America, Central ... The toxin is introduced into the birds via water contaminated with cyanobacterial mat communities that arise from the hot ... Fawell JK, Mitchell RE, Hill RE, Everett DJ (March 1999). "The toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins in the mouse: II anatoxin-a". ...
... channel toxin known as δ-TLTX-Ta1a according to the currently developing systematic nomenclature for peptide and protein toxins ... World Register of Marine Species. (2013). Thalassianthus aster Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php ... p=taxdetails&id=291206 Dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira (2009). "Spider and Wasp Neurotoxins". Botulinum Toxin. pp. 471-484. doi: ...
Naturally produced toxins can also bioaccumulate. The marine algal blooms known as "red tides" can result in local filter- ... Some marine turtles are used as experimental subjects to analyze bioaccumulation because of their shoreline habitats, which ... Biomagnification (magnification of toxins with increasing trophic level) Chelation therapy Drug accumulation ratio ... Wetland acidification can raise the chemical or metal concentrations, which leads to an increased bioavailability in marine ...
Fenner P (2000). "Marine envenomation: An update - A presentation on the current status of marine envenomation first aid and ... doi:10.1046/j.1442-2026.2000.00151.x. Taylor, G. (2000). "Are some jellyfish toxins heat labile?". South Pacific Underwater ... 1996). Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. Surf Life Saving Australia and University of ... ISBN 978-1-4822-3582-1. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Cubozoa". marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2018-03-19. Bentlage ...
11, 1283-1295 Madio, B. King, G. F & Undheim, E. A. (2019). Sea Anemone Toxins: A Structural Overview. Marine Drugs, 17(6). ... The other cell type is ectodermal gland cells which is responsible for producing a distinct collections of toxins. These toxins ... Daly, M. (2017). Functional and Genetic Diversity of Toxins in Sea Anemones. In Evolution of Venomous Animals and Their Toxins ... It is part of a highly diverse order that successfully occupies marine habitats across all depths of the ocean, ranging from ...
They are relatively homologous to the calcium channel blockers omega-conotoxins from marine cone snails and belong to the four- ... Some assassin bug toxins are listed below: Agriosphodrus dohrni toxin Ado1. Isyndus obscurus toxin Iob1. Peirates turpis toxin ... Insect toxins are various protein toxins produced by insect species. Assassin bugs, sometimes known as kissing bugs, are one of ... Darbon H, Mosbah A, Nakajima T, Bernard C, Corzo G (2001). "Solution structure of Ptu1, a toxin from the assassin bug Peirates ...
The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) (PDF). Rome ... ISBN 1-58008-452-4. Miller, Donald M. (1990). Ciguatera Seafood Toxins. CRC Press. pp. 8-9. ISBN 0-8493-6073-0. Carangoides at ... Carangoides is a genus of tropical to subtropical marine fishes in the jack family, Carangidae. They are small- to large-sized ... Most species are coastal in nature, inhabiting continental shelf marine environments including reefs, bays, sandflats, lagoons ...
... can harbor toxins that result in several different poisoning syndromes. Toxins originate in small marine organisms (diatoms or ... The toxins produced by G. toxicus are then modified and concentrated as they pass up the marine food chain to carnivorous fish ... Marine shellfish toxins cannot be destroyed by cooking or freezing.. Treatment. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Severe ... These potent toxins originate from Gambierdiscus toxicus, a small marine organism (dinoflagellate) that grows on and around ...
There are five common types of marine toxins, and they all cause different symptoms. Food poisoning through marine toxins is ... Marine toxins are chemicals and bacteria that can contaminate certain types of seafood. Eating the seafood may result in food ... Marine Toxins. Overview. Marine toxins are chemicals and bacteria that can contaminate certain types of seafood. Eating the ... Marine toxin poisoning occurs most often in the summer. Diagnosing marine toxin poisoning. Your doctor will do a medical ...
Marine Toxins Articles Case Reports Symptoms Treatment, Ireland. ...
Information for caterers on microbial toxins and marine biotoxins Microbial toxins are chemical substances which are produced ... Bacteria and fungi are typically associated with toxin production. However, it should be noted that not all species of bacteria ...
Marine toxins and their effects. Red tides are a marine phenomenon in which water is stained a red, brown, or yellowish color ... Marine toxins can also affect local ecosystems by poisoning animals. Some toxins, such as that from Ptychodiscus brevis, the ... If the mice develop diagnostic symptoms of poisoning, this is an indication of contamination of the shellfish by a marine toxin ... A few other types of marine algae also produce toxic chemicals. Diatoms in the genus Nitzchia synthesize domoic acid, a ...
This study was supported in part by the NCCOS ECOHAB project Trophic Transfer and Effects of HAB Toxins in Alaskan Marine Food ... New Publication Reports Prevalence of Shellfish Toxins in Arctic Marine Food Web. Published on: 03/11/2022 ... low toxin levels, orange = moderate toxin levels, and red = high toxin levels. ... In this region, paralytic shellfish toxins (also called saxitoxins) are produced by the marine algal species Alexandrium ...
Mouratidou T, Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Samara C, Kouimtzis T (August 2006). "Detection of the marine toxin okadaic acid in mussels ... T3DB: Toxin-target database ATDB: Animal toxin database Society of Toxicology The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins ... Toxin-antitoxin system Harper, Douglas. "toxin". Online Etymology Dictionary. "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster ... The word toxin does not specify method of delivery (as opposed to venom, a toxin delivered via a bite, sting, etc.). Poison is ...
Berlin, Germany, Belfast, Northern Ireland, and Boulder, CO, USA, October 8, 2014: Marine toxins can have serious implications ... As a result, routine monitoring for a number of recognized marine toxins in edible shellfish is a regulatory requirement in ... MBio Diagnostics and SCIENION create portable tools for Monitoring of Marine Toxins and ensure consumer safety without animal- ... is currently using sciFLEXARRAYER technology to produce arrays in cartridges for the multiplexed detection of marine toxins ...
Mouratidou T, Kaniou-Grigoriadou I, Samara C, Kouimtzis T (August 2006). "Detection of the marine toxin okadaic acid in mussels ... "toxin". Online Etymology Dictionary.. *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 December ... The word toxin does not specify method of delivery (as opposed to venom, a toxin delivered via a bite, sting, etc.). Poison is ... Defense as in the bee, ant, termite, honey bee, wasp, poison dart frog and plants producing toxins *The toxins used as defense ...
Is your seafood safe? New study reveals alarming levels of toxins in Pacific Ocean marine life A research paper published in ... The paper outlines various types of toxins, their origins, and their impact on marine life and human health, highlighting the ... Is your seafood safe? New study reveals alarming levels of toxins in Pacific Ocean marine life ... As with many toxins, exposure to the toxic metal cadmium during pregnancy can adversely impact fetal development. ...
... Algal toxins, including cyanotoxins and marine biotoxins, can cause ... Online purchase of the Cyanotoxins & Marine Toxins products is available only from Europe or Asia. US customers shall contact ... Algal Toxin ELISA Test Kits. Our ELISA plate kits allow algal toxin testing to be performed in-house, providing accurate, ... Algal Toxin Standards. We offer a wide range of algal toxin standards and QC materials to ensure accurate results. Regardless ...
Recent developments in analytical chemistry of marine toxins ... Marine toxins present a significant challenge to the analytical ... Recent developments in analytical chemistry of marine toxins. Author. Search for: Quilliam, M. A.1. ... domoic acid and other ASP toxins; okadaic acid and related DSP toxins, including DTX1-5 toxins; pectenotoxins; yessotoxin; ... Recent developments in analytical chemistry of marine toxins. From National Research Council Canada ...
Extreme heat is weakening entire marine ecosystems in Florida. Abigail Geiger & Gabriela Tejeda ... Critical List: Solar panels and toxin-filled boilers for all The home improvement store Lowes is partnering with Sungevity, a ... The EPA caved to manufacturers push to delay emissions standards for toxins like mercury and lead from industrial boilers. ... The EPA caved to manufacturers push to delay emissions standards for toxins like mercury and […]. ...
Environmental Toxins. The mission of the Ecotoxicology Research Program is to investigate the source, fate and effects of toxic ... Marine Immunology. Basic and applied research on the health and immune systems of marine vertebrates ... Marine Biomedical Research. Studying sharks, skates and stingrays as laboratory animal models for basic & applied research ... Marine & Freshwater Aquaculture. Developing technologies to produce fish & invertebrates to meet growing demand for seafood & ...
Admiralty Inlet South to Kinney Point on Marrowstone Island Closed Due to Marine Biotoxins. Posted on: August 23, 2017 ... Anderson Lake was monitored for toxins this winter, and toxins were not detected, but starting in April, bloom activity and ... Port Townsend, WA - Elevated levels of the potent nerve toxin anatoxin-a were detected in a water sample taken from Anderson ... The toxin level is 1.28 micrograms per liter, which is above the Washington State recreational criteria. The bloom of ...
... and the requirement of a bacterial toxin for light organ development. Part of the Funny by Nature website, it also ... ... Microbial Life:Topics of Interest:Marine Symbiosis: Squid/Vibrio Collection. Subject: Biology:Ecology:Symbiotic Relations: ... This article discusses the squid light organ, squid-bacteria (Vibrio) symbiosis, and the requirement of a bacterial toxin for ... An Enlightening Toxin. http://web.archive.org/web/20070630041441/http://funnybynature.com/?date=20041114. Pieter Edelman, Funny ...
People and animals can be exposed to marine algal toxins through food, inhalation, and skin contact. Learn more about illnesses ... Signs of marine algal toxin exposure in animals. In animals, exposure to marine algal toxins can be fatal. The first sign can ... Animals can be exposed to marine algal toxins through the same routes as in humans, by inhalation of aerosolized marine toxins ... Treatment for animals exposed to marine algal toxins. Animals exposed to marine algal toxins should be managed by clinical ...
Toxins, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... The marine algal toxin palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are ... The marine algal toxin palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are some of the most toxic marine compounds. Their accumulation in ... Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection by Natalia Vilariño ... The outcomes of this study will be a valuable resource for the study of gene expression induced by marine toxins, and will help ...
Marine toxins targeting ion channels. / Arias, Hugo R. In: Marine Drugs, Vol. 4, No. 3, 01.04.2006, p. 31-69.. Research output ... Arias, Hugo R. / Marine toxins targeting ion channels. In: Marine Drugs. 2006 ; Vol. 4, No. 3. pp. 31-69. ... Marine toxins targeting ion channels. Marine Drugs. 2006 Apr 1;4(3):31-69. doi: 10.3390/md403037 ... keywords = "Ligand-gated ion channels, Marine toxins, Natural toxins, Voltage-gated ion channels", ...
A retired Marine master sergeant who lost his daughter to leukemia and a cancer-surviving officers son share their stories on ... A retired Marine master sergeant who lost his daughter to leukemia and a cancer-surviving officers son share their stories and ... Jerry Ensminger served his country faithfully for more than 24 years in the Marine Corps. His daughter Janey suffered for three ... Jerry Ensminger, a retired Marine master sergeant, lost his daughter to leukemia. (Photo courtesy retired Master Sgt. Jerry ...
... as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins ... A suite of biologically active compounds, fast-acting toxins ... The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. DOI. ... The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. From ...
You can also look for the Marine Stewardship Council label, or use their seafood product finder. ... Farmed fish may be fed with other fish that are contaminated with high levels of mercury or toxins. Additionally, overcrowded ... Mamavation » Blog » Food , Mamavation » Is Seafood Safe? Investigation of Fish, Toxins & the Ocean ... These can be higher in PCBs and other toxins than the other parts of the fish. ...
Food Poisoning from Marine Toxins. Gary W. Brunette, Editor in Chief. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for ... Toxin concentration in the head, viscera, and roe suggest avoiding consumption of these parts. Commercial products are sold to ... The presence of the toxin does not affect the odor, color, or taste of the fish. In humans who eat contaminated fish, the ... 13] G toxicus, which produces ciguatera toxin, tends to proliferate on dead coral reefs. The risk of ciguatera is likely to ...
Two major groups of marine phytoplankton, diatoms and dinoflagellates, produce HAB toxins. Common marine HAB toxins found in ... Marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins can cause a variety of illnesses in humans through shellfish ingestion. Marine HABs ... Food Poisoning from Marine Toxins. Gary W. Brunette, Editor in Chief. CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for ... Most states at risk for marine HABs have excellent monitoring programs in place to close harvesting when toxins are present in ...
EU regulations require shellfish harvesters and processors to analyse their products for toxins. Marine biotoxins such as ... Biosense develops new shellfish toxin tester. By Ahmed ElAmin 19-Sep-2005. - Last updated on 01-Mar-2017 at 13:06. GMT ... The main tools for DSP and PSP toxin monitoring have been bioassays, which can give inaccurate results. For ASP, high- ... according to Scotlands FRS Marine Laboratory. Biosense Laboratories says its Elisa method allows multiple samples to be ...
Marine Toxins. *. Master List of Medicines. *. Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine: What You Need to Know. ...
Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins. Stivala CE, ... Special Issue on "freshwater and marine toxins". Benoit E, Mattei C, Barbier J, Marchot P, Molgó J, Servent D. Benoit E, et al. ... Physical and virtual screening methods for marine toxins and drug discovery targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Molgó ... Among authors: benoit e. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Apr 5;9(4):128. doi: 10.3390/toxins9040128. Toxins (Basel). 2017. PMID: 28379176 ...
Total synthesis of the marine toxin polycavernoside a via selective macrolactonization of a trihydroxy carboxylic acid [1]. ... Total synthesis of the marine toxin polycavernoside a via selective macrolactonization of a trihydroxy carboxylic acid [1]. In ... Total synthesis of the marine toxin polycavernoside a via selective macrolactonization of a trihydroxy carboxylic acid [1]. / ... Total synthesis of the marine toxin polycavernoside a via selective macrolactonization of a trihydroxy carboxylic acid [1]. ...
  • The algal poisons can accumulate in marine organisms that feed by filtering large volumes of water, for example, shellfish such as clams, oysters, and mussels. (jrank.org)
  • The paper , published in Harmful Algae , sheds new light on threats from toxic algal blooms and is a first step toward understanding how a changing climate may challenge marine wildlife and human health in the Alaskan Arctic. (noaa.gov)
  • In this region, paralytic shellfish toxins (also called saxitoxins) are produced by the marine algal species Alexandrium catenella . (noaa.gov)
  • The authors of both studies conclude that risks to ecosystem and wildlife health from algal toxins in northern and western Alaskan Arctic waters may be escalating with climate-change driven reductions in sea ice and continued atmospheric and ocean warming. (noaa.gov)
  • Algal toxins, including cyanotoxins and marine biotoxins, can cause illness and death in humans and animals. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • Gold Standard Diagnostics offers ABRAXIS® ELISA plate and lateral flow test strip kits for the detection and quantification of fresh and marine water algal toxins to support rapid and informed decision-making about the potential public health threat of cyanotoxins and marine biotoxins. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • Our ELISA plate kits allow algal toxin testing to be performed in-house, providing accurate, quantitative results within a few hours. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • We offer a wide range of algal toxin standards and QC materials to ensure accurate results. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • Regardless of your analytical method, our algal toxin standards and QC materials can help to ensure the accuracy of your results. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • Gold Standard Diagnostics' trusted Algal Toxin Proficiency Testing Programs satisfy the increasing international demand for conformity assessment in the field of algal toxin analysis and provide an independent assessment of your laboratory's performance, giving you confidence in your lab's ability to deliver quality results to your customers as part of your overall testing program. (goldstandarddiagnostics.com)
  • The mission of the Ecotoxicology Research Program is to investigate the source, fate and effects of toxic substances in the environment, including natural biotoxins ( harmful algal toxins ) and chemical pollutants (pesticides, petroleum, industrial contaminants, pharmaceuticals). (mote.org)
  • People and animals can be exposed to marine algal toxins through food, inhalation, and skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Two types of microalgae, dinoflagellates and diatoms , cause most harmful algal blooms in marine waters. (cdc.gov)
  • Dinoflagellates and diatoms are most often found in salt water (such as oceans or bays) or brackish water (such as estuaries) and can produce algal toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Shellfish can become contaminated with algal toxins when they filter and concentrate water that contains toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins can cause a variety of illnesses in humans through shellfish ingestion. (medscape.com)
  • [email protected] biochemistry and environmental chemistry, plant and algal biochemistry, chemical ecology and toxins produced by algae. (esf.edu)
  • Algal blooms thrive in warming seas, but generate toxins that damage fisheries, likely contributing to declines in blue crabs. (carolinapublicpress.org)
  • They can also be classified by their source, such as fungal biotoxins, microbial toxins, plant biotoxins, or animal biotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine biotoxins such as diarrheic, paralytic and amnesic shellfish poisoning (DSP, PSP, ASP) canlead to severe illness and death. (foodnavigator.com)
  • How do marine biotoxins interfere with health? (bund.de)
  • If mussels contain high levels of marine biotoxins, their consumption can lead to food poisoning. (bund.de)
  • One of these marine biotoxins is okadaic acid. (bund.de)
  • Marine biotoxins are metabolites from algae. (bund.de)
  • Since algae are the main source of food for water filtering mussels, this means that marine biotoxins such as okadaic acid too are ingested and accumulate in the flesh of the mussels. (bund.de)
  • Using human liver cells, the metabolism of this marine biotoxins are additionally investigated, i.e. the formation of metabolites of higher or lower toxicity. (bund.de)
  • Worldwide, ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common type of poisoning from marine biotoxins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They vary greatly in their toxicity, ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting) to potentially fatal even at extremely low doses (such as botulinum toxin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the specimens for toxin analysis should be refrigerated, but culture samples of C botulinum should not be refrigerated. (medscape.com)
  • On March 22, 2013, the FDA approved the first botulism antitoxin that can neutralize all 7 known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes. (medscape.com)
  • A mouse neutralization bioassay confirms botulism by isolating the botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Less strict understandings embrace naturally occurring inorganic toxins, such as arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less strict understandings embrace naturally occurring non-organic toxins, such as arsenic . (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other types of marine algae also produce toxic chemicals. (jrank.org)
  • The bloom of cyanobacteria in the lake contains toxin-producing species of algae. (jeffersoncountypublichealth.org)
  • These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae in the form of dinoflagellates and diatoms. (medscape.com)
  • In shellfish poisoning, the poisonous ingredients are toxins made by algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates, which build up in some types of shellfish. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These potent toxins originate from Gambierdiscus toxicus , a small marine organism (dinoflagellate) that grows on and around coral reefs. (cdc.gov)
  • Schimizu, I. (1978) Dinoflagellate toxins. (zotero.org)
  • Ciguatera toxins are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. (medscape.com)
  • Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs after eating reef fish contaminated with toxins like ciguatoxin or maitotoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning is based on the characteristic signs and symptoms and a history of eating fish species known to carry ciguatera toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • No test for ciguatera toxins in human clinical specimens is readily available. (cdc.gov)
  • Ciguatera fish poisoning due to consumption of tropical marine finfish which have bioaccumulated naturally occurring ciguatera toxins through their diet. (cdc.gov)
  • 2012. ( http://www.ciguatera-online.com/index.php/en/nos-services/l-intoxication , 21 Dec 2015). (who.int)
  • Ciguatera toxin is a polyether ladder that binds to and opens voltage-dependent sodium channels. (medscape.com)
  • Ciguatera toxin is secreted into breast milk and freely crosses the placenta. (medscape.com)
  • However, it should be noted that not all species of bacteria and fungi produce toxins. (fsai.ie)
  • Saxitoxin is a natural but potent neurotoxin that is synthesized by certain species of marine dinoflagellates. (jrank.org)
  • The toxin is made by dinoflagellates of the Gonyaulax species (red tide). (medscape.com)
  • This toxin is made by dinoflagellates of the species Dinophysis and Prorocentrum . (medscape.com)
  • DA was only detected in fish when toxic diatom species were also present in the water, suggesting that the toxin is quickly depurated and that fish are only dangerous vectors during the bloom period. (researchgate.net)
  • Traumatogenic accidents may occur from fish bites such as piranhas or from the electric shock discharge of some species (eg Electrophorus electricus and some marine stingrays) 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • All create wounds are at risk of infection with marine organisms, most notably Vibrio species, Aeromonas species, and Mycobacterium marinum . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Maine's Department of Marine Resources posted the so-called harvest recalls Friday after tests showed domoic acid at levels considered to be dangerous to humans. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In at least two mass mortality events in Monterey Bay, California, planktivorous fish were implicated as vectors of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) from diatoms to sea birds and marine mammals. (researchgate.net)
  • Microbial toxins are chemical substances which are produced by microorganisms. (fsai.ie)
  • Chemical contaminants in food include natural toxicants, such as mycotoxins and marine toxins, environmental contaminants, such as mercury and lead, and naturally occurring substances in plants. (who.int)
  • Specific concern about food hazards have usually been focused on microbiological hazards, pesticide residues, misuse of food additives and chemical contaminants, including biological toxins. (who.int)
  • Toxins produced by microorganisms are important virulence determinants responsible for microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion of the host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microorganisms may produce toxins that facilitate infection. (medscape.com)
  • The paper reports paralytic shellfish toxins were present in all sampled layers of Arctic food webs tested, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic clams, benthic worms, and pelagic fish, as well as walruses and bowhead whales harvested for subsistence purposes in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas. (noaa.gov)
  • Onset of symptoms may be within 15 minutes or as late as 24 hours (rarely) after ingestion of the toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Ingestion of raw or cooked mollusks that contain the toxin in sufficient quantities ensures the development of symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • The findings spotlight the role of environmental toxins in hormone-related cancers, suggesting new avenues for cancer prevention and mitigation strategies. (news-medical.net)
  • Toxin levels are categorized in relation to the commercial seafood safety regulatory limit (80 μg saxitoxin equivalents per 100 grams). (noaa.gov)
  • Stingrays, in particular, also known as rays, are cartilaginous fish ( Chondrichthyes ) and are found in freshwater (rivers, lakes) as well as marine environments 4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Port Townsend, WA - Elevated levels of the potent nerve toxin anatoxin-a were detected in a water sample taken from Anderson Lake on Monday, April 17th. (jeffersoncountypublichealth.org)
  • Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the toxins are found in other products such as paint, laquer and varnish removers- that's potent and powerful stuff! (keeperofthehome.org)
  • Marine toxins are chemicals and bacteria that can contaminate certain types of seafood. (peacehealth.org)
  • On a broader scale, toxins may be classified as either exotoxins , excreted by an organism, or endotoxins , which are released mainly when bacteria are lysed . (wikipedia.org)
  • This article discusses the squid light organ, squid-bacteria (Vibrio) symbiosis, and the requirement of a bacterial toxin for light organ development. (carleton.edu)
  • After the fish dies, bacteria create large amounts of the toxin if the fish is not immediately refrigerated or frozen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are five common types of marine toxins, and they all cause different symptoms. (peacehealth.org)
  • If the mice develop diagnostic symptoms of poisoning, this is an indication of contamination of the shellfish by a marine toxin. (jrank.org)
  • Depending on the toxin, the symptoms can vary. (bund.de)
  • The toxin enters the food chain via fish, which are then consumed by humans, in whom the toxin causes symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • It is hoped that an understanding of the molecular connections of detoxification and activation of additional toxic properties will contribute to the identification of unknown toxicity mechanisms of okadaic acid which play a relevant role for the reaction of the body following the consumption of larger doses of this marine biotoxin. (bund.de)
  • Marine toxins can also affect local ecosystems by poisoning animals. (jrank.org)
  • This study reveals elevated toxin exposure risks to marine wildlife that may have detrimental effects on the health of important marine resources within Arctic ecosystems. (noaa.gov)
  • Extreme heat is weakening entire marine ecosystems in Florida. (grist.org)
  • A suite of biologically active compounds, fast-acting toxins called spirolides, were recently isolated and characterized from shellfish and plankton samples collected from southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada. (canada.ca)
  • Walruses feed on clams and appear to consume higher toxin doses than bowhead whales that feed on zooplankton. (noaa.gov)
  • Estimated daily toxin doses to walruses during the warm summer of 2019 were in the range of doses known to have health impacts in other mammals. (noaa.gov)
  • Remember that cooking does not destroy the toxins in spoiled or toxic seafood. (peacehealth.org)
  • Cooking does not destroy the toxins in seafood, so buy your seafood from a good source. (peacehealth.org)
  • Clams had higher toxin concentrations than other layers of the food web and some clams collected in all three regions contained toxin concentrations above commercial seafood safety regulatory limits. (noaa.gov)
  • This has resulted in a patchwork quilt of bioassays and chemical methods being used to monitor for toxins in plankton and in seafood. (canada.ca)
  • Poisoning by viral and bacterial contamination of seafood, as well as marine envenomations, are not covered here. (medscape.com)
  • Two major groups of marine phytoplankton, diatoms and dinoflagellates, produce HAB toxins. (medscape.com)
  • Seckbach, J] -- PART 6: MARINE ENVIRONMENTS -- The Diversity of Epizoic Diatoms: Relationships Between Diatoms and Marine Invertebrates. (epa.gov)
  • Whereas the transfer of DA from planktivorous fish to piscivorous predators has been well established, the relationship between toxin levels in plankton-feeding fish and the regional abundance of DA-producing diatoms has not been documented. (researchgate.net)
  • A toxin is a naturally occurring organic[dubious - discuss] poison produced by metabolic activities of living cells or organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Organisms that possess necrotoxins include: The brown recluse or "fiddle back" spider Most rattlesnakes and vipers produce phospholipase and various trypsin-like serine proteases Puff adder Necrotizing fasciitis (caused by the "flesh eating" bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes) - produces a pore forming toxin Neurotoxins primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • D'alelio, D. et al] -- Managing the Interactions Between Plants and Animals in Marine Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Integrated Shrimp and Valuable Low Food Chain Organisms with Seaweeds. (epa.gov)
  • Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents strictly based on their biological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine Natural Products, Chemical and Biological Perspectives. (zotero.org)
  • The toxins produced by G. toxicus are then modified and concentrated as they pass up the marine food chain to carnivorous fish and finally to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • These toxins block nerve function, causing illness and (in very high amounts) death in humans and wildlife. (noaa.gov)
  • The toxin is heat stable and thus may affect humans even if fish are properly prepared. (medscape.com)
  • Marine animals can also be poisoned by toxic chemicals synthesized during blooms. (jrank.org)
  • If these shellfish are collected while they are significantly contaminated by red-tide toxins, they can poison the human beings who eat them. (jrank.org)
  • Mote scientists are exposing clams to red tide and feeding the clams to whelks to investigate the transfer and persistence of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) caused by the red tide toxins. (mote.org)
  • Red tide and its resultant massive kills of various birds and marine animals have become an enormous concern in Europe, prompting numerous international congresses to address the problem. (medscape.com)
  • It is also the only available drug for treating infant botulism that is not caused by nerve toxin type A or B. (medscape.com)
  • Other understandings embrace synthetic analogs of naturally occurring organic poisons as toxins, and may or may not embrace naturally occurring inorganic poisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard for laboratory diagnosis is a mouse neutralization bioassay confirming botulism by isolation of the toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Poisoning from ingesting marine toxins is an underrecognized hazard for travelers, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. (cdc.gov)
  • Food poisoning through marine toxins is rare. (peacehealth.org)
  • Marine toxin poisoning occurs most often in the summer. (peacehealth.org)
  • There are no specific treatments for marine toxin poisoning. (peacehealth.org)
  • These are the types of marine toxic poisoning. (peacehealth.org)
  • Because of the risks of poisoning associated with eating marine shellfish, many countries routinely monitor the toxicity of these foods using various sorts of assays. (jrank.org)
  • Adequate knowledge of the toxin and proper food storage is essential to avoid contamination and further health and economic implication of citrinin poisoning. (researchgate.net)
  • http://www.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/the-pre-travel-consultation/food-poisoning-from-marine-toxins , accessed 6 Dec 2015). (who.int)
  • Fish Poisoning and Shellfish Poisoning Fish poisoning and shellfish poisoning involve one of several toxins that can cause gastrointestinal, neurologic, or histamine-mediated manifestations. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This study was supported in part by the NCCOS ECOHAB project Trophic Transfer and Effects of HAB Toxins in Alaskan Marine Food Webs , led by scientists at NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). (noaa.gov)
  • A research paper published in the journal Science of the Total Environment explores how increasing levels of residual toxins in aquatic animals in the Pacific Ocean pose serious risks to food safety, human health, and food security. (news-medical.net)
  • It turns out the toxins can last for weeks in a system and end up in the food web," Pearl said. (carolinapublicpress.org)
  • Primarily aquatic, they are the base food for nearly all marine life on Earth. (core77.com)
  • Plastic can leach toxins into food and drinks. (chilternsaonb.org)
  • White = BDL (below detection limit/not detected), yellow = low toxin levels, orange = moderate toxin levels. (noaa.gov)
  • Professor Chris Elliott's group at IGFS is currently using sciFLEXARRAYER technology to produce arrays in cartridges for the multiplexed detection of marine toxins utilizing the MBio portable SnapEsi® assay platform. (scienion.com)
  • The technique of LC-MS, a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, has proven to be a powerful tool for the detection and quantitation of toxins in plankton and shellfish at part-per-billion levels, the identification of new toxins, and the investigation of toxin metabolism in shellfish. (canada.ca)
  • For ASP, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used with UV-detection for ASPmonitoring and, although accurate, is costly, requires high maintenance and skilled operators, according to Scotland's FRS Marine Laboratory. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Farmed fish may be fed with other fish that are contaminated with high levels of mercury or toxins. (mamavation.com)
  • However, the mouse bioassay is increasingly being replaced by more accurate methods of determining the presence and concentration of marine toxins using analytical biochemistry . (jrank.org)
  • Marine toxins present a significant challenge to the analytical chemist due to their wide variety of structures, ranging from very polar to lipophilic and from low to high molecular weights. (canada.ca)
  • LC-MS is in fact the only analytical method that has been shown to be suitable for the analysis of all toxins. (canada.ca)
  • Editorial Note: The order Tetraodontoidea includes ocean sunfishes, porcupine fishes, and fugu, which are among the most poisonous of all marine life (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Toxins from toads have long been known to contain rich chemicals with great pharmaceutical potential. (mdpi.com)
  • Aquatic ecologist Hans Paerl , the Kenan Professor of Marine and Environmental Sciences at the UNC Institute of Marine Sciences, shares Phillips' concern about the quality of water in the Albemarle Sound. (carolinapublicpress.org)
  • Marine HABs have occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Just weeks before the fourth anniversary of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, marine researchers have published the first study of its kind, showing that the offspring of commercially important fish exposed to crude oil toxins in the Gulf of Mexico developed serious heart defects and cardiac function abnormalities. (miami.edu)
  • Smith, C. M.] -- The Xanthium Genus: Cocklebur Toxins Against Hostile Surroundings and Its Pharmacological Properties. (epa.gov)
  • The group neurotoxins generally consists of ion channel toxins that disrupt ion channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jefferson County Public Health (JCPH) has monitored local lakes for cyanobacteria since 2007 and Anderson Lake has had closures every year since then, including very high levels of toxin. (jeffersoncountypublichealth.org)
  • Ever since David Attenborough's documentary Blue Planet 2, awareness grew of the devastating impact that plastic is having on marine life and sparked a large-scale public rejection of plastics, and greater awareness of the impacts that plastics have on our environment. (chilternsaonb.org)
  • This marine pollution causes significant damage to marine ecology and has multiple potential negative impacts on human health. (nih.gov)
  • The clams sampled in 2019 contained higher toxin concentrations than the zooplankton. (noaa.gov)
  • Toxin concentrations in fecal samples from Pacific walruses and bowhead whales harvested for subsistence purposes during 2019. (noaa.gov)
  • Toxin concentrations in benthic clams and worms collected in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and western Alaskan Beaufort Sea. (noaa.gov)
  • 2016. ( http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/marine_toxins/ , accessed 4 Dec 2015). (who.int)
  • Anderson Lake was monitored for toxins this winter, and toxins were not detected, but starting in April, bloom activity and toxin level have been steadily rising. (jeffersoncountypublichealth.org)