Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PhosphoproteinsCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.DiglyceridesIntracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.MaleimidesStaurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.ChromonesSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.MorpholinesDown-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 48 and 54 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesFocal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7: A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Mice, Inbred C57BLCyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase: A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.PhenanthridinesPlatelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6: A 97-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 levels increase during cellular differentiation, while in proliferating cells the enzyme is degraded rapidly via the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.MAP Kinase Kinase 7: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Examples of HSP90AB1 client proteins are p38MAPK/MAPK14 (mitogen activated protein kinase 14), ERK5 (extracellular regulated ... Client proteins are steroid hormone receptors, kinases, ubiquitin ligases, transcription factors and proteins from many more ... Chaperones stabilize new proteins during translation, mature proteins which are partially unstable but also proteins that have ... heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class A, member 1) HSP90AB1 (heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class B, member 1) (this protein ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Johnson GL, Lapadat R (Dec 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases". ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK14 gene. MAPK14 encodes p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) which is ... Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). "Entrez Gene: MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14". Ono K, Han ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7IP1 ... MAP3K7IP1 has been shown to interact with: MAP3K7IP2, MAP3K7IP3, MAP3K7, MAPK14, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7, ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 1". Omori E, Matsumoto K, Sanjo H, ... Kishimoto K, Matsumoto K, Ninomiya-Tsuji J (2000). "TAK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase is activated by ...
de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... de 2000). «Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase». J ... Entrez Gene: MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14». *↑ Sayed, M; Kim S O, Salh B S, Issinger O G, Pelech S L (Jun. ...
Four p38 MAP kinases, p38-α (MAPK14), -β (MAPK11), -γ (MAPK12 / ERK6), and -δ (MAPK13 / SAPK4), have been identified. Similar ... P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress ... p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) P38mapkPathway p38 ... MKK3 and SEK activate p38 MAP kinase by phosphorylation at Thr-180 and Tyr-182. Activated p38 MAP kinase has been shown to ...
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ... MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MKKK). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... is performed by members of the Ste7 protein kinase family, also known as MAP2 kinases. MAP2 kinases in turn, are also activated ...
This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known ... MAPKAPK3 has been shown to interact with MAPK14 and TCF3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114738 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... a novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase, is targeted by three MAP kinase pathways". Mol. Cell. ... "Identification of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-3, a novel substrate of CSBP p38 MAP kinase ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... It has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2, and MAPK14/p38, but not MAPK1/ERK2 or MAPK3/ERK1. This kinase is ... Deacon K, Blank JL (1997). "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... MAPK1 has been shown to interact with: ADAM17, CIITA, DUSP1, DUSP22, DUSP3, ELK1, FHL2, HDAC4, MAP2K1, MAP3K1 MAPK14, MKNK1, ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi:10.1093/ ... "The N and C termini of the splice variants of the human mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase Mnk2 determine ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... MAP2K6 has been shown to interact with TAOK2,[7] ASK1,[8][9] MAPK14[7][10][11][12] and MAP3K7.[13][14][15][16] ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 also known as MAP kinase kinase 6 (MAPKK 6) or MAPK/ERK kinase 6 is ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein ...
... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J Biol Chem. 276 (42): 39002-11. doi: ... DUSP16 has been shown to interact with MAPK14 and MAPK8IP1. ENSG00000111266 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000280962, ... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 276 (42): ... The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades transduces various extracellular signals to the nucleus to ...
... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase, is a substrate of the extracellular-regulated kinase ... this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta ... "Entrez Gene: MAPKAPK5 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5". de Carvalho MG, McCormack AL, Olson E, et ... MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK5 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
"Entrez Gene: MAPKAPK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2". Rane MJ, Coxon PY, Powell DW, Webster R, ... SB 203580, suppresses the activation of MAPKAPK2 MAPKAPK2 has been shown to interact with: AKT1, MAPK14, PHC2, and SHC1. GRCh38 ... "Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 by mutation of phosphorylation sites and ... "LSP1 is the major substrate for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 in human neutrophils". J. Biol. ...
Promotes migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-heat shock protein ... "miR-17 family of microRNAs controls FGF10-mediated embryonic lung epithelial branching morphogenesis through MAPK14 and STAT3 ... He S, Yang S, Deng G, Liu M, Zhu H, Zhang W, Yan S, Quan L, Bai J, Xu N (2010). "Aurora kinase A induces miR-17-92 cluster ... Xu X, Hong Y, Kong C, Xu L, Tan J, Liang Q, Huang B, Lu J (2008). "Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O (PTPRO) is co- ...
... a novel ribosomal S6 kinase family member, is a CREB kinase under dominant control of p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase ... RPS6KA4 has been shown to interact with MAPK14. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162302 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (Sep 1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly ... 2007). "Dimethylfumarate specifically inhibits the mitogen and stress-activated kinases 1 and 2 (MSK1/2): possible role for its ...
"Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem ... HNRPA2B1 MAPK14, PIN1, PLEKHO1, PTEN, RELA, TAF1, and UBTF. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... Allende JE, Allende CC (1995). "Protein kinases. 4. Protein kinase CK2: an enzyme with multiple substrates and a puzzling ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, CSNK2A2, JDP2, MAPK14, MAPK8, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 NCOA6, ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... Chen Z, Cobb MH (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. Biol ...
... is also known as MEK1 (see Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). MEK1 is a meiotic chromosome-axis-associated kinase ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ... "Entrez Gene: MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1".. *^ a b Goldfarb T, Lichten M (2010). "Frequent and efficient ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K1 gene.[5][6] ...
1997). „Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... Za MAPK1 je bilo pokazano da interaguje sa TSC2,[3] PEA15,[4] DUSP1,[5][6] NEK2,[7] DUSP3,[8] STAT5A,[9][10] MAPK14,[11][12] ... 1997). „Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909- ... 2003). „The N and C termini of the splice variants of the human mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase Mnk2 ...
de 2000). «Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase». J ... de 2001). «Mapping of the interaction domain of the protein kinase CKII beta subunit with target proteins». Mol. Cells (Korea ( ... de 1999). «Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins». Mol. Cell. Biochem. ( ... de 1998). «Characterization of protein interaction among subunits of protein kinase CKII in vivo and in vitro». Mol. Cells ( ...
OH kinase-dependent regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and protein kinase B/AKT by the integrin-linked kinase". Proc. ... Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, ... "A direct linkage between the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin in mitogen- ... MAPK14, MAPKAPK2, MARK2, MTCP1, MTOR, NPM1, NR4A1, NR3C4, PKN2, PRKCQ, PDPK1, PLXNA1, TCL1A, TRIB3, TSC1, TSC2, and YWHAZ. AKT ...
P38 mitogen-activated protein *MAPK11. *MAPK13. *MAPK14. MAP3K (EC 2.7.11.25). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... kinase activity. • protein binding. • RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity. • ATP binding. • protein ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK8 and cyclin C associate ...
P38 mitogen-activated protein *MAPK11. *MAPK13. *MAPK14. MAP3K (EC 2.7.11.25). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
P38 mitogen-activated protein *MAPK11. *MAPK13. *MAPK14. MAP3K (EC 2.7.11.25). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... kinase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. ... Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
AMP-activated protein kinase,. (3-metil-2-oksobutanoat dehidrogenaza (prenos acetila)) (EC 2.7.11.4). BCKDK, BCKDHA, BCKDHB ... vezivanje mitogen-aktivirane proteinske kinaze kinaze. • vezivanje metalnog jon. • aktivnost proteinske heterodimerizacije. ... P38 mitogenom-aktivirani protein (MAPK11, MAPK13, MAPK14) ... Protein kinaza C (EC 2.7.11.13). Protein kinaza C, Protein ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ...
P38 mitogen-activated protein *MAPK11. *MAPK13. *MAPK14. MAP3K (EC 2.7.11.25). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Find PDB entities (unique chains) for MAPK14 View list of all current human gene IDs ... MAPK14 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr6 Genbank ID: NM_001315 Orientation: + Length coding sequence : 1080 nucleotides. Region ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
MAP kinase activity (inferred); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 binding (inferred); INVOLVED IN angiogenesis (inferred); ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits ATP binding (inferred); ... Gene: MAPK14 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14) Sus scrofa. ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits ATP binding (inferred); MAP kinase activity (inferred); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 ... MAPK14 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 14). HGNC. EggNOG, Ensembl, Inparanoid, NCBI, OMA, OrthoDB, Panther, Treefam. ...
MAPK14 ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Huhn, Hund, Meerschweinchen und weitere. MAPK14 ELISA Kits vergleichen und bestellen ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 ELISA Kits * Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 Interacting Protein 1 ELISA ... mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha , p38 mitogen activated protein kinase , CG7393-PA , p38 mitogen-activated protein ... stress-activated protein kinase 2A , MAPK p38 , MPK2 , Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2 , mitogen-activated Mitogen-activated ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Species: Homo sapiens [ ... Gene: Mapk14. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot Q16539 Domains in SCOPe 2.06: d1ouka_* ... Keywords: MAP kinase, hydrophobic pocket, Kinase domain, ATP binding domain, TRANSFERASE. Deposited on 2003-03-24, released ... SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. Release 2.06 (updated 2017-12-21, stable release February 2016) ...
microtubule-associated protein 2. 9. 73,204,753. 73,462,965. RGD:6483086. G. Mapk14. mitogen activated protein kinase 14. 20. ... MAPK activated protein kinase 3. 8. 116,012,126. 116,046,012. RGD:8554872. G. Mbl2. mannose binding lectin 2. 1. 248,435,069. ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. 4. 147,274,055. 147,399,383. RGD:5135029. G. Prkaa1. protein kinase AMP- ... Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1. 8. 22,250,518. 22,259,868. RGD:6892951. G. Lbp. lipopolysaccharide binding protein. 3. ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Species: Homo sapiens [ ... Gene: Mapk14. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot Q16539 Domains in SCOPe 2.07: d3mw1a_* ... Description: p38 kinase Crystal structure in complex with small molecule inhibitor. Class: TRANSFERASE/TRANSFERASE inhibitor. ... Keywords: p38 MAP KINASE, TRANSFERASE, INHIBITOR COMPLEX, TRANSFERASE-TRANSFERASE inhibitor complex. Deposited on 2010-05-05, ...
PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; RXR-α, retinoid X receptor α; MAPK14, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. ... mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2. Asterisk (*) denotes phosphorylation sites previously described in the ... The calculated SILAC ratios for the tyrosine phosphorylation of the Lck and ZAP-70 proteins of the ZAP-70AS + inhibitor/ZAP-70 ... The catalytic activity of the kinase ZAP-70 mediates basal signaling and negative feedback of the T cell receptor pathway. ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. MAPK14. 37733_at. −2.0. Lymphocyte-specific protein 1. LSP1. 36493_at. −2.5. ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma. CEBPG. 39219_at. −1.8. RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase-activating protein) 1. ... RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase-activating protein) 1. RASA1. 1675_at. −2.0. ... RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase-activating protein) 1. RASA1. 1675_at. −2.0. ...
Protein RefSeq ,NP_001005824,mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [Xenopus tropicalis] ... Kinase-like dom sf , MAPK p38-like , p38alpha , Protein kinase ATP BS [+] , MAP kinase CS , Prot kinase dom , Homeobox dom , ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 Synonyms:. p38 , MAPK p38 , sapk2 , mxi2 , csbp , sapk2a ( Add synonyms , Nomenclature ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2; Short=MAP kinase 2; Short=MPK2 ...
MAPK14. GeneProduct. 1432 (Entrez Gene) mitogen activated protein kinase 14. NOS1. GeneProduct. 4842 (Entrez Gene) nitric oxide ... protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin transporters involves both ... Human serotonin transporter variants display altered sensitivity to protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Protein. Negative Expression. Negative Transport. LEGEND. Negative Regulation. Protein Modification. Cell Membrane. Expression ...
MAPK14. GeneProduct. 1432 (Entrez Gene) mitogen activated protein kinase 14. NOS1. GeneProduct. 4842 (Entrez Gene) nitric oxide ... protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin transporters involves both ... Human serotonin transporter variants display altered sensitivity to protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dipace C, Sung U, Binda F, Blakely RD, Galli A; Amphetamine induces a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II- ...
The induction of genes involved in the unfolded-protein response underscored the cell stress due to enhanced energy metabolism ... Mapk14 : mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Mdh1 : malate dehydrogenase 1. MES: 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid ... Furthermore, catalase (Cat) and stress-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (Mapk14) were both 1.4-fold upregulated at ... It is widely accepted that muscle is a main source of amino acids from protein catabolism, that protein catabolism is ...
Mapk14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. NM_001168514. NM_001168508. NM_011951. NM_001168513. Gene Info. ... Protein kinase C, zeta. NM_008860. NM_001039079. Gene Info. Prkdc. Protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide. NM_ ... P21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1. NM_011035. Gene Info. Parp1. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1. NM_ ... Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma. NM_001127330. NM_011146. Gene Info. Prkci. Protein kinase C, iota. NM_008857 ...
Compare and order MAPK14 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2 , mitogen-activated Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2 , p38 mitogen-activated kinase , ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 14B , mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b , CG7393-PA , p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 ELISA Kits * Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 Interacting Protein 1 ELISA ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Aliases:. CSBP2, Crk1, Csbp1, Mxi2, PRKM14, PRKM15, p38, p38-alpha, p38MAPK, p38a, ... PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: Mapk14, Mouse. print Real-time PCR primer assay designed for SYBR® Green gene expression analysis ... Home , Life Science Research , Products , PCR Amplification , PrimePCR™ PCR Primers, Assays, and Arrays , Gene: Mapk14, Mouse , ... PrimePCR™ Template for SYBR® Green Assay: Mapk14, Mouse Reaction: 200 x 20 µl reactions desalted Gene-specific synthetic DNA ...
MAPK14. Transient overexpression lysate of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14), transcript variant 1 5 days. ... Transient overexpression lysate of mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), transcript variant JNK1-a1 In Stock. ... Transient overexpression lysate of mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (MAPK9), transcript variant JNK2-a2 5 days. ... Transient overexpression lysate of mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAPK11) 5 days. ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 PRAK/MAPKAPK5(PRAK). Hs. Inhibitor. Inhibition. 57.0 62.0 ... SAPK2a/P38a(MAPK14). Hs. Inhibitor. Inhibition. 72.0 83.0 HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase Hck/HCK. Hs. Inhibitor ... A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and ... kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Johnson GL, Lapadat R (Dec 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases". ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK14 gene. MAPK14 encodes p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) which is ... Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). "Entrez Gene: MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14". Ono K, Han ...
MAPK14. Uniprot ID. Q16539. Uniprot Name. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Molecular Weight. 41292.885 Da. ... UProto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src. Not Available. Humans. UMitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Not Available. Humans ... Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors ... Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of ...
MAPK14. Uniprot ID. Q16539. Uniprot Name. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Molecular Weight. 41292.885 Da. ... UMitogen-activated protein kinase 14. Not Available. Humans. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of distribution. Not Available. ... Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of ... Protein binding. Not Available. Metabolism. Not Available. Route of elimination. Not Available. Half life. Not Available. ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha, MAP kinase p38 alpha, Stress-activated protein kinase 2a, MAPK14 ... Synonyms: RK, p38, CSBP, EXIP, Mxi2, CSBP1, CSBP2, CSPB1, PRKM14, PRKM15, SAPK2A, p38ALPHA, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 ... Cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drug-binding protein, CSAID-binding protein, MAP kinase MXI2, MAX-interacting protein 2 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple ...
Three subfamilies exist in mammals, including ERK, JNK, and p38 kinases. Four p38 MAPK family members have bee ... are a family of highly conserved intracellular kinases that transduce extracellular signals relayed by surface receptors or ... Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) are a family of highly conserved intracellular kinases that transduce extracellular ... Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of ...
Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 14 signalling pathway in bovine spermatozoa exposed to heat stress in vitro ...
MAPK14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. NM_001315. NM_139012. NM_139014. NM_139013. Gene Info. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2. NM_004759. NM_032960. Gene Info. ... TTK protein kinase. NM_001166691. NM_003318. Gene Info. UBA52. Ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1. NM_ ... BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1. NM_032043. Gene Info. BRSK1. BR serine/threonine kinase 1. NM_032430. Gene ...
Examples of HSP90AB1 client proteins are p38MAPK/MAPK14 (mitogen activated protein kinase 14), ERK5 (extracellular regulated ... Client proteins are steroid hormone receptors, kinases, ubiquitin ligases, transcription factors and proteins from many more ... Chaperones stabilize new proteins during translation, mature proteins which are partially unstable but also proteins that have ... heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class A, member 1) HSP90AB1 (heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class B, member 1) (this protein ...
  • Over 100 proteins can be directly phosphorylated by p38a and a significant proportion of them are involved in the regulation of gene expression. (biolegend.com)
  • we show that IL-1 (显示 IL1A ELISA试剂盒 ) induces robust p38a (显示 MAPK14 ELISA试剂盒 ) activation both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm/membrane.Following stimulation, p38a (显示 MAPK14 ELISA试剂盒 ) activity returns to a basal level in absence of receptor degradation. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • In the case of classical MAP kinases, the activation loop contains a characteristic TxY (threonine-x-tyrosine) motif (TEY in mammalian ERK1 and ERK2 , TDY in ERK5 , TPY in JNKs , TGY in p38 kinases ) that needs to be phosphorylated on both the threonine and the tyrosine residues in order to lock the kinase domain in a catalytically competent conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress-related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responds to activation by environmental stress, pro- inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors, such as ELK1 and ATF2 and several downstream kinases, such as MAPKAPK2 and MAPKAPK5. (nctu.edu.tw)
  • Los sustratos de esta quinasa incluyen diversas proteínas o factores de transcripción como ATF2 , MEF2C , MAX , el regulador del ciclo celular CDC25B y el supresor tumoral p53 , lo que sugiere un papel de esta quinasa en regulación del ciclo celular y la transcripción, así como en respuesta a estrés genotóxico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of the co-chaperone AHA1 (activator of heat shock 90kDa protein ATPase homolog 1) leads to stabilization of CFTR and opens up a perspective for a new therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the co-chaperone CDC37 (cell division cycle 37) stabilizes the cell cycle regulatory proteins CDK4 (cyclin dependent kinase 4) and Cdk6. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of them includes MyoD family proteins (also called myogenic regulatory factors or MRFs), with four members Myf5, Myogenic differentiation 1 ( MYOD ), Myogenin ( MYOG ), and Myogenic factor 6 ( MYF6 ) that are exclusively expressed in skeletal muscles. (bio-rad.com)
  • 2005) The expression and regulatory role of OX40 and 4-1BB heterodimers in activated human T cells. (bpsbioscience.com)
  • The identification of cancer marker regulatory components that act not alone, but within networks, represents an invaluable resource for elucidating the moxlecular mechanisms that govern the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells, as well as for catalyzing the development of protein panels with biomarker and drug target potential, screening tests with improved sensitivity and specificity, and novel cancer therapies aimed at pursuing multiple drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a similar way, MAPK14 phosphorylates the ubiquitin ligase SIAH2 , regulating its activity towards EGLN3 . (sdsc.edu)
  • Phosphorylates CDC25B and CDC25C which is required for binding to 14-3-3 proteins and leads to initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation. (sdsc.edu)
  • Click on any enzyme for additional information (such as Applications Note, the Catalog Page, or the NCBI Database entry) for that kinase. (promega.com)
  • The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activate serotonin transporters. (wikipathways.org)
  • Several factors that activate glial cells in the spinal cord have been identified in neuropathic pain states, including adenosine triphosphate, tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), fractalkine (CX3CL1), and toll-like receptor agonists. (asahq.org)
  • In particular they appear to be relevant in the modulation of several cellular processes as well as candidate carriers of bioactive molecules (proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, including miRNAs) with therapeutic value. (bvsalud.org)
  • Another function of MAPK14 is to regulate the endocytosis of membrane receptors by different mechanisms that impinge on the small GTPase RAB5A . (sdsc.edu)
  • KH domain-containing, RNA-binding, signal transduction-associatedprotein 1 (p21 Ras GTPase-activating protein-associated p62) (GAP-associated tyrosine phosphoprotein p62) (Src-associated in mitosis 68kDa protein) (Sam68) (p68). (nctu.edu.tw)