Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.PhosphoproteinsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DiglyceridesPhorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.MaleimidesPyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 48 and 54 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.ChromonesDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.MorpholinesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7: A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesFocal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6: A 97-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 levels increase during cellular differentiation, while in proliferating cells the enzyme is degraded rapidly via the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.MAP Kinase Kinase 7: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.PhenanthridinesCyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Mice, Inbred C57BLUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase: A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
... encodes p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) which is the prototypic member of the p38 MAPK family. p38 MAPKs ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Johnson GL, Lapadat R (Dec 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases". ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ...
The closest relatives of MAPKs are the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be ... Signal transduction MAP kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase MAPK1 (ERK2) MAPK3 (ERK1) MAPK7 ... MAP Kinase Resource . Table of names for mitogen-activated kinases. MAPK cascade picture Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ...
... are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress ... p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) P38mapkPathway p38 ... MKK3 and SEK activate p38 MAP kinase by phosphorylation at Thr-180 and Tyr-182. Activated p38 MAP kinase has been shown to ... a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor: preclinical analysis of efficacy and selectivity". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) is a highly conserved c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ... The kinase domains of MAPKs contain certain surface features, such as the so-called common docking (CD) region, alongside the ... MKK7 JNK-activated kinase 2 MAPK/ERK kinase 7 (MEK7) Stress-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (SAPK kinase 4, SAPKK4) c-Jun N- ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, also known as MAP kinase kinase 7 or MKK7, is an enzyme that in ...
This protein is regarded as a CDK-like kinase (Clk) with homology to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PRPF4B has been ... This protein belongs to a kinase family that includes serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinases and cyclin-dependent ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PRP4 homolog is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRPF4B gene. Pre-mRNA splicing ... Schultz SJ, Nigg EA (1994). "Identification of 21 novel human protein kinases, including 3 members of a family related to the ...
... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J Biol Chem. 276 (42): 39002-11. doi: ... For full activation of MAPKs, dual-specificity kinases phosphorylate both threonine and tyrosine residues in MAPK TXY motifs. ... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 276 (42): ... The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades transduces various extracellular signals to the nucleus to ...
de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... de 2001). «A Novel MAPK phosphatase MKP-7 acts preferentially on JNK/SAPK and p38 alpha and beta MAPKs». J. Biol. Chem. (United ... Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... de 2000). «Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase». J ...
... the pathway involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and IRF pathways, depending on the stimulus and the responding ... Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2). The biological effects of IFNs are mediated through the Janus kinase/signal ... STAT1 and STAT2 are activated by these tyrosine kinases, and STAT1 and STAT2 mediate the antiviral and inflammatory effects of ... canonical type I IFN signalling may activate STAT1 homodimers that bind to interferon-gamma-activating factor (GAF), which also ...
In tomato, the signal is transduced from the receptor by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Cosilencing of two MAPKs, ... "Changes in extracellular pH are neither required nor sufficient for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ... When the inflammatory response is activated in animals, MAPKs are activated which in turn activate phospholipases. Lipids in ... Applying fusicoccin, which activates the H+ ATPase inhibited by systemin, along with systemin still activates MAPKs, even ...
"Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ... Kim MO, Kim MH, Lee SH, Suh HN, Lee YJ, Lee MY, Han HJ (June 2009). "5'-N-ethylcarboxamide induces IL-6 expression via MAPKs ... This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ... 2004). "Adenosine-activated mast cells induce IgE synthesis by B lymphocytes: an A2B-mediated process involving Th2 cytokines ...
유사분열 활성화 단백질 인산화효소(Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; MAP kinase; MAPKs)는 세린/트레오닌 인산화효소족으로 다양한 세포외 성장 신호에 반응한다. 성장 호르몬이나 상피성장인자 ... 이어서 Ras는 Raf 인산화효소(MAPKKK)를, Raf 인산화효소는 유사분열 활성화 단백질 인산화효소 인산화효소(Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase; MAPKK; MEK)를, MEK는 ... Garrington, TP; Johnson, GL (1999년 4월). "Organization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.". ... Krebs, EG (1983년 7월 5일). "Historical perspectives on protein phosphorylation and a classification system for protein kinases ...
Downstream effectors of Ras include three mitogen-activated protein kinases Raf a MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAPKKK), MEK a MAP ... "Activation and Function of the MAPKs and Their Substrates, the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases". Microbiology and Molecular ... half of the protein). The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and ... Receptor tyrosine kinases add phosphate groups to other proteins in order to turn them on or off. Receptor kinases add ...
... and secondary metabolism are regulated by phosphorylation via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Additionally, a ... 2014) Phosphorylation of a WRKY Transcription Factor by MAPKs Is Required for Pollen Development and Function in Arabidopsis. ... Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each ... VQ proteins appear to bind the WRKY domain, thus inhibiting protein-DNA interactions. At least one WRKY transcription factor, ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... While the ERK MAPKs are activated by mitogenic stimulation, the CSBP2 (p38α) and JNK MAPKs are activated by environmental ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K4 gene. The central core of ... each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase ...
"Regulation of lymphoid enhancer factor 1/T-cell factor by mitogen-activated protein kinase-related Nemo-like kinase-dependent ... it does not have the dual phosphorylation motifs of typical MAPKs, and is not phosphorylated by any known MAP2 kinases). Its ... 2003). "The TAK1-NLK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade functions in the Wnt-5a/Ca(2+) pathway to antagonize Wnt/beta- ... This enzyme is a member of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, although not explicitly designated as such (it ...
This regulation of cytokines appear to occur via the p38 MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. Usually, ... for proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and for cytoskeleton-related proteins. Morphine has long been known to act ... This phosphorylation activates the p38 MAPK to begin producing IL-10 and IL-12. When the dendritic cells are chronically ... Morphine is a phenanthrene opioid receptor agonist - its main effect is binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the ...
... cells involves Smad7-dependent activation of p38 by TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 ... MAPKs), Erk-family MAP kinases, the Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII) and protein kinase C (PKC). Smad7 ... contains important regulatory peptide motifs including potential phosphorylation sites for mitogen-activated protein kinases( ... Yakymovych I, Ten Dijke P, Heldin CH, Souchelnytskyi S (March 2001). "Regulation of Smad signaling by protein kinase C". FASEB ...
"Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ... Kim MO, Kim MH, Lee SH, Suh HN, Lee YJ, Lee MY, Han HJ (June 2009). "5'-N-ethylcarboxamide induces IL-6 expression via MAPKs ... Adenozinski A2B receptor (ADORA2B) je G-protein spregnuti adenozinski receptor. Ovaj protein je kodiran humanim ADORA2B genom.[ ... signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost adenilat ciklaze. • JNK kaskada. • izlučivanje. ...
... protein kinase A (PKA), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). CamK Rapid changes in Ca2+ concentration, influenced by ... Ethanol enhances growth factor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Proc ... This protein is activated by phosphorylation via the kinase families CaMK, PKA, and MAPK. CREB binds a DNA sequence called CREB ... Some of the kinase families currently linked to alcoholism are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), ...
Garrington, TP; Johnson, GL (Apr 1999). "Organization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways". ... MAP kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that respond to a variety of extracellular growth signals. For ... Kinases are classified into broad groups by the substrate they act upon: protein kinases, lipid kinases, carbohydrate kinases. ... Next, Ras activates Raf kinase (also known as MAPKKK), which activates MEK (MAPKK). MEK activates MAPK (also known as ERK), ...
... activation of IP3 signaling and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as ERK and JNK, bring about an increase in the ... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... A 2012 study[62] of the effects of marijuana on short term memories found that THC activates CB1 receptors of astrocytes which ... ERK also further activates AMPARs and NMDARs in neurons. Nociception is further sensitized by the association of ATP and ...
There is one additional requirement: Similar to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), substrates need to associate ... This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... Thus it also requires a "priming kinase" for its activities. In the case of beta-catenin, the most important priming kinase is ...
... activation of IP3 signaling and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as ERK and JNK, bring about an increase in the ... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... A 2012 study[54] of the effects of marijuana on short term memories found that THC activates CB1 receptors of astrocytes which ... Astrocytes in vitro become activated by low glucose and are in vivo this activation increases gastric emptying to increase ...
These include pathways involved with the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, calcineurin, calcium/calmodulin- ... changes in intracellular calcium or reactive oxygen species provide signals to diverse pathways that include the MAPKs, ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
These include pathways involved with the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, calcineurin, calcium/calmodulin- ... changes in intracellular calcium or reactive oxygen species provide signals to diverse pathways that include the MAPKs, ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
MAPK14 encodes p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) which is the prototypic member of the p38 MAPK family. p38 MAPKs ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Johnson GL, Lapadat R (Dec 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases". ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 is a natural negative regulator of MAPKs, and subsequent to its knockdown, mice ... The protein expression of TLR4, mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) were also determined by ... mitogen-activated protein kinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal ... like receptor 4/mitogenactivated protein kinase/nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathway. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 14 ...
Phosphorylation of Ser670 in GRK2 by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK is critical in promoting GPCR ... Inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) triggers the growth-promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ... Sustained activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase during recovery from simulated ischaemia mediates adaptive ... In addition to its role in terminating signaling mediated by activated G protein-coupled receptors, the kinase GRK2 also ...
The closest relatives of MAPKs are the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be ... Signal transduction MAP kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase MAPK1 (ERK2) MAPK3 (ERK1) MAPK7 ... MAP Kinase Resource . Table of names for mitogen-activated kinases. MAPK cascade picture Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ...
3B). MAPKs are the principal substrate of MKP-1, although MKPs also act on the MAPK-related Jun N-terminal kinases (39). ... mitogen-activated protein kinase;. VLCMR,. very low Ca2+, Mg2+ Ringer;. MKP-1,. MAP kinase phosphatase-1;. ΔP-MKP-1,. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase and neural specification in Xenopus. Aarti R. Uzgare, J. Akif Uzman, Heithem M. El-Hodiri, Amy ...
1998) Repeated pulses of serotonin required for long-term facilitation activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in sensory ... 1, 2) and that these two MAPKs regulate phosphorylation of CREB2 (Bartsch et al., 1995; Guan et al., 2003; Fioravante et al., ... 2005) Phosphorylation-dependent degradation of p300 by doxorubicin-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cardiac ... 2003) A role for COX-2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in long-term depression in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. ...
Furthermore, the in-gel kinase assays demonstrate that MAPKs are activated in response to BL and this activation is MYC2 ... mitogen-activated protein kinase. JA. jasmonic acid. BL. blue light. ChIP. chromatin immunoprecipitation. qPCR. quantitative ... 2011). Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants under abiotic stress. Plant Signal. Behav. 6: 196-203. ... The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is considered to be one of the major signaling systems in eukaryotes ( ...
... extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and other Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). ... activating Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B (NF?B), as well as Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, p38), c-Jun N-terminal ... including Myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 (MYD88), members of he IL1R-associated kinase (IRAK) family, ... Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1, TIGGIR2) and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like ...
... also triggers the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK, and the PI3K pathway. We examined ... without requiring de novo protein synthesis or modifying Iκ-Bα degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. ... once activated by their cognate ligands, interfere with NF-κB at the transcriptional level through direct protein-protein ... DNA-protein cross-linking was reversed overnight at 65°C in 0.2 M NaCl. Proteins were digested for 2 h at 50°C with proteinase ...
Regulation of MAPKs involves dynamic interplay between kinases and phosphatases. ERKs are activated by phosphorylation of both ... Evidence for involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase, rather than stress-activated protein kinase, in potentiation of 1 ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in activated T cells abrogates TRAIL-induced ... A role for protein phosphatase-2A in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated regulation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal ...
Raf phosphorylates MEK, which in turn phosphorylates and activates MAPKs (ERKs). Notably, a plethora of negative regulators ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is activated in prostate tumors but not mediated by B-RAF mutations. Eur Urol 2006; ... p21-activated kinase; PDK1, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1; PI-3K, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; PKC, protein kinase ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in androgen-independent PSA gene expression in LNCaP cells. Prostate 2003; ...
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in... ... Cargnello M, Roux P (2011) Activation and function of the MAPKs and their substrates, the MAPK activated protein kinases. ... Tomato mitogen-activated protein kinases LeMPK1, LeMPK2, and LeMPK3 are activated during the Cf-4/Avr4-induced hypersensitive ... a novel group C mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in maize (Zea mays), confers salt and cold tolerance in transgenic ...
UProto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src. Not Available. Humans. UMitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Not Available. Humans ... MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellu.... Gene Name. MAPK14. Uniprot ID. ... Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors ... Protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Specific Function. Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of ...
UMitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Not Available. Humans. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of distribution. Not Available. ... MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellu.... Gene Name. MAPK14. Uniprot ID. ... Protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Specific Function. Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of ... Protein binding. Not Available. Metabolism. Not Available. Route of elimination. Not Available. Half life. Not Available. ...
... is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that activates the downstream MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) ... Here, we first investigated the effect of the mitogen-activated protein kinases... ... Activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway is involved in the casticin-induced ... To elucidate the role of JNK in MM, we evaluated the specific functions of the two major JNK proteins, JNK1 and JNK2. We show ...
Stimulation of these receptors activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and transcription nuclear factor κB (NF-κB ... Cloning, expression, purification and serodiagnostic evaluation of fourteen Mycobacterium paratuberculosis proteins. Protein ... activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... expression of surface markers and cytokine production in dendritic cells was mediated by both mitogen-activated protein kinases ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulates the production of NO in Nicotiana benthamiana (Asai et al., 2008). ... heat shock proteins, low temperature-responsive proteins, and drought-responsive proteins, especially members of the Early ... For example, activated disease susceptibility 1 (ADS1-AT4G29140), which encodes a MATE protein, was up-regulated. This gene has ... Matsumoto, A., Comatas, K. E., Liu, L. M., and Stamler, J. S. (2003). Screening for nitric oxide-dependent protein-protein ...
Inducement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in frozen shoulders. Katsuaki Kanbe; Kazuhiko Inoue; Yasuo Inoue; Qian Chen // ... Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of... ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell ... Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa. ...
GBT regulated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK ... p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and activated p53, a tumor suppressor protein. In MAPKs inhibitor study, inhibitors ... GBT induced the apoptosis through activating the caspase-8 in A431 cells. Inhibition of A431 cell growth by GBT was caused by ... respectively blocked GBT-induced cell viability, indicating that MAPKs signals play critical role in cell death caused by GBT. ...
... phosphorylation mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and inflammatory mediators in splenic tissue were investigated. ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome ... extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of p38 ... In sera, 34 proteins with molecular weights between 7 and 244kDa were identified in heifers and steers. Similar proteins were ...
Two mitogen-activated protein kinases, NbMEK2 and NbWIPK, were required for the cell death triggered by Avh241 in N. ... PsSAK1, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase from Phytophthora sojae, plays an important role in host infection and ... The Magnaporthe oryzae mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoMps1 plays a critical role in the regulation of various ... The mitogen-activated protein kinase MoOsm1-mediated osmoregulation pathway plays crucial roles in stress responses, asexual ...
Patients with active disease showed higher IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels compared with those with inactive disease as ... IL-37 mRNAs and serum protein levels were higher in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. ... Wong CK, Wong PTY, Tam LS, Li EK, Chen DP, Lam CWK: Activation profile of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinases in ... Thalhamer T, McGrath MA, Harnett MM: MAPKs and their relevance to arthritis and inflammation. Rheumatology. 2008, 47: 409-414. ...
A distinguishing feature of all MAPKs is the conserved sequence Thr- Xaa-Tyr (TXY). -!- Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK ... CATH: Protein Structure Classification Database by I. Sillitoe, N. Dawson, T. Lewis, D. Lee, J. Lees, C. Orengo is licensed ... ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.. -!- Phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and threonine residues in the activation ... Structural basis of inhibitor selectivity in MAP kinases.. Wang, Z., Canagarajah, B.J., Boehm, J.C., Kassisa, S., Cobb, M.H., ...
... p44/42 and p38 MAPKs pathways. J H Park, M Y Lee, J S Heo, H J Han Cell Proliferation 2008, 41 (5): 786-802 ... Heat shock protein 1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 pathway are important for mouse trophoblast stem cell ... In addition, we confirmed that phosphorylation of HSPB1 and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) increased in TS ... Protein kinase C dependent and independent mechanisms controlling rat trophoblast cell DNA synthesis and differentiation. T ...
... extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B. Thus, BDB increased the production of reduced glutathione and ... Furthermore, BDB activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and promoted its localization into the nucleus by phosphorylating its ... BDB treatment increased the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione synthesizing enzymes and enhanced the production of reduced ... The effect of BDB on the protein and mRNA levels of glutathione-related enzymes and the cell survival of human keratinocytes ( ...
  • Further, we found increased expression of the fibrillar collagen proteins COL3A1 and COL5A1 in muscle-invasive tumor samples and metastatic T24 cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Because the tumor suppressor p53 is known to play a critical role in this coupling ( 2 , 3 ), inactivating the mutations of p53 or the inability to activate p53 would increase susceptibility to oncogene-induced chromosomal aberrations and cell transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oncogene addiction" describes the curious acquired dependence of tumor cells on an activated oncogene for their survival and/or proliferation, a phenomenon that has important implications for the success of targeted cancer therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since the discovery of EPOR expression in cancer cells, there have been reports linking EPO-EPOR signaling in vitro to activate cancer and tumor cell proliferation ( 1 - 4 , 21 , 68 , 71 ). (physiology.org)
  • Our previous studies revealed MKP-4 as a potential tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Excess ROS can overwhelm a cell's antioxidant scavenging capacity, causing oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins, as well as concomitant cellular damage ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • We show here that JNK2 is constitutively activated in a panel of MM cell lines and primary tumors. (ebscohost.com)
  • Regulation of cell survival is a key part of the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been implicated in MM pathogenesis, but its function is unclear. (ebscohost.com)
  • Because ATM and ATR are the kinases responsible not only for DNA repair, but also for the regulation of the cell cycle ( 10 ), they are expected to respond to growth factors and oncogenes for the regulation of p53. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a-synuclein may be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport and also may function to induce fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. (biolegend.com)