Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Elder Abuse: Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.National Institute on Aging (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research into the nature of the aging process and diseases associated with the later stages of life. The Institute was established in 1974.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.AlaskaHygiene Hypothesis: The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Christian Science: A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.South CarolinaMedical Marijuana: Product of the CANNABIS plant, CANNABINOIDS, or synthetic derivatives thereof, used in the treatment of a wide range of clinical symptoms.United StatesFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Relaxation: Activity which reduces the feelings of tension and the effects of STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Elbow Prosthesis: Replacement for an elbow joint.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.

Recent progress in the neurotoxicology of natural drugs associated with dependence or addiction, their endogenous agonists and receptors. (1/828)

Nicotine in tobacco, tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) in marijuana and morphine in opium are well known as drugs associated with dependence or addiction. Endogenous active substances that mimic the effects of the natural drugs and their respective receptors have been found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Such active substances and receptors include acetylcholine (ACh) and the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) for nicotine, anandamide and CB1 for delta 9-THC, and endomorphins (1 and 2) and the mu (OP3) opioid receptor for morphine, respectively. Considerable progress has been made in studies on neurotoxicity, in terms of the habituation, dependence and withdrawal phenomena associated with these drugs and with respect to correlations with endogenous active substances and their receptors. In this article we shall review recent findings related to the neurotoxicity of tobacco, marijuana and opium, and their toxic ingredients, nicotine, delta 9-THC and morphine in relation to their respective endogenous agents and receptors in the CNS.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (2/828)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Cannabis use and cognitive decline in persons under 65 years of age. (3/828)

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible adverse effects of cannabis use on cognitive decline after 12 years in persons under age 65 years. This was a follow-up study of a probability sample of the adult household residents of East Baltimore. The analyses included 1,318 participants in the Baltimore, Maryland, portion of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during three study waves in 1981, 1982, and 1993-1996. Individual MMSE score differences between waves 2 and 3 were calculated for each study participant. After 12 years, study participants' scores declined a mean of 1.20 points on the MMSE (standard deviation 1.90), with 66% having scores that declined by at least one point. Significant numbers of scores declined by three points or more (15% of participants in the 18-29 age group). There were no significant differences in cognitive decline between heavy users, light users, and nonusers of cannabis. There were also no male-female differences in cognitive decline in relation to cannabis use. The authors conclude that over long time periods, in persons under age 65 years, cognitive decline occurs in all age groups. This decline is closely associated with aging and educational level but does not appear to be associated with cannabis use.  (+info)

Alcohol and other psychoactive drugs in trauma patients aged 10-14 years. (4/828)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of alcohol and/or other psychoactive drugs, such as marijuana and cocaine (AODs), involved in preteen trauma patients. METHODS: Toxicological testing results were analyzed for 1356 trauma patients aged 10-14 years recorded in the National Pediatric Trauma Registry for the years 1990-95. RESULTS: Of the 1356 patients who received toxicological screening at the time of admission, 116 (9%) were positive for AODs. AOD involvement increased with age. Patients with pre-existing mental disorders were nearly three times as likely as other patients to be AOD positive (23% v 8%, p < 0.01). AOD involvement was more prevalent in intentional injuries and in injuries that occurred at home. CONCLUSIONS: AODs in preteen trauma are of valid concern, in particular among patients with mental disorders or intentional injuries. The role of AODs in childhood injuries needs to be further examined using standard screening instruments and representative study samples.  (+info)

The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. (5/828)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice.  (+info)

Marijuana: medical implications. (6/828)

Over 50 percent of people will use marijuana sometime in their life. While intoxication lasts two to three hours, the active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol, can accumulate in fatty tissues, including the brain and testes. Adverse effects from marijuana use include decreased coordination, epithelial damage to the lungs, increased risk of infection, cardiovascular effects and cognitive deficits. Unexplained behavior changes, altered social relationships and poor performance at school or work can signify a drug problem. Treatment requires a combination of education, social support, drug monitoring and attention to comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions.  (+info)

Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (7/828)

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States. In some subcultures, it is widely perceived to be harmless. Although the carcinogenic properties of marijuana smoke are similar to those of tobacco, no epidemiological studies of the relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer have been published. The relationship between marijuana use and head and neck cancer was investigated by a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with pathologically confirmed diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and 176 cancer-free controls at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1992 and 1994. Epidemiological data were collected by using a structured questionnaire, which included history of tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. The associations between marijuana use and head and neck cancer were analyzed by Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression models. Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and passive smoking, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with marijuana use [odds ratio (OR) comparing ever with never users, 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-6.6]. Dose-response relationships were observed for frequency of marijuana use/day (P for trend <0.05) and years of marijuana use (P for trend <0.05). These associations were stronger for subjects who were 55 years of age and younger (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.7). Possible interaction effects of marijuana use were observed with cigarette smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and to a lesser extent, alcohol use. Our results suggest that marijuana use may increase the risk of head and neck cancer with a strong dose-response pattern. Our analysis indicated that marijuana use may interact with mutagen sensitivity and other risk factors to increase the risk of head and neck cancer. The results need to be interpreted with some caution in drawing causal inferences because of certain methodological limitations, especially with regard to interactions.  (+info)

Substance abuse and the kidney. (8/828)

Substance abuse has been increasing steadily in the UK and some other countries. Recent evidence suggests more than 40% of young people have tried illicit drugs at some time. There are numerous medical consequences to recreational drug use, and a physician should always consider substance abuse in any unexplained illness. The renal complications of drug abuse are also becoming more frequent, and may encompass a spectrum of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases. Although some substances are directly nephrotoxic, a number of other mechanisms are also involved. These effects are often chronic and irreversible, but occasionally acute with possible recovery. The rapid growth of illicit drug use is clearly a major public health problem. We review the commonly used substances of abuse and their associations with renal disease.  (+info)

  • The negative physical, psychological, and social effects of marijuana are numerous. (
  • Questions were raised about the actual effects of marijuana on the health and behavior of those who used it and about. (
  • A number of responsible studies of the effects of marijuana (such as one by the Hemp Commission in British India in 1895) and its more potent form, hashish, had pronounced it relatively harmless but that gave Anslinger and a few other sensationalists of the day no pause. (
  • After baseline data have been collected (risk taking and decision making behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure, mood scales, exhaled carbon monoxide), participants will take 3-6 puffs, 5 seconds in duration, from a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) marijuana cigarette. (
  • When all marijuana/cannabis consumers are pooled together, roughly nine out of 100 will eventually develop a diagnosable case of cannabis use disorder, the National Institute on Drug Abuse reports. (
  • The data comes from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the 2013 National Drug IQ Challenge in observance of National Drug Facts Week, Shatter the Myths (January 28-February 3, 2013), and other documents and resources available on various NIDA websites. (
  • Nora Volkow , the director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, echoed Monte's concerns about cannabis and CHS in an editorial published with the study . (
  • Coincidentally, it's also the day a teenage girl in another state made a speech titled "Marijuana Use and Family Life" for her English class, revealing the abuse and neglect she has suffered all her life as the result of her parent and step-parent's chronic, illegal, pot use. (
  • As a parent, I felt it was important to learn if chronic marijuana use could impair a parent so I checked online and found a Surgeon General's warning and an Alcohol and Drug Service (ADS) fact sheet on the possible effects of short and long-term marijuana use parents who are chronic users may experience. (
  • Specific consequences of marijuana abuse can be best understood in terms of acute symptoms (present when the user is high), persistent (lasting longer than when intoxicated, but may not be permanent), and long-term (cumulative effects of chronic abuse). (
  • Statistically, an estimated 9 percent of people who smoke marijuana every day will become dependent on the drug. (
  • Of course, the chances of becoming addicted to marijuana , or any other drug of abuse, are different for every person. (
  • The next time that you hear someone in your group of friends spout off about how marijuana can't hurt you and you can't become addicted to it, or your teen pulls out news clips and pro-marijuana stories to try to convince you, remember that statistic: 25 to 50 percent of daily users will become addicted to the drug. (
  • Drug therapies that diminish cravings for marijuana or intoxicating effects from marijuana use are currently not available. (
  • Before 1960, use of MARIJUANA in the United States was generally confined to drug-using subcultures in the inner cities or in rural areas. (
  • Shocking accounts of heinous crimes induced by marijuana began emanating from the Bureau the theory that pot smoking was a dangerous gateway to other addictions gained credence and a Bureau-sponsored film, Reefer Madness, was produced to popularize Anslinger's visions of the hazards of drug use. (